In-Vetro And In-Vivo Anti-Theilerial Activity Of Medicianal Plants
Material type: Book ; Format:
; Literary form:
Publisher: 2013 Dissertation note: In vitro study was carried out in order to estimate the anti-theileria effect of Calotropis procera and Peganum harmala. Water and chloroform extracts of each plant were used in-vitro study along with standard drug Buparvaqoune (Butalex®). For this four concentrations i.e.4, 8, 12 and 16mg/ tested solutions of each extracts of each plant were applied on cultured lymphocytes exposed to theileria parasite infection. ELISA reader findings showed that the mean OD were found less in treated theileria infected lymphocytes cell culture as compared to untreated culture wells mean OD values. The highest cell reduction (94.36%) with C. procera chloroform extract treatment was observed at a concentration of 16 mg/ml solution. Lowest concentration (1mg/ml solution) of C. procera chloroform extract reduced non-significant (P>0.05) lymphocytes cell proliferation (40.97%) as compare to control negative group. P. harmala water extract was effective against the theileria parasite as significantly lower (P<0.05) mean OD value (1.802 ±0.341) was measured at a concentration of 4mg/ml solution and maximum inhibitory effect (92.20) was seen at a concentration of 16 mg/ml solution. ELISA reader findings showed that P. harmala chloroform extract treatment failed to inhibit lymphocytes cells propagation even at highest concentration. The highest inhibitory effect (85.33%) against theileria infected lymphocytes propagation was seen at a concentration of 16 mg/ml solution.
Plant extract was evaluated in respect of feed intake in rabbits. It showed that when administered extracts of C. procera in rabbits at dose of 3 mg and 5 mg/kg body weight, did not affect on feed intake in rabbits. However the chloroform and water extracts of both plant i.e. C. procera and P. harmala when were administered in rabbits parentally at dose 10 of mg/kg body. It showed that the feed intake of rabbits was non-significantly reduced as compared to other treatments groups. Hematological parameters such as WBC X103 count, RBC X 106 count and Hb g/dl values were measured at various days. Findings showed that significantly lesser RBC X 106 count was in group A3 and D3 than control at day 30 of experiment. A non-significant difference (P>0.05) was seen in RBC X 106 count and Hb g/dl measurements in all treatments groups. Kidney and liver functions were evaluated by measuring biochemical parameters, uric acid, creatinine and ALT at 0 days, 9 days and 30 days. Findings showed that serum creatinine and urea enzyme levels were significantly higher (P<0.05) in group A3 as compare to control group at day 30 of experiment. Serum level of urea was also significantly higher (P<0.05) in group B3 and D3 at day 30 of experiment. A non-significant difference (P>0.05) was seen in ALT in all treatment groups at day 30 than control. Post-mortem was performed at day 30 of experiment. Gross lesions consisting of hemorrhages, congestion, and lung emphysema were seen in rabbits treated with high dose i.e. 10 mg/kg of both extract of C. procera. Rabbits treated with P. harmala chloroform extract at dose 10 mg/kg showed moderate gross lesions. Histopathology of organs such as lungs, kidney, liver and heart was performed. Toxicity lesions were seen in rabbits treated with high dose i.e. 10 mg/kg of both extract of C. procera. Rabbits treated with P. harmala chloroform extract at dose 10 mg/kg showed histopathological lesions in lungs, liver and kidney.
Theileria infection was studied in vivo by developing through theileria infected Hayalomma ticks in crossbred calves (n=30) through. At day 15 of infection maximum increase in mean rectal temperature (105.24 ± 0.46F) was observed, twenty four calves had pyrexia (104.1- 105.6 F) and six claves were showing pyrexia > 105.6 F. A significant increase (P<0.05) in pre-scapular lymph node enlargement score of challenged calves was seen by day 7 of infection and maximum lymph node score (grossly enlarged size) was noticed in twenty calves (Table 4.14 , Plate 4.16) with peak mean score (2.73±0.44) on day 13 of infection. The piroplasm peak score (3.80±0.83) was observed in challenged calves at 22 day of infection and remained significantly higher (p<0.05) (2.60±0.54) in untreated calves until the 36 day of infection (Fig.4.29 and Table 4.16). A significant increase (P<0.05) in mean schizonts was observed in pre-scapular lymph node biopsy smear from day 7 of infection to onwards. Blood samples of challenged calves (n =30) were confirmed theileria positive through PCR test. The amplification of Theileria species were amplified at 1098 bp (Plate 4.20 and Theileria annulata was amplified at 721 bp (Plate 4.21).
In order to estimate the pattern of disease severity, severity score was measured by summation of mean score of piroplasms, schizonts, lymph node swelling and rectal temperature. From day 7, mild response (3-5 score) was seen in infected calves (n=10).
With increase in the severity of disease a significant decrease (P<0.05) was observed in mean values of the Hb g/dL amount, WBC and RBC count, Hct (%) concentration and lymphocytes percentage from day15 of infection onward to 36 day of infection. A non-significant decrease (P>0.05) in the mean values of MCH pg was seen throughout the experiment. A significant decrease (P<0.05) in mean values of MCHC g/dL along with significant increase (P<0.05) in the mean measurement of MCV fL (64.14±3.53) values was seen at day 36 of infection as compare to day 0 values, indicating macrocytic hypochromic anemia in challenged calves. These findings showed a significant increase (P<0.05) in excretory products (uric acid and creatinine) from day 15 of infection and onward as compared to day 0 values, indicating damaged kidney in infected calves. Biochemical analysis showed the significant increase (P<0.05) in liver enzymes (ALT, AST) from day 15 infection and onward.
Anti-Theileria activities of drugs were estimated by evaluating clinical manifestation of the disease and parasitological findings. Beside this treatment effect on hematological and biochemical reactions of liver and kidney functions was determined. A significant difference (P<0.05) in rectal temperature of calves groups (B and E) was observed than control positive (group F) at day 21 of post-treatment. On other hand calves treated with treatments A, C and D had a non-significant difference (P>0.05) in rectal temperature compared with untreated calves (group F). It was found that calves (n=5) dosed with C. procera chloroform extract (group A) had rectal temperature in normal range by the day 7 of post-treatment. Similarly calves (n=5) treated with Butalex were found with normal rectal temperature from the day 7 of pos-treatment. On other hand, at day 21 of treatment 40%, 20%, 40% and 80% calves were found with pyrexia in treatments groups B, C, D and F, respectively (Table 4. 46).
By the day 14 of treatment, calves of treatment groups B and E showed no parasitemia (piroplams ?1). Disease severity was estimated on accumulative score of rectal temperature, lymph node swelling and parasitological findings (piroplasms and schizonts score). It was found a significant decrease (P<0.05) occurred in the disease severity of score of disease in calves of groups B and E as compare to A, C and F at day 3 of post-treatment. At day 21 of treatment all treated calves were recovered from anemia.
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A Study On Postural Sway In Horses During Different Sedation Protocols Along With Clinico-Biochemical Evaluation In Clinical Cases
Material type: Book ; Literary form:
Publisher: 2017 Dissertation note: 6.1. Observational study of postural sway using accelerometer in horses sedated with different sedative combinations
Balance is the ability to maintain center of gravity by a body within the base of support, whereas the phenomenon of continuous movement and improvement of the position of the center of gravity within the base of support is referred to as postural sway. Most of the living creatures including man, horse and other animals need to maintain their postural balance for their daily requirements, as most of them are either bipeds or quadrupeds. To attain this balance, co-ordination between sensory system, skeletal muscle system and the central nervous system is required. These systems are responsible for the pattern of walk in the horses, which is called as gait. Any abnormality in the nervous system results in an altered gait, which if assessed properly is a useful tool in diagnosing many ailments & disorders of the locomotor system. To assess these changes in the gait pattern, many methods have evolved over the years. The gait can be assessed by Kinematic or Kinetic Analysis. An accelerometer is a detecting element that measures acceleration. Accelerometers can measure: vibrations, shocks, tilt, impacts and motion of an object. An accelerometer by itself is only a sensing element, in order for it to be useful the sensor needs to be combined with other elements such as, power, logic, memory and a means to translate the output. An acceleration recorder incorporates all of these elements into one package.
There is a measurable difference in postural sway at stance between different sedation protocols. This study aims to document and quantify the postural sway of horses undergoing various sedation protocols, with the aim of identifying a sedation protocol that will reduce sway and improve the ease with which standing non-painful diagnostic imaging procedures (Radiography, Scintigraphy and MRI) can be carried out. The present study assessed the postural sway during sedation in horses and evaluated a sedation protocol with minimal sway in horses. Equine surgery depends heavily on various imaging procedures. Diagnostic imaging plays important roles-first, in diagnosing and localising a disease process; second, in assessing the surgical intervention to be applied; and third, in the follow-up evaluation of the patient. Many imaging techniques like Radiography, Ultrasonography, Scintigraphy, Magnetic Resonance Imaging and Computed Tomography are used at veterinary hospitals and clinics, the world over. In order to achieve good results for these diagnostic modalities, various drugs and their combinations have been used by scientists to achieve good standing sedation in horses (e.g., Acepromazine, Butorphanol, Detomidine, Ketamine, Romifidine, Xylazine, etc.). The reason for integrating sedations which use combinations with Ketamine in this study and its different effect on the musculature i.e. increasing the muscle tone, while the alpha2-agonists (Romifidine, Detomidine, Xylazine), all reduced the muscle tone. Potentially, increasing the muscle tone of a horse will reduce the sway, as the constant correction of postural position with reduced muscle tone may be avoided. Horses that are In-Patients and Out-Patients brought to the Large Animal Hospital, Dept. of Vet. Clinical Studies, EBVC, RDSVS, UoE, UK, and have the medical need for diagnostic imaging procedures, and that require sedation so that these procedures can be carried out safely, were included in the study. The measurements were recorded pre-sedation and post-sedation while the horse is being imaged. The horses were observed during Radiography, Ultrasonography, Scintigraphy and Magnetic Resonance Imaging, or some other minor/major surgical intervention, under the influence of standing sedation. The body sway was measured using a MicroStrain G-link wireless triaxial accelerometer. It was secured on the skin above the midline of the sacrum with adhesive tape. Both sway episodes as well as continuous postural adaptations was assessed from the sum vector of the three acceleration traces.
The results of current study showed no significant difference (p>0.05) in the mean values of postural sway between different drug groups. All drug combinations produced sedation in standing horses. However, pre-sedation mean values were significantly different from post-sedation mean values of postural sway. This shows that the subjects which were administered different combinations of sedatives exhibited variation in the postural control over time that is the readings of accelerometer either increased or decreased after sedation when compared to baseline (pre-sedation) values. The findings of current investigation also revealed a significant combined effect of drug groups and measurement time. Which means that the horses within groups, administered with different sedative combinations showed a change in postural sway values measured by accelerometer over time and these mean values either increased or decreased post-sedation. However, Post hoc Tukey’s test could not establish a significant difference (p<0.05) in the multiple comparision tests. Although post-sedation mean values of postural sway of group 2 (romifidine alone) and group 7 (detomidine alone) were different from pre-sedation values (p<0.1).
The mean values of accelerometer for group 1 (detomidine+butorphenol) and group 4 (xylazine alone) were decreased from pre-sedation values that means the horses in these groups were more stable and had better control over their stance when compared with pre-sedation values. In the current study, the mean values of accelerometer for group 2 (romifidine alone) and group 7 (detomidine alone) were increased from pre-sedation values that means the horses in these groups were less stable and had poor control over their stance. This showed that detomidine alone with a dose range of 3 to 9 μg/kg is insufficient for standing procedures.
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