Comparative Anthelmintic Efficacy Of Moxidectin, Ivermectin And Albendazole Against G.I.T. Nematodes Of Sheep Under Field Conditions
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Publisher: 2000 Dissertation note: In this experiment comparative anthelmentic efficacy of moxidectin, ivermectin and albendazole was studied in sheep under field conditions. For this purpose, 60 sheep positive for nematodal infestation and 20 negative based on faecal examination were selected from the field. They were divided into 4 groups A, B, C & D having 20 animals in each group. Animals of group-A, B, C were medicated with moxidectin (0.2 mg I kg SIC injection), ivermectin (0.2 mg / kg S/C injection) and albendazole (5 mg / kg, orally) respectively. Animals of group-D were kept as control group. Eggs per gram of faeces were counted by McMaster technique on day 0, 7th 141h day post medication. To calculate the weight gain by these animals, weight was measured on day 0, 28th day of post medication
Based on the reduction in the number of eggs per gram of faeces, efficacy of moxidectin was estimated to be 98.65% and 99.7% on day 7 and day 14 post medication respectively. Efficacy of ivermectin was estimated to be 98.9% and 100% while that of albendazole 94.96% and 97.67% on day 7, day 14 respectively. The weight gain observed after 281h day of post medication was 1.18 kg, 1.37 kg, 1.05 kg, 0.5 kg for animals treated with moxidectin, ivermectin, albendazole and control groups respectively.
In conclusion, moxidectin and ivermectin are injectable preparations available in the market and can be used for the treatment of nematodes in sheep under field conditions in this area quite successfully.
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The Impact Of Community Based Animal Helth Services Delivery System On Epidemiological Parameters And Farmer'S
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Publisher: 2006 Dissertation note: A study was conducted to understand the impact of community based animal health services delivery systems on epidemiological parameters and farmer's economic sustainability in Central Punjab. In Pakistan three systems for the animal health services delivery are being practiced without any data base and conclusive findings for the comparison purposes and in terms of the replication if needed in future, therefore, a study was planned to quantify and compare the three systems. These systems are; community based, public based and conventional based animal health services delivery systems. As the community based system was launched as Halla scheme, in Central Punjab through the German Technical Cooperation program / funding. Therefore, the other two systems i.e. public and conventional based were selected in the areas adjacent to the community based system (Halla Cluster). The project area was selected because of the similar geographical, environmental, socio cultural and political similarities. One cluster of five villages was selected randomly for each system. The data was obtained from each cluster through active disease surveillance and was recorded on a questionnaire. Each questionnaire was used for one farmer. The cluster of five villages was 'considered as one herd. In the 1st project, the clusters were quantified and compared on different parameters, like provision of animal health services, provided from the system to the member farmers. Epidemiological parameters like morbidity and mortality rate were recorded and analyzed statistically. In the 2IId project, the community trials were also conducted to compare the efficacy of prophylactic interventions, for the economically important diseases of buffaloes and cattle i.e. the haemorrhagic septicaemia and foot and mouth disease. The effect of deworming was also recorded with reference to morbidity and mortality. In the third project the sustainability of the farmers residing in the systems were compared in terms of cost benefit ratio. Animal health services were arranged like vaccination, treatment, deworming, artificial insemination and nutrition support. Poor, good and better services were provided in conventional based, community based and public based animal health services delivery systems, respectively. The impact of services on morbidity and mortality was recorded, the minimum morbidity and mortality rate was recorded in the community based system and moderate and maximum morbidity rate, mortality rate, number of outbreaks and fertility rate due to various diseases were recorded in the conventional based animal health service delivery system. The results were statistically analyzed and significant difference at a level 5% was estimated. The efficacy of the vaccination was estimated and it was statistically found that the morbidity and mortality rates were significantly low in the intervention herds of buffaloes and cattle, as compared to non intervention herds. The overall sustainability of the farmer in term of cost benefit ratio was higher in community based as compared to public based and conventional based animal health services delivery system. In conclusion the better the animal health services delivery system, the more prosperous was the farmer. So, it is recommended that the community based animal health service system be promoted and replicated on priority basis. The animal health services are provided by public based service deliverers but they are not of the same quality as were provided by the community based system in Halla Cluster. This is the reason that in spite of all the services provided by the public based system, the morbidity rate and mortality rate due to various infectious and non infectious diseases were higher in buffaloes and cattle as compared to the community based system. In conventional based system neither the community based services nor the public based services were available for the farmers because those areas were remote and far from the public veterinary hospitals. Therefore, the morbidity rate and mortality rate at the highest spectrum of ranking and disease burden/disease load. The magnitude of disease problems was highest in the conventional based, lowest in the community based system and intermediate in the public based system. Better the quality of services are provided the minimal are the losses due to the diseases in the animal populations and in turn better the cost benefit ratio and ultimately the more prosperous is the farmer. The only way of poverty alleviation in the rural communities is to replicate the community based animal health services delivery system (Halla) with certain modifications in the Provinces of Punjab and Sindh in particular and in North West Frontier Province and Balochistan in general
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