A Comparative Study Of Different Anaesthetic Combinations In Equine
Material type: Book ; Format:
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Publisher: 1995 Dissertation note: These days the scope of anaesthesia is consistently increasing due to increase in surgical patients in veterinary practice. This change in trend is due to the awareness of the owners to different surgical problems and their solutions. They do not hesitate to get their animals treated with modern equipments and highly expensive medicine. To meet this challenge and demand of the owners, veterinary surgeons are taking keen interest to get the advanced knowledge and latest information of modern equipments and their usage in veterinary practice.
In the past surgery was performed by making temporary insensibility by asphyxiation, cerebral concussion by striking wooden bowl placed over the head with a hammer and a regional anaesthesia was attained by compression of nerves and blood vessels of the region to he operated upon. But these days different sedative and anaesthetic agents are being used to make the animal desensitize from all external stimuli. These drugs are available in volatile, nonvolatile and gaseous forms. The usage of anaesthetic agent entirely depends upon the species, age, weight, temperament of the patient, nature of the operation to he performed, cost and availability of the drug.
In this project three different combinations were tried in thirty animals of equine species to find out the best selection for major surgical interventions. The animals were divided into three groups often animal each. These groups were designated as Group A, B and C. Group A was anaesthetized with XylazineiPentothal sodium, Group B with Acepromazine/Pentothal sodium and Group C with Diazepam/Pentothal sodium. The efficacy of these combinations was measured on the basis of nature of induction, recumbency period, nature of recovery, different body reflexes, recording temperature, pulse, respiration, and statistical analysis of results.
The analysis of the results collected during this study clearly indicated that a combination of cliazepam with pentothal sodium was a better selection for anaesthetizing equine patients. This study aslo proved that combination comprising of xylazine and pentothal sodium could he used for minor surgical interventions as it produced light surgical anaesthesia.
It was concluded that a combination consisting of diazepam and pentothal sodium should be used for all types of major surgical procedures in equine practice.
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Comparative Efficacy Of Suturing Techniques And Suture Materials For End-To-End Anastomosis Of Small Intestine in Dogs
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Publisher: 2010 Dissertation note: The small intestine is a tube-like structure, which extends between the stomach and largeintestine. It starts at the pylorus and terminates at the cecocolic junction. Small intestine plays an important role in the absorption of amino acids, carbohydrates, fats and electrolytes like sodium, potassium, chloride and bicarbonate ions. Any disease condition of jejunum like neoplasia or devitalization due to foreign body necessitates the resection of it. This project was designed to evaluate the comparative efficacy of different suturing techniques and suture material applied during end-to-end anastomosis of small intestine. The study was designed on eighteen stray dogs. The dogs were divided into 3 groups i.e group A, B, and C comprising 6 animals each. Each group was further subdivided into the subgroups as, Al, A2, Bi, B2 and Cl, C2. The dogs of group A was numbered from 1-6, group B from 7-12, and group C from 13-18 for the identification purpose. The surgery was conducted through ventral midline celiotomy from umbilicus to a variable distance caudally under general anesthesia. In group A, Simple interrupted, group B modified Gambee and in group C interrupted Lembert suturing technique for end-to-end anastomosis of small intestine was used. In subgroup Al, B, C! chromic catgut and in subgroup A2, B2 an C3 polyglyconate suture materials was used.
In group Cl, operated dog No.2 died on day 16 post operatively. The versatility and comparison of the techniques were evaluated on the basis of health status including vomiting, diarrhea, and weight gain or weight loss, wound healing, radiographic assessment, decrease in lumen diameter, alignment of tissue plane and quality of wound healing of the anastomotic site in all three group A, B and C. The leakage was checked at 2, 4, 6 and 12 week post surgery using contrast radiographs. During the study period the dogs were housed in the kennels available at Surgery Section, Department of Clinical Medicine and Surgery, University of Veterinary and Animal Sciences, Lahore.
The present project is clearly indicated that modified Gambee suturing technique was found to be more suitable and compatible anastomotic technique with excellent clinical superiority. It resulted in the batter wound healing, minimal lekage, minimal reduction in lumen diameter at the anastomotic site, excellent in its alignment of tissue plane, satisfactory clinical layer to layer healing , is simple to duplicate under field conditions and minimal abdominal complication.
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Comparative Evaluation Of Conventional Method And Staple Suture Technique For Intestinal Aanastomosis In Dogs
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Publisher: 2013 Dissertation note: Intestinal resection and anastomosis is frequently essential during abdominal surgeries. Indications for intestinal resection are malignancy, inflammation, stricture formation, injuries and ischemia. Several surgical situations necessitate the resection of intestinal segments and the formation of consistent anastomoses. Conventionally, a large diversity of suture materials has been used to make hand-sewn anastomoses. Surgical stapler was made for the first time at the beginning of 20th century but its use remained limited in gastrointestinal surgery. Currently, stapled anastomoses is an essential part of the majority of the gastrointestinal surgeries. The simple-interrupted, single-layer, approximating technique, in which absorbable monofilament suture material is used, is presently believed to be the technique of choice for end-to-end bowel anastomosis. This procedure is mostly used in gastrointestinal surgeries with comparatively lesser complications. Intestinal anastomosis with skin staples was started by military surgeons for the soldiers suffering from bowel trauma caused by gunfire. In this technique, stainless steel skin staples were used to create a seromuscular intestinal anastomoses. There are several types of staplers available in markets, e.g. circular ligators, clip appliers, endoscopic staplers etc. The circular stapler is a disposable anastomotic instrument that places a round, double staggered row of titanium staples connecting intervening tissues. It can generate an end-to-end, end-to-side, or side-to-side anastomosis. This round stapler is available with a variety of staple line diameters to be used according to need. In current years, there has been a large shift from hand-sewn method towards the use of intestinal stapler in gastrointestinal surgery. They present a possible reduction in operational timing and are easy to learn and use than for hand-sewn method. So, staplers are very popular in the trainee. This research project was tested on 12 mongrel dogs divided randomly into two different groups (A and B). Each group comprised of 6 dogs. Conventional hand-sewn method of end-to-end anastomosis was applied on group A and stapled anastomosis was made in the dogs of group B. Two surgical techniques were applied for end to end anastomosis of jejunum. In group-A conventional hand-sewn anastomosis technique was applied. In this method a piece of jejunum was removed and then anatomosed with simple interrupted, single-layer, approximating technique. The absorbable, monofilament suture material was applied manually. This is currently considered the method of choice for end-to-end intestinal anastomosis in small animal surgery. This technique is well described and has been used throughout the canine gastrointestinal tract with a relatively low complication rate. In group-B a circular mechanical stapler was used to construct anastomosis. In this method a piece of jejunum was removed and end-to-end anatomosis was made using a mechanical stapler. Comparison of both techniques was made on the basis of clinical parameters (temperature, pulse, respiration, vomiting, diarrhea and blood in feces), radiographic evaluation, exploratory laparotomy, change in lumen diameter and duration of surgical procedure. There is a significant difference in change in diameter within each group before and after surgery but there is no significant difference in change in diameter or stenosis formation between these two groups. There is a significant difference in the duration of operation; stapled group significantly requires an average of 10 minutes less than conventional hand-sewn method. Conclusively it was inferred that there is no significant difference in change in diameter between stapled group and hand sewn group but the anastomosis construction time is shorter in stapled group. Stapled anastomosis is safe and faster technique than hand-sewn method. The prevalence of low complication rate makes it all the more ideal for application in routine practices.
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Comparative Efficacy Of Prolene And A Novel Prolene-Vicryl Composite Mesh For Ventral Hernia Repair In Dogs
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Publisher: 2013 Dissertation note: Prolene (Polypropylene) is a gold standard for repairing ventral or incisional hernias but exhibits increased inflammatory responses as a non-absorbable foreign material and causing post-operative complications. Prolene composite mesh has a reduced polypropylene concentration in addition to an equal proportion of absorbable material. Hence they provide more tissue in-growth and less inflammatory response and minimal adhesion formation.
The present project was designed to compare the two mesh implants viz., the simple non-absorbable poly-propylene (prolene) mesh and the prolene-vicryl composite mesh which is comprised of an outer latticework of the non-absorbable polypropylene, in addition to absorbable polyglactin 910 (vicryl) on the inner side. Both mesh implants are readily available in Pakistan; the non-absorbable polypropylene mesh is available in Pakistan with the Trade name of Prolene® (Ethicon, Johnson & Johnson, USA), while the prolene-vicryl composite mesh is available with the Trade name of Vypro® (Ethicon, Johnson & Johnson, USA). Both meshes were compared on the basis of post-surgical complications (Pain evaluation, wound healing, hematoma, seroma and abscess formation), inflammatory responses mesh shrinkage and adhesion formation after application of hernioplasty implant.
The experimental study was conducted on 12 (twelve) healthy mongrel dogs to compare prolene and prolene-vicryl composite mesh for ventral or incisional hernia repair in dogs. The dogs were randomly selected as either male or female, aged between one to two years (mean age 1.5 years). The body weight of the experimental animals was in the range between 16-20 kg (mean weight 18 kg). The dogs were housed in kennels at Pet Centre of University of Veterinary and Animal Sciences, Lahore for a period of 3 months (including adaptation and post-operative period). The dogs were divided into three groups (A, B & C) comprising of 4 dogs in each group; and they were numbered from # 1-4 in Group A, #5-8 dogs in Group B, and #9-12 dogs in Group C, for proper identification and for ease of research. The respective meshes were used for ventral or incisional hernia repair in group A and group B dogs, while group C dogs served as control group.
The groups were surgically treated as follows:
Group A (Prolene mesh)
Group B (Prolene-vicryl composite mesh)
Group C (Control group)
During experimental trials, it was seen that polypropylene mesh resulted in a persistent inflammatory response, prominent foreign body reaction, rare vascularization, more fibroblast more granulating tissue, increased thickness of connective tissue, and extensive collagen fiber. In comparison, the polypropylene-vicryl composite mesh resulted in better vascularization, rare inflammatory response, moderate collagen fiber formation, smooth incorporation of collagen fibers into the mesh, low foreign body reaction, less fibroblast proliferation and lesser granulating tissue.
Based upon all the findings it was concluded that the Prolene-Vicryl composite mesh is safer and more effective in terms of post-operative complications and outcomes.
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Clinico-Epidemiological And Therapeutic Study On Babesiosis In Different Breeds Of Cattle In Balochistan
Material type: Book ; Literary form:
Publisher: 2015 Dissertation note: Babesiosis which is also called as piroplasmosisis, Texas fever, redwater or tick fever, is an emerging, tick-transmitted (by a vector ixodidea) disease caused by intraerythrocytic parasites of the genus babesia having considerable worldwide economic, medical, and veterinary impact. Keeping in view the importance of babesiosis under local conditions, the present study was designed to evaluate the status babesiosis in Balochistan. For this purpose field and experimental studies were carried in two districts Quetta and Sibi of Balochistan Province to find out the status of babesiosis in Bhag Nari, Holstein Friesian and Crossbred cattle. During field study epidemiological status of babesiosis was highlighted by selecting 600 cattle randomly from each district. The animals were distributed into 2 major groups i.e. Young animals less than 12 months and adult over 12 months of age. These groups were further sub-divided into Young animals (less than 6 months, up to 9 months and up to 12 months) while Adults animals (up to 2 years, 3 years and over 3 years). The vector of babesia was also kept under keen observation for the prevalence/infestation rate, identification and economic losses caused during the course of study. Blood samples were collected from each animal and processed for blood smears examination and PCR for further confirmation of babesia infection. The blood samples were also processed for hematological study to evaluate the effect of babesiosis on different blood parameters. For experimental study 148 animals were selected through clinical signs of babesiosis, blood smear examination and PCR. Out of theses 40 animals were maintained for therapeutic trail to find out the cheapest and easily available drug against bovine babesiosis. For this purpose Neem leaves were used in decoction form while Imidocarb dipopionate was kept as standard control. The
results of epidemiological study revealed higher prevalence of babesiosis (20.5%) in district Quetta while 15.16% was recorded in District Sibi. Similarly higher prevalence was recorded in Holstein Friesian than in Crossbred and Bhag Nari cattle respectively in both districts Quetta and Sibi. Furthermore higher prevalence of babesiosis was recorded in adult groups of Holstein Friesian than in Crossbred and Bhag Nari cattle. Similarly season wise higher prevalence of babesia infection was noticed in summer followed by spring, autumn and winter respectively while higher prevalence was noted in female group of animals than male animals. Blood smears examination and PCR confirmed two babesia species i.e. babesia bigemina and babesia bovis. Similarly Boophilus tick species were identified as the vector of babesia parasites. During present study mixed hemoprotozaon infection of babesia mixed with theileria was recorded in both districts. The results of conventional method and modern diagnostic technique (PCR) revealed that PCR identified higher babesia infection during the entire 4 seasons as well as in all age groups whereas blood smears examination was capable to diagnose babesiosis in adult groups during the months of summer and spring season. Breed wise prevalence was also higher in samples treated with PCR than blood smears examination and even samples that were declared negative by blood smears examination were also found positive. The results of complete blood cell count from blood samples of infected experimental animal showed regenerative, macrocytic hypochromic anemia. Blood smear examination showed presence of many babesia with reticulocytes. Abnormalities in erythrocyte structure were seen. The result of blood parameters of total erythrocyte count, total leukocyte count, packed cell volume and hemoglobin showed significant decrease in all three affected Bhag Nari, Holstein Friesian and Cross bred cattle. The values of MCV and MCH were increased and MCHC was slightly less than normal value. No efficacy of neem decoction was noted against bovine babesiosis.
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Comparative Efficacy Of Polypropylene And Polyester Mesh For The Repair Of Abdominal Wall Defect In Pigeons
Material type: Book ; Literary form:
Publisher: 2016 Dissertation note: Polypropylene is a widely used biomaterial for the treatment of ventral abdominal wall hernias. It exhibit pain, prominent inflammatory response and foreign body reaction. Polyester (Polyethylene terephthalate) is hydrophilic material works with body’s natural systems to improve tissue integration while reducing negative foreign material response. Polyester offers extremely lower pain intensity and less foreign body reaction.
The purpose of designated research was to compare the efficacy of polypropylene and polyester meshes for the treatment of abdominal defect. Both are non-absorbable meshes. Polypropylene mesh is available in Pakistan with the trade name of Prolene® (Ethicon,Johnson & Johnson, USA). Polyester mesh is not available inPakistan and was acquired from Al Zahrawi Medical, a local healthcare company in Dubai, United Arab Emirates. Polyester mesh is available with brandname of (Parietex®, Covidien, France).
The experimental study was conducted on 16 (sixteen) healthy pigeons presented for massive abdominal defect repair. All birds were thoroughly examined to rule out any other anomaly before study. The birds were allocated into two different groups, viz. Group A and Group B with 8 birds in each group respectively. All treatments were administered intramuscularly using 1 ml insulin syringe. The Polypropylene mesh (Prolene®, Ethicon) was used for the treatment of abdominal repair for group A. The birds of group B was treated with Polyester mesh (Parietex®, Covidien). Ventral abdominal wall repair was performed in both groups using Polypropylene and Polyester mesh respectively. The surgery was performed at Surgery Section, Department of CMS, UVAS, Lahore for 3 months duration (including adaptation and postoperative period). Both meshes were compared on the basis of postoperative complications (wound healing, pain evaluation, hematoma, seroma and abscess formation), inflammatory responses and adhesion formation after application of mesh fixation.
During experiment, it was observed that polypropylene mesh resulted in a prominent pain sensation, persistent inflammatory reaction, proliferating fibroblast, more granulating tissue, macrophages appearance, increased connective tissue thickness and proliferating collagen fibre. It was observed that Polyester mesh resulted in less pain sensation, no foreign body reaction, no neutrophil appearance and rare granulating tissue. Polyester mesh showed remarkable advantages over polypropylene mesh in terms lower pain level, reduced size seroma and extremely less scar tissue formation.
Based upon all the findings it was concluded that polyester mesh is safer and more effective in terms of post-operative complications and outcomes.
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Treatment Of Long Oblique Tibial Fracture With Intramedullary Pin Alone And Full Cerclage Wires In Cats
Material type: Book ; Literary form:
Publisher: 2017 Dissertation note: Fracture of long bone in animals is a challenging problem these days. Leg fractures in cats are quite common problem. Fractures treated with biomechanically sound fixation and proper attention to soft tissues will be most likely to heal with a functional outcome. However, osteomyelitis, bone sequestration, and joint ankylosis still continue to be major factors in inhibiting healing and bone functionality.
This research project was designed with the aim to test the effectiveness and accuracy of three sets of bone splintage devices in healing long oblique mid-shaft tibial fractures in cats, with minimal side effects and stress to the patient.
For the study total twelve adult cats as and when presented at Pet Centre, University of Veterinary & Animal Sciences Lahore, and Saleem Veterinary Clinic and petshop Lahore, having long oblique fracture of tibia irrespective of breed, sex and considering almost similar age group, both stray and domesticated were selected. These cats were divided into three groups i.e groups A, B and C comprising of four cats in each group, and designated as 1, 2 3 and 4 respectively. They were admitted as clinical trial patients and were kept in separate cat cages at Saleem Veterinary Clinic until the completion of the study. Specific tagged collars were applied on all the cats. They were kept under comfortable environment and on a standard commercially available cat feed diet with ad labitum access to water. All the cats of three groups, having long oblique tibial fracture were treated with 3 separate techniques for comparison. In group A, fracture was reduced and immobilized with intramedullary pinning. In group B, fracture was treated with full cerclage wires alone while cats of group C were treated with intramedullary pin and cerclage wires. Thus comparative fracture healing and efficacy of individual techniques in their respective cases were evaluated.
Subsequent comparative parameters were studied which included physical examination of wound, lameness grading, radiological scoring for callus formation, fracture line union, fracture alignment as well as callus remodelling. The collected data regarding study parameters were illustrated by descriptive statistics and non-parametric analysis of variance (Kruskal Walis Test) using IBM SPSS Statistics version 20.
Therefore, as advocated by the results of this study, intramedullary pinning (preferably threaded) with at least 2 - 3 full cerclage wiring was a better choice for the correction of a long oblique mid-shaft tibial fracture in cats. The combination of both these techniques together give a strong backbone for bone healing to take place with minimum amount of stress to the bone fragments and also to counteract different forces acting on the fracture site.Both these techniques were easy, required little soft tissue manipulation, were cost-effective, required less equipment and could easily be applied by an average practitioner.
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