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1. Comparative Efficacy Of Polypropylene And Polyester Mesh For The Repair Of Abdominal Wall Defect In Pigeons

by Muhammad Naveed Ali (2007-VA-114) | Dr. Hamad Bin Rashid | Prof. Dr. Muhammad Arif Khan | Dr. Asim Khalid Mahmood.

Material type: book Book; Literary form: not fiction Publisher: 2016Dissertation note: Polypropylene is a widely used biomaterial for the treatment of ventral abdominal wall hernias. It exhibit pain, prominent inflammatory response and foreign body reaction. Polyester (Polyethylene terephthalate) is hydrophilic material works with body’s natural systems to improve tissue integration while reducing negative foreign material response. Polyester offers extremely lower pain intensity and less foreign body reaction. The purpose of designated research was to compare the efficacy of polypropylene and polyester meshes for the treatment of abdominal defect. Both are non-absorbable meshes. Polypropylene mesh is available in Pakistan with the trade name of Prolene® (Ethicon,Johnson & Johnson, USA). Polyester mesh is not available inPakistan and was acquired from Al Zahrawi Medical, a local healthcare company in Dubai, United Arab Emirates. Polyester mesh is available with brandname of (Parietex®, Covidien, France). The experimental study was conducted on 16 (sixteen) healthy pigeons presented for massive abdominal defect repair. All birds were thoroughly examined to rule out any other anomaly before study. The birds were allocated into two different groups, viz. Group A and Group B with 8 birds in each group respectively. All treatments were administered intramuscularly using 1 ml insulin syringe. The Polypropylene mesh (Prolene®, Ethicon) was used for the treatment of abdominal repair for group A. The birds of group B was treated with Polyester mesh (Parietex®, Covidien). Ventral abdominal wall repair was performed in both groups using Polypropylene and Polyester mesh respectively. The surgery was performed at Surgery Section, Department of CMS, UVAS, Lahore for 3 months duration (including adaptation and postoperative period). Both meshes were compared on the basis of postoperative complications (wound healing, pain evaluation, hematoma, seroma and abscess formation), inflammatory responses and adhesion formation after application of mesh fixation. During experiment, it was observed that polypropylene mesh resulted in a prominent pain sensation, persistent inflammatory reaction, proliferating fibroblast, more granulating tissue, macrophages appearance, increased connective tissue thickness and proliferating collagen fibre. It was observed that Polyester mesh resulted in less pain sensation, no foreign body reaction, no neutrophil appearance and rare granulating tissue. Polyester mesh showed remarkable advantages over polypropylene mesh in terms lower pain level, reduced size seroma and extremely less scar tissue formation. Based upon all the findings it was concluded that polyester mesh is safer and more effective in terms of post-operative complications and outcomes. Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 2495-T] (1).

2. Evaluation Of Risk Factors And Molecular Diagnosis Of Dermatophytosis In Dogs

by Muhammad Haseeb Saeed (2008-VA-241) | Prof. Dr. Aneela Zameer Durrani | Dr. Hassan Saleem | Prof. Dr. Azhar Maqbool.

Material type: book Book; Literary form: not fiction Publisher: 2016Dissertation note: Dogs are most kept and beloved pets in Pakistani society. Dermatophytosis is among the common disease of the pets. Many predisposing factors are involved in development of clinical cases of dermatophytosis including climatic conditions, housing condition of dogs and physical attributes such as coat hair size. Dermatophytosis is not only of concern as being infection of pets but also of its zoonotic importance hence it is very crucial to diagnose dermatophytic infection well in time. Dermatophytosis is caused by Dermatophytes,Microsporum, Trichophyton and Epidermophyton, the fungal species. It is difficult to diagnose the Dermatophytosis from other skin infections by routine tests in most of the cases especially subclinical. Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR) is advanced and the most reliable technique to detect genome of Dermatophytes even in minute quantities specifically and can efficiently detect the presence of any Dermatophyte specie on the skin of dog. The current study was planned to develop and validate a diagnostic assay which could be able to detect and distinguish tree important dermatophytes species including Microsporum, Trichophyton and Epidermophytonby a uniplex PCR reaction. Analysis of involvement of certain predisposing factors in dermatophytosis was second goal to be worked on in this study. Samples of suspected pet dogs (n=50) were collected by scraping the skin at affected areas over skin. DNA was extracted from the skin scraping samples by organic Phenol Chloroform Isoamyle Alcohol method. Primers, specific to the 18-S ribosomal RNA region of genomes of the Dermatophytes, were designed after alignment of available sequences of Microsporum,Trichophyton and Epidermophyton at NCBI. Annealing temperature and recipe of PCR reaction was optimized by gradient PCR in BIO-Rad thermal cycler. Amplification reaction of all samples collected was carried out as per optimized reaction conditions, afterwards. Amplified products obtained were subjected to genotyping by agarose gel electrophoresis for size based separation of the amplified products. The specific amplified bands of desired genomic region of dermatophytes were seen in UV light transilluminator. The data of results of predisposing factors involved in dermatophytosis wasanalysedby using Pearson’s chi squared test with the help of Statistical Package for the Social Science (SPSS) Program. Genome specific product sizes of Microsporum and Trichophyton i.e. 366 bp and 351 bp in respective positive samples were observed. Out of 50 suspected samples 46 samples were positive for dermatophytosis out of which 38 samples (82.6%) were positive for Microsporum, 6 samples (13%) for Trichophyton and 2 samples (4.4%) were positive for both Microsporumand Trichophyton. This study will help to validate a diagnostic technique for Dermatophytosis with greater efficacy and reliability. Moreover, this investigation may become basis for the future research activities in this field in Pakistan. Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 2528-T] (1).

3. Effects And Remedial Measures Of Aflatoxin B1 On Bovine Calves In Punjab

by Omer Naseer (2002-VA-65) | Dr. Jawairia Ali Khan | Prof. Dr. Muhammad Sarwar Khan | Dr. Muhammad Ovais Omer.

Material type: book Book; Literary form: not fiction Publisher: 2016Dissertation note: Aflatoxins B1 are most toxic metabolites produced by Aspergillus fungi in/on foods and feeds, probably best known and most intensively researched aflatoxins globally. AFB1 have been associated with several diseases, e.g. aflatoxicosis in livestock, pets including humans throughout the world. Occurrence of AFB1 is influenced by certain environmental factors like geographic location, agro-economic practices and susceptibility of feed commodities to fungal invasion during pre-harvest, storage, and processing periods. AFB1 has grabbed greater attention than any other mycotoxins due to their demonstrated potent carcinogenic effect in susceptible animals and their acute toxicological effects in humans. As the absolute safety will be never achieved, most of the world struggled to limit aflatoxin exposure by imposing regulations on feed commodities. So, in this study, we had collected 67 concentrated samples, thirty six samples from Gujranwala and thirty one from Kasur to examine the occurrence of aflatoxin B1. The aims of this study were to investigate the aflatoxin B1 in calf feed, effect of different concentrations of aflatoxin B1 on productive performance of calves and determine the comparative efficacy of commercially available mycotoxin binders and liver tonics against AFB1 in bovine calves. Feed samples were obtained from different livestock farms and cattle feed mills, toxin levels in each feed sample were determined by HPLC. AFB1 level was higher at feed mills (40.33±2.21 ppb and 49.0±1.95 ppb) than farms (34.96±2.65 ppb and 44.95±2.41 ppb) both in Gujranwala and Kasur respectively. Fungus was isolated and grown on Sabouraud’s dextrose agar on the basis of microscopic characters and species within genus characterized by colony characters/macroscopic characters, mostly Aspergillus species was present in the feed samples which produce mycotoxins. The second most prevalent species were the Fusarium. Mucor and the Pencillium were respectively third and fourth in number. Our results have shown that Alternaria was not present in Gujranwala and Rhizopus was absent in the feed samples collected from the Kasur. Out of mycotoxin contaminated concentrate feed samples, the highest frequency of Aspergillus (43.3%) was observed, followed by Fusaram (38.8%), Mucor (8.9%), Penicillium(5.9%), Rhizopus (1.5%) and Alternaria species (1.5%). Our results also indicated that growth of Aspergillus spp. can be minimized by controlling the different factors like pH, temperature, light and humidity, which are essential for the proper growth and development. The antifungal activity of methanolic extract of clove, neem and garlic was also determined in which maximum MIC showed by garlic. Thirty six bovine calves of 6 to 12 months of age were kept in UVAS, Pattoki campus (Ravi Campus) .in four different replicates having 9 animals each. Different concentrations, i.e. 0.6 mg/kg, 0.8 mg/kg and 1.0 mg/kg was administered along with concentrated feed and check out productive performance along with physiological profile. The most pathological concentration of aflatoxin B1 in experiment number 3 was given to the two groups of bovine calves along with two different commercially available mycotoxin binders i.e. Yeast based and second one was clay based HSCAS mycotoxin binder at recommended doses. Efficacy of mycotoxin binders on feed samples was analyzed by using HPLC and also evaluates the productive performance of the animals.Efficacy of two liver tonics i.e.silymarin and choline chloride was observed on CBC, LFT and RFT of bovine calves. Present study has clearly displayed the adverse effect of aflatoxin B1 on feed consumption, hematological and serum biochemical parameters related to liver and kidney in bovine calf. Results indicated that HSCAS mycotoxin adsorbent was able to fully detoxify aflatoxin B1. Silymarin had great impact on the liver to cope the adverse effects of the AFB1 as compared to the choline chloride, which was proved with the help of CBC, LFT and RFT. Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 2630-T] (1).

4. Treatment Of Long Oblique Tibial Fracture With Intramedullary Pin Alone And Full Cerclage Wires In Cats

by Syed Muhammad Faheem Ahmed (2010-VA-147) | Dr. Ayesha Safdar | Prof. Dr. Muhammad Arif Khan | Dr. Muhammad Zahid Tahir.

Material type: book Book; Literary form: not fiction Publisher: 2017Dissertation note: Fracture of long bone in animals is a challenging problem these days. Leg fractures in cats are quite common problem. Fractures treated with biomechanically sound fixation and proper attention to soft tissues will be most likely to heal with a functional outcome. However, osteomyelitis, bone sequestration, and joint ankylosis still continue to be major factors in inhibiting healing and bone functionality. This research project was designed with the aim to test the effectiveness and accuracy of three sets of bone splintage devices in healing long oblique mid-shaft tibial fractures in cats, with minimal side effects and stress to the patient. For the study total twelve adult cats as and when presented at Pet Centre, University of Veterinary & Animal Sciences Lahore, and Saleem Veterinary Clinic and petshop Lahore, having long oblique fracture of tibia irrespective of breed, sex and considering almost similar age group, both stray and domesticated were selected. These cats were divided into three groups i.e groups A, B and C comprising of four cats in each group, and designated as 1, 2 3 and 4 respectively. They were admitted as clinical trial patients and were kept in separate cat cages at Saleem Veterinary Clinic until the completion of the study. Specific tagged collars were applied on all the cats. They were kept under comfortable environment and on a standard commercially available cat feed diet with ad labitum access to water. All the cats of three groups, having long oblique tibial fracture were treated with 3 separate techniques for comparison. In group A, fracture was reduced and immobilized with intramedullary pinning. In group B, fracture was treated with full cerclage wires alone while cats of group C were treated with intramedullary pin and cerclage wires. Thus comparative fracture healing and efficacy of individual techniques in their respective cases were evaluated. Subsequent comparative parameters were studied which included physical examination of wound, lameness grading, radiological scoring for callus formation, fracture line union, fracture alignment as well as callus remodelling. The collected data regarding study parameters were illustrated by descriptive statistics and non-parametric analysis of variance (Kruskal Walis Test) using IBM SPSS Statistics version 20. Conclusion: Therefore, as advocated by the results of this study, intramedullary pinning (preferably threaded) with at least 2 - 3 full cerclage wiring was a better choice for the correction of a long oblique mid-shaft tibial fracture in cats. The combination of both these techniques together give a strong backbone for bone healing to take place with minimum amount of stress to the bone fragments and also to counteract different forces acting on the fracture site.Both these techniques were easy, required little soft tissue manipulation, were cost-effective, required less equipment and could easily be applied by an average practitioner. Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 2891-T] (1).

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