Incidence, Chemotherapy And Haematology Of Strongylosis In Horses Of District Layyah
Material type: Book ; Format:
Publisher: 2007 Dissertation note: The present project was designed to find out the infection rate of strongylosis, to test the anthelmintic efficacy of Endoectiven, Vermox, Neem (Melia Azadarch linn) and Oxfendazole, to study the effect of strongyloids on blood parameters in horses of district Layyah.
Horses were examined for the presence of strongylosis coprologically, till 50 horses naturally infected with strongyle spp. become available. Fifty horses were found positive for strongylosis out of eighty seven horses, so the infection rate of strongylosis was 57.47%. Fifty positive animals were randomly divided into five groups A, B, C, D and E each comprising of 10 animals. Another group F comprising of healthy horses was made. Each animal of group A was treated with Endoectiven (8 mg/kg body weight.), group B was treated with Vermox (10 mg/kg body weight), group C was treated with Neem (375 mg/kg body weight), group D was treated with Systamex (10mg/kg body weight) while group E was kept as positive control (untreated) and group F was kept as negative control (uninfected untreated). The efficacy of anthelmintics was calculated on the basis of reduction of eggs per gram (EPG) of faeces on day 7 and 14 post treatment. Efficacy of Endoectiven (Closantel) was 0 % and 0 % on day 7 and 14 respectively. Efficacy of Vermox (Mebendazole) was 91.93% and 95.16% on day 7and 14 respectively. Efficacy of Neem (Melia Azadarch linn) was 6.89% and 8.62% on day 7 and 14 respectively. Efficacy of Systamex was 96.82% and 98.4 1% on day 7 and 14 respectively. It was concluded from the above results that Oxfendazole was found most effective than Mebendazole, Neem (Melia Azadarch linn) and Closantel, while Mebendazole showed better results than Neem (Melia Azadarch linn) and Closantel. Neem (Melia Azadarch linn) showed better results than Closantel.
Haematological parameters showed significant reduction in total erythrocyte count (TEC), haemoglobin (Hb) level and packed cell volume (PCV).
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Comparative Efficacy Of Suturing Techniques And Suture Materials For End-To-End Anastomosis Of Small Intestine in Dogs
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Publisher: 2010 Dissertation note: The small intestine is a tube-like structure, which extends between the stomach and largeintestine. It starts at the pylorus and terminates at the cecocolic junction. Small intestine plays an important role in the absorption of amino acids, carbohydrates, fats and electrolytes like sodium, potassium, chloride and bicarbonate ions. Any disease condition of jejunum like neoplasia or devitalization due to foreign body necessitates the resection of it. This project was designed to evaluate the comparative efficacy of different suturing techniques and suture material applied during end-to-end anastomosis of small intestine. The study was designed on eighteen stray dogs. The dogs were divided into 3 groups i.e group A, B, and C comprising 6 animals each. Each group was further subdivided into the subgroups as, Al, A2, Bi, B2 and Cl, C2. The dogs of group A was numbered from 1-6, group B from 7-12, and group C from 13-18 for the identification purpose. The surgery was conducted through ventral midline celiotomy from umbilicus to a variable distance caudally under general anesthesia. In group A, Simple interrupted, group B modified Gambee and in group C interrupted Lembert suturing technique for end-to-end anastomosis of small intestine was used. In subgroup Al, B, C! chromic catgut and in subgroup A2, B2 an C3 polyglyconate suture materials was used.
In group Cl, operated dog No.2 died on day 16 post operatively. The versatility and comparison of the techniques were evaluated on the basis of health status including vomiting, diarrhea, and weight gain or weight loss, wound healing, radiographic assessment, decrease in lumen diameter, alignment of tissue plane and quality of wound healing of the anastomotic site in all three group A, B and C. The leakage was checked at 2, 4, 6 and 12 week post surgery using contrast radiographs. During the study period the dogs were housed in the kennels available at Surgery Section, Department of Clinical Medicine and Surgery, University of Veterinary and Animal Sciences, Lahore.
The present project is clearly indicated that modified Gambee suturing technique was found to be more suitable and compatible anastomotic technique with excellent clinical superiority. It resulted in the batter wound healing, minimal lekage, minimal reduction in lumen diameter at the anastomotic site, excellent in its alignment of tissue plane, satisfactory clinical layer to layer healing , is simple to duplicate under field conditions and minimal abdominal complication.
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Epidemiology, Serodiagnosis And Chemotherapy Of Anaplasmosis In Cattle
Material type: Book ; Format:
; Literary form:
Publisher: 2011 Dissertation note: Anaplasmosis is globally distributed tick-borne disease of livestock with great
economic importance in cattle industry. The current project was designed to estimate the
prevalence of anaplasmosis, ticks and risk factors associated with seroprevalence of
Anaplasma marginale among cattle in Sargodha, Khushab and Rawalpindi districts,
Punjab, Pakistan. Moreover, haematological changes in A. marginale infected cattle and
efficacy of chemosterilization regimens were evaluated using locally available drugs for
the elimination of adult naturally infected carrier cattle.
A total of 1050 blood, serum and tick specimens were collected from randomly
selected small holders (n=90) and private livestock farms (n= 12) using multistage cluster
random sampling technique. A total of 30 union councils, 34 cattle farms (30 small
holders and 4 livestock farms) and 350 cattle were selected as primary, secondary and
elementary sampling units from each district. Sampling unit was indigenous and
crossbred cattle of both the sexes.
Microscopic examination of the Giemsa stained blood mears revealed an overall
prevalence of blood parasites as 21.14%. Anaplasma marginale was the highe t prevalent
(5.81 %) haernoparasite of cattle followed in order by Theileria sp. (5.14%) and Babesia
bigemina (4.76%), respectively. Crossbred cattle were more susceptible to TBDs as
compared to the indigenous cattle. Highest prevalence of TBDs was recorded in summer.
The prevalence of tick-transmitted diseases was higher in small holders (31.3%) than
private livestock farms (17.5%). Chi square analysis indicated a significant association
(P<0.05) among indigenous and crossbred cattle to selected TBDs. Wherea. non-
significant association between different age groups, seasons, sex and farm sizes were
The overall seroprevalence of Anaplasma marginale in cattle using cELlSA was
31.05%. Seroprevalence was higher in crossbred cattle of more than 4 years of age and
there was a significant (P<O.OO I) association between different age groups and breed. The
seroprevalence was significantly (P<0.05) higher in summer season in Sargodha and
Khushab districts. Moreover, the seroprevalence was significantly higher in small holders
in all study districts.
The epidemiological data and relevant information regarding area, host and farm
management factors were collected on a questionnaire through interview from each dairy
farmer, attendant or manager from September, 2009 to August, 20 10. Multivariate
analysis of risk factors revealed that cattle of more than 4 year of age (OR=5.42), heavy
tick infested (OR =2.10), crossbred (OR = 1.59) cattle were significantly at higher risk for
seroprevalence to Anaplasma marginale. Presence of Rhipicephalus (Boophilus)
microplus (OR=3.70), use of ivermectin (OR=3.97), moderate interval of acaricide
frequency (OR= 16.50), stall feeding (OR=4.90) and use of unhygienic needles
(OR=24.00) were significantly associated with seroprevalence to Anaplasma marginale
in cattle (P<0.05). The Sargodha district was at higher risk (OR = 1.81) as compared to
Khushab and Rawalpindi.
The tick species identified from cattle were Hyalomma anatolicum anatolicum,
Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus, Rhipicephalus sanguine us, Rhipicephalus
(Boophilus) annulatus and Haemaphysalis sp. The overall prevalence of tick infestation
among cattle was 54.76%. The highest prevalence (57.71%) of cattle tick infestation was tick infested sites in cattle followed by dewlap (92%), inner thighs (90%), neck & back (54%), tail (26%), ears (13%), around eyes (10%), flanks (4%) and legs (2%).
The haematological changes were studied at different levels of parasitaemia " 7%, >7-15% and> 15%) in Anaplasma marginale infected Sahiwal and crossbred cattle. There was a significant difference (P<O.OS) among total erythrocyte count (TEC), total leukocyte count (TLC), haemoglobin (Hb), packed cell volume (PCV), mean corpuscular
haemoglobin (MCH), mean corpuscular haemoglobin concentration (MCHC) at different levels of rickettsemia in both breeds. ignificant difference (P<O.OS) was noticed among RBCs, PCV and MCH blood parameters between Sahiwal and crossbred cattle.
A total of sixty Anaplasma marginale seropositive adult Sahiwal cattle were selected having their ages between 3-4 years ranging in weight from 246-341 kg. The animals were divided in four groups designated as OXY -group-I, E RO-group-II, IMC- group-III and control-group-IV, comprising IS animals each. The seropositive animals received oxytetracycline (22 mglkg IV once in a day for five days), enrofloxacin (S mglkg IV once in a day for five days) or imidocarb (S mglkg 1M twice, 7 days apart). Re ult of chemosterilization study indicated that oxytetracycline 13/1S (86.67%) and irnidocarb
dipropionate II/IS (73.33%) eliminated Anaplasma marginale infection in adult naturally infected carrier cattle on S6th day. The carrier clearance was confirmed by cELISA followed by subinoculation of blood in seronegative splenectomized calves.
It was concluded that TTBDs are widely distributed in Punjab, Pakistan. Host. management and area factors are involved with the seroprevalence of Anaplasma marginale in cattle. Haemolytic anaemia is the major haematological finding of Anaplasma marginale in cattle. Oxytetracycline is more effective and safe In chemosterilization of persistent Anaplasma marginale infection in cattle. There is a need for country wide epidemiological studies on ticks and TBDs using advanced serological
and molecular techniques. Moreover, the identification of the potential vector of anaplasmosis should be required for the effective prevention and control of anaplasmosis in Pakistan.
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Comparative Evaluation Of Conventional Method And Staple Suture Technique For Intestinal Aanastomosis In Dogs
Material type: Book ; Format:
Publisher: 2013 Dissertation note: Intestinal resection and anastomosis is frequently essential during abdominal surgeries. Indications for intestinal resection are malignancy, inflammation, stricture formation, injuries and ischemia. Several surgical situations necessitate the resection of intestinal segments and the formation of consistent anastomoses. Conventionally, a large diversity of suture materials has been used to make hand-sewn anastomoses. Surgical stapler was made for the first time at the beginning of 20th century but its use remained limited in gastrointestinal surgery. Currently, stapled anastomoses is an essential part of the majority of the gastrointestinal surgeries. The simple-interrupted, single-layer, approximating technique, in which absorbable monofilament suture material is used, is presently believed to be the technique of choice for end-to-end bowel anastomosis. This procedure is mostly used in gastrointestinal surgeries with comparatively lesser complications. Intestinal anastomosis with skin staples was started by military surgeons for the soldiers suffering from bowel trauma caused by gunfire. In this technique, stainless steel skin staples were used to create a seromuscular intestinal anastomoses. There are several types of staplers available in markets, e.g. circular ligators, clip appliers, endoscopic staplers etc. The circular stapler is a disposable anastomotic instrument that places a round, double staggered row of titanium staples connecting intervening tissues. It can generate an end-to-end, end-to-side, or side-to-side anastomosis. This round stapler is available with a variety of staple line diameters to be used according to need. In current years, there has been a large shift from hand-sewn method towards the use of intestinal stapler in gastrointestinal surgery. They present a possible reduction in operational timing and are easy to learn and use than for hand-sewn method. So, staplers are very popular in the trainee. This research project was tested on 12 mongrel dogs divided randomly into two different groups (A and B). Each group comprised of 6 dogs. Conventional hand-sewn method of end-to-end anastomosis was applied on group A and stapled anastomosis was made in the dogs of group B. Two surgical techniques were applied for end to end anastomosis of jejunum. In group-A conventional hand-sewn anastomosis technique was applied. In this method a piece of jejunum was removed and then anatomosed with simple interrupted, single-layer, approximating technique. The absorbable, monofilament suture material was applied manually. This is currently considered the method of choice for end-to-end intestinal anastomosis in small animal surgery. This technique is well described and has been used throughout the canine gastrointestinal tract with a relatively low complication rate. In group-B a circular mechanical stapler was used to construct anastomosis. In this method a piece of jejunum was removed and end-to-end anatomosis was made using a mechanical stapler. Comparison of both techniques was made on the basis of clinical parameters (temperature, pulse, respiration, vomiting, diarrhea and blood in feces), radiographic evaluation, exploratory laparotomy, change in lumen diameter and duration of surgical procedure. There is a significant difference in change in diameter within each group before and after surgery but there is no significant difference in change in diameter or stenosis formation between these two groups. There is a significant difference in the duration of operation; stapled group significantly requires an average of 10 minutes less than conventional hand-sewn method. Conclusively it was inferred that there is no significant difference in change in diameter between stapled group and hand sewn group but the anastomosis construction time is shorter in stapled group. Stapled anastomosis is safe and faster technique than hand-sewn method. The prevalence of low complication rate makes it all the more ideal for application in routine practices.
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Burden Of Endoparasites In Ruminants In Live Aimal Markets Of Lahore
Material type: Book ; Format:
Publisher: 2013 Dissertation note: Endoparsites cause severe economic losses by affecting and may cause many diseases to animal. Due to anthelmintic resistance and poor managemental practices endoparsitic disease are more common now a days. In Pakistan parasitic infestation is quite prevalent and the loss about 26.5 million rupees annually to the livestock industry. Although no exact figure of economic losses is available but it is fact that millions of rupees are being lost due to reduced milk yield, rejection of meat and edible offal, depreciation of hides, delay age of maturity and death particularly in calves and high production cost due to use of drugs, they also decrease feed intake efficiency. Present study was conducted to check the burden of endoparasites in different live animal Markets of Lahore, For this purpose 800 samples of large ruminants (cattle, buffalo) and small ruminants (sheep, goat) were collected and transported to lab for further qualitative fecal examination through macroscopic and microscopic examination. In six live animal markets overall prevalence of endoparasites found 21.37%. Out of 800 samples 171 were found positive. Prevalence of large and small ruminants was found almost similar i.e: 21.5%, 21.25% respectively. However much parasitic burden was observed 43.1% in cattle to that of 28.1% in buffalo.Prevalence in sheep was high as compared to goat whereas kacchi breed of sheep and Desi breed of goat showed higherprevalence that as 14.5%, 16% respectively.Prevalence in Nilli ravi was 28.0% in non-exotic cattle it was 31% however in exotic jersey breed prevalence of endoparasites was 11%. Endoparasites found more prevalent in Nilli Ravi. In ruminants prevalence found high in male animals as compared to female animals. Overall prevalence in ruminants was 21.0% while in male and female animals prevalence was 21.8%, and 20% respectively. prevalence found more in less than 1 year aged animal than above this age i.e, in less than 1 year of age was 22.4% prevalence while above 1 year aged animals it was 20.0% (P<0.05 ). In large and small ruminants nematodes were more prevalent followed by trematode, cestode, protozoa, and mixed infection. Among nematodes haemonchus were found more prevalent gastrointestinal parasites. Out of 171 positive samples 46 were of haemonchus (5.75%) followed by ostertagia 18 (2.25), trichostrongyloids 17(2.12), cooperia 8(1.0%), bunostomum 6(0.75%), trchuris 11(1.37%), oesophagostomumm 5(0.5%), in large ruminants. Small ruminants also found chabertia ovine 1(0.0125%) and strongyloid papillosus 1(0.0125%) infestation. During this study overall prevalence of Nematode, trematode, cestode, protozoa, and mixed infection found 15.0%, 3.5%, 1.875%, 0.625%, and 0.25% respectively. Mixed infection only found in live animal market 1 at Multan road. In live animal Market 2 at Sagyan Bridge only nematode and trematode were present. In live animal Market 3 at shahpur kanjran no mixed infection was found. And protozoa were only found in large ruminants. In live animal Market no protozoa and mixed infection was found. In live animal Market 4, 5, 6 no protozoa and cestode found. The data obtained was analyzed through chi -square test (SPSS) and probability level of <0.05 was considered as significant different. As results show ( p< 0.05) data was considered as significantly different. Fascioliasis, parasitic gastro-enteritis, coccidiosis, theleriosis, and babesiosis are major parasitic problem in ruminants in order to priority. There is urgent need to carry out research on applied aspects leading towards control of parasites. This parasitic research has been focused on a limited part of country. This should extend in broader area keeping in view various agro-ecological zones of country.
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Assessing The Efficacy Of Aqueous Garlic Extract Against Cyanide Toxicity In Mice Using Righting Reflex Recovery
Material type: Book ; Format:
; Literary form:
Publisher: 2013 Dissertation note: The KCN intake has been linked to central nervous system (CNS) syndromes and thyroid in animals as well as humans. It is very potent toxin even at very narrow dose ranges. Prolonged KCN exposure has also been associated with reduced growth rate in animals, disturbance in thyroid metabolism, lesions in liver, kidneys, lungs and also CNS pathology.
Male mice weighting about 20-40 grams were purchased from Veterinary Research Institute, Lahore, National Institute of Health, Islamabad, Animal house, University of Veterinary and Animal Sciences, Lahore and divided into 30 treatment groups. After acclimatization of mice, carefully, the mice were grouped as follows:
A group of 6 mice were treated with potassium cyanide (KCN) intra-peritoneally at 5.5mg/kg that induced a knock down state with recovery period of approximately 1 hour. Prior to each experiment, three or more mice were treated with KCN at this dose to verify that the recovery time was close to 1 hour.
Potassium Cyanide (KCN) + Aqueous Garlic Extract (AGE) at 250 mg/kg: Group 1 (5-min pre-KCN)
A group of 6 mice was given AGE intraperitoneally (i.p) at 250 mg/kg. After 5 minutes of AGE injection, an i.p. injection of KCN at 5.5 mg/kg was given and righting reflex recovery time was recorded.
Potassium Cyanide (KCN) + Aqueous Garlic Extract (AGE) at 250 mg/kg: Group 2 (5-min post-KCN)
A group of 6 mice was administered with KCN intraperitoneally (i.p) at 5.5 mg/kg. After 5 minutes of KCN injection, each mouse was treated with AGE at 250 mg/kg i.p. and righting reflex recovery time was noted.
Potassium Cyanide (KCN) + Aqueous Garlic Extract (AGE) at 500 mg/kg: Group 3 (5-min pre-KCN)
A group of 6 mice was given AGE intraperitoneally (i.p) at 500 mg/kg BW. After 5 minutes of AGE injection, an i.p. injection of KCN at 5.5 mg/kg was given and righting reflex recovery time was recorded.
Potassium Cyanide (KCN) + Aqueous Garlic Extract (AGE) at 500 mg/kg: Group 4 (5-min post-KCN)
A group of 6 mice was administered with KCN intraperitoneally (i.p) at 5.5 mg/kg. After 5 minutes of KCN injection, each mouse was treated with AGE at 500 mg/kg i.p. and righting reflex recovery time was recorded.
Potassium Cyanide (KCN) + Aqueous Garlic Extract (AGE) at 750 mg/kg: Group 5 (5-min pre-KCN)
A group of 6 mice was treated with AGE intraperitoneally (i.p) at 750 mg/kg. After 5 minutes of AGE injection, an i.p. injection of KCN at 5.5 mg/kg was given and righting reflex recovery time was recorded.
Potassium Cyanide (KCN) + Aqueous Garlic Extract (AGE) at 750 mg/kg: Group 6 (5-min post-KCN)
A group of 6 mice was administered with KCN intraperitoneally (i.p) at 5.5 mg/kg. After 5 minutes of KCN injection, each mouse was treated with AGE at 750 mg/kg i.p. and righting reflex recovery time was recorded.
Potassium Cyanide (KCN) + Aqueous Garlic Extract (AGE) at 250 mg/kg: Group 7 (30-min post-KCN)
One more group of 6 mice was given AGE at 250 mg/kg orally. After 30 minutes of AGE administration, an intraperitoneal (i.p) injection of KCN at 5.5 mg/kg was given and righting refelx recovery time was noted.
Potassium Cyanide (KCN) + Aqueous Garlic Extract (AGE) at 500 mg/kg: Group 8 (30-min post-KCN)
A group 6 mice was given AGE at 500 mg/kg orally. After 30 minutes of AGE administration, an intraperitoneal (i.p) injection of KCN at 5.5 mg/kg was given and righting reflex recovery time was noted.
Potassium Cyanide (KCN) + Aqueous Garlic Extract (AGE) at 750 mg/kg: Group 9 (30-min post-KCN)
One more group of 6 mice was given AGE at 750 mg/kg orally. After 30 minutes of AGE administration, an intraperitoneal (i.p) injection of KCN at 5.5 mg/kg was given and righting reflex recovery time was recorded.
Garlic Extract Group: (Group 10-15)
Three groups 10 - 12 each with 6 mice were injected intraperitoneally (i.p) with AGE at 250, 500 and 750 mg/kg respectively and righting reflex recovery time of each mouse in respective dose group was noted to observe any effects of AGE on righting reflex recovery time. Three groups 13 - 15 each with 6 mice were treated with AGE orally at 250, 500 and 750 mg/kg respectively and righting reflex recovery time of each mouse in respective dose group was noted to observe any effects of AGE on righting reflex recovery time.
Potassium Cyanide (KCN) + Sodium Nitrite (SN): Group 16 (5-min pre-KCN)
A group of 6 mice was given SN at 20 mg/kg intraperitoneally (i.p). After 5 minutes of SN injection, an i.p. injection of KCN at 5.5 mg/kg was given and righting reflex recovery time was recorded.
Potassium Cyanide (KCN) + Sodium Nitrite (SN): Group 17 (5-min post-KCN)
Another group of 6 mice was administered with KCN intraperitoneally (i.p) at 5.5 mg/kg. After 5 minutes of KCN injection, each mouse was treated with SN at 20 mg/kg i.p. and righting reflex recovery time was noted.
Potassium Cyanide (KCN) + Sodium Thiosulphate (ST): Group 18 (5-min pre-KCN)
A group of 6 mice was given ST at 600 mg/kg intraperitoneally (i.p). After 5 minutes of ST injection, an i.p. injection of KCN at 5.5 mg/kg was given and righting reflex recovery time was recorded.
Potassium Cyanide (KCN) + Sodium Thiosulphate (ST): Group 19 (5-min post-KCN)
A group of 6 mice was administered with KCN intraperitoneally (i.p) at 5.5 mg/kg. After 5 minutes of KCN injection, each mouse was treated with ST at 600 mg/kg i.p. and righting reflex recovery time was recorded.
Potassium Cyanide (KCN) + Sodium Nitrite (SN) & Sodium Thiosulphate (ST): Group 20 (5-min pre-KCN)
A group of 6 mice was given SN and ST at 20 mg/kg and 600 mg/kg intraperitoneally (i.p) respectively. After 5 minutes SN and ST injection, an i.p. injection of KCN at 5.5 mg/kg was given and righting reflex recovery time was recorded.
Potassium Cyanide (KCN) + Sodium Nitrite (SN) & Sodium Thiosulphate (ST): Group 21 (5-min post-KCN)
A group of 6 mice was administered with KCN intraperitoneally (i.p) at 5.5 mg/kg. After 5 minutes of KCN injection, each mouse was treated with SN and ST at 20 mg/kg and 600 mg/kg i.p. respectively and righting reflex recovery time was noted.
Potassium Cyanide (KCN) + Aqueous Garlic Extract (AGE) & Sodium Nitrite (SN): Group 22 (5-min pre-KCN)
A group of 6 mice was given AGE at 750 mg/kg and SN at 20mg/kg intraperitoneally (i.p). After 5 minutes of AGE and ST injection, an i.p. injection of KCN at 5.5 mg/kg was given and righting reflex recovery time was noted.
Potassium Cyanide (KCN) + Aqueous Garlic Extract (AGE) & Sodium Nitrite (SN): Group 23 (5-min post-KCN)
A group of 6 mice was administered with KCN intraperitoneally (i.p) at 5.5 mg/kg. After 5 minutes of KCN injection, each mouse was treated with AGE at 750 mg/kg and SN at 20 mg/kg i.p. and righting reflex recovery time was recorded.
Potassium Cyanide (KCN) + Aqueous Garlic Extract (AGE) & Sodium Thiosulphate (ST): Group 24 (5-min pre-KCN)
A group of 6 mice was given AGE at 750 mg/kg and ST at 600mg/kg intraperitoneally (i.p). After 5 minutes of AGE and ST injection, an i.p. injection of KCN at 5.5 mg/kg was given and righting reflex recovery time was recorded.
Potassium Cyanide (KCN) + Aqueous Garlic Extract (AGE) & Sodium Thiosulphate (ST): Group 25 (5-min post-KCN)
A group of 6 mice was administered with KCN intraperitoneally (i.p) at 5.5 mg/kg. After 5 minutes of KCN injection, each mouse will be treated with AGE at 750 mg/kg and ST at 600 mg/kg i.p. and righting reflex recovery time was noted.
Sodium Nitrite (SN) alone (Group 26)
6 mice in this group were treated with SN at 20 mg/kg intraperitoneally (i.p) and any effects on righting reflex recovery time were noted.
Sodium Thiosulphate (ST) alone (Group 27)
A group of 6 mice in group 27 were treated with ST at 600 mg/kg intraperitoneally (i.p) and any effects on righting reflex recovery time were noted.
Aqueous Garlic Extract (AGE) + Sodium Nitrite (SN) (Group 28)
The mice in group 28 were treated with AGE + SN at 750 mg/kg and 20 mg/kg intraperitoneally (i.p) respectively and righting reflex recovery time was noted.
Aqueous Garlic Extract (AGE) + Sodium Thiosulphate (ST) (Group 29)
A group of 6 mice in this group were treated with AGE at 750 mg/kg and ST at 600 mg/kg intraperitoneally (i.p) and righting reflex recovery time was recorded.
Sodium Nitrite (SN) + Sodium Thiosulphate (ST) (Group 30)
A group of 6 mice in group 30 were treated with SN and ST at 20 mg/kg and 600 mg/kg intraperitoneally (i.p) respectively and righting reflex recovery time was recorded.
The efficacy of the antidote estimated was based upon the reduction in righting reflex recovery time.
The righting reflex recovery time that was close to 1 hour was determined against KCN regimen. AGE was tested as potential antidote against sub-lethal KCN toxicity at dose regimens 250, 500 and 750 mg/kg intraperitoneally as well as orally at dose regimens 250, 500 and 750 mg/kg 5 minutes before and 5 minutes after KCN administration. SN and ST were tested at 20, and 600 mg/kg respectively as antidotes against sub-lethal KCN toxicity, 5 minutes before and 5 minutes after KCN administration. These were also tested in comparison and a dose with minimum recovery time was noted. A comparison was made between the efficacy of AGE and SN or ST or SN + ST as potential antidote against sub-lethal KCN toxicity. After 48 hours 3 mice from each group was sacrificed for postmortem examination.
For this purpose the righting reflex recovery time and survival data was collected for each mouse challenged with KCN. A group of 3 mice was tested with each increasing dose of KCN to create dose response curves for both righting reflex recovery times and percent survival. Increasing doses of KCN increased the recovery time of the righting reflex. The dose 5.5 mg/kg of KCN showed the righting reflex recocery time mean 64.66 ± .333 min and was selected for trials.
AGE (750 mg/kg) showed the most significant results as compared to ST and SN alone as well as in combination. Second most effective drug was ST as it showed better results than SN. Treatment results were more pronounced in 5 min pre-KCN groups as compared to 5 min post-KCN groups.
From this study it was concluded that the aqueous AGE is an effective antidote against sub-lethal KCN toxicity as the recovery times indicated that its effects are more pronounced than SN and ST, secondly, as it is easily available and very much cheaper in Pakistan and due to easy unavailability of SN and ST, it is effective antidote that could be used in the field against sub-lethal KCN toxicity with comparatively better results both orally and intraperitoneally.
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Common Nosocomial Bacterial Isolation And Identification From Veterinary Hospitals
Material type: Book ; Literary form:
Publisher: 2015 Dissertation note: CD not available.
Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [ Call number: 2217-T] (1).
Status Of Brucellosis And Its Effect On Hemogram And Serum Biochemistry In Indigenous, Cross-Bred And Exotic Dairy Cattle Herds
Material type: Book ; Literary form:
Publisher: 2015 Dissertation note: Brucellosis mainly infects food animals such as cattle, buffalo, goats and sheep. Brucella abortus is the principal cause of brucellosis in cattle and is shed from the infected animal at or around the time of calving or abortion. The present study was conducted on 450 animals on three different strains/breeds of cattle i.e. Exotic (150), Cross-bred (150) and local cattle (150) from 10 different privately owned livestock farms of varying holdings of district Lahore. An epidemiological questionnaire focusing on herd traits as well as husbandry and sanitary practices that could be associated with the risk of Brucellosis infection was completed. Serum samples were collected and analyzed using Rose Bengal Plate Test (RBPT). The serum samples positive for Brucellosis through RBPT further subjected to Serum Agglutination Test (SAT). To check the effect of Brucellosis on hemogram, blood samples from 18 cattle (n=6 indigenous; n=6 cross-bred; n=6 exotic) positive for Brucellosis and 18 animals (n=6 indigenous; n=6 cross-bred; n=6 exotic) negative for brucellosis were collected and processed for TLC, DLC, RBC, Hb, MCV, MCHC MCH and platelets using automated haematology analysed at UDL, UVAS, Lahore. Similarly, to see the effect of Brucellosis on Serum biochemistry, serum samples from 18 cattle (n=6 indigenous; n=6 cross-bred; n=6 exotic) positive for Brucellosis and 18 animals (n=6 indigenous; n=6 cross-bred; n=6 exotic) negative for brucellosis collected and analysed for glucose, total protein, albumin, Creatinine, Alanine Aminotransferase (ALT), Aspartate Aminotranferase (AST) and Sorbitol Dehydrogenase (SD) using commercially available kits.
RBPT revealed overall prevalence 17.7% higher than SAT 10.6%. Prevalence of brucellosis is higher in Cross-Bred (22.7%) followed by local cattle (18.9%) and exotic (12%).
Hemato-boichemical results showed that increase in TLC, MCV While slight changes in Hb, MCHC, RBC and values of MCV stays within normal range. On the other hand serum biochemistry increase in AST while decrease in ALT and SD found.
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Clinico-Epidemiological And Therapeutic Study On Babesiosis In Different Breeds Of Cattle In Balochistan
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Publisher: 2015 Dissertation note: Babesiosis which is also called as piroplasmosisis, Texas fever, redwater or tick fever, is an emerging, tick-transmitted (by a vector ixodidea) disease caused by intraerythrocytic parasites of the genus babesia having considerable worldwide economic, medical, and veterinary impact. Keeping in view the importance of babesiosis under local conditions, the present study was designed to evaluate the status babesiosis in Balochistan. For this purpose field and experimental studies were carried in two districts Quetta and Sibi of Balochistan Province to find out the status of babesiosis in Bhag Nari, Holstein Friesian and Crossbred cattle. During field study epidemiological status of babesiosis was highlighted by selecting 600 cattle randomly from each district. The animals were distributed into 2 major groups i.e. Young animals less than 12 months and adult over 12 months of age. These groups were further sub-divided into Young animals (less than 6 months, up to 9 months and up to 12 months) while Adults animals (up to 2 years, 3 years and over 3 years). The vector of babesia was also kept under keen observation for the prevalence/infestation rate, identification and economic losses caused during the course of study. Blood samples were collected from each animal and processed for blood smears examination and PCR for further confirmation of babesia infection. The blood samples were also processed for hematological study to evaluate the effect of babesiosis on different blood parameters. For experimental study 148 animals were selected through clinical signs of babesiosis, blood smear examination and PCR. Out of theses 40 animals were maintained for therapeutic trail to find out the cheapest and easily available drug against bovine babesiosis. For this purpose Neem leaves were used in decoction form while Imidocarb dipopionate was kept as standard control. The
results of epidemiological study revealed higher prevalence of babesiosis (20.5%) in district Quetta while 15.16% was recorded in District Sibi. Similarly higher prevalence was recorded in Holstein Friesian than in Crossbred and Bhag Nari cattle respectively in both districts Quetta and Sibi. Furthermore higher prevalence of babesiosis was recorded in adult groups of Holstein Friesian than in Crossbred and Bhag Nari cattle. Similarly season wise higher prevalence of babesia infection was noticed in summer followed by spring, autumn and winter respectively while higher prevalence was noted in female group of animals than male animals. Blood smears examination and PCR confirmed two babesia species i.e. babesia bigemina and babesia bovis. Similarly Boophilus tick species were identified as the vector of babesia parasites. During present study mixed hemoprotozaon infection of babesia mixed with theileria was recorded in both districts. The results of conventional method and modern diagnostic technique (PCR) revealed that PCR identified higher babesia infection during the entire 4 seasons as well as in all age groups whereas blood smears examination was capable to diagnose babesiosis in adult groups during the months of summer and spring season. Breed wise prevalence was also higher in samples treated with PCR than blood smears examination and even samples that were declared negative by blood smears examination were also found positive. The results of complete blood cell count from blood samples of infected experimental animal showed regenerative, macrocytic hypochromic anemia. Blood smear examination showed presence of many babesia with reticulocytes. Abnormalities in erythrocyte structure were seen. The result of blood parameters of total erythrocyte count, total leukocyte count, packed cell volume and hemoglobin showed significant decrease in all three affected Bhag Nari, Holstein Friesian and Cross bred cattle. The values of MCV and MCH were increased and MCHC was slightly less than normal value. No efficacy of neem decoction was noted against bovine babesiosis.
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Comparison Of Two Imported Live Attenuated PPR Vaccines In Local Sheep In Pakistan
Material type: Book ; Literary form:
Publisher: 2015 Dissertation note: Peste des petits ruminants (PPR) also famous as goat plaque is of viral origin and is extremely contagious disease of sheep and goat (Dhar et al. 2002; Asim et al. 2009). PPR can cause high mortality about 50 – 80 % in non-immunized sheep and goat population. Due to its similarity with other diseases, Peste des petits ruminants (PPR) is being devalued but at the same time it is said to be one of the major constraints to successful small ruminant farming in tropics (Sen et al. 2010). PPR virus is paramyxovirus, enveloped and belongs to the genus morbillivirus. These viruses comprise of 16Kb long, single stranded RNA showing negative polarity (Barrett et al. 2005).
The various vaccines like homologous and recombinant vaccines have been manufactured for the management of Peste des petits ruminants (PPR), as no accurate treatment is available for its control. For the immunity of animals against this disease, the tissue culture based, attenuated rinderpest vaccine (TCRV) had been accustomed over a extensive period because of the antigenic association among RPV and PPRV (Diallo et al. 1989).With the help of fresh freeze-drying methods and stabilizing agents the thermostability of the present PPR homologous vaccine has been enhanced significantly (Worrwall et al. 2001).
In Pakistan, PPR vaccine was manufactured with the help of PPRV Nigerian 75/I (PPR 75/1 LK 6 Vero 75) for the sheep and goat immunization (Asim et al. 2009). India had manufactured numerous live attenuated vaccines like the PPRV Sungri/96 that has been regularized for use (Hegde et al. 2008). ). The Peste des Petits Ruminants (PPRV-Sungri/96 ) vaccine is being manufactured on small and large scale for prevention of Peste des Petits Ruminants (PPR) outbreaks in India (Singh et al. 2004).
The current study was designed to study the immunogenicity of two imported live attenuated PPR vaccines in local sheep. A total of sixty (60) animals were selected and further separated into two groups, viz. Group-A and Group-B, having thirty (30) animals each. Group-A was further sub-divided into A1 comprising 10 sheep to which Raksha PPR vaccine (Sungri 96) was administered, A2 comprising of 10 sheep to which PPR vaccine (Nigeria 75/1) was administered and A3 comprising of 10 non-vaccinated sheep which served as control. Group B was separated into two sub-groups i.e B1 and B2 having fifteen (15) animals each. The Group-B1 was sub-divided into B1a having 05 sheep to which Raksha PPR vaccine (Sungri 96) was only administered, B1b having 05 sheep to which along with Raksha PPR vaccine (Sungri 96), Vitamin AD3E was administered and B1c having 05 unvaccinated sheep which served as control.
Similarly the Group-B2 was sub-divided into B2a having 05 sheep to which PPR vaccine (Nigeria 75/1) was only administered, B2b having 05 sheep to which along with PPR vaccine (Nigeria 75/1), Vitamin AD3E was administered and B2c having 05 non-vaccinated sheep and served as control group respectively. The serum samples were collected and mean antibody titer was calculated by complement fixation test (CFT) at zero day, 7th day, 14th day, 28th day and 48th day post-vaccination.
The live attenuated, Raksha PPR (Sungri 96) vaccine induced the mean antibody titers of 0 ±0.00, 4.7±0.48, 4.7±0.48, 4.9±0.31 and 4.9±0.31 which was significantly higher than the mean antibody titers shown by the PPR (Nigeria 75/1) vaccinated animals i.e. 0±0.00, 3.3±0.51, 3.4±0.51, 4±1.15 and 4.1±1.19 at zero, 7th, 14th, 28th, 48th day post-vaccination respectively. Similarly the mean antibody titers shown by the PPR (Nigeria 75/1) vaccinated animals were 0 ±0.00, 10.4± 3.86, 11.2±4.13, 20±11.31 and 21.6±11.80 at zero, 7th,14th, 28th and 48th day post vaccination respectively. Result of present study demonstrated
that the mean antibody titer values of animals vaccinated with Raksha PPR (Sungri 96) was significantly higher than animals vaccinated with PPR (Nigeria 75/1) at zero, 7th,14th, 28th and 48th day post vaccination respectively. The study also concluded that the mean antibody titer of animals receiving vaccination along with vitamin supplementation was significantly higher than animals receiving only vaccination. While performing the statistical analysis of data, it was revealed that the results were significant (p<0.05).
The present study summarized and concluded that the mean antibody titer values of Raksha PPR (Sungri 96) was significantly higher than PPR vaccine (Nigeria 75/1). As both India and Pakistan are two neighbouring countries, so PPR among them also falls in trans-boundary disease category. It signifies that both being part of Asia subcontinent and PPRV strain of lineage IV prevails in both regions. Keeping these factors under consideration proper vaccination strategy should be followed for the immunization of animals. In past, Nigeria 75/1 strain of PPRV vaccine had been used in Pakistan but the results were not reliable in terms of desired immune response and protection. Although titer was shown by this vaccine but protection is not reliable for proper health care of small ruminants. There was an immense need to come up with the authentic research on PPRV vaccine Raksha PPR (Sungri 96) in Pakistan which is already being used in India with desirable results.
The results of present research project were mostly similar with the findings of other scientists. The results of this study were analyzed through Independent t-test for independent samples.
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Comparative Efficacy Of Polypropylene And Polyester Mesh For The Repair Of Abdominal Wall Defect In Pigeons
Material type: Book ; Literary form:
Publisher: 2016 Dissertation note: Polypropylene is a widely used biomaterial for the treatment of ventral abdominal wall hernias. It exhibit pain, prominent inflammatory response and foreign body reaction. Polyester (Polyethylene terephthalate) is hydrophilic material works with body’s natural systems to improve tissue integration while reducing negative foreign material response. Polyester offers extremely lower pain intensity and less foreign body reaction.
The purpose of designated research was to compare the efficacy of polypropylene and polyester meshes for the treatment of abdominal defect. Both are non-absorbable meshes. Polypropylene mesh is available in Pakistan with the trade name of Prolene® (Ethicon,Johnson & Johnson, USA). Polyester mesh is not available inPakistan and was acquired from Al Zahrawi Medical, a local healthcare company in Dubai, United Arab Emirates. Polyester mesh is available with brandname of (Parietex®, Covidien, France).
The experimental study was conducted on 16 (sixteen) healthy pigeons presented for massive abdominal defect repair. All birds were thoroughly examined to rule out any other anomaly before study. The birds were allocated into two different groups, viz. Group A and Group B with 8 birds in each group respectively. All treatments were administered intramuscularly using 1 ml insulin syringe. The Polypropylene mesh (Prolene®, Ethicon) was used for the treatment of abdominal repair for group A. The birds of group B was treated with Polyester mesh (Parietex®, Covidien). Ventral abdominal wall repair was performed in both groups using Polypropylene and Polyester mesh respectively. The surgery was performed at Surgery Section, Department of CMS, UVAS, Lahore for 3 months duration (including adaptation and postoperative period). Both meshes were compared on the basis of postoperative complications (wound healing, pain evaluation, hematoma, seroma and abscess formation), inflammatory responses and adhesion formation after application of mesh fixation.
During experiment, it was observed that polypropylene mesh resulted in a prominent pain sensation, persistent inflammatory reaction, proliferating fibroblast, more granulating tissue, macrophages appearance, increased connective tissue thickness and proliferating collagen fibre. It was observed that Polyester mesh resulted in less pain sensation, no foreign body reaction, no neutrophil appearance and rare granulating tissue. Polyester mesh showed remarkable advantages over polypropylene mesh in terms lower pain level, reduced size seroma and extremely less scar tissue formation.
Based upon all the findings it was concluded that polyester mesh is safer and more effective in terms of post-operative complications and outcomes.
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Evaluation Of Risk Factors And Molecular Diagnosis Of Dermatophytosis In Dogs
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Publisher: 2016 Dissertation note: Dogs are most kept and beloved pets in Pakistani society. Dermatophytosis is among the common disease of the pets. Many predisposing factors are involved in development of clinical cases of dermatophytosis including climatic conditions, housing condition of dogs and physical attributes such as coat hair size. Dermatophytosis is not only of concern as being infection of pets but also of its zoonotic importance hence it is very crucial to diagnose dermatophytic infection well in time. Dermatophytosis is caused by Dermatophytes,Microsporum, Trichophyton and Epidermophyton, the fungal species. It is difficult to diagnose the Dermatophytosis from other skin infections by routine tests in most of the cases especially subclinical. Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR) is advanced and the most reliable technique to detect genome of Dermatophytes even in minute quantities specifically and can efficiently detect the presence of any Dermatophyte specie on the skin of dog. The current study was planned to develop and validate a diagnostic assay which could be able to detect and distinguish tree important dermatophytes species including Microsporum, Trichophyton and Epidermophytonby a uniplex PCR reaction. Analysis of involvement of certain predisposing factors in dermatophytosis was second goal to be worked on in this study. Samples of suspected pet dogs (n=50) were collected by scraping the skin at affected areas over skin. DNA was extracted from the skin scraping samples by organic Phenol Chloroform Isoamyle Alcohol method. Primers, specific to the 18-S ribosomal RNA region of genomes of the Dermatophytes, were designed after alignment of available sequences of Microsporum,Trichophyton and Epidermophyton at NCBI. Annealing temperature and recipe of PCR reaction was optimized by gradient PCR in BIO-Rad thermal cycler. Amplification reaction of all samples collected was carried out as per optimized reaction conditions, afterwards. Amplified products obtained were subjected to genotyping by agarose gel electrophoresis for size based separation of the amplified products. The specific amplified bands of desired genomic region of dermatophytes were seen in UV light transilluminator. The data of results of predisposing factors involved in dermatophytosis wasanalysedby using Pearson’s chi squared test with the help of Statistical Package for the Social Science (SPSS) Program.
Genome specific product sizes of Microsporum and Trichophyton i.e. 366 bp and 351 bp in respective positive samples were observed. Out of 50 suspected samples 46 samples were positive for dermatophytosis out of which 38 samples (82.6%) were positive for Microsporum, 6 samples (13%) for Trichophyton and 2 samples (4.4%) were positive for both Microsporumand Trichophyton.
This study will help to validate a diagnostic technique for Dermatophytosis with greater efficacy and reliability. Moreover, this investigation may become basis for the future research activities in this field in Pakistan.
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Effects And Remedial Measures Of Aflatoxin B1 On Bovine Calves In Punjab
Material type: Book ; Literary form:
Publisher: 2016 Dissertation note: Aflatoxins B1 are most toxic metabolites produced by Aspergillus fungi in/on foods and feeds, probably best known and most intensively researched aflatoxins globally. AFB1 have been associated with several diseases, e.g. aflatoxicosis in livestock, pets including humans throughout the world. Occurrence of AFB1 is influenced by certain environmental factors like geographic location, agro-economic practices and susceptibility of feed commodities to fungal invasion during pre-harvest, storage, and processing periods. AFB1 has grabbed greater attention than any other mycotoxins due to their demonstrated potent carcinogenic effect in susceptible animals and their acute toxicological effects in humans. As the absolute safety will be never achieved, most of the world struggled to limit aflatoxin exposure by imposing regulations on feed commodities.
So, in this study, we had collected 67 concentrated samples, thirty six samples from Gujranwala and thirty one from Kasur to examine the occurrence of aflatoxin B1. The aims of this study were to investigate the aflatoxin B1 in calf feed, effect of different concentrations of aflatoxin B1 on productive performance of calves and determine the comparative efficacy of commercially available mycotoxin binders and liver tonics against AFB1 in bovine calves. Feed samples were obtained from different livestock farms and cattle feed mills, toxin levels in each feed sample were determined by HPLC. AFB1 level was higher at feed mills (40.33±2.21 ppb and 49.0±1.95 ppb) than farms (34.96±2.65 ppb and 44.95±2.41 ppb) both in Gujranwala and Kasur respectively. Fungus was isolated and grown on Sabouraud’s dextrose agar on the basis of microscopic characters and species within genus characterized by colony characters/macroscopic characters, mostly Aspergillus species was present in the feed samples which produce mycotoxins. The second most prevalent species were the Fusarium. Mucor and the Pencillium were respectively third and fourth in number. Our results have shown that Alternaria was not present in Gujranwala and Rhizopus was absent in the feed samples collected from the Kasur. Out of mycotoxin contaminated concentrate feed samples, the highest frequency of Aspergillus (43.3%) was observed, followed by Fusaram (38.8%), Mucor (8.9%), Penicillium(5.9%), Rhizopus (1.5%) and Alternaria species (1.5%).
Our results also indicated that growth of Aspergillus spp. can be minimized by controlling the different factors like pH, temperature, light and humidity, which are essential for the proper growth and development. The antifungal activity of methanolic extract of clove, neem and garlic was also determined in which maximum MIC showed by garlic.
Thirty six bovine calves of 6 to 12 months of age were kept in UVAS, Pattoki campus (Ravi Campus) .in four different replicates having 9 animals each. Different concentrations, i.e. 0.6 mg/kg, 0.8 mg/kg and 1.0 mg/kg was administered along with concentrated feed and check out productive performance along with physiological profile. The most pathological concentration of aflatoxin B1 in experiment number 3 was given to the two groups of bovine calves along with two different commercially available mycotoxin binders i.e. Yeast based and second one was clay based HSCAS mycotoxin binder at recommended doses. Efficacy of mycotoxin binders on feed samples was analyzed by using HPLC and also evaluates the productive performance of the animals.Efficacy of two liver tonics i.e.silymarin and choline chloride was observed on CBC, LFT and RFT of bovine calves.
Present study has clearly displayed the adverse effect of aflatoxin B1 on feed consumption, hematological and serum biochemical parameters related to liver and kidney in bovine calf. Results indicated that HSCAS mycotoxin adsorbent was able to fully detoxify aflatoxin B1. Silymarin had great impact on the liver to cope the adverse effects of the AFB1 as compared to the choline chloride, which was proved with the help of CBC, LFT and RFT.
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Epidemiology Of Major Bacterial And Parasitic Causes Of Foal Diarrhea
Material type: Book ; Literary form:
Publisher: 2017 Dissertation note: Present study was carried out in District Lahore and District Sargodha, Punjab province of Pakistan, from January, 2016 to December, 2016. The study was conducted to study the prevalence of Diarrhea in foals and to identify the major viral, bacterial and parasitic causes of diarrhea in foals in these districts. The foals that passed lose feces a least 4 to 5 times a day were considered diarrheic. The results showed that the prevalence of diarrhea was 72.8% in the foals. District wise prevalence showed that the prevalence of diarrhea in foals were 73.7% in district Sargodha and were 72% in District Lahore. According to the results the prevalence of diarrhea in male foals was 74% and in female foal were 72%. The diarrhea was more prevalent in donkeys at is 76.6% as compaired to horses which was 74.5%.
The viral (rotavirus), bacterial (Salmonella, Clostridium perfirengens and E. coli) and parasitic causes of diarrhea were identified by appropriate technique. The viral causes were diagnosed using ELISA technique. The bacteria were isolated by culturing and were confirmed by polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR). The parasitic causes studied using microscopic examination. To identify the cause of diarrhea 400 samples (200 from each district) were collected and processed for viral, bacterial and parasitic detection.
The results showed that 91.1% of the samples were positive for one or more infectious agents. District wise results showed that the prevalence of more or more than infectious agents were higher in district Lahore (95.5%) as compared to district Sargodha which was 87.5%. The isolation of one or more than one infectious agents were higher in males it is 92.7% while were low in females which was 90.5%. The results showed that the prevalence of one or more than one infectious agents were higher in horses (92.4%) in comparision with donkey which was 87.8%.
Experiment No. I: Investigation of Parasitic causes of Foal Diarrhea
Fecal samples were preserved in 10% formalin and transported to the laboratory for diagnosis of parasites. The fecal samples from foals suffering from diarrhea were processed by using following parasitological examination.
4. Direct microscopic examination
The sample negative with direct microscopic examination was examined using simple floatation examination.
5. Simple floatation examination
The sample negative with Simple floatation examination was examined by using sedimentation floatation technique.
6. Sedimentation floatation Technique
The sample negative by using Sedimentation technique was recorded as negative for parasites.
The results show that 340 (85%) out of 400 samples were positive for one or more than one endo-parasites. The prevalence of endo-parasites was higher in district Sargodha it is 87.5% as compared to district Lahore, which was 82.5% (Table No.7). Gastrodiscus Spp were the higher prevalent endo-parasite and 308 (77%) (Table No. 10) of the samples were positive for Gastrodiscus Spp while the lowest prevalent endo-parasite was Anoplocephala spp with (3) 0.75% prevalence (Table No. 12). other helmenth such as Dictyocaulus Spp. (22.5%), Oxyuris Spp. (15.75%), Strongyloides Spp. (15.75%), Ascaris equorum (4.75), Tridontophorus Spp. (2%), Trichomena spp. (1.5%) Strongylus spp. (1.5%), and Paranoplocephala Spp. (5%)
Experiment No. II: Molecular Diagnosis of Bacteria Causes of Foal Diarrhea
The samples were culture for Salmonella, E.coli and Clostridium perfirengins on respective selective media and DNA was extracted from the culture. DNA was amplified by PCR and the bacteria were confirm using PCR. To diagnose Lasonia the DNA was extracted directly from fecal sample and were processed for lawsonia. The result show that 55% of the samples were positive for one or more than one type of bacteria. Maximum prevalence were observe of E. coli 48.75% and none of the sample were positive for lawsonia. The other isolated bacteria were Salmonella 18.24% and Clostridium perfiengens 18%.
Experiment No. III: Investigation of Viral causes of Foal Diarrhea
Foal suffering from diarrhea were screened and analyzed for presence of rotavirus by using commercially available ELISA kit
The result of detection of rotavirus shows that rotavirus was detected in (70) 17.5% of the sample processed for the diagnosis of rotavirus.
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Treatment Of Long Oblique Tibial Fracture With Intramedullary Pin Alone And Full Cerclage Wires In Cats
Material type: Book ; Literary form:
Publisher: 2017 Dissertation note: Fracture of long bone in animals is a challenging problem these days. Leg fractures in cats are quite common problem. Fractures treated with biomechanically sound fixation and proper attention to soft tissues will be most likely to heal with a functional outcome. However, osteomyelitis, bone sequestration, and joint ankylosis still continue to be major factors in inhibiting healing and bone functionality.
This research project was designed with the aim to test the effectiveness and accuracy of three sets of bone splintage devices in healing long oblique mid-shaft tibial fractures in cats, with minimal side effects and stress to the patient.
For the study total twelve adult cats as and when presented at Pet Centre, University of Veterinary & Animal Sciences Lahore, and Saleem Veterinary Clinic and petshop Lahore, having long oblique fracture of tibia irrespective of breed, sex and considering almost similar age group, both stray and domesticated were selected. These cats were divided into three groups i.e groups A, B and C comprising of four cats in each group, and designated as 1, 2 3 and 4 respectively. They were admitted as clinical trial patients and were kept in separate cat cages at Saleem Veterinary Clinic until the completion of the study. Specific tagged collars were applied on all the cats. They were kept under comfortable environment and on a standard commercially available cat feed diet with ad labitum access to water. All the cats of three groups, having long oblique tibial fracture were treated with 3 separate techniques for comparison. In group A, fracture was reduced and immobilized with intramedullary pinning. In group B, fracture was treated with full cerclage wires alone while cats of group C were treated with intramedullary pin and cerclage wires. Thus comparative fracture healing and efficacy of individual techniques in their respective cases were evaluated.
Subsequent comparative parameters were studied which included physical examination of wound, lameness grading, radiological scoring for callus formation, fracture line union, fracture alignment as well as callus remodelling. The collected data regarding study parameters were illustrated by descriptive statistics and non-parametric analysis of variance (Kruskal Walis Test) using IBM SPSS Statistics version 20.
Therefore, as advocated by the results of this study, intramedullary pinning (preferably threaded) with at least 2 - 3 full cerclage wiring was a better choice for the correction of a long oblique mid-shaft tibial fracture in cats. The combination of both these techniques together give a strong backbone for bone healing to take place with minimum amount of stress to the bone fragments and also to counteract different forces acting on the fracture site.Both these techniques were easy, required little soft tissue manipulation, were cost-effective, required less equipment and could easily be applied by an average practitioner.
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