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351. A Clinico - Hematological Study On Hepatic Regeneration After Variable Degrees Of Resections In Rabbits

by Muhammad Babar Saleem (2005-VA-72) | Prof. Dr. Muhammad Arif Khan | Dr. Hafsa Zaneb | Ms. Ayesha Safdar | Faculty of Veterinary Sciences.

Material type: book Book; Format: print Publisher: 2014Dissertation note: Liver is the largest visceral organ in the body and has a paramount importance. Its multi-functional abilities make it absolutely necessary for survival. It performs numerous functions in a living organism and plays its role in various physiological and biochemical regulatory processes in the body. It is also the only organ that has the capability to undergo the phenomenon of regeneration in case of cellular injury induced by chemicals or surgery. According to Craige (1948) Liver is the largest gland of the body. It is an extension of the gastro-intestinal track and connects with GIT to the common bile duct.It has two surfaces. The anterior or dorsal surface is convex while the posterior surface is concave and lies over the stomach. Liver is thickened in its dorsal portion and tappers to a thin ventral margin. The liver is incompletely divided into a right and a left liver lobe, each of which have anterior and posterior lobules. The right posterior lobule lies closely to the dorsal body wall and it accommodates right kidney in a depression called renal fossa. The gall bladder is a thin walled pouch located in a deep depression on the ventral surface of right anterior lobule. The quadrate lobe extends from the right lobe and is usually notched on its medial margin. The caudate lobe is small and well separated. The portal fissure is a large depression filled by the portal vein and it also contains some branches of hepatic artery. The liver is held in place by four ligaments namely falciform ligament, round ligament, coronary ligament and left triangular ligament. According to Borley & Achan (2005) Liver plays a key role in several regulatory processes in an organism. It is involved in various metabolic pathways comprising variable interactions with proteins, carbohydrates and fats. Liver is the main site for gluconeogenesis, converts galactose and fructose into simple sugars (glucose) and stores complex carbohydrates (glycogen).It aids in the production of different types of proteins and has a role in the formation of urea. Numerous types of fats like phospholipids, cholesterol and lipoproteins are synthesized in the liver. Liver also uses different carbohydrates and proteins to form certain fats. Liver serves as a vault for the storage of several vitamins (A, B2 and D) and iron. It helps in the complex process of coagulation by aiding in the synthesis of several important coagulation factors including prothrombin, protein C, and factors VII, IX and X.Several hormones including oestrogen, aldosterone and cortisol are metabolized in the liver. It is involved in the metabolism of a number of drugs and also has a key role in the production and excretion of bile. In fetal life, haematopoiesis is one of the key functions which is performed by liver. Liver resectioning is a technique employed for correction of numerous ailments or for the purpose of experimental study. Diseases such as tumorous growths on the liver, hepatic necrosis, cyst formation, hepatic abscess, hepatic lobe torsion and numerous others require the removal of the affected part of the liver(Martin et al. 2003; Pignon et al. 2013). The remaining liver usually recovers by regeneration through hyperplasia and hypertrophy of healthy cells of the un-affected part of the liver (Palmes and Spiegel, 2004). For experimental reasons, where different aspects of liver regeneration process are to be studied, liver resectioning technique is employed (Mao et al. 2014; Fausto et al. 2012). Numerous studies have been done to see the regeneration rate of liver in different species. In rats it has been noticed that liver can regenerate to its original size after two-third hepatectomy in only five to seven days (Mao et al. 2014).Another author states the recovery to occur in less than two weeks in rodents (Gilgenkrantz and Hortet, 2011). In humans it has been shown that resectioning up to 50 percent has resulted in complete regeneration of liver mass in only a period of two weeks (Häussinger, 2011). Rabbits being small laboratory animals with comparative ease of handling have been used extensively for research purposes. Regeneration has been studied in rabbits post chemical insult on liver or through portal branch ligations (Palmes and Spiegel, 2004). As opposed to general perception, Carpenter (2003) states that the rabbits fall under the category of rodents, they in actuality are lagomorphs. Two families composed of twelve genera and eighty-one species fall under the umbrella of order lagomorpha. They are cosmopolitan in their distribution. The main difference between rodents and lagomorphs is the presence of two pairs of upper incisors in the former group, whereas the later have only one pair of upper incisors. Despite having a great degree of similarity which these two groups share together, they are not thought to be closely associated. The animals of both the categories evolved into nine creatures separately and their similar dental patterns resulted from parallel evolution. All legomorphs consume foliage and practice caprophagy. All lagomorphs are blessed with acute tactile and olfactory senses with a considerable long-haired fluffy body coat. Lagomorphs have big side-to-side set eyes giving them a broader circular vision. Testes are in the scrotum in front of the penis. Baculum is absent in males. Females bear two to five pairs of mammary glands. Deficiency has been observed in terms of study of liver regeneration when liver resectioning is performed. The present study aims to focus on this aspect of research on soft tissue, which would enhance our understanding of liver regeneration and its rate in this specie. Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 2182,T] (1).

352. The Effects Of Xylazin-Butorphenol And Detomidine-Butorphenol On Clinico-Biochemical Parameters During Castration in Dog

by Nadir Hussain (2006-VA-07) | Prof. Dr. Muhammad Arif Khan | Dr. Shehla Gul Bukhari | Prof. Dr. Muhammad Sarwar Khan | Faculty of Veterinary Sciences.

Material type: book Book; Format: print Publisher: 2014Dissertation note: Anesthesia is a reversible process and derived from Greek word “anaisthaesia” meaning “insensibility” and used to desensitize the whole or any part of the body. Anesthesia is classified by method of administration i.e. intramuscular, inhalational and intravenous. Injectable anesthesia includes Propofol, Diazepam, Acepromazine, Medetomidine, Xylazine and Ketamine. Anesthetic agent can be used alone or in combinations (Gonzalez et al. 2003). The purpose of Anesthesia is to produce a convenient, safe, effective, and economical means of facilitating surgical procedures while minimizing stress, pain and discomfort and adverse side effects. There are many routes of administration of anesthesia; in intravenous route, the onset of action is immediate. Peak effect is rapidly obtained, duration of action is short, and effects are more intense/ profound than other routes.Many combinations of anesthesia are in use in dogs for different surgery xylazine (0.4 mg/kg IV) combination with butorpjanol (0.2 mg/kg IV), xylazine (0.4 mg/kg IV) combination with oxymorphone (0.05mg/kg IV) , xylazine (0.4 mg/kb IV) combine with morphine (0.25mg/kg) , Medetomidine (5 to 15 ug/kg combine with butophanol (0.2 mg/kg IV), Medetomidine (5 to 15 ug/kg IV) combine with oxymorphone (o.05 mg/kg) Xylazine (0.4mg/kg) combine with Ketamine (5 to 10 mg/kg IV) acepromazine (0.05 to 0.2mg/kg IV or SQ) in combination with morphine (0.4 to 0.8mg/kg IV) and diazepam or midazolam(0.2 mg/kg IV) with hydromorphone or oxymorphone( 0.1 to 0.2 mg/kg IV) use in dog and cat (Greene 1999). Detomidine is a selective α2-adrenoceptor agonist with useful sedative, analgesic and muscle relaxation properties and is widely used as a tranquilizing or pre-anaesthetic medication in veterinary medicine But it induces cardiovascular side-effects such as hypertension, hypotension, bradycardia and dysrhythmia.detomidine. It produces prolonged and intense analgesia. Nature of the analgesic effect appears to be wide, producing a reduced response to be a secondary result of the central nervous system experimental stimulation and exhibiting a clinical effect in the horse with colic. Detomidine can be used as a safe and effective pre anaesthetic resulting in smooth induction and recovery (EL-Kammar et al. 2014). Xylazine Hcl has been widely used as a preanesthetic drug and for immobilizing dogs for diagnostic procedures (Short 1987).Xylazine is the shortest acting alpha2-adrenergic agonist..A problem with alpha2-adrenergic agonists is that they may respond suddenly to stimulation, especially to touch. The combination of opioid drugs with the alpha2-adrenergic agonists appears to reduce such sudden reactions and a synergistic effect regarding sedation and antinociception has been suggested. Additionally, all alpha2-adrenergic agonists have a dose-dependent effect on cardiovascular function. By adding an opioid drug, dose requirements of alpha2-adrenergic agonists may be reduced and cardiopulmonary function improved. The addition of opioids does not further impair cardiovascular function.The combination of xylazine and butorphanol at the doses generally used in clinical practice produces minimal and transient haemodynamic effects and no significant respiratory depression. There is no ‘blinded’ randomized crossover study regarding the xylazine sparing effects of butorphanol on sedation of horses. There are limited reports on the respiratory effects of butorphanol alone or in combination with the α2-agonist xylazine in horses, but the effects of the combination on pulmonary gas exchange have not been clarified (Ringer et al. 2012). Butorphanol is an opioid agonist-antagonist with good analgesic effects. Butorphanol is used in veterinary medicine as pain reliever and cough suppressant. It induces only mild sedation and has minimum adverse effects to the cardiovascular system. It may cause mild lowering of the heart rate and arterial pressure or slight respiratory depression. It exerts a depressive action on the respiratory system. It should not use in patient with liver disease because it cannot be eliminated and may accumulated to toxic level (Raušer and Lexmaulova, 2002).It is believed to be more effective against visceral rather than somatic pain. The antagonist property towards μ-receptors results in a ceiling analgesic effect with increasing doses. However in dogs doses between 0•2 and 0•8 mg/kg have been reported to provide visceral analgesia in vivo .Butorphanol is a dose-related respiratory depressant and causes small decreases in arterial blood pressure and heart rate (Vettorato and Bacco 2011). Castration is indicated for reproductive neutering, modification of behavior patterns, testicular neoplasia, severe testicular or scrotal trauma or injury, refractory orchitis, benign prostatic hyperplasia, perianal gland adenoma, perineal hernia, and scrotal urethrostomy in dogs. There is no specific anesthetic method for castration. Routinely castration surgery can be performed under general anesthesia or local anesthesia (Kim et al. 2004). Unlike other laboratory animals that are commonly used forresearch purpose, non-human primates and dogs are also used for research work. Their use in the biological researchrequires special considerations, regarding their care and housing, and more specifically their handling and restraining. Since non-human primates and dogs present special hazards to handlers, particularlybecause of the danger of bites and zoonotic infections (Fortman et al. 2001). Deaths due to anesthesia are lesser in dogs (1 in 601) than rabbits (1 in 72) that are the third most commonly anaesthetized pet animal in the United Kingdom (Brodbelt et al. 2005). Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 2185,T] (1).

353. A Clinical Study On The Sonographic Characterization Of Acute And Chronic Hepatitis In Pet Dogs In Lahore

by Imran hussain (2012-VA-591) | Dr. Shehla Gull Bokhari | Dr. Muhammad Avais | Dr. Sadaf Imran.

Material type: book Book; Format: print Publisher: 2014Dissertation note: Dogs are amicably kept as a pet all over the world. Diversity in cultural trends in Pakistan is paving way towards increasing awareness of the society with regards to a promising humananimal bond. Hence, the tendency of people in metropolitan cities, such as Lahore, in keeping dogs and cats as pets, has increased dramatically over the years. Not only do people keep pets, rather also seek expert professional care in treatment of their animals. Liver is a major organ of body located in the cranial abdomen below diaphragm. It produces major plasma proteins, clotting factors and metabolizes carbohydrates, proteins and lipid molecules. Besides, it also detoxifies many toxic metabolites into soluble and extractable products. It also acts as storage for iron, glycogen and some other compounds. It also plays role in eliminating and excretion of worn-out blood cells in the form of bile. Due to its major functions it is much prone to damage and its mutual sickness is reported (Adam, 2003). Hemostatic anomalies in liver diseases are mostly found in dogs and increased prothrombin time (PT) and activated partial thromboplastin time (APTT). In hepatic disease 93% dogs had one of the abnormal results of PT and APTT (Badylak et al. 1983). Conditions as well as low or incomplete blood supply or shock damage, blockage of bile, long-lasting liver sickness, portovascular variances, toxin produce inside the bacteria wall, and resistant dysfunction altogether add toward hepatic defenselessness to infectivity also change the role of the reticuloendothelial structure (Center et al.2006). In the United Kingdom (UK), chronic hepatitis (CH) twelve percent was found during postmortem of the dog (Watson et al. 2010). Acute hepatitis (AH) and CH can cause toward lethal liver dysfunction that can lead to inadequate otherwise weakened liver restoration. Restoration take place through double ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------Introduction 2 resources, specifically reproduction of developed hepatocytes and in the case of held back hepatocytic replication, by production of the native stem cell precursor cell population in liver diseases (Roskams et al. 2004; Santoni-Rugiu et al. 2005; Katoonizadeh et al. 2006). Liver play major role in the majority of metabolism, so liver infections can affect the purpose of further tissues. Most common effect stands going on the brain and excretory system (Wettstein et al. 2003; Hilgard and Gerken, 2004). Hyperfibrinolysis can be seen in cases of later hepatic liver infection and cirrhosis because of reduced thrombin-activatable fibrinolysis inhibitor (TAFI) (Van Thiel et al. 2001; Colucci et al. 2003). The major reasons of sickness and death in dogs are cirrhosis and long-lasting liver problem (Klein et al. 2010). The liver size is measured by a simple method through the ultrasonography. The measurements were taken in both planes transverse and longitudinal scanned. There was good relation in both measurements. Through this study it was concluded that liver size has no relationship in breed or size of the dog. This study also showed that liver size easily measure through ultrasonography (Barr, 2008). Infectious canine hepatitis (ICH) is a universal viral disease caused by canine adenovirus-1 (CAd V-1) (Decaro et al. 2007). Young dogs under the age of 2 years have more mortality rate (Akerstedt et al., 2010; Thompson et al. 2010). ICH has three clinical forms that are Mild, acute and per acute (Stalker and Hayes, 2007). Canine adenovirus-1 has resemblance for vascular endothelium, mesothelium and hepatic parenchyma and the main pathological characters of ICH are edema, hemorrhages and focal necrosis (Chouinard et al. 1998). There is variation in the incubation period of hepatitis. The incubation period of infectious canine hepatitis is 4-7 days. Infectious canine hepatitis can increase temperature, despair, loss of starvation, sneezing, edema, excretory problem. But in severe cases animal has pale mucous membrane increase liver size and vomiting. Severe cases ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------Introduction 3 will develop bleeding disorders, which can cause hematomas to form in the mouth (Sanchez- Cordon et al., 2002; Greene, 2006). Clinical diagnosis may be based on the clinical and pathological findings, which may include moderate to severe leukopenia, neutropenia, lymphopenia and thrombocytopenia. Serum alanine aminotransferase and alkaline phosphatase activities may be increased. Coagulation parameters, PT and PTT are variably affected. Proteinuria (albuminuria) as a reflection of the renal damage caused by the virus can usually be detected (Sellon, 2005; Greene, 2006). Clinical signs in pets vary from ill to asymptomatic. These may include anorexia, vomiting, weakness, depression and poor hair coat. Production of albumin in the body takes place only in liver, so liver problems cause low albumin production in body. It leads to hypoalbuminemia (Bunch, 2003). During chronic liver disease liver enzymes value may be normal or decrease. For example in cirrhosis the hepatocytes start to die and cannot make liver enzyme. The liver has capacity up to 30 times the usual level for the processing of bilirubin. At two to three times normal total bilirubin levels Jaundice can be noted. At 0.6 to 1.0 mg/dl icteric serum and bilirubinuria can be identified (Richter, 2004). In chronic hepatitis the liver enzymes ALT/AST with change ALP/GGT rises. With progressing disease bilirubin rises and albumin levels will drop. Chronic hepatitis causes the serum bile acids abnormal level. In this study dogs with chronic hepatitis all cases assessed had atypical bile acid concentrations. Acquired shunting or advanced liver insufficiency leads to increased blood ammonia concentrations (Strombeck, 1988). In study it was confirmed that coagulation anomalies are more common in dogs in case of chronic hepatitis and cirrhosis that indicated significantly lesser platelet counts (Prins et al.2010). In a study radiograph and ultrasonography was performed that reveal increase the liver size parenchymal heterogeneity hyperechoic parenchyma. Renal parenchyma looked normal in ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------Introduction 4 both radiograph and ultrasonography (Langlois et al. 2013). Sonographic finding in acute hepatitis liver size was increased and parenchymal echogenicity was decrease. Liver margin were rounded due to hepatomegaly (Resende et al.2011; Hughes et al. 1995; Barr F. 1992; Lamb et al. 1995). Sonographic finding in chronic hepatitis seen that increased hepatic parenchyma echogenicity and liver size decreased. Gall bladder size was increased and irregular contour also seen. In chronic hepatitis portal liver margin less distinct and reduced distal visualization (Stowater et al. 1990; Diaz Espineira et al 1999; Hill et al. 2000; Partington et al.1995; Yeager 1991; Johnson 1987). Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 2187,T] (1).

354. Common Nosocomial Bacterial Isolation And Identification From Veterinary Hospitals

by Muhammad Umar Zafar Khan (2008-VA-255) | Prof. Dr. Aneela Zameer Durrani | Prof.Dr.Muhammad Sarwar Khan | Dr. Hassan Bin Aslam.

Material type: book Book; Literary form: not fiction Publisher: 2015Dissertation note: CD not available. Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 2217-T] (1).

355. Safety Level And Efficacy Of Controlled Release Urea On Performance And Health Status Of Nili Ravi Buffalo

by Muhammad Mobin (2007-VA-156) | Prof. Dr. Aneela Zameer Durrani | Dr. Jawairia Ali Khan | Dr. Nisar Ahmad.

Material type: book Book; Literary form: not fiction Publisher: 2014Dissertation note: Livestock is one of the major sectors of Pakistan’s agrarian based economy. During 2013-14, it contributed almost 55.4% to the agricultural value added and 11.9% to national GDP. In the livestock sector, gross value addition increased from Rs.735 billion to Rs.756 billion; revealing an increase of 2.9% as compared to the previous year. Livestock is considered the best tool for poverty alleviation, as most of the livestock are owned by poor people who live in the rural areas. Pakistan is 4th largest Milk producing country in the World. Its Cattle Population is 33 Million while Buffalo Population is about 30 Million (Economic Survey of Pakistan, 2013-14). Despite large population, per animal production is very low.The low productivity of these animals is because of poor quality feed stuff. Their productivity can be enhanced by feeding them balanced ration. Growing human population urges the intense need to explore the present livestock resources to fulfill the animal protein requirements. It is impossible unless optimal fodder and forage production is ensured. In Pakistan, low quality fodders coupled with the reduction in the fodder area are the main constraints, which adversely affect the animal production. In future, it is expected that ruminants will be more dependent on forages because readily expanding human population will have direct competition with livestock for edible grains. Among the problems facing the livestock in the tropics is the low protein tropical grasses and the high cost of alternate sources of protein such as the Soybean and other oil cake. A portion of nitrogen in feeds for ruminants may be provided in the form of simple nitrogen compounds (or0non-protein0nitrogen0NPN) 0that are degraded in the0rumen to release ammonia (NH3), which is used by rumen microorganisms to produce amino acids. The amount of NPN that can be provided is limited. The product which is the urea, when it releases NH3 faster than it can be converted into microbial protein excess NH3is absorbed through the rumen wall, causing toxication. Protein is often0the0major0limiting0nutrient for ruminants. Protein-rich leguminous forages and vegetable protein supplements are usually expensive or not available.The manufacture0of0urea and0ammonia for use as0fertilizer has been greatly0expanded in0many countries, 0but these compounds0could0not be0used more0widely in feeds for0ruminants. The ability0of0the0micro-organisms0in0the0rumen0of0cattle0and0sheep0to0utilize0urea0sources0to form0true protein0that0can0be converted0to meat0and0milk0by the0animals, represents0an important0contribution0to0man's0food0supply.0Maximizing0microbial0protein0synthesis0and flow0to0the0duodenum0by0reducing the0recycling of0microbial N in the rumen offers a potential0to improve0the production0efficiency0of ruminants.In general, the efficiency of utilization of dietary N by cattle is relatively low under normal production conditions (Castillo et al, 2001) with a global average N-efficiency in cattle estimated at 7.7 % (Van der Hoek, 1998). Urea is used rather inefficiently for production of protein products (Broderick et al, 2009) and due to its wide use in ruminant feeds, may0be0partially0responsible for0the poor N efficiency0in cattle. Low efficiency of utilization of dietary urea has been attributed to the rapid0hydrolysis0to0ammonia (NH3) in0the0rumen0by microbial0enzymes which occurs at a higher rate than its utilization byrumen bacteria, leading to ruminal accumulation and absorption0of0ammonia andsubsequent excretion of0urea in the urine (Golombeski0et0al., 2006; Highstreet0et0al,2010).Furthermore if used above threshold level, the main problem with urea usage is that it can cause toxicity and even death of the animals. Farmers hesitate to use urea as a source of protein, resulting which his animals remain underfed and never achieve the peak production. Urea0poisoning0is0one0of0the0more0commonly0suspected0toxicities0of0cattle. Urea0is0used as0a source0of non-protein0nitrogen0in feed0supplements.In ruminants,0nitrogen0from0urea is released0in the0rumen as0ammonia0and0can0be0used0by0rumen0micro0flora0to0synthesize protein. This0protein0thenbecomesavailable0to0the0animal0through0the0normal0processes of digestion0and0absorption. However,if0 more0ureaisconsumed0than the rumen organisms can0metabolize, the0ammonia0is0absorbed0from0the0rumen0into0the0blood.Ruminal pHbecame alkaline due to the hydrolysis of urea to0ammonia (Buffalo Bulletin,2002). The ammoniaisthen0converted0back0to urea in0the liver and is0the0excreted by0the0kidneys. This0pathwaycan easily be0overwhelmed,0when excess0ammonia0and urea0circulate0in the blood,0causing0poisoning. Poisoningcanoccur0rapidly0from a few0minutes0to four0hours after0consumption. Suspect0urea0poisoning0if cattle are found0dead close to0the0supplement (H. Parkes et al. 2003).Slow release urea has been shown to affect ruminal fermentation characteristics.Most notably, slow release urea is intended to0reduce0the release rate0of NH3 within the0rumen. Most reports on controlled release urea have shown a reduction in ruminal NH3 concentration when measured (Cherdthonget al, 2011; Huntington etal, 2006b; Taylor- Edwards0et0al, 2009d). This is the reason why slow release urea presents a lower risk for ammonia toxicity than feed grade urea. Ruminal NH3 concentration is often related to ruminal pH, as the protonation of NH3 toNH4+ when ammonia from urea ionizes, can result in an increase in ruminalpH. Consequently, there are reports of higher ruminal pH for animals fed urea than those fed slow release urea (Cherdthongetal, 2011; Taylor-Edwards et al, 2009b) Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 2216-T] (1).

356. Study Of Molecular Diagnosis, Associated Risk Factors And Treatment Of Anaplasmosis In Bovines

by Muhammah Hassan Haider (2008-VA-252) | Dr. Jawaria Ali Khan | Dr. Muhammad Avais | Dr. Ali Ahmad Sheikh.

Material type: book Book; Literary form: not fiction Publisher: 2015Dissertation note: According to the economic survey of Pakistan 2013-14, livestock sector contributed about 55.9 and 11.8% to the agriculture and national GDP, respectively.Total cattle population in the year 2013-14 is 39.7 million. Total milk and meat production contributed by cattle is 18,027000 tons and 18,87000 tons respectively (Anonymous 2013-14) . In Pakistan, the chiefhindrance in performance and health of animals are parasitic diseases including tick born. Ticks have been easily grown and reproduce in the optimal climate of tropical weather in Pakistan. In Pakistan, there are huge number of species and genera of tick fauna (Durrani and Shakoori, 2009). Tick-borne diseases include babesiosis, theileriosis, anaplasmosis, lymedisease . Among these tick-borne diseases anaplasmosis is one of the vital diseases which is responsible for the substantial economic losses in term of high morbidity, mortality and production losses that are decreased in milk, meat and other important livestock productions. Throughout the world, the “tick-borne diseases” are extensivelyspread in sub-tropic and tropicareasand Pakistan also includes in these areas(Khan et al. 2004). Moreover, anaplsamosis is non-contagious disease but also known to be infectious, transmission of which occur through mechanical means that includes the flies or tick bites. As well as different equipment that are using during tattooing or castration, in dehorning and needles also causes transmission (Aubry & Geale. 2011). Anaplasma marginale (A. marginale) is the major cause of Bovine anaplasmosis and this speciesbelongs to the genus Anaplasma (“Rickettsiales, Anaplasmataceae”). The most important 20 ticks species which cause transmission are Argaspersicus, Boophiludecoloratus, B. microplus, B. annulatus, Dermacentoroccidentalis, D. andersoni, D. variabilis, D.albipictus, Hyalommaexcavatum, Ixodesricinus, Ornithodoroslahorensis, Rhipicephalussimus, R. saniguineus, and R. bursa(Marchette & Stiller. 1982), on the other hand, Boophilusmicroplus found as a major contributor in cause of anaplasmosis (Tick Fever Research Centre, 1996). The family anaplasmatacease was classified in 1957 of the order Rickettsiale. In the genera Anaplasma, Aegyptianella, Haemobartonella and Eperythrozoon, this family was rationalized (Ristic&Kreier. 1984), and projected a combination based on analysis of genes sequences for protein on surface and ribosomal RNA (16S)(Dumler et al. 2001; Walker & Dumler. 1996). Anaplasma is a rickettsial, obligate intracellular bacteria found in red blood cells. Disease is characterized by fever, anemia and jaundice. Infection is transmitted by ticks or mechanically by biting insects or contaminated hypodermic needles or surgical instruments (Tylor et al. 2007).The most significant parasite is Anaplasma speciesthat is transmitted by at least twenty different species of ticks. But among those all mostly Bmicroplus causes Anaplasmosis (Rajput et al.2005). A. marginale is etiological agent of bovine anaplasmosis (Bram, 1957; Dumler et al., 2001; Kocan et al., 2000). A. marginale persistently infect both cattle and ticks and help as infection reservoirs(Kocan et al. 2003). Bovine erythrocyte membrane bound parasitophorous vacuoles is the site for replication of this obligate intracellular organisms. Dogs, humans, wild and domesticated ruminants are the species effected by A. marginale. This anaplasma genus is an obligate intracellular parasite of vertebrate hosts. In cattle, theA. marginal, A. phagocytophilum, A. central, and A. bovisare major pathogenic species producing diseases (Inokuma et al. 2007). Researchers suggestedthat in cattle, some unidentified Ehrlichia or Anaplasma species are present (Awadia et al. 2006). For this pathogen, which cause the persistent infection, the reservoirs are generally present in different host like tick or mammalian (Kocan et al. 2004). The wide range of different ruminant can be affected by Anaplasmabecause the species of anaplasma are not considered as strictly specific for any particular host specific(Kuttler. 1984). The A. marginalecan only be developed inside the RBCs of bovine (Richey et al. 1981). After invading the erythrocyte the tick multiplies and form almost eight initial bodies, they then get enlarge in the outer membrane and give it an appearance of a large dot. The organism gets mature in the outer membrane of RBC and force the infected RBC to get rupture due to infection. By rupturing the outer membrane where it previously multiplied come into the blood stream to infect the other RBCs. On the progression of progresses, more number of erythrocytes is infected by this organism and afterward destruction of erythrocytes occur (Stewart et al. 1981). Upon the clinical signs and symptoms are appear when the 15 percent of the RBCsare affected by the parasite(Radostits et al. 2006). The symptoms of the disease are pyrexia, anemia, icterus, hematuria, anorexia, muscular tremors, dyspnea, depression, lethargy, constipation and yellow colour of mucous membrane (Bram et al. 1983), low milk production, miscarriage and sometime mortality (Alderink and Dietrich. 1981). The mature RBCs are the site for multiplication after the invading by A.marginale. In the acute case of Anaplasmosis the higher number of RBCs are affected by the parasite for example more the 109 red blood cells per ml and after that the disease is categorized by death, abortion, loss of weight and anemia, and the survival cattle that are infected act as reservoirs for transmission of the disease in the herd level(De Echaide et al. 1998).The haematological profile can be used as useful diagnostic tool in anaplasma infection(Van Wyk et al. 2013).There is significant decrease in packed cell volume (PCV), Hemoglobin (Hb) and erythrocytes count.Serum biochemical analysis showed increased total protein,bilirubin and alanine aminotransferase enzyme (Sharma et al. 2013). A diagnosis ofcattle anaplasmosis may be made tentatively based on geographical location, seasonal variation and presenting clinical signs or necropsy finding in infected animals (Kocan et al. 2010). A.marginale,can affect throughout the life of cattle but disease severity is dependent on the age of the cattle. The clinical disease is less occurs in the calves and disease is very rare under the age of 6 month. The mild type of the disease can occur in the animal, which are between the ages of six month to one year. The acute type of the disease occurs in the animals between the ages ofone to twoyears but this disease is never fatal for the animal between these age groups.Whereas if the acute type of the disease occur in the adult animal that are more than two year aged can face the serious consequences and this disease can cause the death of the cattle with higher percentage (29 to 49%) of mortality (Kocan et al. 2003; Richey. 1991). Beside the animal age at the infection time, onceA. marginale infect animals, the animals become carrier for the infection throughout of animal life, with or without the clinical signs of the infection (Richey et al. 1991). The animal with the strong immune system are recovered from the acute type of anaplasmosis (Palmer et al. 1989). The regular cycle of ten to fourteen days are present in the carrier animals and in this cycle there are more or less number of RBCs are infected with the pathogen(Kocan et al. 2003;Kieser et al. 1990; Viseshakul et al. 2000). For the proper diagnosis of the disease and quality control in livestock, the most important aspect is the preciseor correct detection of pathogen that is spread by the tick.In 1990, with the beginning of the diagnosis with the techniques on the molecular bases the researcher produced more accurate and sensitive techniquesfor pathogenic species determination and these techniques are still used till to date (Ahantarig et al. 2008). The Giemsa staining method is used for the diagnosis of anaplasmosis in bovinesthat can be achievedby finding ofA.marginalein smear of blood from animals that are affected clinically. For the carrier animals or pre symptomatic animals thistechnique is not reliable. In these types of conditions, the serological tests are used for general diagnosis of infection by detection of antibodies. This is confirmed by molecular detection methods. A.marginaleappears as “dark staining blue purple bodies” measuring about 0.3 to 1 µm in length. A. centrale inclusion bodies are well differentiated by their location. Serological diagnosis can be done for the identification of infected cattle, DNA based test can be used for the molecular diagnosis(Stuen et al. 2011). The conventional parasitological technique like Giemsa staining always remained gold standard for diagnosis of Bovine anaplasmosis. Light microscopy of thin blood smears stained with giemsa stain may facilitate demonstration of A. marginale organisms in the erythrocytes (Kocan et al. 2004) .As giemsa staining method is not applicable for the detection of subclinical infection. Therefore PCR can also be used as a diagnostic tool for the detection of A.marginale in this technique primer pairs are used which resulted in the amplification of only their target DNA i.e. A.marginale(Munderloh et al. 2004). In the United states, for the treatment of anaplasmosis, the specific approved compound is the tetracyclines that include chlortetracycline or oxytetracycline(Kuttler. 1980). Oxytetracycline, Chlortetracycline and Tetracycline can be used to treat anaplasma infection in cattle .Among these Oxytetracycline is the most used drug at the dose rate of 10mg/kg body weight. While single dose of imidocarb dipropionte can be used at the dose rate 3mg/kg body weight (De Waal 2000).Imidocarb dipropionate with the dose of 3 milligram/kilogram body weight repidly treat A. marginale(anaplsmosis), on the other hand, same drug with double dose (6 milligram/kilogram body weight) and each dose has gape of two weeks,fail to cure A. marginalecarrier heifers(McHardy & Simpson. 1974). The animals recovered completely with imidocarb dipropionate (Akhter et al. 2010).The E elephantina and Aloemarlothiileaf extracts demonstrated good activity against rickettsia. These 2 plants along with Usanguineaand Rtridentata in certain concoctions are believed to be effective against anaplasmosis (Naidoo 2004). Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 2228-T] (1).

357. Comparative Efficacy Of Different Nsaids Against Bovine Ephemeral Fever

by Ghazanfar Ali Chishti (2007-VA-51) | Prof. Dr. Aneela Zameer Durani | Prof. Dr. Muhammad Sarwar Khan | Dr. Shehla Gul Bukhari.

Material type: book Book; Literary form: not fiction Publisher: 2015Dissertation note: Dairy sector has significant role in Pakistan economy with a share of 46.8% in agriculture and 10.8% to Pakistan GDP. Pakistan ranks 4th among largest milk producing countries in the world (Anonymous 2012-13).In last decade, dairy sector in Pakistan has seen tremendous growth and corporate investment. More than 40000 exotic cross bred high producing cattles have been imported. Earlier this sector used to rely primarily on local low producing cattles and small scale subsistence farming, now different commercial dairy farms having high producers exotic cattles are also becoming major contributor in this sector. Trend is changing, different issues concerned with sector are rising. Sensitivity level of commercial dairy farmer is far high as compared to small scale traditional farmers, they can not accept or tolerate any factor affecting economy of their dairy business due to heavy investment. One such issue rose to headlines in July-August 2014, Pakistan dairy industry was struck badly with an outbreak of viral disease called Bovine Ephemeral Fever (BEF). It caused colossal damages to dairy industry in terms of decreased milk production, mortalities and treatment costs. This was not an out rightly a new disease in Pakistan its episodes have been seen in past in local cattles and buffalo (Asi et al. 1999) and locally it was termed as “will” (Prof Khushe personal communication). But it never got such a hype and attention in past as local animals were already low producers and their production was never affected at substantial level. Local animals were generally weak having low Body Condition Score, a character which does not support the intensity of this disease, Ectoparasite resistance is another factor considered to be a source of protection for local animals. Introduction 2 During initial phase of outbreak, it was considered as a common local epidemic Hemorrhagic Septicemia (HS) and Foot and Mouth Disease (FMD) and few signs also confused it with Milk Fever. But once outbreak progressed, it became clearer that it in neither HS and nor FMD it is something different. After going through literature it was clinically suspected as BEF and later was confirmed through Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR) by University Diagnostic Laboratory (UDL), UVAS, Lahore. BEF is a viral disease caused by genus Ephemerovirus and family Rhabdoviridae. (Uren et al. 1992).It is a noncontagious, vector borne disease of water buffaloes and cattles proposed to be communicated by midges (Culicoides biting) and mosquitoes.(Walker et al. 2012). Ephemeral fever, stiff sickness, three-day-sickness, bovine influenza and bovine epizootic fever have been used to name this viral disease in the different nations at different eras (Chiu 1986; Chiu and Lu 1986; Lin and Inoue 1969; St.George1981). BEF happens seasonally in temperate, tropical and subtropical regions of Asia, Africa, Middle-East and Australia and this is a disabling disease with significant economic effect due to reduction of milk production, loss of health status in beef herds, abortion and infertility. Characteristic clinical signs comprise of a sudden onset of fever as high as 41 °C, an abrupt and austere drop in milk production, lethargy, inappetence, salivation, depression, nasal discharge, stiffness, dyspnea and ruminal stasis (Walker et al. 2012). Primarily, pathogenesis of BEF is based on vascular inflammation (Young and Spradbrow, 1980) so this provides the rationale for its treatment through anti-inflammatory drugs. Different NSAIDs have been used in previous studies phenylbutazone, flunixin meglumine and ketoprofen (Uren and Murphy, 1985; St George et al. 1984) but no study has been found using most common field NSAID of Pakistan, meloxicam. So, here a comparative study was carried out between three NSAIDs meloxicam, ketoprofen and phenylbutazone on naturally infected BEF animal. Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 2243-T] (1).

358. Incidence And Hematological Study Of Trichomoniasis In Domestic And Wild Pigeons In And Around Lahore

by Akhtar Abbas (2008-VA-91) | Dr. Muhammad Hassan Saleem | Dr. Jawaria Ali Khan | Prof. Dr. Kamran Ashraf.

Material type: book Book; Literary form: not fiction Publisher: 2015Dissertation note: Poultry industry is the most effective and economical source of animal protein. Because of increasing future demands, poultry industry is unable to narrow down the animal protein supply and demand gap. Poultry producers are looking forward for using the alternate source of chicken meat, which in the future will come from pigeon and quail meat. It will be very help full for increasing gross domestic production (GDP) through livestock sector (Basit et al. 2006). Pigeons have been domesticated to live close with human beings. Pigeons originate from the rock dove in Europe, have been partially domesticated and carried to all parts of the world. Pigeons have been divided into three groups. 1) Poultry pigeons 2) Carrier and racing pigeons 3) Fancy and feral pigeon Pigeons are easily bred to produce a variety of plumage or to provide squabs for the table (Basit et al. 2006). It is very well known that internal parasites cause great loss to the host, by different ways. These parasites live at the expense of host depriving them from the nutrients essential for their growth. Moreover they cause mechanical harm by producing inflammation and tissue damaged. Protozoa inhabiting the digestive tract of birds are responsible for considerable economic losses. Heavy infestation of the parasites affect the health of birds with loss in the body weight, retarded growth, unthriftiness, damage to the gut epithelium, fertility disturbances, emaciation and death especially in young birds (Urquhart, 1996). Introduction 2 Common name of Trichomonas gallinae is canker, frounce and roup. Predilection site of this parasite is esophagus, crop and proventiculus. It belongs to the family Trichomondidae and class Zoomastigophorasida (Taylor et al. 2007). Body of T. gallinae is elongated, ellipsoidal os pyriform. Its size is 5-19 × 2-9 μm. It has four anterior flagella that arise from blephroplast, having undulating membrane that does not reach the posterior end of body and free posterior flagellum is absent. Its axostyle is narrow and protrudes 2-8 μm from the body and its anterior portion is flattened into a spatulate captulum. Its parabasal body is hook shaped and parabasal filament is present (Taylor et al. 2007). The host of T. gallinae is pigeon, turkey, chicken and raptors (hawks, falcons and eagle). As the method of reproduction is concerned it reproduced by longitudinal binary fission. There is no sexual stages and cyst are present in its life cycle. Lesion present in the turkey and chicken are most commonly in the area of crop, oesophagus, pharynx and no lesion are found in mouth (Taylor et al. 2007). Size of trophozoites of T. gallinae is about 7-11 μm. Its shape is varied from oval to pyriform. It has four flagella and a fifth recurrent one, which did not become free at the posterior pole. Size of nucleus is about 2.5–3 μm, oval in shape and situated closely below the basal bodies of the flagella. Its axostyle consisted of a row of microtubules that is running from the region of the apical basal bodies to the posterior end of the cell (Mehlhorn et al. 2009). Infected pigeons show wild signs of depression, lose weight, stand huddled with ruffled feathers and may fall over when forced to move. There is an accumulation of greenish fluid present in the mouth and crop containing large number of trichomonads in it. Yellow, necrotic lesions are present in the esophagus and crop (Taylor et al. 2007). Introduction 3 Trichomonas gallinae is a causative agent of trichomoniais in birds. It affects mostly to the young birds and causes death in them, especially in pigeons within 10 days. This Protozoa is present in the gastrointestinal tract of birds and causes greater financial losses. Clinical sign of diseased birds are dull, depress and having yellow color diarrhea. Morbidity rate of this disease is high in birds. If infected birds are not treated, it causes high mortality in diseased birds, due to this reason this problem become very important. Trichomonas gallinae presents in upper digestive system and respiratory system. So it affects both digestive system and respiratory system. It is mainly found in pigeons, but turkey, chicken, hawks, mourning doves, golden eagles, falcons and bustards may also be infested with this protozoa (Saleem et al. 2008). Small, whitish to yellowish caseous nodules are found in the esophagus, pharynx and crop. Their size increased and may remain circumscribed and separate, or may become thick, caseous, necrotic mass present in lumen. The circumscribed disk shape lesion are known as yellow buttons. Size of nodule is 1 cm or more and found in liver, lungs and other organs (Taylor et al. 2007). Infection spread to turkey and chicken by drinking contaminated water. The pigeon and other wild birds are also source of infection, which also use the water source. T. gallinae enters in the water through mouth and not from feces of the wild birds. Source of infection is direct contamination because this organism is very sensitive to drying and no cyst are found (Taylor et al. 2007). There are more chances of trichomoniasis in young one than in adult pigeons. During feeding carrier pigeons transmit this disease to their young ones. The pathological lesions associated with trichomoniasis is inflammation, ulceration, and necrosis in nature. These lesion are more predominant in the oral cavity, esophagus, crop and proventiculus (Kennedy et al. 2001). Introduction 4 This disease is present worldwide. A clonal strain of previously described organism has been recently developed as the cause of widespread disease of birds in Europe and causes a grate economic losses (Ganas et al. 2014). In Britain, this infectious disease was first described in 2005. This disease causes significant mortality in birds which results in decreased population of green finches and passenines (Robinson et al. 2010). T. gallinae affects upper digestive system of birds and results in pathological changes in structure of different parts of digestive system. It causes slight inflammation of mucosa to large caseous lesions of esophages. These lesion sometime block the lumen of esophagus. Due to this secondary infection of parasites, bacteria and virus takes place in diseased birds. Different strains of parasites move toward other organs such as liver, air sacs, lung, and brain. They causes necrosis of these organ, which leads to the death of birds (De Carli et al. 2002). Prevalence of T. gallinae infection is different in different age of birds. Prevalence increased with the age of nestling (Krone et al. 2005). A higher prevalence of Trichomoniasis has been recorded in pigeons in Pakistan season wise prevalence has been recorded to be 43%, being non significantly higher in April (56%) than in March (30%). Trichomoniasis positive cases show a significant decrease in hemoglobin concentration, number of monocyte, packed cell volume, body weight than healthy birds (Saleem et al. 2008). T.gallinae is a parasite of different species of birds ranging columbiformes, diurnal raptors and captive gallinaceous birds. It causes stomatitis, esophagitis and ingluvitis (Bunbury et al. 2007). This disease is recently emerged in British passerines. This parasite has caused high mortality in finch and their population is decreased and this disease is also spread to continental Europe (Chi JF 2013). Introduction 5 The sequence of T.gallinarum is different from Tetratrichomonas gallinarum that is another trichomonad of birds, but it is genetically similar to Trichomonas Caninistomae that affect dog and cat and causes oral infection. Pigeons are prey of dog, so there is possibility that T. gallinae may have infected (carnivorous) mammals in the past (Gasper et al. 2007). This disease causes large economic loss of avain livestock and also cause problems for wild species of birds. In UK T. gallinae has caused the death of greenfinches (Lawson et al.2006). Trichomoniasis was first reported in 2005 in Britain. It was discovered in finches. It caused large scale mortality in finches with population decline (Robinson et al. 2010; Lawson et al. 2011). In 2007 this disease is reported in finches in the Canadian Maritime provinces, southern Fennoscandia and northern Germany (Lawson et al. 2011). This disease caused high morbidity and mortality in finch population in Britian. It is estimated that about 1.5 million greenfinches which represent the 35% of national population have been died with this disease (Lawson et al. 2011). In this disease multiple foci of caseous necrosis is seen in oral, esophagus and crop mucosae. There is heavy infiltration of inflammatory cells especially heterophill in these areas. There is multiple foci of necrotic inflammation is seen on liver. Due to excessive infiltration of heterophils in there is thickening of mucosa of easophagus. Necrotic material is also seen in mucosa and submucosa of easophagus. There is necrosis on the tip of villi of intestine and necrotic materials is seen in the mucosa of intestine (Al Sadi et al. 2011). Trichomoniasis occurred more frequently in young than adult pigeons. High prevelance of trichomoniasis have seen in male than female pigeons (Al Sadi et al. 2011). Nestling birds are more susceptible to this disease than other birds. In Tucson, Arizon study was conduct and this study show that T. gallinae was present in oral cavity of 85% nestling coopers hawks compared to Introduction 6 only 1% of breeding age hawks. This disease is more prevalent in young pigeons. T. gallinae is sensitive to environmental pH. Trichomonas gallinae develop well when pH is between 6.5 and 7.5 (optimum 7.2), but cannot survive in more acidic pH. In fledgling and breeding Coopers Hawks pH of their oral cavity is acidic, so they are less susceptible to trichomoniasis and this is very important in differential prevelance among age group of birds (Urban et al. 2014). Trichomonas gallinae changes the blood picture of infected birds. It causes decreased values of Hb, PCV and monocytes in infected pigeons than the healthy pigeons, while TLC, heterophils, lymphocytes and eosinophils are increased in disease pigeons than the healthy pigeons (Seddiek et al. 2014). Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 2241-T] (1).

359. Effects Of Aflatoxin M1 (Afm1) On Sheep And Efficacy Of Mycotoxin Binders

by Muhammad Akhtar (2008-VA-122) | Dr. Jawaria Ali Khan | Dr. Muhammad Hassan Saleem | Dr. Muhammad Ovais Omer.

Material type: book Book; Literary form: not fiction Publisher: 2015Dissertation note: Livestock production is an important part of national economy and it plays a significant role in providing the high quality food for human beings. Dairy industry of Pakistan contributes up to 46.8% in the agriculture and about 10.8% of the GDP in the form of milk, milk products, meat, hides, skin and bone meal (Ghaffar et al. 2007). Molds are fungi consisting of filaments that are present in the feed of animals. Molds can cause many infections in dairy cattle, especially during period of stress when their immune system is depressed. They cause a special disorder that is termed as Mycosis. Specific mycotoxins are produced by these fungi and when these animals eat such type of feed then they also engulf such dangerous mycotoxins. Mycotoxins are produced by a wide range of various molds and can be classified as secondary metabolites meaning that their function is not essential to the mold’s existence (Whitlow and Hagler 2005). In the European countries, sheep milk is mainly produced in the Spain, and it is about 403000 tons per year. The main purpose of this milk is to produce cheese. Manchego cheese is considered as the best quality cheese in the world. This is the only technique by which we can produce the high quality of cheese (Rubio et al. 2009). These Aflatoxins are the fungal main dangerous constituents that can contaminate the feed of animals very easily. If AFB1 contaminated ration is consumed by animals then metabolism takes place in these toxins and excrete AFM1 in milk which further reduces milk production. More long-lasting aflatoxin poisoning produces very dissimilar signs that may not be clinically superficial and decreased rate of production in young animals. Severe aflatoxicosis causes hepatitis, hemorrhage, and death. Decreased growth rate is the most delicate clinical symbol of chronic aflatoxicosis, and it may be the only readily obvious abnormality. Natural toxins considerably show the greater danger to human and animal health. One large group of natural toxins that are universally Introduction 2 documented as poisons of food and feed are the mycotoxins. The toxins occur naturally in various animal feeds, including corn and cottonseed. To control AFM1 in milk, it is essential to decrease the feed contamination by AFB1 (Prandini et al. 2009). The livestock is playing major role in enhancing agricultural productivity and it has also major contribution to decrease the rate of poverty in the rural areas of Pakistan. Most farmers have domesticated sheep in their home which are their major sources of income (Mahmood et al. 2009). Aflatoxins adulterated rations prompted important reduction in daily feed consumption and the means of body weight, body weight increment and feed transformation rates were radically affected during the exposure stage to aflatoxins. Furthermore, serum ingredients and ruminal measurements showed lessened liver function and digestive turbulences in sheep fed aflatoxin (Jouany and Diaz 2005) Aflatoxins are included in that group of toxins which are considered as highly toxic toxins. Aspergillus parasiticus, Aspergillus flavus and Aspergillus nomius are those types of fungi which can produce very strong type of toxins. Aflatoxin B1 (AFB1) is considered as the most dangerous type of aflatoxin and it is very strong hepato-toxin (damaging the liver as a whole). It can also cause cancer, can produce teratogens, and may also cause mutation in the both animals and in human beings. AFB1 being very toxic, can be activated by the special metabolism of liver and through cytochrome P450. The cancer causing ability of AFBI is ten times more than the AFM1. The conversion of AFB1 to AFM1 in the milk producing animals is in the range of half percent to about six percent. In milk producing animals the level of aflatoxin M1 is greatly altered by the contamination rate of aflatoxin B1 (Bognanno et al. 2006). It is observed that the excretion pattern of aflatoxin M1 in the milk of sheep is lower than the excretion pattern of aflatoxin M1 in the milk of cows. Due to presence of aflatoxin B1 in the feed of animals and hence appearance of aflatoxin M1 in the milk of animals shows that Introduction 3 milk of such animals becomes more toxic and more un-hygienic. The young ones having milk as their main feed ingredient may have much more chances of getting various infections. (Var and Kabak 2009). To check the level of aflatoxin M1 in the milk of sheep, various experimental studies have been performed in the whole world (Battacone et al. 2005). In Pakistan, there are many favorable environmental conditions in which various types of fungi can easily prompted (Iqbal et al. 2011). The contamination level of aflatoxin M1 in the milk of dairy animals and in the dairy products has been found by (Hussain et al. 2008). Aflatoxins can be produced from fungal metabolites. Aflatoxin M1 is produced as the complete metabolism of aflatoxin B1 has taken place. Aflatoxin B1, when converted into aflatoxin M1 is appeared in the milk of that animals and the same aflatoxin M1 can also be appeared in the dairy products which can contaminate the feed of human too. Transformation of aflatoxin B1 into the aflatoxin M1 is around one to two percent. This transformation is highly dependent upon the feed of animals, transformation from one affected animal to other healthy animal, transformation from the milking of affected animal to the milking of healthy animal and from one day to another day also. It is also noted that as the level of aflatoxin B1 in the feed of animal is decreased down then the level of M1 in the milk of animals is also dropped down significantly but it takes about 72 hours for this dropped down (Nilchian and Rahimi 2012). AFM1 had a resistant to thermal inactivation used during food processing procedure such as pasteurization and autoclaving. Storage of various dairy products was not effective in the reduction of this toxin (Ozdemir 2007). Aflatoxin M1 level in the milk of animals can also be found in 12 to 24 hours after the ingestion of aflatoxin B1. After this, its level can be raised within the few days. The estimation of conversion rate of aflatoxin B1 in the contaminated feed of animals into aflatoxin M1 in the milk that animal is elaborated as 1 to 3 percent in a specific range (Ozdemir 2007). Introduction 4 Aflatoxin B 1 being very much dangerous mycotoxin, it is very much important to know about such methods by which the level of aflatoxin B1 in the feed of animals can be controlled. For this purpose we should first come to know the basic source of feed contamination of animals, and after this we should adapt such easy method to determine the level of aflatoxin B1 in the animal’s feed and such methods should be very cost effective. The best accepted and recognized method to determine aflatoxin M1 level in the milk of infected animals is HPLC high-performance liquid chromatography and TLC thin-layer chromatography (Thirumala-Devi et al. 2002). Aflatoxin M1 can be found in the milk of infected animals and can also be found in the products that are prepared from that contaminated milk. This contamination is the main problem arising now a days in the whole world (Fallah et al. 2009). Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 2237-T] (1).

360. Seroprevalence And Risk Factors Of Brucellosis In Ruminents In District Skardu Of Gilgit

by Sajid Hussain (2008-VA-77) | Dr. Muhammad Avais | Dr. Iahtasham Khan | Dr. Jawaria Ali Khan | Dr. Shehla Gul Bukhari.

Material type: book Book; Literary form: not fiction Publisher: 2015Dissertation note: Brucellosis is among the vital zoonotic and transmissible bacterial diseases of most of the animal’s worldwide (Shafee et al. 2011). Various types of brucella species are the causative agents of bovine brucellosis. In bovines, brucellosis is mainly triggered by Brucella abortus, less repeatedly by Brucella melitensis and sometimes by Brucellosis suis. As it is a zoonotic disease so, the public health is near thoughtful risk. According to (Pappas et al. 2006), it is considered to be the collective zoonosis worldwide, moreover 5, 00,000 cases of brucellosis are reported annually in both animals and humans. It is a common problem of under developed countries with poor health programs. This disease has been eradicated from USA, Canada, Japan, and New Zealand however; it is still an uncontrolled hazard in highly endemic regions of Africa, Latin America, Middle East and Asia (Refai, 2002). According to Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO), World Health Organization (WHO) and Office International of Epizootics (OIE), brucellosis is considered the most wide spread zoonosis in the world (Schelling et al. 2003). The infection transfers via contact with the body secretions, aborted fetus, contaminated milk feeding, licking of aborted fetuses and also venereal disease. In animals, reproduction, fertility, reduced survival of newborn, decreased milk production and noticed able mortality of the adult are the main effects of brucellosis. (Al-Sous et al. 2004). It is characterized by abortion during 3rd trimester of pregnancy, weak calves, still births infertility, placentitis, epididymitis, orchitis and the excretion of organisms in milk and uterine secretions. According to public opinion brucellosis is work-related disease it has more effects on INTRODUCTION Page 2 Veterinarians, slaughter house and farm workers likely butchers and shepherds (Yagupsky and Baron 2005). Brucellosis occurs in cattle, Sheep, goats, swines, camels, dogs and it may also affect the other ruminants and marine mammals. The other names of brucellosis are Enzootic abortion, Contagious abortion, Bangs disease, Undulant, Malta and Mediterranean fever. It also causes significant losses in those animals which are sexually matured (Forbes and Tessaro 1996). The main causative agent of bovine brucellosis is Brucella abortus (Ali et al. 2014). The animals and persons, who are directly or indirectly in contact with infected animals, its products and by-products, may acquire infection easily. The main source of human infection is the raw milk of the infected animal as it excretes brucella in milk (Shimol et al. 2012). The Serological, Bacteriological and Molecular Methods are used for the diagnosis of brucellosis in the farm animals and humans. Bacteriological method is considered to be the most standard method among all of the above mentioned methods (Sathyanarayanan et al. 2011). However, due to non-availability of ‘BSL-3 laboratory’ for culturing and isolation, time taking nature and because of the safety concerns of the laboratory workers, it is not widely applicable. According to Alton et al. (1998), in Pakistan, at animal and herd level, the molecular tools, like ‘Polymerase Chain Reaction’ (PCR), are not economical for screening due to limited resources. ‘Milk Ring Test’, a serological test, is economical and mostly used for the diagnosis of brucellosis however according to Huber and Nicoletti et al. (1986), its specificity and sensitivity is doubtful even now. In most of the countries, for the control and eradication of the disease the serological diagnosis is widely used. Although, different techniques are used to detect the brucella antibodies but, different antibody isotopes were detected by each one of the technique to INTRODUCTION Page 3 determine seropositive animal to brucellosis (Nielsen et al. 2001). The serological test is more sensitive as compare to the culture techniques but its specificity was quite low (Al-Attas et al. 2000). Diverse studies have been conducted worldwide to evaluate different brucella diagnostic techniques. ELISA was found more sensitive and specific as compared to other serological techniques and the findings confirmed that standard tests, like Rose Bengal Plate test (RBPT) and Serum Agglutination Test (SAT) only detect antibodies to the LPS (lipopolysaccharides) antigen of Brucella abortus so, it has low specificity (Al-Attas et al. 2000). The advanced in specificity and sensitivity levels of the ‘Serological Diagnosis’ as compared to the other conventional technique are due to the introduction of the indirect immuno-enzymatic technique (Mousing et al. 1997). The indirect ELISA uses cytoplasmic proteins to measure the immunoglobulins of classes M, G, and A. The clinical situation can thus be interpreted better further it also overcomes some of the short comings of serum agglutination test. A comparison shows that ELISA is more specific and sensitive than SAT (serum agglutination test) Almuneef and Memish (2003). According to certain studies conducted worldwide and also in Pakistan, it has been proved that ELISA tests are more accurate and reliable than other tests like Serum Agglutination Test (SAT) and Milk Ring Test (MRT), showing high seropositive samples. Shafee et al. 2011 confirmed by using i-ELISA for the prevalence of brucellosis in Quetta city and the result was found to be 3 and 8.5 percent overall prevalence in cattle using MRT and indirect ELISA respectively. The Gilgit Baltistan is at developing stages in the livestock sector, small farmers owning 95% of the Gilgit Baltistan’s livestock and are landless, providing an opportunity for improving INTRODUCTION Page 4 the quality of their livestock. The areas selected for the study were the villages (Shagaribala, Shagari kalan, Kathpanah, Chunda, Kachura, Hussain abad and Sadpara) of Skardu district, which are very important from livestock point of view. There is a dire need of screening these animals for the zoonotic point of view. It is the first time that effort for the diagnosis of brucellosis in Gilgit Baltistan by using the serological test like Rose Bengal Plate Aggulutination Test (RBPT) and Indirect Enzyme Linked Immunosorbent Assay (ELISA) has been made. Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 2246-T] (1).

361. A Study On The Correlation Of Serum Electrolytes And Trace Elements Along With Associated Risk Factors In Diarrheic Buffalo And Cattle Calves

by Fazal Abbas (2006-VA-182) | Dr. Muhammad Ijaz | Dr. Jawaria Ali Khan | Prof. Dr. AzharMaqbool.

Material type: book Book; Literary form: not fiction Publisher: 2014Dissertation note: Pakistan being an agriculture country has 70% of its population that is totally dependent on agriculture and livestock sector which plays an important role in the economy of the country. Livestock has contribution of about 55.4 percent to the agricultural value added and 11.9 percent to the National GDP. Pakistan has population of about 64.9 millions of goat, 38.3 millions of cattle, 33.7 millions of buffaloes and 28.8 millionsheep population according to the economic survey estimate. Mutton production is about 643 million tons and beef production is about 1,829 tons out of total 3,379 million tons of meat production. Livestock produces approximately 49,512 million tons of milk out of which buffalo produces 62.0% while cattle produces 35% and sheep-goat produces 1.69% (Economic Survey, 2012-2013). Pakistan is the 3rd largest milk producing country in the world (Afzal, 2010). Diarrhea can be defined as an increased in volume and quantity of fecal excretion. The diarrhea may contain mucous, blood, poor odor and variation in color then the normal feces.On the basis of time period, diarrhea has different types likeacute, constant and chronic. Time Period of acute diarrhea is not more than 14 days while in case of persistent/constant form, it continued for more than 14 days and in chronic case the diarrhea remain for a time period of 28 days(Bazeley, 2003) Diarrhea is a leading factor towards the death of calves. Neonatal calf diarrhea is among the very important diseases of the calves worldwide. It is animportant contribution to the major economic losses in cattle industry. The cause of calve diarrhea may be infectious or non-infectious (Elhassan et al. 2011). Bad hygiene, overpopulation, overfeeding, hot/cold temperature, feeding the calves artificially and the colostrum’s deprivation are all predisposing factor in the complex etiology of the disease (Hemashenpagam et al. 2009). Infectious agent and the co-infection of different multiple pathogens are common in calves having diarrhea. Rotavirus, Cryptosporidium, corona virus and enterotoxigenicE. coli collectively are associated with 75-95% of the infections in calf diarrhea around the world. Clinically, Neonatal calf diarrhea is characterized by profuse acute watery diarrhea, progressive dehydration, acidosis and death within a few days. The degree of dehydration is estimated by the physical examination of calf and has been introduced as a reliable method (Radostits et al. 2009). Experimentally the intestinal potassium and sodium combination can be bothered by different causes and various types of factors. However, electrolytes that are built up in the gastrointestinal tract have a function to reduce the water assimilation. Due to this, the organism losses water and the electrolyte commonly (Smith, 2009) To evaluate the serum electrolytes as well as the acid-base imbalance, there is a need of laboratory tests which cannot be measured regularly in field condition.To check the degree of dehydration is a uniform protocol and is anticipated by body condition score of calves (Naylor 1989). The electrolytes deficiency in neonatal diarrheic calves might be the cause of death in some cases. Althoughit is understood that serum concentrations of potassium (K) and sodium (Na) are very much necessary with reference to the fluids composition used for treatment purpose (Rucker et al. 2008). Trace elements have also important part inthe reproduction, growth and productivity of the householdanimals. The imbalance and Difference in ratio of minerals leads towards both production and economic losses throughout the world. The important symptoms of trace element deficiencies that can be clinically shown in animals are anemia, diarrhea, loss of hair, pigmentation loss, growth disorders in bones, difficulty during walking, a flaky deposit in skin, bending, hyperkeratosis, Para keratosis, lack of appetite, decrease in reproductivity and fertility, young animal growth disorders, Tetany, reduction in protein synthesis, immunity compromised calves, abortion related to non-infectious factors and pica. However, reduction in the concentration of trace elements like cobalt, copper, iron, iodine, manganese, selenium or zinc leads to lower reproduction rates and lactation. Untreated changes in the serum concentrations of Ca, Mg and some trace elements may be the root of cause of some death or post diarrhea complications such growth retardation (Tajik and Nazifi, 2012). The serum values of calcium (Ca) and magnesium (Mg) that is abnormal persists for a significantly long duration after the treatment of neonatal diarrheic calves. The normal serum concentration of Ca in cow has been reported as 2.43-3.1 mmol/L while the mean serum Ca in diarrheic calves reported was 1.297mmol/L. The normal serum concentration of Mg in cow has been reported as 0.74-0.95 mmol/L while the mean serum Mg was reported to be 0.8145mmol/L (Kaneko et al. 2008). There are many advantages of using the hypertonic saline solution (7.5% NaCl; 4ml/kg BW) in diarrheic buffaloes and cattle to resuscitate them. Infusion of Hypertonic saline solution resulted in significant increase in sodium and chloride level in serum. The important feature for the successful and complete resuscitation of hypovolemia along with endotoxaemia in diarrheic buffalo calves is the total amount of sodium. The infusion of Hypertonic saline solution is quite safer and it does cause hypernatremia but not for a prolonged period. So, hypertonic saline solution has advantage of resuscitating the calves from acidemia and hypovolemia. It was also helpful in the improvement of oxygenation and cardiovascular performance (Zafar et al. 2012). The neonatal calf diarrhea can be cured by using the electrolyte therapy like ringer lactate, non-steroidal anti-inflammatory medicines and antibiotics in case of infectious diarrhea and through better farm management depending upon the root of cause (Radostits et al. 2009). There is a hypothesis that treatment of diarrheic calves with NSAIDs attenuates the behavior of sickness as well as gastrointestinal discomfort and encourages the calves to maintain an appetite supports the calves for better performance (Ghanem et al. 2012) Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 2220-T] (1).

362. Epidemiological Studies And Chemotherapy Of Postparturient Haemoglobinuria In Buffaloes

by Muhammad Ijaz Ul Haq (2008-VA-83) | Dr. Jawaria Ali Khan | Dr. Muhammad Avais | Prof. Dr. Mian Abdul Sattar.

Material type: book Book; Literary form: not fiction Publisher: 2015Dissertation note: The district Gujranwala lies at northern part of the Punjab in Pakistan. It is situated between two main cities, in North is Gujrat and in South, there are Sheikhupura and Lahore. The majority of the population lives in the rural areas and mainly earns their livelihood through agriculture. The source of irrigation is perennial and non-perennial canals supplemented by tube wells. This area is heavily populated with buffaloes rather than cattle. Buffalo is playing a foremost role in the national economy by producing milk, meat and draught power. Out of total milk produced in the country, buffalo contributes about 68 %. Due to high fat contents of buffalo milk, it is the ideal species in Pakistan (Bilal et al. 2006). Buffaloes suffer from many fatal diseases throughout the year causing irretrievable economic losses in the GDP. Among these fatal diseases, Postparturient haemoglobinuria is a frightening problem for the economy of Pakistan and as well as for the whole world. Postparturient haemoglobinuria is a periodic condition seen worldwide that most frequently affects high-yielding dairy animals at the onset of lactation. It is characterized by development of per acute intravascular hemolysis and anemia with potentially lethal results. Beef and non-lactating cattle are hardly ever affected. The exact cause is unidentified, but phosphorus reduction or hypophosphatemia is known to be a major predisposing factor. Decrease in the Phosphorus level of RBCs is known to raise osmotic tenderness of the RBCs, probably predisposing to intravascular hemolysis. A parallel condition reported in New Zealand was linked with copper depletion, potentially building RBCs were more prone to oxidative trauma. Other potential causes were hemolytic or oxidative plant toxins (Michael A. Moses and Aiello 2014). In buffalo rearing countries mainly in India, Pakistan and Egypt, Postparturient haemoglobinuria was a major problem as described by (Pirzada and Hussain 1998). Acute hypo phosphataemia was linked with high producing buffaloes and characterized by intravascular hemolysis (Kurundkar et al. 1981). Postparturient haemoglobinuria was a disease of high yielding buffaloes in district Attock, Rawalpindi, Jhelum and Faisalabad where soil was deficient in mineral contents. The disease was distinguished by icteric and inflexible constipation in pregnant animal (Hussain et al. 1991). Postparturient haemoglobinuria was mainly disease of buffaloes and found in almost all the districts of Pakistan (Pirzada and Hussain 1998). In buffaloes, Postparturient haemoglobinuria occurred mostly after 3rd week of parturition during 3rd to 5th lactation having a period of 5 to 6 days of illness (Nagpal et al. 1968). The occurrence of hypophosphatemia was highest in buffaloes in progressive pregnancy or in 3rd to 6th lactation (Gautam et al. 1972). Multiparous females were mostly affected by Hypo phosphataemia and a range of etiological factors were reported to be related with the disease in unusual parts of the world (Singari et al. 1991). Dietary phosphorus shortage and rations containing cruciferous plants were supposed causes of rigorous hypo phosphataemia and had been associated with hemolytic anemia in cows and buffaloes (Heuer and Bode 1998). Mucous membranes turned pale or might become icteric with the development of anemia and breathing became rapid and shallow with tachycardia (Spears 2003). During third to sixth lactation of adult dairy buffaloes, this disease was more frequently seen, showing weakness and recumbency (Macwilliams et al. 1982). The occurrence of the disease in the total cattle population was very stumpy with a case fatality rate ranging from 10% to 50% (Madsen and Nielsen 1939). Sporadically, farms with a predominantly elevated incidence might be encountered but typically only one or two cases were clinically evident at one time (Freudenberg 1955). In Australia, about 70% cases were reported within 30 days of calving (Mulijns and Ramsay 1959). Bulls, ante partum cows, heifers less than two years old and beef cows were rarely affected. A disease called as "red water" in Ontario, was allied with numerous predisposing factors which integrated recent parturition, intense milk production, dietetic phosphorus absence, utilization of turnips, rape, kale, green alfalfa and sugar beet pulp (Macwilliams et al. 1982). Postparturient haemoglobinuria was one of the foremost and economically important diseases of dairy animals in Pakistan, India and elsewhere in the world (Macwilliams et al. 1982; Chugh et al. 1996; Pirzada and Hussain 1998). Diagnosis was done on the basis of clinical signs, urinalysis and hematological reports of the examined animals (Madsen and Nielsen 1939). In a survey conducted during 1996 in Punjab (Pakistan), mortality rate due to Postparturient haemoglobinuria in buffaloes and cattle was 5% which translated into estimated annual losses of Rs. 490.2 and 153.1 million, respectively (Farooq et al. 2007). Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 2210-T] (1).

363. Molecular Diagnosis And Therapeutic Trials Against Bovine Fasciolosis In And Around Okara

by Hafiz Farooq Ahmad (2008-VA-93) | Dr. Muhammad Ijaz | Dr. Waseem Shahzad | Dr. Jawaria Ali Khan | Dr. Shehla Gul Bokhari.

Material type: book Book; Literary form: not fiction Publisher: 2015Dissertation note: Agriculture sector plays a pivotal role in the economy of Pakistan. At present it participates 11.4% to GDP. Agriculture provides 45% employment to labour of our country and contributes in the development of other sectors of the economy. The livestock sector occupies a distinguishing position in the National Agenda of economic development. It provides net source of foreign income. In the history livestock has been dominated by small holders to meet their needs of milk, food safety and cash earnings on daily basis. Besides, livestock is considered a source of employment generation at rural level. It plays an important role in poverty mitigation and keeps in elevating the socio-economic situation of our rural commonalities. Livestock share approximately 55.4 percent to the agricultural value added and 11.9 percent to national GDP during 2013-14. Anonymous (2013-14). Parasitism is one of the major problems lowering livestock productivity round the earth Vercruysse and Claerebout et al. (2001). The significance of helminthes infections is increased manifold in developing countries like Pakistan where 65.2% population is rural (Population Census Organization (2007) depending upon livestock for their incomes and where parasitism acts as a serious trouble for livestock economy Chaudhry et al. (1984). Among helminthes infections, fasciolosis commonly called as liver fluke disease is of vital importance due to its wider spectrum of ultimate hosts Rondelaud et al. (2001) causing acute and chronic infections Sampaio-Silva et al. (1996). The disease is primarily caused by Fasciola hepatica and Fasciola gigantica Soulsby et al. (1987). Fasciolosis is a parasitic liver infection of wild and domestic ruminants caused by genus Fasciola, which has worldwide distribution Soulsby et al. (1986). Fasciolosis causes economic losses as a result of mortalities, abortions, retard growth, reduced milk and meat production, condemnation of infected liver and emaciated carcasses and cost of animal treatment Gracey and Collins et al. (1992). Fasciolosis caused by F. hepatica is a cause of important economic losses in ruminants. The disease is widely spread throughout in Africa, Asia and the Pacific. Although mostly a problem of young stock, the disease is also found in older animals where it adversely affects health, growth rate and development. Apart from its great veterinary importance throughout the world, fasciolosis caused by both F. hepatica and F. gigantica has recently been shown to be a re-emerging and wide spread zoonosis affecting a number of human populations Mas-Coma and Bargues et al. (1997); Esteban et al. (2003). Prevalence of fasciolosis infestation in buffaloes is 49.01%. The infestation of fasciolosis was optimal from January to September, while least during October to December. Fecal samples indicated F. hepatica prevalence 65%. Whereas prevalence of F. gigantica was observed higher in adult cattle as compared to cattle calves by fecal egg counts Khalil et al. (2009). 4% Buffalo calves infested with trematodes. Availability of intermediate host and the grazing habits of the final host determines the epidemiology and seasonal pattern of infection with trematodes Pfukenyi et al. (2005); Bhutto et al. (2002). The life cycle of F. hepatica includes many stages which develop in the environment or the intermediate host. Metacercariae which is the infective stage encysted and ingested by grazing herbivores. Temperature and rainfall are the important factors affecting the life cycle and the prevalence of F. hepatica infection McCann et al. (2010). Many studies revealed that F. hepatica is endemic in buffaloes, cattle, goats, sheep and humans in Pakistan Ijaz et al. (2009); Iqbal et al. (2007); Khan et al. (2010) and Qureshi et al. (2005). Fasciolosis is the disease by which about 250 million sheep and 300 million cattle are potentially affected worldwide Boray et al. (2005), and more significantly infects all ruminants Iqbal et al. (2007). F. hepatica and F. gigantica are the two liver flukes commonly reported to cause fasciolosis in ruminants Walker et al. (2008). Infected cattle can exhibit Introduction 3 poor weight gain and dairy cattle have lower milk yield, and possibly metabolic diseases Mason et al. (2004). Losses due to fasciolosis in the United Kingdom and Ireland alone are more than £18 million a year Mulcahy and Dalton et al. (2001); €52 million a year or €299 per infected animal in Sweden Schweitzer et al. (2005); 0.26 million USD annual due to fasciolosis associated liver condemnations in cattle slaughtered in Kenya Kithuka et al. (2002). In Pakistan, 35697 USD (3141360 PKR) are reported in only one tehsil of Punjab province, the Sargodha T.U. Rehman et al. (2013). While Fasciolosis is prevalent in whole Punjab province of Pakistan but the marshy areas such as regions of Gujranwala, Lahore, Multan, Faisalabad, Jhang, Muzaffargarh, Sheikhupura, and Sargodha are of major concern. Fascioliasis in ruminants causes substantial economic losses, estimated at US$ 2 billion per annum worldwide, to rural agricultural communities and commercial animal producers due to death of infected animals, condemnation of affected livers and production losses associated with reduced feed conversion efficiency Urquhart et al. (1996); Spithill and Dalton et al. (1998). In tropical countries, fascioliasis is prevalent up to 90% and is considered the most important helminthes infection of cattle Spithill and Dalton et al. (1998). Most important, human can also become infected with Fasciola spp. and the disease is referred to as human fasciolosis. It is estimated that 2.4 million people in more than 60 countries are infected and the number of people at risk is more than 180 million throughout the world Haseeb et al. (2002); Mas-Coma et al. (1999); Ishii et al. (2002). Khalil et al. (2009) recorded 49.01% prevalence of fasciolosis infestation in buffaloes. He also observed that optimum infestation was seen from January to September, while minimum during October to December. Whereas Bhutto et al. (2002) recorded 4% buffalo calves infested with trematodes. Introduction 4 Morphological identification of Fasciola species requires significant parasitological skills and is not an accurate method of characterization, especially for the ‘intermediate’ form Kendall et al. (1965); Lin et al. (2007); Le et al. (2008). Hence, different molecular tools have been developed during the last decade for the accurate identification of Fasciola spp. Marcilla et al. (2002); Velusamy et al. (2004); Cucher et al. (2006); Magalhaes et al. (2008); Ai et al. (2010). Conventional techniques like fecal examination used for its diagnosis are not comprehensive because of Species similarity in distribution in many countries of East and North Africa, and Southeast and Central Asia, and are similar in egg morphology. Coprological methods continue to be the most widely used approach for the detection and quantification of Fasciola and other helminth eggs in laboratory animals, domestic and sylvatic animals and humans Cringoli et al. (2004, 2010); Bergquist et al. (2009), with a more recently developed method that is currently undergoing broad-scale validation the FLOTAC techniques Cringoli et al. (2010) for the detection and quantification of F. hepatica eggs in feces obtained from experimentally-infected rats before and after drug administration. FLOTAC has been used successfully in the diagnosis of F. hepatica infections in naturallyinfected sheep, which underwent treatment with standard Cringoli et al. (2006). However PCR based diagnosis using specie-specific primers has been proved more accurate and successful in diagnosis and distinction of Fasciola species Le TH et al. (2012). The molecular technique such as PCR is used for the recognition of parasite. These molecular techniques are largely accepted all over the world. These are more exact methods than traditional in epidemiological studies Heckeroth and Tenter et al. (1999). Herbal drugs have been used since ancient times to cure diseases and medicinal plants have been used to treat fasciolosis among these Nigella sativa and Allium sativum have been used to treat the worm infestation. No report of resistance development to plant anthelmintic although many have been used in veterinary medicine for many years Ashaal et al. (2010); Introduction 5 Waller et al. (1995); Koko et al.(2000); Thienpont et al. (1979); Keiser et al. (2011). Herbal (indigenous) drugs have been used since ancient times to cure diseases, and several medicinal plants have been used to treat fasciolosis Satyavati et al. (1987). Among these, Nigella sativa has been used to treat worm infestation Nadkrani et al. (1954; Said et al. (1969); Akhtar et al. (1988). N. sativa can be used as a therapeutic agent against helminthes Khan et al. (2013). Neem leaf powder can be used as therapeutic agent against gastrointestinal parasites of camel, equine, cattle, buffalo and small ruminants Mehmood et al. (2013). Garlic powder can also be used as herbal product against the gastrointestinal helminthes of livestock Ijaz et al. (2008). Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 2256-T] (1).

364. Seroprevalence And Associated Risk Factors Of Leptospirosis In Sheep And Goat In And Around Lahore

by Muhammad Awais Akram (2008-VA-230) | Dr.Muhammad Hassan Saleem | Dr. Muhammad Avais | Dr. Hassan Mushtaq.

Material type: book Book; Literary form: not fiction Publisher: 2015Dissertation note: Sheep and goats, although representing an important source of animal protein in third world countries such as Pakistan, seem to have benefited little from veterinary care and production improvement. Sheep and goats are often the main source of daily meat and are used in ceremonial festivities throughout the country. Small ruminants (sheep and goats) are ubiquitous, with important contributions to the subsistence, economic, and social livelihoods of many humans, particularly in developing countries. According to FAO, (2010), approximately 95.7% of all goats and 63.3%of all ewes worldwide are located in developing countries and represent more than 70% of total animal production. Among the various factors that may lead to low productivity in tropical countries, infectious diseases may be very prevalent, impairing milk and meat production. Leptospirosis is an outstanding neglected disease, and since it is usually silent, its effects on livestock are often underestimated. As an example that may be considered for other tropical areas of the world, it was recently described as the most frequent and potentially the major infection impairing productivity in small ruminants. Unfortunately, a definitive diagnosis of leptospirosis is difficult to make. Most of diagnostic laboratories do not attempt to isolate leptospires because of their fragile nature, cost and complexity of the isolation media, and prolonged incubation period. Therefore, recognition of leptospiral infection has been based generally on serological evidence. A wide variety of serological tests, which show varying degrees of serogroups and serovar specificity, have been described. Two tests have a role in veterinary diagnosis: the microscopic agglutination test (MAT) and the enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. A total of 180 serum samples were examined in this study. The animals were included in this study from various sources representing the diverse livestock production system / management conditions i.e. rural subsistence, peri-urban and semi commercia, sheep and goat farms in and around the Lahore. The blood samples were collected from randomly selected animals as well as on the basis of Leptospirosis- like symptoms or any other indication of the disease. The blood samples were collected in clean sterile vacutainers having no anticoagulant. From each animal 5-10 ml blood sample were collected by phlebotomy. For this purpose the area on jugular vein was sterilized with 70% alcohol and blood was collected in the vacutainer. The blood samples were put in slanted position in the refrigerator for two hours. Upon appearance of serum in the tubes usually after three hours of refrigeration, samples were centrifuged at 4000 revolution per minute (RPM) for five minutes. The sera were separated using a sterile pipette for each sample and clean sterilized vials were stored at -20°C in the freezer till used. The standard hygienic measures were adopted during collection and processing of blood samples. The ELISA is performed by the procedure that is described by the ELISA kit manufacturer. The sheep were divided into three categories that were healthy, pregnant and aborted, which account for 0, 3.34 and 26.6%, respectively, positive samples. Whereas, The goat were also divided into three categories that were healthy, pregnant and aborted, which account for 0, 6.67 and 30%, respectively, positive samples. The highest percentage were observed in aborted animals that indicated that the leptospirosis had contribution in the abortion of the goat and sheep. The sheep were divided into four categories that were urban, peri urban, semi-commercial and commercial, which account for 13.3, 6.67, 6.67 and 10%, respectively, positive samples. Whereas, the goat were also divided into four categories that were urban, peri urban, semi-commercial and commercial, which account for 16.7, 13.4, 6.67 and 10%, respectively, positive samples. The highest percentage were observed in urban areas where the sheep and goats were raised together that indicated that the leptospirosis can be spread from animal to animal. Conclusion: From the finding of the current study suggested that leptospirosis can be difficult to diagnosis properly. The proper diagnosis can helpful for the controlling the leptospirosis. The urban area, and physiological conditions, of sheep and goat, are the major risk factors. Suggestion and Recommendations: Proper diagnosis and good management can reduce the risk of leptospirosis in sheep and goat. The infected animal must be isolate and treat with proper medications. The further studies can helpful for more proper disease diagnosis and control. Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 2274-T] (1).

365. Comparison Of Intravenous And Inhalation Anesthesia For Performing Minor And Major Surgeries In Sheep And Goat

by Muhammad Imran Ibraheem (2006-VA-108) | Dr. Sadaf Aslam | Dr. Uzma Farid Durrani | Dr. Hafsa Zainab.

Material type: book Book; Literary form: not fiction Publisher: 2015Dissertation note: Anesthesia can be achieved with injection or inhalation of substances that produce reversible state of unconsciousness. For scientific quality, anesthetic technique must be reliable and safe and the effects, of anesthetic compounds on animals must be well documented. If animals undergo survival surgery, they need to recover quickly and not suffer unnecessarily disturbance in biological parameters. This is of importance for both animal welfare and scientific quality. Awareness among animal lovers and increase in value of animals, the impedance has increased to many folds on surgeons to select ideal anesthetics for ideal outcomes during major surgical interventions. The anesthetic agents should be standardized for minimal recovery time in animals, so that the animals have to bear minimum cardiovascular, hepatic and renal distress due to different anesthetic drugs used. The present study was carried out on twelve sheep and goats. The selection criteria was surgical cases presented for minor and major surgeries at Indoor Surgery Clinic, UVAS, Lahore. All surgical cases were subjected into two treatment groups, viz. group A and B comprising six surgical cases in each group. In group (A) animals were given Xylazine @2.2mg/kg (Xylaz; Farvet, Holland) as a preanesthetic followed by Ketamine @2-4mg/kg (Ketarol; Global pharma, Pakistan) as anesthetic and maintenance whereas group (B) animals were given xylazine @2.2mg/kg as preanesthetic and afterwards induction and maintenance were performed with Isoflurane (4%) (Forane; Abbott, Pakistan) inhalation anesthesia with oxygen flow rate of (3 L/min) ……………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………SUMMARY 63 The overall objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of xylazine, ketamine and isoflurane gas anesthesia on different biological systems of body. Comparison among different drugs was evaluated during minor and major surgeries in sheep and goat. The parameters used to evaluate the efficacy of these anesthetic drugs exposed that isoflurane has less outcome on cardiovascular, liver and renal system. In adding together it has an edge over other injectable anesthetic drugs on account of its undetrimental effect on other physiological parameters of animals. Clinical trials have proved that isoflurane a narrative anesthetic agent is a drug of choice in minor as well as major surgical procedures without any injurious effects. Conclusion: The mean value of specific all parameters TPR, LFT and RFT and CBC shows that Injectable xylazine and ketamine was not safe. Isoflurane anesthesia was the safest anesthetic agent in geriatric or weak animals for longer procedure. Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 2273-T] (1).

366. A Sonographic Diagnostic Study Of Tendinopathies And Traumatic Injuries Of Joints And Associated Soft Tissue Structures In Equines In And Around Lahore

by Azmat Ullah (2013-VA-440) | Dr. Shehla Gul Bokhari | Dr. Sadaf Aslam | Dr. Saima Masood.

Material type: book Book; Literary form: not fiction Publisher: 2015Dissertation note: Diagnostic ultrasound was introduced as diagnostic modality in equines in 1982 by Rantanen. Horses are widely used across Pakistan for polo, race and draught purpose. Tendinopathies along with associated arthropathies and / or soft tissue trauma are common aliments among feet problems. However, no work has been done so far in Pakistan regarding the precise sonographic diagnosis of these problems and the seat of lameness, which results in the early culling of these horses. Advancements in diagnostic imaging have greatly improved the efficiency of the veterinarians in diagnosing soft tissues abnormalities. The present project was aimed to addressed these issues regarding precise lameness diagnosis in equines, with respect to sonographic presentation of the tendons, soft tissues and associated joints, and hence, to initiate precise diagnosis for effective treatment in future. The study was designed to precisely diagnose and characterize the soft tissue injuries occurring concurrently with joint involvement, in the three predominant categories of horses in and around Lahore, viz., Race, Polo and draught-purpose. For this purpose, twenty-four horses were divided into three groups i.e. A, B and C, each group comprising eight horses. Furthermore, each group were subdivided into two subgroups with four clinically sound horses and four unsound horses presented with soft tissues abnormalities occurring concurrently with or without joint involvement. The changes between sound and unsound structures were compared through intra-group and inter-group comparison. The study was aimed towards practical needs in addressing to the precise sonographic diagnosis for the seat of lameness and characterization of the lesion. Conclusively, percentage Summary 64 occurrence and degree of prognosis were assessed. Besides, it will futuristically augment in proper treatment of our precious animals. Different soft tissue structures of various joints (elbow, carpus, MCP/MCT, stifle, and hock) were sonographically imaged both in sound and unsound horses for the percentage occurences of injuries in all the three group, along with degree of lameness, degree of pain, degree of range of motion in each joint and degree of prognosis. The parameters shown significant correlation with minor differences. The study proved that occurrence of tendinopathies and associated joint trauma are more common in race horses than in polo and draught-purpose horses. The data regarding sonography of the joints was analyzed by using chi square test with the help of SPSS version 17. The study can be used as a proven tool for the early diagnosis, prognosis of soft tissue abnormalities and facilitate both veterinarians and owners in long run and can also be used for treatment purposes.Diagnostic ultrasound was introduced as diagnostic modality in equines in 1982 by Rantanen. Horses are widely used across Pakistan for polo, race and draught purpose. Tendinopathies along with associated arthropathies and / or soft tissue trauma are common aliments among feet problems. However, no work has been done so far in Pakistan regarding the precise sonographic diagnosis of these problems and the seat of lameness, which results in the early culling of these horses. Advancements in diagnostic imaging have greatly improved the efficiency of the veterinarians in diagnosing soft tissues abnormalities. The present project was aimed to addressed these issues regarding precise lameness diagnosis in equines, with respect to sonographic presentation of the tendons, soft tissues and associated joints, and hence, to initiate precise diagnosis for effective treatment in future. The study was designed to precisely diagnose and characterize the soft tissue injuries occurring concurrently with joint involvement, in the three predominant categories of horses in and around Lahore, viz., Race, Polo and draught-purpose. For this purpose, twenty-four horses were divided into three groups i.e. A, B and C, each group comprising eight horses. Furthermore, each group were subdivided into two subgroups with four clinically sound horses and four unsound horses presented with soft tissues abnormalities occurring concurrently with or without joint involvement. The changes between sound and unsound structures were compared through intra-group and inter-group comparison. The study was aimed towards practical needs in addressing to the precise sonographic diagnosis for the seat of lameness and characterization of the lesion. Conclusively, percentage Summary 64 occurrence and degree of prognosis were assessed. Besides, it will futuristically augment in proper treatment of our precious animals. Different soft tissue structures of various joints (elbow, carpus, MCP/MCT, stifle, and hock) were sonographically imaged both in sound and unsound horses for the percentage occurences of injuries in all the three group, along with degree of lameness, degree of pain, degree of range of motion in each joint and degree of prognosis. The parameters shown significant correlation with minor differences. The study proved that occurrence of tendinopathies and associated joint trauma are more common in race horses than in polo and draught-purpose horses. The data regarding sonography of the joints was analyzed by using chi square test with the help of SPSS version 17. The study can be used as a proven tool for the early diagnosis, prognosis of soft tissue abnormalities and facilitate both veterinarians and owners in long run and can also be used for treatment purposes. Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 2272-T] (1).

367. Comparative Efficacy Of Anthelmintics Against Gastrointestinal Nematodes In African Lion (Panthera Leo)

by Muhammad Usman Munir (2008-VA-141) | Dr. Aneela Zameer Durrani | Dr. Muhammad ijaz.

Material type: book Book; Literary form: not fiction Publisher: 2015Dissertation note: This study was conducted to compare the efficacy of Zental ( Albandazole) and Vermox (Mebandazole) against gastrointestinal nematodes like toxocara canis, toxocara mystax and toxascaris leonina in captive african lion (Panthera leo) kept in Lahore zoo, Lahor zoo safari, Bahawalpur zoo and Zain wildlife breeding farm Lahore because captive African lions are prone to different parasitic infestations. A survey was carried out to estimate the prevalence of gastrointestinal nematodes in captive African lion and it was found that toxocara canis, toxocara mystax and toxascara leonina are the most commonly prevailing gastrointestinal nematodes in captive African lions in above mentioned places. The overall incidence rate of toxocara canis was 82.5 %, of toxocara mystax was 60% and of toxocara leonina was 50% respectively. The Anthelmintics trials were conducted on 14 animals which were divided into 2 groups A and B each having 7 animals. Group A was treated with Zental (Albandazole), group B was treated with Vormox (mebendazole), The percentage efficacy of each drug was determined on the basis of reduction on number of eggs per gram of discharged in faeces at day 7, 10, 13, 16 and 22 after deworming. In group A, decrease in EPG of toxocara canis in group A was 21.1% at day 7, 37.2% at day 10, 54.7% at day 13, 74.6% at day 16 and 88.8% at day 22. Decrease in EPG of toxocara mystax was 15.9% at day 7, 38.1% at day 10, 56.6% at day 13, 70.6% at day 16 and 82.7% at day 22.similarly decrease in EPG on toxocaris leonina was 15.6% at day 7, 29.2% at day 10, 45.6% at day 13, 61.1% at day 16 and 83.1% at day 22 respectively In group B, decrease in EPG of toxocara canis in group A was 7.24% at day 7, 14.57% at day 10, 23.26% at day 13, 31.27% at day 16 and 38.08% at day 22. Decrease in Summary 25 EPG of toxocara mystax was 16.38% at day 7, 22.4% at day 10, 29.6% at day 13, 34.3% at day 16 and 41.2% at day 22.similarly decrease in EPG on toxocaris leonina was 13.6% at day 7, 21.29% at day 10, 30.8% at day 13, 39.1% at day 16 and 47% at day 22 respectively. Results showed that efficacy of Zental (Albendazole) against gastrointestinal nematodes in African lion was higher as compared to that of Vermox (Mebendazole). Also it was more effective than Vermox (mebendazole) against different parasitic stages of nematodes as evident from EPG count at various days after medication. Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 2270-T] (1).

368. Prevalence, Associated Risk Factors And Treatment Of Cryptosporidium Parvum In Foals

by Choudhry Usman Rasheed Butter (2008-VA-253) | Dr. Muhammad Avais | Prof. Dr. Aneela Zameer Durrani | Dr. Shakera Sadiq Gill.

Material type: book Book; Format: print ; Literary form: not fiction Publisher: 2015Dissertation note: Cryptosporidium parvum is an emerging waterborne zoonotic disease prevalent throughout the world. There are different strains of cryptosporidium but most important is C.parvum.It is intestinal protozoon belongs to coccidian family that causes damage to intestinal epithelium that leads to villous atrophy so decrease absorption sites from intestine. It is not host specific it can equally infect humans, calves and foals. It is cross transmissible among mammals. In horses, cryptosporidiosis is most commonly seen in foals (most frequently 1–4 weeks of age) and is associated with diarrhea and weight loss. Immuno-compromised foals (including foals with severe combined immunodeficiency syndrome) are particularly at risk. The present study was conducted in different studs farms in and around Lahore keeping in view the importance of C.parvum in foals because it is gaining attention as a most important cause of diarrhea in foals so that effective therapeutic measures should be adopted to control infection. There are 323 samples are collected among different stud farms and veterinary hospitals and analyzed by using fecal floatation method and modified Ziehl-neelsen technique. Infection rate of C. parvum in foals in this study recorded was (12.30%) from different stud farms and veterinary hospitals. Infection rate (27%) is higher in foals of age group range between 1day to 3 months while the least infection rate (2.46%) was observed in 9-12 months age group. Infection rate is reciprocal to age as the age increase infection rate decrease. Infection rate is independent of sex. There is no relationship between sex and infection rate. Diarrhea is an important risk factor related to infection rate. In diarrheic foals infection rate is (22.5%) while in case of non-diarrheic foal’s infection rate is (6.5%) which showed that infection rate in diarrheic foals is three time more as Summary 36 Compared to non-diarrheic foals. A significantly higher infection rate was observed in those foals having contact with other animals like rodents, ruminants and dogs. Infection rate (15%) was observed in those foals having contact with other animals and infection rate (6.5%) observed in foals having no contact with other animals. Purpose seems to very important in this study. Game horses have more infection rate which was (15.45%) as compared to draught horses (4.4%). Game horses have three times more infection as compared to draught horses because game horses remain in close confinement and foals have more prone to infection. Management is an important factor infection rate was more in those stud farms having poor management as compared to those have good management. Infection rate is poorly manage farms was (20.97%) and (5.5%) in properly manage farms. The results of the comparative efficacy of nitazoxanide, furazolidone and garlic showed that the Nitazoxanide was the most effective of the three in treating cryptosporidium infection under field conditions. Efficacy of Nitazoxanide in treating C.parvum in foals was (88%) during the study followed by furazolidone which have comparative efficacy of (77%) than garlic with the efficacy of (70%). In conclusion from above discussion reveals that C. parvum is prevalent in stud farms in and around Lahore. Associated risk for C. parvum in foals are age less than 6 months, immune-deficiency, contact with other animals like ruminants and poor management. Infection rate is more in game horses as compared to draught horses because game horses are manage in close confinement so the chances of infection are more. Treatment of C.parvum has long course and effective drug for the treatment of cryptosporidiosis in foals is Nitaoxanide than furazolidone. Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 2300-T] (1).

369. Effect Of Different Treatment Trials On The Carrier Status Of Streptococcus Equi In Horses Recently Recovered From Strangles

by Muhammad Afzal (2007-VA-108) | Dr. Muhammad Hassan Saleem | Prof. Dr. Aneela Zameer Durrani | Dr. Hassaan Bin Aslam.

Material type: book Book; Format: print ; Literary form: not fiction Publisher: 2015Dissertation note: Strangles is characterized by upper respiratory tract infection, dysponea, anorexia, regional suppurative lymphadenitis causing high morbidity and low mortality in horses as well as in mules and it is an infectious problem of equine. Considering the significance and utilization of equines in our country and the substantial losses rendered by Strangles, the present project was designed to study epidemiology, diagnosis and chemotherapy of strangles in Lahore, Okara and Sargodha districts of the Punjab province in Pakistan. Streptococcus equi subspecies equi is highly prevalent in animals recently recovered from strangles and antibiotics along with immune stimulants and non steroidal anti-inflammatory drug became helpful in the elimination of carrier status of animals for S. equi. Samples were collected from animals recently recovered from Strangles. Samples were collected with the help of sterile cotton swabs dipped in normal saline from nasopharynx & oropharynx followed by culturing of samples on blood agar plates which were incubated anaerobically for a time period of 24-48 hours respectively and S. equi were isolated on the basis of colonies characteristics and growth pattern. Streptococcus equi was confirmed with the help of Gram staining and biochemical tests Catalase reaction, Methylene blue reduction test and Sugar fermentation test. In vitro antibiotic sensitivity test were also performed to select three antibiotics showing best efficacy against S. equi. Carrier animals were subjected to treatment with the help of antibiotic along with combination of immune stimulants and non steroidal anti-inflammatory drug. Carrier status was considered eliminated with disappearance of S. equi from nasopharynx. Blood samples were collected from carrier as well as from healthy animals to check out hematological parameters such as TLC (total leukocytes count), TEC (total erythrocytes count) and MHC (mean hemoglobin concentration) etc. Out of Summary 47 hundred samples collected from Sargodha, Lahore and Okara districts of Punjab the prevalence of S. equi in horses and mules was 15%. Highest prevalence in equines was found at Remount Depot Mona, was recorded which is 18.3% followed by Okara 13.33%. No case was found to be positive for Strangles out of ten samples collected at UVAS, Lahore. In-vitro antibiotic sensitivity test was performed on above isolates and it was found that ceftiofur Na was found to be most effective drug followed by norfloxacine and ampicillin. In vivo treatment trials showed that Group C animals treated with ceftiofur Na, norfloxacine, and ampicillin along with Vit E & Selenium supplemented by Phenyl butazone were found to be negative for post treatment carrier status. This study had aided in diagnosis as well as in treatment of strangles and was also provided us with the understanding of hematological parameters. Statistical analysis:  Data on prevalence of S. equi in carrier animals were analyzed by Chi square test.  While comparison of different treatments trials was done by Z test.  Hematological parameters were analyzed by mean ± SED using SPSS software 16.0. Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 2299-T] (1).

370. Prevalence And Chemotherapy Of Gastro- Intestinal Helminths In Camels Of Cholistan Area Of Bahawalpur

by Fariha Mariam (2008-VA-97) | Dr. Muhammad Ijaz | Dr. Khalid Mehmood | Prof. Dr.Muhammad Sarwar Khan | Prof. Dr. Azhar Maqbool .

Material type: book Book; Format: print ; Literary form: not fiction Publisher: 2015Dissertation note: Gastrointestinal helminths are responsible for wide range of health problems, economic losses in camels and are characterized by impaired milk, meat, infertility, low calving rates, decreased working efficiency and even death of the camel. To study the gastrointestinal helminths, 384 camels of different age, sex and breed was examined coprologically. For this, five gram of fresh fecal sample was carefully collected into a sealed container from each camel and was transferred to Medicine lab, UVAS, Lahore in containers with ice packs. Fecal samples were scored 1-3 based on the consistency. The individual samples was triturated in saturated salt solution, sieved and examined for helminths eggs by using different techniques i.e. Direct Smear Method, Sedimentation technique and Floatation technique while the eggs count was performed by McMaster technique. Among the camel population, the current study indicates that in Marrecha breed the prevalence of Nematodes was Trichostrongylus 1.77%, Haemonchus 8.44%, Nematodirus 3.11% and Trichuris 7.11% respectively. Mixed infestation of all the nematodes was found 26.66% in infested camels, while the prevalence of Camelostrongylus, Trichostrongylus, Strongyloides, Haemonchus, Nematodirus and Trichuris in Barella breed was 4.40%, 1.88%, 2.51%, 6.91%, 2.51% and 7.54% respectively. Mixed infestation of all the nematodes was found 25.78% in infested camels. The prevalence of Fasciola hepatica was found higher in Marrecha breed as compared to Berrela breed. It was 18.66% in Marrecha breed and 14.46% in Barella breed while the overall prevalence of Fasciola hepatica in the camels irrespective of the breeds was 16.93%. While the prevalence of Fasciola gigantica was also found higher in Marrecha breed than Barella breed. It was 16% in Marrecha breed and 10.69% in Barella breed while the overall prevalence of Fasciola gigantic in the camels irrespective of the breeds was 13.80%. The overall prevalence of fascioliosis in camel is 30.31. The prevalence of Moniezia expansa was found higher in Marrecha breed as compared to Barella breed. It was 10.22% in Marrecha breed and 8.80% in Barella breed while the overall prevalence of Moniezia expansa in the camels irrespective of the breeds was 9.63%. The sex wise prevalence of gastrointestinal Nematodes in males was 39.28% which includes Camelostrongylus 8.03%, Trichostrongylus 3.57%, Strongyloides 6.25%, Haemonchus 11.60%, Nematodirus 4.46% and Trichuris 5.35% respectively while in the female it was 25.37% which includes Camelostrongylus 4.41%, Trichostrongylus 2.20%, Strongyloides 2.94%, Haemonchus 6.25%, Nematodirus 2.57% and Trichuris 6.98%. The overall prevalence of Nematodes in Male was found higher as compared to Female which was 39.28% and 25.37% respectively. Sex wise prevalence of GI Trematodes in Camels was determined through collected samples. The prevalence of Fasciola hepatica was found higher in Female as compared to Male. It was 16.91% in Female and 15.18 % in Male while the overall prevalence of Fasciola hepatica in the camels irrespective of the sex was 19.53%. The prevalence of Fasciola gigantica was also found higher in Female than Male. It was 12.13% in Female and 11.61% in Male while the overall prevalence of Fasciola gigantica in the camels irrespective of the sex was 11.98%. Sex wise prevalence of GI Cestodes in Camels was determined. The prevalence of Moniezia expansa was found higher in Female as compared to Male. It was 14.34% in Female and 13.39% in Male while the overall prevalence of Moniezia expansa in the camels irrespective of the sex was 14.06%. The overall prevalence of Nematodes in age group >10 yrs. was higher 30.25% as compared to age group 5-10 yrs. 20% which includes Camelostrongylus, Trichostrongylus, Strongyloides, Haemonchus, Nematodirus and Trichuris 3.36%, 2.52%, 6.72%, 5.88% 4.20% and 7.56 in age group >10 yrs and 1.88%, 1.51%, 1.88%, 4.90%, 2.64% and 7.16 respectively, in age group 5-10 yrs. The prevalence of Fasciola hepatica in age group 5-10 yrs was found higher as compared to age group >10 yrs. It was 30% in age group 5-10 yrs and 16.99% in age group >10 yrs while the overall prevalence of Fasciola hepatica in the camels irrespective of the age groups was 18.75%. The prevalence of Fasciola gigantica in age group 5-10 yrs was found higher as compared to age group >10 yrs. It was 9.33% in age group 5-10 yrs and 7.55% in age group >10 yrs while the overall prevalence of Fasciola gigantic in the camels irrespective of the age groups was 8.59%. The prevalence of Moniezia expansa in age group >10 yrs was found higher as compared to age group 5-10 yrs. It was 10.92% in age group >10 yrs and 10.18% in age group 5-10 yrs while the overall prevalence of in Moniezia expansa the camels irrespective of the age groups was 7.81%. To study the effect of gastrointestinal helminths on various blood parameters of camels, blood samples were collected from 5 infected and 5 healthy camels. Samples were analyzed using Hematology Analyzer and results were compared. For therapeutic trials, a total of 30 camels positive for helminths was taken and divided into three groups A-C each group comprising of 10 animals. A fourth group D was selected comprising of 10 uninfected camels. The camels of group A were treated with dry Neem (Azadirachta indica) leaf powder at a daily oral dose of 100 gm/camel for five days, group B was treated with Albenzole granules® (Albendazole) at a dose rate of 15mg/kg bd. wt. PO once. Group C (untreated) was designated as positive control, and the camels in Group D as negative control. Efficacy was determined on the reduction of eggs in feces at day 3, 7 and 14 (post-treatment). In the current study Neem leaves and Albendazole gave following results in the camels affected with Helminths. Neem leaves cured 20% of the animals on day 3rd after the drug administration while 40% and 60% of the animals cured on the day 7th and 14th respectively. Albendazole also gave good results against helminths affected camels. On the day 3rd of the treatment 30% animals cured while 60% animals were cured on the 7th day and on 14th day 80% animals recovered. Data regarding prevalence was measured by non-parametric, chi-square (χ2), while therapeutic trails were analyzed by repeated measures one way ANOVA, using SPSS (Statistical package for social sciences), P < 0.05 was considered significant. Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 2298-T] (1).

371. Prevalence Of Tick Borne Hemoparasites And Identification Of Ticks With Their Treatment In Dogs

by Muhammad Shehriyar Khan (2013-VA-438) | Dr. Muhammad Ijaz | Dr. Muhammad Avais | Prof. Dr. Muhammad Arif Khan.

Material type: book Book; Format: print ; Literary form: not fiction Publisher: 2015Dissertation note: Dogs are one of the most commonly owned companion pets worldwide. They are kept for various factors such as hunting, guarding, and amusement or for animal assisted therapy. Tick infestation is a common problem in dogs and its transmitted infections usually tick borne hemoparasitic diseases are emerging as a worldwide problem not just for animals but also for humans. Due to this phenomenon, ticks are now recognized as a major cause of various diseases in of urban environments. The current research has been conducted to study the prevalence of tick infestation, associated risk factors and chemotherapeutic trials of topical acaricides were used in order to study comparative efficacy, were conducted in dogs. Furthermore, prevalence of tick borne hemoparasitic diseases was also observed by performing microscopic blood smear examination in dogs of Lahore district. A total of 300 dogs (n= 200 positive for tick infestation; n= 100 negative for tick infestation) having tick infestation were included in the present study. Dogs of different sex, age and breed were selected for tick collection. The ticks were collected with the help of forceps from the target sites of each dog, while adopting all necessary measures to avoid damage to the mouth parts of the ticks and skin of the host. The collected ticks were preserved in plastic containers containing 70% ethanol, which was separate for each specimen. Ticks were identified under stereoscope by observing morphological characteristics of each tick, according to the key. Blood sample for tick borne hemoparasitic diseases was drawn from cephalic vein of each dog using disposable syringe and was poured into EDTA vacutainer. Thin blood smear slide was then prepared from the blood of the animal, dried in air and was stained using Geimsa’s staining method. The hemoparasites observed in the blood of the dogs were then characterized and Summary 51 identified by their morphological characteristics. For chemotherapy, a total of 30 tick infested dogs of different breeds viz. Rottweiler, German shepherd and Labrador was used in therapeutic trials. Each breed of dog was divided into 2 subgroups which were then treated with topical ivermectin and fipronil 1500μg/kg b.w and 15mg/kg b.w respectively. Efficacy of the drugs was then measured on the basis of disappearance of clinical signs and reversal of tick infestation at day 2, 4 and 6 of post-medication. Data regarding the prevalence of tick borne hemoparasitic diseases and tick infestation was analyzed by using Non-parametric, Chi-square test whereas data on therapeutic trials was analyzed by Z-test, using statistical package for social science (SPSS). P < 0.05 was considered significant. The results obtained showed us that the study area is at a risk of tick infestation and tick borne hemoparasitic diseases. In dogs, Rhipicephalus sanguineus (brown dog tick) species was observed and identified as a major tick infesting dogs of the study area during the course of study. Various determinants including tick density and its genus, host age, sex, predilection site host breed and season significantly affected the tick infestation in the study area. The prevalence for tick infestation was found highest in Pastoral dogs as compared to other breed types found in dogs. Among breeds German shepherd showed highest prevalence for tick infestation. Adolescence age group among dogs was more prone to tick infestation. The number of males affected by ticks was highest as compared to females in dog population. Among the dog population, majority of the animals infested by ticks were categorized under mild infestation. The most favorable predilection site for tick infestation in dogs was ear pinnae, followed by head and then neck. Monsoon was the most favorable season for tick infestation in dogs. September was found to be highest favorable month for tick infestation in dogs. Summary 52 In tick borne hemoparasitic diseases, babesiosis was the highest prevalent disease in dogs (63.33%), followed by trypanosomiasis (0.66%) and mixed infection (0.33%). Age group among dogs showed non-significant factor affecting prevalence for TBHD’s. The number of affected dogs for babesiosis was greater in adolescence age group as compared to other age groups. On the other hand, trypanosomiasis and mixed infection adult age group was found highly susceptible. Males of canine group were slightly more susceptible than females in case of babesiosis. Similarly for trypanosoniasis and mixed infection males were more prone than females. For babesiosis, monsoon was the most favorable season in dogs. Whereas for trypanosomiasis and mixed infection, post monsoon was found to be favorable season in dogs. In breed type of dogs, prevalence for babesiosis was found highest in Pastoral dogs. In dogs the prevalence for babesiosis was found highest in German shepherd breed, whereas for trypanosomiasis and mixed infection Cross breed was the most susceptible breed. For trypanosomiasis and mixed infection Cross breed was the most susceptible breed type. The prevalence for babesiosis was found highest in the month of September. For trypanosomiasis and mixed infection, the month of October was found to be highest susceptible month for dogs. Chemotherapeutic trial of topical acaricides against tick infestation in dogs revealed that Fipronil was more efficacious drug as compared to Ivermectin. Such type of epidemiological data of tick infestation, TBHDs and its chemotherapeutic trial will help to control tick infestation and tick borne hemoparasitic diseases to save the life of companion animal. Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 2303-T] (1).

372. A Study On The Correlation Of Serum Electrolytes And Trace Elements Along With Associated Risk Factors In Diarrheic Foals

by Rahmatullah (2008-VA-85) | Dr. Muhammad Ijaz | Dr. Muhammad Hassan Saleem | Prof. Dr. Kamran Ashraf.

Material type: book Book; Literary form: not fiction Publisher: 2015Dissertation note: Foal diarrhea is one of the major threats to equine industry that causes high morbidity and mortality. Electrolytes (Na, K, Ca, Fe, Cu and Li etc) and water losses reduced dietary intake and probable translocation between intracellular and extra cellular compartments. Electrolytes are essential for controlling membrane potential, muscle contraction, nerve condition, and enzyme reactions, and they play a central role in the physiological processes. Serum electrolytes and trace elements deficits are the major causes of fluid and acid-base imbalance in diarrheic foals. Keeping in view the importance of foal diarrhea and its impact on the equine industry the current study was designed to determine serum concentration of electrolytes (Ca, K, Na) and trace elements (Li, Cu, Fe) along with the associated risk factors in diarrheic foals. The present study was designed to examine diarrhea in foals at various equine stud farms, private and public veterinary hospitals. For this purpose a total of (n=100 foals) suffering from clinical diarrhea irrespective of the cause of diarrhea selected randomly after clinical examination and (n=10 foals) negative for diarrhea as control were included. Data of each diarrheic foal was collected separately in a data capture form. Blood and serum sample were collected for hematological and serum biochemical studies, respectively. Concentrations of serum electrolytes (Ca, Na, and K) were analyzed by Flame Photometry and trace elements (Cu, Li, and Fe) were estimated through Atomic Absorption spectrophotometer. PCV was determined by micro hematocrit method. Risk factors including species and age were analyzed for association. Foals which were suffered from diarrhea showed increase in Pack cell volume. Serum concentration of Sodium, potassium, calcium, iron, copper and lithium were measured in diarrheic foals by atomic absorption and flame photometer method and were compared with healthy group of foals.Foals having diarrhea showed an acid baseimbalance as a result decrease in serum electrolytes and trace elements. The blood acid-base balance is precisely controlled because even a minor deviation from the normal range can severely affect many organs. The body uses different mechanisms to control the blood's acid-base balance.Sodium and potassium and calcium are important electrolytes imbalance in diarrhea. Potassium level was increased in foals having diarrhea. Calcium concentration in ppm significantly decreased from its normal value. In some diarrheic foals increased in level of calcium was also observed because these foals have blood in their feces that result in the calcium to come in blood as a clotting factor. Trace elements such as Cu, Fe and Li are needed in a very little concentration for many physiological functions. The serum iron was measured in foals having diarrhea.The iron concentration was less than normal value.The deficiency of iron lead to anemia. Clinical signs of anemia because of irondeficiency are rarely seen in foals. Therefore, mineral imbalances influence iron metabolism and may cause iron deficiency in foals. The serum copper concentration was significantly decreased in the diarrheic foals. Copper concentration is also related to the packed cell volume as in anemia copper deficiency is a significant feature. Copper is important element and its deficiency lead to decrease in serum concentration of iron. This decreased level might be because most of the circulating copper in plasma is attached to the serum glycoprotein, ceruloplasmin. Ceruloplasmin has ferroxidase activity and may be required to deliver iron into the circulation Therefore it was observed that low iron concentrations might have resulted from copper deficiency.The concentration of Lithium was also decreased in diarrheic foals when compared to healthy foals. Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 2349-T] (1).

373. Status Of Brucellosis And Its Effect On Hemogram And Serum Biochemistry In Indigenous, Cross-Bred And Exotic Dairy Cattle Herds

by Muhammad Hareem Afzal (2008-VA-250) | Dr. Muhammad Avais | Dr. Jawaria Ali Khan | Prof. Dr. Aftab Ahmad Anjum.

Material type: book Book; Literary form: not fiction Publisher: 2015Dissertation note: Brucellosis mainly infects food animals such as cattle, buffalo, goats and sheep. Brucella abortus is the principal cause of brucellosis in cattle and is shed from the infected animal at or around the time of calving or abortion. The present study was conducted on 450 animals on three different strains/breeds of cattle i.e. Exotic (150), Cross-bred (150) and local cattle (150) from 10 different privately owned livestock farms of varying holdings of district Lahore. An epidemiological questionnaire focusing on herd traits as well as husbandry and sanitary practices that could be associated with the risk of Brucellosis infection was completed. Serum samples were collected and analyzed using Rose Bengal Plate Test (RBPT). The serum samples positive for Brucellosis through RBPT further subjected to Serum Agglutination Test (SAT). To check the effect of Brucellosis on hemogram, blood samples from 18 cattle (n=6 indigenous; n=6 cross-bred; n=6 exotic) positive for Brucellosis and 18 animals (n=6 indigenous; n=6 cross-bred; n=6 exotic) negative for brucellosis were collected and processed for TLC, DLC, RBC, Hb, MCV, MCHC MCH and platelets using automated haematology analysed at UDL, UVAS, Lahore. Similarly, to see the effect of Brucellosis on Serum biochemistry, serum samples from 18 cattle (n=6 indigenous; n=6 cross-bred; n=6 exotic) positive for Brucellosis and 18 animals (n=6 indigenous; n=6 cross-bred; n=6 exotic) negative for brucellosis collected and analysed for glucose, total protein, albumin, Creatinine, Alanine Aminotransferase (ALT), Aspartate Aminotranferase (AST) and Sorbitol Dehydrogenase (SD) using commercially available kits. Summary 62 RBPT revealed overall prevalence 17.7% higher than SAT 10.6%. Prevalence of brucellosis is higher in Cross-Bred (22.7%) followed by local cattle (18.9%) and exotic (12%). Hemato-boichemical results showed that increase in TLC, MCV While slight changes in Hb, MCHC, RBC and values of MCV stays within normal range. On the other hand serum biochemistry increase in AST while decrease in ALT and SD found. Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 2348-T] (1).

374. Prevalance, Diagnosis and Economic Losses Due to Bovine Cysticercosis in Punjab

by Muhammad saeed (2009-VA-254) | Prof. Dr. Aneela Zameer Durrani | Prof. Dr. Muhammad Arif Khan | Prof. Dr. Azhar Maqbool.

Material type: book Book; Literary form: not fiction Publisher: 2014Dissertation note: Theses submitted with blank cd. Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 1379-T] (1).

375. Serodiagnosis And Chemotherapy Of Trypanasomiasis In Camels In Balochistan

by Ihsan Ullah (2006-VA-245) | Prof. Dr. Mohammad Sarwar Khan | Prof. Dr. Mohammad Azam Kakar.

Material type: book Book; Literary form: not fiction Publisher: 2015Dissertation note: Trypanosomiasis (Surra or Rotten disease) is a disease of animals such as cattle, buffalo, horses and camels caused by protozoan parasite of mammalian blood. In camels, the clinical manifestations of trypanosomiasis by T. evansi can be acute or chronic. The rypanosomiasis symptoms include fever, emaciation, anemia, weight loss, edema, lymphadenomegaly, conjunctivitis and occasionally sudden death of animal. However, the diagnosis of disease always remains a challenge for veterinarians and animal healthcare professionals, since the parasitemia is often very low in a majority of infections. Keeping in view the importance of Trypanosomiasis, the present study was designed to evaluate the present status of Trypanosomiasis in Province Balochistan of Pakistan. The two districts Musa Khail and Jhal Magsi with thick populations of camels and have different climate and geographical distribution were selected. The questionnaire was developed for survey of Camel farmers and information regarding the age of respondent, experience, type of community, feeding/watering pattern of camels, prevailing camel diseases in the area, treatment facilities, traditional remedies used by them against various diseases in camels and economic losses were collected. A total of one thousands and forty (n=1040) camel owners/respondents from three groups viz settled, transhumants and nomads were interviewed in Districts, Musa khail and Jhal Magsi during the year 2011. In first experiment, a total of 1600 blood samples were randomly collected from camel population of both districts i.e. 800 camels from each districts. Camels were sub-grouped according to sex (male and female) and age (upto 2 years, 2-3 years and above 4 years). Blood samples were collected from each animal and processed for blood smears examination and PCR for confirmation of Trypanosomiasis. The blood samples were also processed for hematological 94 Summary studies to evaluate the effect of Trypanosomiasis on different blood parameters. The blood smear examination showed prevalence of 11.87 percent (95 out of 800 samples) in District Musa Khail and 17.12 percent (137 out of 800 samples) in district Jhal Magsi, indicating higher prevalence in hot climate when compared with cold climate. However, the higher prevalence in females, animals aged above 4 years and during summer season in both districts. In second experiment, the prevalence of trypanosomiasis was recorded through PCR amplification in 200 samples (100 from each Districts Musa Khail and Jhal Magsi). The prevalence was found to be 25 percent in District Musa Khail and 39 percent in District Jhal Magsi. PCR test proved to be most sensitive and specific technique for diagnosis and confirmation of Trypanosomiasis. The hematological tests including hemogram, lecucogram, serum protein, and serum electrolyte and serum enzyme showed fluctuation from its normal ranges. Moreover, hemogram (RBC, PCV and Hb) showed significant decrease than the normal values while in Leucogram showed significant increase than normal values. In third experiment chemotherapy trials on 25 camels divided in 5 groups A, B, C, D and E were conducted. Single dose of anti-trypanosome drug (Samorin) Isometamidium chloride @ dose 0.5mg/kg deep I/M to group A. Dried leaves of Azadirachtaindica (Neem) @ 60 gm/animal, to group B. Dried and grind fruits of CitrilisColocynthis (L) Schard @ 50gm/animal, to group C. Group D was control diseased and Group E was control healthy group. Blood samples were collected post-treatment at 2nd, 7th and 12th day and the changes in blood picture were analyzed. The efficacy of drug and plant extract was tested after 72 hours of treatment. Blood samples were collected from group A, B and C and processed for amplification of PCR. Results of allopathic showed 100 percent efficacy while result of plant Azadirachta indica (Neem) showed 60 percent t efficacy by amplification of PCR. In group C plant Citrullus Collocynthis showed no efficacy. In third experiment, the direct as well as indirect economic losses due to camel Trypanosomiasis 95 Summary based on the prevalence of Trypanosomiasis, mortality rate, abortion and perceptions of the respondents were recorded. The camel dies due to Trypanosomiasis in direct visible losses and invisible losses include reduced fertility, meat loss, low quality of hide, loss of draught power and traction force and change in herd. While, indirect losses include additional costs of drugs, veterinarian fee, preventive medicine and quarantine. The respondents were grouped according to type of communities as Nomads spend summer in Afghanistan (uplands) and back to Pakistan (lowland) in winter. Hence, their camels harbor Trypanosomiasis from one border to another border and present trans-boundary impact of the disease. The present study demonstrates that the respondents above the age of 50 years were more experienced in disease diagnosis and use of traditional veterinary practices. The settled and transhumants communities had easy access to government hospitals and private veterinary clinics while nomads mostly rely on the use of traditional veterinary practices. The most common prevailing diseases of camel according to respondents were pneumonia, indigestion, parasitic infestation, mange, lameness, Trypanosomiasis, vector fly and nervous disorders. The most common clinical signs of camel Trypanosomiasis hyperthermia, anemia, depression, dullness, emaciation, edema (in dependent parts of body), abortion, nervous signs, circling movements, trembling, unusual aggressiveness and aimless running were recorded. Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 2400-T] (1).

376. Detection Of Salmonella And Total Plate Count In Abattoir Meat And Premises

by Dr.Muhammad Hassan Saleem | Prof. Dr. Muhammad Sarwar Khan | Prof. Dr. Kamran Ashraf.

Material type: book Book; Literary form: not fiction Publisher: 2015Dissertation note: Food safety is scientific discipline describing handling, preparation, and storage of food in ways that prevent food borne illness. This include a number of routines that be followed to avoid potentially serve health hazards. The track within this line of thought are safety between industry and market and then between the market and consumer. In considering industry to market practices, food safety consideration include the origin of food include the practices relating to food labeling, food hygiene, food additives and guidelines for the certification system for food. In considering market to consumer practices the usual thought is that food brought to be safe in the market and the concern is safe delivery and preparation of the food for the consumer. Food can transmit disease from person to person as well as serve as a growth medium for bacteria that can cause food poisoning. In developed countries there are standard for food preparation, where as in lesser developed the main issue is simply the unavailability of adequate safe water, which is usually a critical item. Foodborne illness is any problem resulting from the consumption of contaminated food, pathogenic bacteria, virus or parasite that contaminate food, as well as chemical or natural toxin. Beef and Mutton meat is an ideal food for all groups of ages, due to its high meat yield, low shrinkage, easy cooking and serving. In my study all sampling was done from Lahore Meat Processing complex which is the most modern abattoir in Pakistan. Keeping in view the importance of meat in human diet the total plate count and salmonella detection in abattoir meat was done. Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 2365-T] (1).

377. Comparative Efficacy Of Various Immunopotentiating Agents In Subclinical Mastitis In Dairy Cows

by Muhammad Ibrahim (2013-va-435) | Dr. Jawaria Ali Khan | Prof. Dr. Muhammad Sarwar Khan | Dr. Waseem Shahzad.

Material type: book Book; Literary form: not fiction Publisher: 2015Dissertation note: Mastitis, an important disease of dairy animals influences the quality and quantity of milk. Mastitis, the inflammation of the udder regardless of the cause, is the most costly disease of dairy cows. It affects the milk quality and production of cow along with changes in the composition of milk and the extent to which various compositional changes occur depends on the inflammatory response. There is also fluctuation in complete blood count (CBC). The study was conducted in dairy cow at different government and private dairy farms in and around Lahore Total n=30 cows were included in study trials and for treatment trials n=24 cows suffering from subclinical mastitis were taken and divided into 5 groups, 1st group was Vit E + Se 2nd group was Garlic, 3rd group was Black pepper and 4th group was Lemon having n=6 cows in each group randomly. A 5th group was formed comprising of n=6 healthy cows served as negative control. The drug trials showed that it Vit E+ Se and Garlic were the most effective drugs by boosting immune system by increasing the hematological parameters and improving the milk compositional contents and after that Lemon showed the good results while treating subclinical mastitis. The Black Pepper showed significant role by enhancing immunity nut didn’t cure as much of subclinical mastitis. Statistical Design: The data on chemotherapy, hemogram and milk composition and milk sodium chloride level was analyzed by one way analysis of variance (ANOVA) and paired T test using SPSS 20.0. A probability levels <0.05 was considered as statistically significant. Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 2373-T] (1).

378. Clinico-Epidemiological And Therapeutic Study On Babesiosis In Different Breeds Of Cattle In Balochistan

by Muhammad Essa Kakar (2005-va-229) | Prof. Dr. Muhammad Arif Khan | Prof. Dr. Kamran Ashraf | Prof. Dr. Muhammad Sarwar Khan | Prof. Dr. Muhammad Azam Kakar.

Material type: book Book; Literary form: not fiction Publisher: 2015Dissertation note: Babesiosis which is also called as piroplasmosisis, Texas fever, redwater or tick fever, is an emerging, tick-transmitted (by a vector ixodidea) disease caused by intraerythrocytic parasites of the genus babesia having considerable worldwide economic, medical, and veterinary impact. Keeping in view the importance of babesiosis under local conditions, the present study was designed to evaluate the status babesiosis in Balochistan. For this purpose field and experimental studies were carried in two districts Quetta and Sibi of Balochistan Province to find out the status of babesiosis in Bhag Nari, Holstein Friesian and Crossbred cattle. During field study epidemiological status of babesiosis was highlighted by selecting 600 cattle randomly from each district. The animals were distributed into 2 major groups i.e. Young animals less than 12 months and adult over 12 months of age. These groups were further sub-divided into Young animals (less than 6 months, up to 9 months and up to 12 months) while Adults animals (up to 2 years, 3 years and over 3 years). The vector of babesia was also kept under keen observation for the prevalence/infestation rate, identification and economic losses caused during the course of study. Blood samples were collected from each animal and processed for blood smears examination and PCR for further confirmation of babesia infection. The blood samples were also processed for hematological study to evaluate the effect of babesiosis on different blood parameters. For experimental study 148 animals were selected through clinical signs of babesiosis, blood smear examination and PCR. Out of theses 40 animals were maintained for therapeutic trail to find out the cheapest and easily available drug against bovine babesiosis. For this purpose Neem leaves were used in decoction form while Imidocarb dipopionate was kept as standard control. The Summary 177 results of epidemiological study revealed higher prevalence of babesiosis (20.5%) in district Quetta while 15.16% was recorded in District Sibi. Similarly higher prevalence was recorded in Holstein Friesian than in Crossbred and Bhag Nari cattle respectively in both districts Quetta and Sibi. Furthermore higher prevalence of babesiosis was recorded in adult groups of Holstein Friesian than in Crossbred and Bhag Nari cattle. Similarly season wise higher prevalence of babesia infection was noticed in summer followed by spring, autumn and winter respectively while higher prevalence was noted in female group of animals than male animals. Blood smears examination and PCR confirmed two babesia species i.e. babesia bigemina and babesia bovis. Similarly Boophilus tick species were identified as the vector of babesia parasites. During present study mixed hemoprotozaon infection of babesia mixed with theileria was recorded in both districts. The results of conventional method and modern diagnostic technique (PCR) revealed that PCR identified higher babesia infection during the entire 4 seasons as well as in all age groups whereas blood smears examination was capable to diagnose babesiosis in adult groups during the months of summer and spring season. Breed wise prevalence was also higher in samples treated with PCR than blood smears examination and even samples that were declared negative by blood smears examination were also found positive. The results of complete blood cell count from blood samples of infected experimental animal showed regenerative, macrocytic hypochromic anemia. Blood smear examination showed presence of many babesia with reticulocytes. Abnormalities in erythrocyte structure were seen. The result of blood parameters of total erythrocyte count, total leukocyte count, packed cell volume and hemoglobin showed significant decrease in all three affected Bhag Nari, Holstein Friesian and Cross bred cattle. The values of MCV and MCH were increased and MCHC was slightly less than normal value. No efficacy of neem decoction was noted against bovine babesiosis. Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 2367-T] (1).

379. Comparison Of Two Imported Live Attenuated PPR Vaccines In Local Sheep In Pakistan

by Saliha Saba | Prof. Dr. Aneela Zameer Durrani | Dr. Hassan Salem | Dr. Imran Altaf.

Material type: book Book; Literary form: not fiction Publisher: 2015Dissertation note: Peste des petits ruminants (PPR) also famous as goat plaque is of viral origin and is extremely contagious disease of sheep and goat (Dhar et al. 2002; Asim et al. 2009). PPR can cause high mortality about 50 – 80 % in non-immunized sheep and goat population. Due to its similarity with other diseases, Peste des petits ruminants (PPR) is being devalued but at the same time it is said to be one of the major constraints to successful small ruminant farming in tropics (Sen et al. 2010). PPR virus is paramyxovirus, enveloped and belongs to the genus morbillivirus. These viruses comprise of 16Kb long, single stranded RNA showing negative polarity (Barrett et al. 2005). The various vaccines like homologous and recombinant vaccines have been manufactured for the management of Peste des petits ruminants (PPR), as no accurate treatment is available for its control. For the immunity of animals against this disease, the tissue culture based, attenuated rinderpest vaccine (TCRV) had been accustomed over a extensive period because of the antigenic association among RPV and PPRV (Diallo et al. 1989).With the help of fresh freeze-drying methods and stabilizing agents the thermostability of the present PPR homologous vaccine has been enhanced significantly (Worrwall et al. 2001). In Pakistan, PPR vaccine was manufactured with the help of PPRV Nigerian 75/I (PPR 75/1 LK 6 Vero 75) for the sheep and goat immunization (Asim et al. 2009). India had manufactured numerous live attenuated vaccines like the PPRV Sungri/96 that has been regularized for use (Hegde et al. 2008). ). The Peste des Petits Ruminants (PPRV-Sungri/96 ) vaccine is being manufactured on small and large scale for prevention of Peste des Petits Ruminants (PPR) outbreaks in India (Singh et al. 2004). Summary 41 The current study was designed to study the immunogenicity of two imported live attenuated PPR vaccines in local sheep. A total of sixty (60) animals were selected and further separated into two groups, viz. Group-A and Group-B, having thirty (30) animals each. Group-A was further sub-divided into A1 comprising 10 sheep to which Raksha PPR vaccine (Sungri 96) was administered, A2 comprising of 10 sheep to which PPR vaccine (Nigeria 75/1) was administered and A3 comprising of 10 non-vaccinated sheep which served as control. Group B was separated into two sub-groups i.e B1 and B2 having fifteen (15) animals each. The Group-B1 was sub-divided into B1a having 05 sheep to which Raksha PPR vaccine (Sungri 96) was only administered, B1b having 05 sheep to which along with Raksha PPR vaccine (Sungri 96), Vitamin AD3E was administered and B1c having 05 unvaccinated sheep which served as control. Similarly the Group-B2 was sub-divided into B2a having 05 sheep to which PPR vaccine (Nigeria 75/1) was only administered, B2b having 05 sheep to which along with PPR vaccine (Nigeria 75/1), Vitamin AD3E was administered and B2c having 05 non-vaccinated sheep and served as control group respectively. The serum samples were collected and mean antibody titer was calculated by complement fixation test (CFT) at zero day, 7th day, 14th day, 28th day and 48th day post-vaccination. The live attenuated, Raksha PPR (Sungri 96) vaccine induced the mean antibody titers of 0 ±0.00, 4.7±0.48, 4.7±0.48, 4.9±0.31 and 4.9±0.31 which was significantly higher than the mean antibody titers shown by the PPR (Nigeria 75/1) vaccinated animals i.e. 0±0.00, 3.3±0.51, 3.4±0.51, 4±1.15 and 4.1±1.19 at zero, 7th, 14th, 28th, 48th day post-vaccination respectively. Similarly the mean antibody titers shown by the PPR (Nigeria 75/1) vaccinated animals were 0 ±0.00, 10.4± 3.86, 11.2±4.13, 20±11.31 and 21.6±11.80 at zero, 7th,14th, 28th and 48th day post vaccination respectively. Result of present study demonstrated Summary 42 that the mean antibody titer values of animals vaccinated with Raksha PPR (Sungri 96) was significantly higher than animals vaccinated with PPR (Nigeria 75/1) at zero, 7th,14th, 28th and 48th day post vaccination respectively. The study also concluded that the mean antibody titer of animals receiving vaccination along with vitamin supplementation was significantly higher than animals receiving only vaccination. While performing the statistical analysis of data, it was revealed that the results were significant (p<0.05). The present study summarized and concluded that the mean antibody titer values of Raksha PPR (Sungri 96) was significantly higher than PPR vaccine (Nigeria 75/1). As both India and Pakistan are two neighbouring countries, so PPR among them also falls in trans-boundary disease category. It signifies that both being part of Asia subcontinent and PPRV strain of lineage IV prevails in both regions. Keeping these factors under consideration proper vaccination strategy should be followed for the immunization of animals. In past, Nigeria 75/1 strain of PPRV vaccine had been used in Pakistan but the results were not reliable in terms of desired immune response and protection. Although titer was shown by this vaccine but protection is not reliable for proper health care of small ruminants. There was an immense need to come up with the authentic research on PPRV vaccine Raksha PPR (Sungri 96) in Pakistan which is already being used in India with desirable results. The results of present research project were mostly similar with the findings of other scientists. The results of this study were analyzed through Independent t-test for independent samples. Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 2385-T] (1).

380. Detection Of Prevalent Strain Of Ppr Virus And Efficacy Of Imported Live Attenuated Ppr Vaccine In Local Goat In Pakistan

by Iqra Javaid (2008-VA-76) | Prof.Dr. Aneela Zameer Durani | Dr.M. Hassan Saleem | Dr. Imran Altaf.

Material type: book Book; Literary form: not fiction Publisher: 2015Dissertation note: Peste des petits ruminants (PPR) is a viral, extremely transmissible disease with 100% and 90% of morbidity and death rate in small ruminants (Singh et al. 2004; Singh et al. 2009). The morbillivirus of the family Paramyxoviridae is responsible for its etiology (Barrett et al. 2005). The clinical signs of Peste des petits ruminants (PPR) are severe pyrexia, oculo-nasal discharge, necrotizing and erosive stomatitis, enteritis and pneumonia (Dhar et al. 2002) and is also accompanied by decrease in lymphocyte count (Rajak et al. 2005). Peste des petits ruminants (PPR) produces a major impact on the economy of the country (Zahur et al. 2009). Because of huge economic blow, the Peste des petits ruminants (PPR) imposes a major limitation on sheep and goat production (Asim et al. 2009; Abubakar and Munir. 2014). The homologous Peste des Petits Ruminants (PPRV) vaccines using Nigeria 75/1 strain of the virus are being manufactured in Pakistan (Asim et al. 2009). The Advance Studies in Vaccinology and Biotechnology Center (CASVAB) University of Baluchistan, Quetta, with the help of Vero cell line manufactured the freeze dried and tissue culture based PPR virus (PPR 75-1) vaccine (Abbas et al. 2011). The homologous and Vero cell based live attenuated PPR vaccine having origin of Indian virus isolate “PPRV-Sungri/96”is being manufactured in India for immunization against Peste des Petits Ruminants (PPR) disease (Sreenivasa et al. 2000). Twenty goats of different age, breed and sex were examined for the presence of PPR disease during this study. About 2-3 ml of saliva was collected from oral cavity of twenty PPR suspected goats in falcon tubes, signifying PPR disease. The extraction of RNA from the samples was done by trizole method and the concentration was measured by nanodrop. The extracted samples were then subjected to one step RT-PCR and then the PCR products were sent for sequencing to detect the PPRV strain under field conditions. To study immunogenic behavior of Raksha PPR (Sungri 96), total of forty (40) goats free from peste des petits ruminants virus (PPR-V) were selected for the experimental study. The Group A comprising of twenty (20) goats of age (06 months-01 Year) were further subdivided into two groups i.e subgroup A1 comprising of 10 goats to which Raksha PPR vaccine (Sungri 96) was administered and other ten of sub-group A2 served as control. Similarly the Group B possessing twenty (20) goats of age (01 Year - 02 Year) were further subdivided into two sub-groups i.e subgroup B1 comprising of 10 goats to which Raksha PPR vaccine (Sungri 96) was administered and other ten of sub-group B2 served as control. The RNA concentration was different in all twenty saliva samples when measured by nanodrop. Only five (5) samples out of total twenty (20), saliva samples from PPR suspected goats, were positive through RT-PCR and yielded an amplified product of 351bp. The five amplicons were sent for sequencing and the phylogenetic tree was constructed. The tree demonstrated that the Pakistani strains of PPRV clustered into lineage IV showing similarity with the isolates from China, Kurdistan, Iran and Bangladesh. It was revealed that the that the animals (1 year to 2year old ) vaccinated with Raksha PPR (Sungri 96) displayed the significantly higher mean antibody titers than the mean antibody titers shown by vaccinated animals of age (6 months to 1 year) at zero, 7th, 14th, 28th, 48th day post vaccination respectively. On statistical analysis of data, the results were significant (p<0.05). The present study revealed the presence of lineage IV in Pakistan. This will help to plan proper control strategies against this deadly viral disease. Currently the Nigeria75/1 vaccine is being used in Pakistan which clusters in lineage II while Pakistani field isolates fall under lineage IV. So it is very important to immunize the animals with lineage specific vaccine like Raksha PPR (Sungri 96) manufactured by IVRI, India. This study reported the strong association of age and PPR vaccination titer in goats. Our findings concluded that the strong immune response was shown by adult animals against PPRV vaccine as compared to young stock. The results of present research project were mostly similar with the findings of other scientists. The results of this study were analyzed by one way ANOVA for independent samples. Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 2381-T] (1).

381. Seroprevalence And Molecular Detection Of Brucellosis In Animals In Mirpur, Azad Kashmir Pakistan

by Hadia Mubeen (2008-VA-291) | Dr. Muhammad Hassan Saleem | Dr. Iahtasham Khan | Prof. Dr. Aneela Zameer Durrani | Dr. Hassan Bin Aslam.

Material type: book Book; Literary form: not fiction Publisher: 2015Dissertation note: Brucellosis is declared as one of the most widespread zoonoses in the world by the world's reknowned organizations. It is defined as a contagious systemic bacterial disease primarily of ruminants. The disease is manifested by late term abortions, weak calves, still births, infertility and also associated placentitis, epididymitis and orchitis, with excretion of the organisms in uterine discharges and milk. With the intensification of the import of animals and the establishment of big farms in the last few years, the incidence of brucellosis increased sharply in many countries, both in man and animals. In this study 360 serum samples were examined from four groups of animals in district Mirpur Azad Kashmir. Blood samples of 3ml from buffaloes, cattle, sheep and goat (n=30) each were taken from three sub-divisions of Mirpur separately. The serum samples were screened by RBPT which is a screening test for brucellosis, and it was observed that 8.6% animals were seropositive by RBPT. The serum samples of cattle were 17.8%, buffalo were 8.9%, goat were 2.2%, and sheep were 5.6% positive respectively. The serum samples positive by RBPT and some randomly taken samples were further confirmed by the use of most specific and sensitive serological test known as i-ELISA. 6.87% animals were confirmed as seropositive by i-ELISA including cattle (17.5%), buffalo (10%), sheep (0%) and goat (0%). All RBPT positive samples were further subjected to RT-PCR. Among these 31 samples 24 were positive for Brucella genus and only 7 samples were negative. Samples were further tested for confirmation of Brucella species. All 24 samples were having Brucella abortus. The data were analyzed by using the Statistical package for the social sciences (SPSS) program version 22. Data were analyzed using Chi-square test and Z-test statistics. Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 2378-T] (1).

382. Experimental Treatment Of Bovine Brucellosis Using Phyto-Chemo-Immuno Theraputic Agents

by Muhammad Kaleem (2013-VA-860) | Prof. Dr. Aneela Zameer Durrani | Dr. Ihtisham Khan | Dr. Muhammad Hassan Saleem | Prof. Dr. Khushi Muhammad.

Material type: book Book; Literary form: not fiction Publisher: 2015Dissertation note: Bovine brucellosis is very important zoonotic disease in respect of outbreak that resulted in reproductive loses through storm of abortions in herds and infertility in bulls. Currently, no phyto treatment for complete recovery from brucellosis is available. Phyto Chemo-immune therapeutic agents are effective for recovery from bovine brucellosis (Hypothesis) Group A was comprise five adult cows (n=5) positive for brucellosis. Animals in this group were given 3 shots of Oxytetracycline LA at 20mg/kg BW (IM) repeated every 48 hrs. Streptomycin @ 13mg/kg BW IM was given for six consecutive days. Furthermore, flunixin meglumine @ 2mg/kg BW IM for 3 days in combination with antibiotic. Selevit injection containing selenium and vitamin E was administered (IM) for consecutive five days. At next day all the animals in this group were vaccinated with a combined vaccine of RB51 and FMD (Oil based) at a dose of 3mL/animal through deep IM route. In group B, all the animals were given Saafi (Herbal Product) orally consecutively for six days. Furthermore, flunixin meglumin @ 2 mg/kg BW IM was administered for three days. All these treatments were given simultaneously. Then injection Selevit containing selenium and vitamin E were administered (IM) for consecutive five days. After treatment all animals were vaccinated with RB51 + FMD (oil based) 3mL/ animals deep intramuscularly. In group C, flunixin meglumin @ 2 mg/kg BW IM was administered for three days. After NSAID, Selevit injection containing vit. E and selenium was administered (IM) for five days regularly. After treatment, animals were vaccinated with RB51 + FMD (oil based) 3 mL/ animals (IM). In D group five negative adult animals were included in this group and vaccinated subcutaneously with RB51 and FMD (Oil based) at a dose of 3 mL/animal. Summary 40 Data regarding this study was analyzed with ANOVA and completely randomized design was used to compare the mean between different groups using statistical package for social science (SPSS) version 20. P < 0.05 was considered significant. The results showed OD values after 1st, 3rd and 6th month were significantly different in all groups. The mean values depicted that OD values was significantly higher (2.886±0.099) in vaccinated (positive) animal’s vs the other three groups. There was no significant difference in OD values of herbal treated, antibiotic treated and health control animals. The lowest OD values was found in healthy control animals, though significantly similar with herbal treated, antibiotic treated. The mean OD value at 3rd month after treatment is significantly higher (1.794±0.090) in herbal treated and vaccinated positive groups but the OD value of healthy group was lowest (1.794±0.090) after 3rd month of treatment. After 6th month of treatment the OD value of positive vaccinated group was found significantly highest (1.146±0.194). On the other hand lowest value (0.595±0.079) was found in healthy control group. All the groups have found non-significant difference in all group. Regarding Real time PCR the value range from 0-40 Ct values. In the present study the Ct values of the control positive was found to be 13 which indicate control positive. The antibiotic treated group had a Ct value found in this range 35.61 to 38.13. The herbal treated group were all positive and the values were 31.34 to 37.42 Ct. The vaccinated immune booster group. The Ct values in the group was found to be 30.83 to 34.21. The birth weight and placenta dropping time was normal in antibiotic treated animals. There were no significant results found in all groups. Summary 41 This study concluded that herbal regimen is effective in vitro against brucellosis but in vivo it is yet not to be evaluated. The antibiotics can be effective to treat the Brucellosis with this protocol. This was help to control bovine brucellosis, and extensive economic losses. Comparative efficacy of four commonly-immune therapeutic agents were help in choosing the most effective therapy/method for the recovery of bovine brucellosis. Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 2388-T] (1).

383. Sero-Prevalence Of Brucellosis In Sheep In Hazara Region

by Syed Touseef Hussain Shah (2013-VA-601) | Dr. Jawaria Ali Khan | Dr. Muhammad Ayaz | Dr. Waseem Yaqoob.

Material type: book Book; Literary form: not fiction Publisher: 2015Dissertation note: The present study was conducted in two Districtsof Hazara Regioni.e. Abbottabad and Battagram District, with the collaboration of National Zoonosis Surveillance and Research Unit, Animal Sciences Institute (ASI), National Agriculture Research Centre (NARC), Islamabad, Pakistan. A total of 300 venous blood samples of 5 ml each were collect¬ed from sheep of different areas of two Districts i.e. Abbottabad and Battagram, with 150 samples from each District. Then serums were dispatched to the National Agriculture Research Centre (NARC), for the diagnosis of Brucella melitensis by Rose Bengal Plate Test (RBPT) and Indirect Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (I-ELISA). The prevalence of the Brucella in sheep was determined as described by (Thrusfield 2013. The prevalence of brucellosis in Hazara Region by RBPT and I-ELISA was recorded as 4.67 % and 4.33 % respectively. From 150 samples of each district, 14 (9.33 %) and 13 (8.67 %) of samples were tested positive by RBPT and I-ELISA respectively in District Abbottabad whereas, no (0 %) samples were tested positive by RBPT and I-ELISA in District Battagram. Furthermore, on Tehsil wise sero-prevalence, only 2 (2.67 %) samples out of 75 were tested positive for brucellosis in sheep by both RBPT and I-ELISA in Tehsil Havelian, while in Tehsil Abbottabad 12 (16 %) and 11 (14.67 %) samples out of 75 were tested positive for brucellosis in sheep by RBPT and I-ELISA from district Abbottabad whereas, no positive samples were detected in Tehsil Battagram and Tehsil Allai by both RBPT and I-ELISA from district Battagram. Statistically there was a significant (>0.05) difference between the prevalence of brucellosis in sheep and area of Hazara Region. The demographic variables (age, sex and breed) were analyzed using Chi-square test on SPSS version 17.0 and statistically there was no significant (>0.05) difference between the prevalence of brucellosis in sheep and demographic variables i.e. age, sex and breed. The present study has shown that brucellosis is prevalent in sheep in the Hazara region. Female animals are more sensitive than their male counterparts. Sheep of breeding age are more vulnerable than the very young ones and Balkhi breed is more prone to the disease as compared to the Kaghani and Ramghani breeds. The Sensitivity and Specificity of the diagnostic test (RBPT) was determined as described by (Thrusfield 2013). The calculated sensitivity of Rose Bengal Plate Test was 100 % and its specificity was 99.6s5 %. The results of this study will be published to communicate the interesting findings and to increase the knowledge of veterinary and public health management. Therefore, we suggest the implementation of control measures, raising public knowledge on prevention methods, a complete surveillance system for the brucellosis in Hazara Region. Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 2394-T] (1).

384. Sero-Diagnosis And Associated Exposure Factors Of Brucelosis Among Trade Animals And Abbatoir Workers

by Madiha Ashraf (2008-VA-43) | Dr. Muhammad Avais | Prof. Dr. Aneela Zameer Durrani | Dr. Ali Ahmed Sheikh.

Material type: book Book; Literary form: not fiction Publisher: 2015Dissertation note: Brucellosis mainly infects food animals such as cattle, buffaloes. Brucella abortus is the principal cause of brucellosis in cattle and is shed from the infected animal at or around the time of calving or abortion. Brucellosis is zoonotic disease transmitted to humans both through Brucella abortus and melletensis. The present study was conducted on 200 animals privately owned and publically owned abattoir. An epidemiological questionnaire focusing on trade animals as well as husbandry and sanitary practices that could be associated with the risk of Brucellosis infection was completed. Serum samples were collected and analyzed using Rose Bengal Plate Test. The serum samples positive for Brucellosis through RBPT further subjected to enzyme linked Immunosorbent assay. The samples of cattle collected from publically owned abattoir are subjected to the RBPT and the result was 18% and privately owned abattoir have an RBPT result of 10% and samples of the buffaloes are subjected to the test of RBPT as an screening test which was respectively 20% and 8%. The samples are further subjected to the iELISA and the results was shown that through ELISA the result was respectively 12% and 4%. While results for the cattle declared the prevelance of brucella infection through indirect ELISA was 8% and 2% at public and private abattoir respectively. The abattoir workers had a high risk to the exposure to the transmission of the disease as it is world widely more zoonotic the workers found positive for the brucellosis at public abattoir through RBPT shown no positive results. While in private abattoir through RBPT there is 6.66% animals were positive. However we concluded the results through indirect ELISA the results found were 66.66% and 15.62% for the butchers and meat sellers respectively at public abattoir.so the butchers are prone to the infection of the brucella antibodies.in comparison with the private abattoir 33.33% was detected in the abattoir cleaner. Through indirect ELISA. Summary 50 The data originating from this study was tested thorough Chi square test while Odd ratio was calculated for risk factors. Statistical analysis was done using “SPSS version 20” and probability level <0.05 was considered significantly different. Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 2387-T] (1).

385. Clinico-Epidemiological And Experimental Observations On Feline Lower Urinary Tract Disease Among Domesticated Cats

by Abeera Naureen (2007-VA-541) | Prof. Dr. Muhammad Sarwar Khan | Prof. Dr. Muhammad Arif Khan | Prof. Dr. Azhar Maqbool.

Material type: book Book; Literary form: not fiction Publisher: 2015Dissertation note: Idiopathic Feline Lower Urinary Tract Disease (iFLUTD) has been known as a major as well as important problem throughout the world especially the veterinary profession. Nicks of this problem also found in Pakistan, however the veterinarians are usually unable to properly diagnose this disease due to lack of knowledge as well as the ancillary diagnostic equipment availability for this disease. Present study was divided into two phases. Phase – 1 included clinico-epidemiological data. To this end, target of more than 502 domesticated client-owned cats of either sex, age, breed, etc showing signs of feline lower urinary tract disease (FLUTD) as per Buffington (1994) were examined accordingly from 3 different cities (Lahore, Faisalabad, and Islamabad) of Pakistan). All data collected was based on a predesigned proforma by using structured interview of the owners. Diagnosis was solely based on serum-cortisol levels, urinalysis, radiography and ultrasonography. Phase II involved experimental trial. The data obtained from whole of the study was then presented in tabulated form as frequencies and percentages. Treatment and outcome of the disease were also analyzed accordingly. According to the present study conducted it is proved that iFLUTD is present among the cats in Pakistan. Its proper cognizance among the Pakistani veterinarians is still non-existent and is misdiagnosed as colic or constipation issues in cats. The present study was undertaken to bring iFLUTD into the reportive of small animal practitioners working in Pakistan. The present study debunked various previous notions like iFLUTD is associated with commercial diets and canned foods only if we talk about this region majority of cases were noticed that had home-cooked food given by the owner. Moreover, cases in Siamese breed are larger than Persian breed. It has been strongly associated with Indoor housing management. Additional work is still needed to explore untouched areas of epidemiology including factors other than those being studied in the previous literature. Academicians in veterinary pathology and veterinary medicine of Pakistani universities should embrace this malady in the Doctor of Veterinary Medicine (DVM) curricula. According to the present study results it is concluded that two factors like stress and pain accelerate the sympathetic nervous system outflow compared to normal felines leading to the inflammatory response. Thus the stress factor must be reduced in the form of making hiding places for cats at home to reduced down the fear factor along with enhancing the feeling of owes for that particular place. Moreover, some more practices should be performed by the owner to reduce down the stress factor like playing with the pet, giving full attention, placing toys and other attractive things like yarn balls at the feline places (where they live/placed). There was no significant difference found between the groups based on the food with health score along with the therapeutic judgment. Hence, it is recommended that more experiments should be performed on larger scale to assess GAG therapy on increased number of felines and need of hour is to conduct more veterinary studies to get information and authenticity for its use against iFLUTD. From this study conducted, I recommend to the owners that the cats must be provided with the indoor hiding places and play with their pets in order to reduce the stress factor that increases the risk of idiopathic lower urinary tract disease. Moreover, the trend of home-cooked diet should be reduced along with increase in water intake by the cat. Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 2420-T] (1).

386. Anthelmintic Efficacy Of Nicotiana Tabacum Against Haemonchus Placei In Cattle

by Ali Haider (2008-VA-179) | Dr. Jawaria Ali Khan | Dr. Muhammad Avais | Prof. Dr. Kamran Ashraf.

Material type: book Book; Literary form: not fiction Publisher: 2015Dissertation note: The gastro- intestinal tract (GIT) of animals contains variety of parasites primarily helminthes, which are responsible for sub clinical and clinical parasitism.Major economic losses in the livestock industry are caused by adverse effect on the health status of animals by these parasites. The effect of these parasitic infections include decreased milk production, edible offals and meat refusal, decrease of hides, late maturity and death mostly in calves and more production cost because of drugs usage. Plants are being used as anthelmintic as the allopathic drugs today which offer alternate to the use of synthetic chemicals. Aqueous and methanol extracts of Nicotiana tabacum leaves are effective against Haemonchus placei in cattle. A total number of one hundred (n=100) samples of cattle round worm Haemonchus placei directly brought from slaughter houses were included in this study and for the efficacy of In vitro aqueous extracts of Nicotiana tabacum leaves the abomasal contents were preserved in normal saline containing jars. In-vitro aqueous extracts were prepared in stock solution and the different dilutions of these extracts were used to calculate the anthelmintic efficacy in three different Petri dishes having various concentrations of Nicotiana tabacum leaves aqueous extracts in the form of percentages besides the positive and negative controls receiving single dose of Levamisole and no treatment respectively. Adult cattle were used for In-vivo trails which were conducted in dairy farms present in Lahore. Animals were conformed for the presence of gastro-intestinal parasites by qualitative and quantitative methods of faecal analysis. Total n=24 were included in the study trials and for treatment trails n=24 cow positive for endo-parasitic infections especially for H. placei weredivided in to Six groups. Four groups were given the single treatment of aqueous extract and methanol extract 1 gm/kg and 3 gm/kg respectively while fifth group received single dose of Levamisole HCl and the sixth group was negative control and received no treatment. Faecal samples from each animal were collected in the morning, starting from day 0 pre-treatment and at days 5 and 10 post-treatment and were evaluated for the presence of worm eggs by salt flotation technique. The eggs were counted by the McMaster method (Zajac et al. 2012). The EPG standard for groups treated with crude aqueous extract was 500-600 eggs per gram and the groups treated with crude methanol extract contained 700-800 EPG. The positive control contained 900-1000 EPG. The negative control contained EPG >1000. The comparative efficacy data were analyzed by Repeated measures analysis of variance (ANOVA) by using SPSS 20.0. A probability level ˂0.05 was considered statistically significant. During the In-vitro study the efficacy of aqueous extracts of Nicotiana tabacum at the concentrations of 25 mg/ml, 50 mg/ml and 100 mg/ml were same against adult Haemonchus placei parasites which was 100 % during In-vitro study. All the wormsexposed to levamisole 0.55 mg/ml, a standard anthelmintic agent were found dead after three hours of incubation at 37 ºC whereas, none of the worms were found dead in Phosphate buffer solution (PBS) which acted as the negative control. These findings indicatedthe anthelmintic activity of extracts of N. tabacum. During the In-vivo study all the treatment groups showed a significant reduction (P< 0.05) in EPG at day 5 and 10 post-treatment. The maximum reduction showed by Crude Aqueous extract (CAE) at 3 gm/kg dose at day 5 and 10 post treatment were 48.88 % and 51.11 % respectively. The maximum reduction showed by Crude Methanolic extracts at the dose rate of 3 gm/kg body weight were 75.8 % and 79.03 % respectively at 5 and 10 days post treatment. The positive control treated with Levamisole HCl showed the maximum reduction of 98.68 % in eggs per gram (EPG). The data organized from this study were helpful to know the anthelmintic efficacy of Nicotiana tabacum leaves aqueous and methanol extracts against gastro intestinal nematode H. placei in cattle and the treatment trials provided the most reliable and cost effective treatment for round worms infestation in cattle. Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 2406-T] (1).

387. Ethno-Veterinary Therapy Of Gastrointestinal Helminthes Infestation In Camels Of Thal Desert

by Muhammad Usman Ghani (2013-VA-446) | Dr. Syed Saleem Ahmad | Dr. Avais Ahmad | Prof. Dr. Kamran Ashraf.

Material type: book Book; Literary form: not fiction Publisher: 2015Dissertation note: Gastrointestinal helminths are responsible for wide range of health problems, economic losses in camels and are characterized by impaired milk and meat production, decreased working efficiency and even death of the camel. Gastrointestinal nematodes cause losses through morbidity, decreased feed intake, poor efficiency of nutrient and reduced growth. To study the gastrointestinal helminths 384 camels of different age, sex and breed were examined coprologically. For this, five gram of fresh faecal sample was carefully collected into a sealed container from each camel and was transported to Disease Diagnostic laboratory Muzaffargarh. Where direct faecal smear method was performed in order to verify positivity of faecal sample. Positive sample was preserved in 10% formalin and transferred to Medicine lab, UVAS, Lahore for further procedure. Faecal samples were scored 1-3 based on the consistency. The individual samples was triturated in saturated salt solution, sieved and examined for helminths eggs by using different techniques i.e. Direct Smear Method, Sedimentation technique and Floatation technique while the eggs count was performed by McMaster technique. The overall prevalence of gastrointestinal helminths in the camels was 40.10%. The study showed that there were frequent infections with different species of helminths. Six different species of helminths were identified in camels, they were broadly classified as nematodes (4 species), Trematodes (1 specie) and Cestode (1 specie). Among these helminths nematodes, trematode and cestode order of intensity are 33.07%, 3.38% and 3.64%. In nematodes Haemonchus spp 9.11%, Trichostrongylus spp 5.98%, Trichuris spp (4.16%), Nematodirus spp (2.60%) and mixed (11.19%). Summary 42 Among the camel population, overall prevalence of Fasciola hepatica and Moniezia expansa was recorded 3.38% and 3.64%.respectively. The prevalence of helminths in relation to sex was 34.55 % in male and 43.14% in females. However there was no statistical difference between the prevalence of females and males (P>0.05). Study was also conducted to determine the influence of age on the prevalence of helminths which revealed that there was no statistical significant association (P>0.05) between those groups. Between the age groups prevalence was 45.09% in <5 Year old and 36.79% in >5 year old. The breed wise prevalence in Mareecha and Brella breeds was 42.85 % and 36.78% respectively which was statistically non-significant (P>0.05). For therapeutic trials, a total of 40 camels positive for helminths and having EPG >400 were randomly selected and divided into four groups A-D each group comprising of 10 animals. The dosage of herbal drugs was calculated on the basis of preliminary trials in other species. The camels of group A were orally treated with Artemisia brevifolia (Afsanteen) at dose rate of 10mg/kg BW, while camels of group B were given Mallotus philipinenesis (Kamela) powder at a dose rate of 375mg/kg BW. Camels in group C were treated with Albenzole granules® (Selmore) at a dose rate of 15mg/kg. b.wt. PO once. Camels in group D were serving as positive control (infected-untreated). Efficacy was determined on the reduction of eggs in feces at day 3, 7 and 14 (post-treatment). In current study A.brevifolia (Afsanteen) and M.Phillippinensis gave satisfactory results in the camels affected with helminths. A.brevifolia (Afsanteen) showed a mild to moderate reduction in EPG count from day 3rd to day 14th in camels. Mean EPG values calculated on days 0, 3, 7 and 14 were 670, 570, 385 and 275 respectively. A.brevifolia (Afsanteen) cured 23.88% of the animals on day 3rd of the drug administration while 42.53% and 58.95% animals cured on the day 7th and 14th respectively. M.Phillippinensis showed mild reduction in mean EPG count on 14th day of post-treatment. Mean EPG values calculated on days 0, 3, 7 and 14 were 440, 400, 355 and 310 respectively. M.Phillippinensis also gave good results Summary 43 against helminths affected camels. On the day 3rd of the treatment 19.31% of animals cured while 29.54% animals were cured on the 7th day and on 14th day 44.31% animals recovered. Albendazole showed marked dropped in EPG count from Day 3rd to day 14th. Mean EPG values calculated on days 0, 3, 7 and 14 were 560, 195, 95 and 35 respectively. Albendazole efficacy was 31%, 68% and 82% on 3, 7 and 14 days of treatments. Control positive showed consistence increased in EPG count from day 3 to day 14. Data regarding prevalence were measured by non-parametric, chi-square (χ2), while therapeutic trails were analysed by repeated measures one way ANOVA, using SPSS (Statistical package for social sciences) 20.0, P < 0.05 was considered significant. Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 2403-T] (1).

388. Comparative Efficacy Of Allopathic And Herbal Drugs Against Nematodes In Equines

by Muhammad Irfan (2008-VA-297) | Dr. Jawaria Ali Khan | Dr. Syed Saleem Ahmad | Dr. Nisar Ahmad.

Material type: book Book; Literary form: not fiction Publisher: 2015Dissertation note: Parasitic problem has been a major mounting problem of equids which severely creates the hindrance in performance in equine which leads to weakness, emaciation, colic, diarrhea, anemia, thriftiness, loss of energy and ultimately death. Looking at the importance of equine and its utilization by poor farmers there is need to cure the malady. GIT Nematodes are prevalent in Equines in district Jhang. Novel combination of Abamactin + Praziquantel was very efficacious to subside parasitic load in Equines. GIT Nematodes have some effects on blood parameters (TEC, HB, and PCV). A total 200 (100 horses and 100 donkeys) from different areas of district Jhang were included in the study. For this, fresh fecal sample were carefully collected into a sealed container from each horse and donkey and were transferred to Medicine lab, UVAS, Lahore in containers with ice packs. Each samples were examined for nematodes eggs and for larvae by using different techniques i.e. Direct Smear Method and fecal culture technique while the eggs count was performed by McMaster technique. To study the effect of Gastrointestinal nematodes on various blood parameters of equine, blood samples were collected from selected animals and were analyzed for hemoglobin (Hb), total erythrocytes count (TEC) and packed cell volume (PCV) by using Hematology Analyzer. For therapeutic trails, a total of 12 horses and 12 donkeys positive for nematodes were taken and divided into groups A, B and C comprising of 8 animals each. Group C was comprised of 8 animals as Positive control and fourth group D was comprised of 8 animals as negative control. Group A was treated with abamactin + praziquantel (EQUITAK) orally @ 1ml/20kg bodyweight PO once at 0 day and group B was treated with herbal ingredients Summary 49 (EVERZAN) @ 1ml/20kg bodyweight PO once at 0 day. Efficacy was determined on the basis of reduction of eggs in feces at day 0, 7th and 21th day (post-treatment). Data was recorded in a questionnaire regarding age, sex, breed, nutritional status and disease condition. The present study was designed to check the comparative efficacy of two different drugs such as Equitak (Allopathic) and Everzan (herbal) against gastrointestinal nematodes and its effects on blood parameters in both horses and donkeys. According to therapeutic trial, Equitak presented very good response against GIT nematodes by fast decreasing EPG in both experimental animals and showed its efficacy more than 80% but Everzan showed poor response against nematodes in both experimental animals and its efficacy less than 30%. By administering Equitak in both experimental animals gave good results regarding blood parameters such as total erythrocytes count (TEC), packed cell volume (PCV) and Hemoglobin (Hb) and its values had been continuously increasing in 7th and 21st day since administration. But in contrast to Equitak, Everzan showed poor response regarding blood parameters and values did not increased at 7th and 21st days. It has been proved that Equitak has its very strong effect against strongylus spp than other parasites that come under the category of roundworms. So Equitak proved more effective against nematodes in Equines than Everzan. Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 2418-T] (1).

389. Sedative And Analgesic Effects Of Xylazine, Ketamine And Diazepam In Ducks

by Hafiz Manzoor Ahmad (2013-VA-856) | Dr. Hamad Bin Rashid | Prof. Dr. Muhammad Arif Khan | Dr. Asim Khalid Mahmood.

Material type: book Book Publisher: 2015Dissertation note: Mostly of the drugs given intramuscularly are ineffective in producing anesthesia in ducks. There are some combinations which have a synergistic effect for producing good sedation and analgesia. This combination includes ketamine-xylazine and ketamine-xylazine-diazepam. This study was conducted on ducks which are divided into two groups (A, B). The group A was given xylazine (5 mg/kg) and ketamine hydrochloride (15 mg/kg) and the birds of group B was given ketamine hydrochloride (15 mg/kg), xylazine (2.5 mg/kg) and diazepam (2.5mg/kg) cocktail. Anesthesia is the desensitization of body through nerve blockage. It is the reversible state of analgesia and loss of responsive-ness, loss of skeletal muscle reflexes, decreased stress response, or all of these simultaneously. The average body temperature of ducks treated with KX and KXD was 105.02±0.12, and 104.97±0.18 oF, respectively. The average heart rate of ducks anesthetized by KX and KXD was 103.75±3.18, and 98.63±2.24 beats/min, respectively. The average respiratory rate of ducks treated with KX and KXD was 19.2±1.62, and 16.11±0.52 breaths/min, respectively. The onset of sedation in ducks anesthetized by KX, and KXD was recorded in 2.11±0.75 and 1.14±0.04 minutes after drug administration. The duration of sedation in the ducks anesthetized was 87.33±6.74, and 127.42±18.60 minutes, respectively. The recovery of ducks from sedation was recorded in 89.53±6.22, and 128.56±18.52 minutes. Onset of analgesia in ducks anesthetized by KX and KXD was recorded in3.22±0.54, and 1.67±0.77 minutes after drug administration. The duration of analgesia in the ducks anesthetized with KX and KXD was 39.76±3.89 and 81.15±11.17 minutes, respectively. The recovery of ducks from analgesia was recorded in 43.37±4.42 and 82.82±11.15 minutes, when anesthetized with KX and KXD respectively. The onset of sedation, onset of analgesia, duration was relatively delayed in KX SUMMARY 36 group; recovery from sedation and analgesia was observed in ducks anesthetized with KX group is early than KXD group. These effects can be obtained from a combination of drugs to achieve very specific combinations of results. The purpose of this study is to evaluate the sedative and analgesic effects of xylazine- ketamine and diazepam in different combinations. Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 2422-T] (1).

390. In-Vivo Efficacy Of Aqueous And Alcoholic Extracts Of Hedera Helix Against Fasciolosis In Sheep

by Muhammad Faisal Raza (2008-VA-206) | Dr. Muhammad Avais | Dr. Muhammad Hassan Saleem | Dr. Imran Rashid.

Material type: book Book; Literary form: not fiction Publisher: 2015Dissertation note: The liver fluke, Fasciola hepatica, is a common parasite of ruminants in many countries in the temperate climates and often causes severe economic losses. Infection with both F. hepatica and F. gigantica may also occur in occasionally causing large scale epidemics. These parasites adversely affect the health status of animals and cause enormous economic losses Triclabendazole (TCBZ) is a worldwide, one of the most used drugs for the control of fasciolosis but the efficacy may depend on the susceptibility of the strain involved in the drug. However, resistance of the liver fluke to TCBZ in naturally infected sheep has been reported. Plants are being used as anthelmintic as the allopathic drugs today which offer substitute to the use of synthetic chemicals. This study was carried out to evaluate the efficacy of aqueous and methanolic extracts of H. helix against fasciolosis in sheep. For this purpose, adult sheep was used for In vivo trials. Animals were screened for the presence of liver fluke and 30 sheep positive for liver fluke infestation were used for therapeutic trials. They were divided into 5 groups. Group A and B were given single dose of aqueous extract of Hedera helix at concentrations of 1.13 gm/kg and 2.25 gm/kg body weight respectively. Animals in C and D group were given 1.13 gm/kg and 2.25 gm/kg body weight respectively, while sheep in E group were given Triclabendazole at dose rate of 1 ml/5kg body weight. Fecal samples from each animal was collected in the morning, starting from day 0 pre-treatment and at days 4,7 and 14 post-treatment and were evaluated for the EPG through Modified McMaster method. The comparative efficacy was analysed by two way analysis of variance (ANOVA) using SPSS 20.0. A probability levels ˂0.05 was considered as statistically significant. During In vivo experiment all the treatments showed significant reduction in EPG. The maximum reduction in EPG showed by crude aqueous extract (CAE) at day 4 post treatment at 1.13 gm/kg dose rate was 20.0012 %. There were no significant reduction in EPG at day 7 and 14 day for aqueous extract. The maximum reduction by aqueous extract at day 4 at dose Summary 29 rate of 2.25 gm/kg was 40.47 % and at day 7 it was 45.24 %, whereas there was no significant reduction at day 14 post treatment. The maximum reduction showed by crude Methanolic extract at dose rate of 1.13 gm/kg at day 4 was 29.54 %. At day 7 post treatment the reduction of EPG was 40.09 % and at day 14 the reduction was 43.18 %. The maximum reduction showed by crude Methanolic extract at dose rate of 2.25 gm/kg at day 4 was 56.09 %. At day 7 post treatment the reduction of EPG was 64.85 % and at day 14 the reduction was 68.29 %. The positive control treated with Triclabendazole showed the maximum reduction of 97.5 % in eggs per gram (EPG). So it is concluded from the study that the extracts of Hedera helix have the anthelmintic efficacy against liver fluke. The increase in dose rate of extracts may give better results. So there is need to conduct further studied and more trials on Hedera helix extracts under field conditions to achieve maximum efficiency levels. Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 2431-T] (1).

391. Study On Autologous And Homologous Platelet Rich Plasma As A Surgical Wound Healing Promoter In Rabbits

by Muhammad Shahid Tahir (2012-VA-996) | Dr. Uzma Farid Durrani | Dr. Asim Khalid Mahmood | Prof. Dr. Muhammad Sarwar Khan.

Material type: book Book; Literary form: not fiction Publisher: 2016Dissertation note: Wound healing is a complex process in which tissue repairs itself with the complete or incomplete regeneration. During recent years, new advances have been employed in the monarchy of tissue healing by initiation of use of platelet rich plasma (PRP) as a wound healing promoter in both soft and hard tissue surgeries. Platelet rich plasma is highly potentiated with growth and healing factors that can lead to marked acceleration in the tissue adaptation, repair and healing as compared to PRP non-facilitated healing process. This study was conducted on 16 adult healthy rabbits contributing 2 different groups, each group with 8 rabbits. Rabbits of both groups were surgically operated for skin autogenous grafting. Group A received an application of autologous PRP subcutaneously and in the surroundings of the graft defect, while group B received homologous PRP. Efficacy of both autologous and homologous PRP was evaluated on the basis of selected macroscopic and microscopic (histopathological) parameters of tissue repair and healing. The results, obtained in form of grades, were statistically analyzed by graphical representations. A successful use of autologous and homologous PRP with the desired results did not only boost up the surgical success rate in the specie under study but it opened a new vista on the same lines for other species to bring a better wound healing process. This study uprooted the conventional methods of managing wounds associated with injuries and helped the animals to get confidently satisfactory health status. Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 2452-T] (1).

392. Comparative Efficacy Of Polypropylene And Polyester Mesh For The Repair Of Abdominal Wall Defect In Pigeons

by Muhammad Naveed Ali (2007-VA-114) | Dr. Hamad Bin Rashid | Prof. Dr. Muhammad Arif Khan | Dr. Asim Khalid Mahmood.

Material type: book Book; Literary form: not fiction Publisher: 2016Dissertation note: Polypropylene is a widely used biomaterial for the treatment of ventral abdominal wall hernias. It exhibit pain, prominent inflammatory response and foreign body reaction. Polyester (Polyethylene terephthalate) is hydrophilic material works with body’s natural systems to improve tissue integration while reducing negative foreign material response. Polyester offers extremely lower pain intensity and less foreign body reaction. The purpose of designated research was to compare the efficacy of polypropylene and polyester meshes for the treatment of abdominal defect. Both are non-absorbable meshes. Polypropylene mesh is available in Pakistan with the trade name of Prolene® (Ethicon,Johnson & Johnson, USA). Polyester mesh is not available inPakistan and was acquired from Al Zahrawi Medical, a local healthcare company in Dubai, United Arab Emirates. Polyester mesh is available with brandname of (Parietex®, Covidien, France). The experimental study was conducted on 16 (sixteen) healthy pigeons presented for massive abdominal defect repair. All birds were thoroughly examined to rule out any other anomaly before study. The birds were allocated into two different groups, viz. Group A and Group B with 8 birds in each group respectively. All treatments were administered intramuscularly using 1 ml insulin syringe. The Polypropylene mesh (Prolene®, Ethicon) was used for the treatment of abdominal repair for group A. The birds of group B was treated with Polyester mesh (Parietex®, Covidien). Ventral abdominal wall repair was performed in both groups using Polypropylene and Polyester mesh respectively. The surgery was performed at Surgery Section, Department of CMS, UVAS, Lahore for 3 months duration (including adaptation and postoperative period). Both meshes were compared on the basis of postoperative complications (wound healing, pain evaluation, hematoma, seroma and abscess formation), inflammatory responses and adhesion formation after application of mesh fixation. During experiment, it was observed that polypropylene mesh resulted in a prominent pain sensation, persistent inflammatory reaction, proliferating fibroblast, more granulating tissue, macrophages appearance, increased connective tissue thickness and proliferating collagen fibre. It was observed that Polyester mesh resulted in less pain sensation, no foreign body reaction, no neutrophil appearance and rare granulating tissue. Polyester mesh showed remarkable advantages over polypropylene mesh in terms lower pain level, reduced size seroma and extremely less scar tissue formation. Based upon all the findings it was concluded that polyester mesh is safer and more effective in terms of post-operative complications and outcomes. Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 2495-T] (1).

393. Molecular Epidemiology, Biochemical and Antibiogram Studies of Staphylococcus Aureus Subclinical Mastitis in Chilistani Cows in District Bahawalpur

by Abdul Qayyum (2012-VA-570) | Dr. Jawaria Ali Khan | Dr. Riaz Hussain | Dr. Muhammad Avais | Dr. Nisar Ahmad.

Material type: book Book; Literary form: not fiction Publisher: 2015Dissertation note: Thesis submitted without CD. Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 2500-T] (1).

394. Comparative Potency Of Two Different Trivalent Vaccines Against Foot And Mouth Disease In Cattle Around The Area Of Ravi Campus Pattoki

by Muhammad Fahimullah Khan (2009-VA-137) | Prof. Dr. Aneela Zameer Durrani | Dr. Muhammad Ijaz | Dr. Jawad Nazir.

Material type: book Book; Literary form: not fiction Publisher: 2016Dissertation note: Foot and Mouth Disease is a highly contagious viral disease of all cloven footed animals. The best control strategy of this disease is effective and in time vaccination. A successful vaccination campaign depends on the serotype identification and specific vaccination against the prevalent serotype of the virus. The present study was designed to evaluate comparative potency of two anti-FMDV vaccines (UVAS-FMD, Deccivac Intervet) used in cattle around areas of Lahore Pakistan. Blood samples were taken from vaccinated animals on day 0, 30, 60 and 90 post priming. Antibody titer was evaluated with different route of administration and various adjuvant based vaccines. Four animal groups were made each containing 5 animals; in group 1 UVAS vaccine was used by Sub/ Cut route (gel based) at priming dose, followed by Intra Muscular (oil) on 30th day. In group 2 UVAS vaccine was given I/M (oil) as priming dose and booster (oil) I/M. In group 3 Deccivac (oil) vaccine was used I/M for priming and boosting. In group 4 Deccivac (oil) vaccine was used as Sub/ Cut for priming and boosting. The results revealed non-significant difference (p>0.05) among the four different groups administered with FMDV vaccines when evaluated at day 30 and significant difference (p<0.05) at day 60 and 90 post vaccination. Analysis of variance showed significant difference (p<0.05) in antibodies between groups and with in groups at day 60 and 90. Gel based vaccine gave quick antibody response which later maintained with oil based booster dose. The difference in antibody titers obtained in the present study was found non-significant (P>0.05) between the antibody titers of FMD trivalent vaccine of UVAS and Deccivac at 90th day of inoculation. There was significant difference (p<0.05) between the adjuvants of vaccine. Animals inoculated with priming dose of gel based vaccine followed by oil based boosting showed significantly high anti FMD antibody titer than animals inoculated with oil for both priming and boosting. There was significant Summary 54 difference (p<0.05) between the groups vaccinated with various routes of administration. The animals inoculated with priming dose through s/c followed by boosting dose i/m showed significantly high anti FMD antibody titer at 90th day of inoculation compared with those inoculated intramuscularly for both priming and boosting. The animals inoculated with oil based vaccine for both priming and boosting through S/c showed marked significant decreased in anti FMD antibody titer. The route of administration revealed significant difference (p<0.05) in antibody response within groups and between groups at day 30, 60 and 90. In all three readings the mean for sub/cut priming and IM boosting were found significantly high (p<0.05) as compared to other routes. In conclusion it is recommend from the study that FMD vaccination with sub/cut priming and booster dose with IM route. Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 2499-T] (1).

395. Sero-Epidemiology Of Johne’s Disease Along With Its Effect On Serum Biochemical Profile In Cattle In District D.I. Khan, Khyber Pakhtunkhwa

by Nasrullah (2009-VA-90) | Prof. Dr. Aneela Zameer Durrani | Dr. Waseem Yaqub | Dr. Mamoona Chaudhry.

Material type: book Book; Literary form: not fiction Publisher: 2016Dissertation note: Johne’s disease (JD) or Paratuberculosis caused by Mycobacterium avium subsp. Paratuberculosis (MAP) is characterized by an incubation period of several years. It is a chronic non-treatable disease of animals causing enteritis which ultimately leads to economic losses to dairy and meat industries worldwide. To estimate sero-epidemiology of the JD through ELISA is inexpensive, efficient, single step and sensitive for the detection of antibodies in cattle and buffaloes. So, keeping in view the economic and public health significance of the disease, the present study was designed with the objective to estimate the sero prevalence of JD using indirect ELISA and to quantify the effect of JD on the level of serum proteins in cattle of D. I. Khan district, Khyber Pakhtunkhwa Province. Johne’s disease is prevalent in cattle of D I Khan that affects serum proteins level in dairy animals. For the study animals were well restrained and about 5 ml blood was collected in Non- EDTA coated vacutainer from the jugular vein of each animal using 5 ml disposable syringe, after collection and proper labeling samples were transferred in Ice packed cooler to Microbiology laboratory, Govt. College of Veterinary Sciences D.I Khan. Serum was collected at the top of the vacutainer with the help of disposable pipette and was stored in eppendorf tubes in deep freezer until transported to University of Veterinary and Animal Sciences, Lahore for further analysis. Data was captured on questionnaires about the clinical signs and symptoms, management practices and possible risk factors associated with Johne’s disease, was obtained from the owners. Summary 40 The collected serum samples were analyzed by Indirect ELISA using commercial ELISA kit (Mycobacterium Paratuberculosis Antibody Test Kit, IDEXX, USA) according to manufacturer instructions. The ELISA positive samples were processed further for the estimation of serum protein analysis using Biuret method (Doumas et al. 1981;Spencer and Price. 1977).The serum albumin was determined by Photometric colorimetric test (Bromocresole green (BCG) method (Spencer and Price. 1977).The globulin will be estimated by subtracting serum albumin from serum total proteins (Javed et al. 2010). Data regarding sero-prevalence by indirect ELISA were analyzed through Pearson's Chisquare Test, while data regarding the effect on serum protein was analyzed by simple t-test using statistical package for social sciences (SPSS) version 20. P < .05 was considered significant. The present study demonstrated (12.7%) prevalence of MAP in cattle population of D.I Khan. There were no significant effect of MAP on serum biochemical profile. The results of all variables studied as under breed, gender, age, vaccinated status and management system. The most frequent level was observed in females 13.7% as compared to males 0% (0/4). Among different age groups, higher sero-prevalence 33.3% were present at age group above 6 years while sero-prevalence of 7.1% in 2-3 years and 0% were recorded in age group 4-6 years. Statistically a significant different were present between these groups. Moreover, there was no relationship of vaccination status with disease because the prevalence recorded 16.6% and vaccinated cases positive were recorded 0% but there was no significance difference among two groups of animals. Breed wise risk factor statistically significant because the MAP cases were highly prevalent in non-descript cattle 25% as compared to crossbred 5.8% and Sahiwal 0% cattle breed. BCS category I had highest prevalence 66.6% while in BCS category II prevalence Summary 41 was 23.8% and in BCS category III the prevalence was 0% recorded. Statistically the BCS of the disease animals was significantly associated. Highest prevalence 100% were recorded above 60 days of diarrhea duration while 0% were recorded less than 60 days of diarrhea duration. Statistically the sero-prevalence of diarrhea duration was highly significant. Management wise sero-prevalence of Johne’s disease on the type of housing was higher in open 19.2% as compared to confined 6.8% showing non-significant difference statistically. Sanitation wise seroprevalence were higher in poor 19.2% as compared to good sanitation 6.8% showing also nonsignificant difference statistically. Sero-prevalence of disease was less in well water 0% as compared to tap water 25% showing there were a significant difference between the seroprevalence of Johne’s disease under different water conditions. The results of total protein analysis was statistically non-significant. Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 2526-T] (1).

396. Crop Repair Using Different Ingluviotomy Techniques In Pigeon

by Rashid Hussain (2007-VA-138) | Dr. Naveed Hussain | Dr. Asim Khalid Mahmood | Dr. Waseem Yaqub.

Material type: book Book; Literary form: not fiction Publisher: 2016Dissertation note: Crop is the pivotal organ of the birds’ body. The primary function of the crop is the storage of food. When the crop is full,it becomes more prominent as well as slight pendulous and more prone to trauma. Such wounds lead to the crop fistula formation in birds. Fortunately crop has a good blood supply and heals well. Ingluviotomy performed by making an incision on left lateral cervical region over the crop to minimize disruption of vasculature and complications associated with tube feeding in recovery period. The present study was conducted to compare the different suturing techniques for Ingluviotomy in pigeons (Columba livia domestica).Thirty Pigeons weighing between 275 gm to 350 gm were managed from nearby area of Lahore and were kept in experimental cages of Surgery Section (CMS) of University of Veterinary and Animal Sciences, Lahore. The present study was conducted to compare the different suturing techniques along with glue for Ingluviotomy in pigeons (Columba livia domestica).These pigeons were divided into three experimental groups i.e. Group A, B and C comprising ten pigeons each. In group A comprising of ten (10) pigeons underwent single layer closure with the help of absorbable suture material (Vicryl®) 4-0 using simple continuous suture pattern. Temperature, pulse and respiration were observed at different days from day 1 to day 30 in all groups. The pigeon of group A (single layer closure), showed more variation in temperature, pulse and respiration as compared with the group B ( double layer closure) and C (closure with glue). The bird of group B showed less variation in temperature, pulse and respiration and was normal after few days of surgery. The birds of group C also showed fever and rise in temperature but it was less than the birds of group A and showed more variation in temperature, pulse respiration than birds of group B. Pigeons in Group A (single layer closure) showed poor healing in overall period. At day 30 only 30% of the birds showed complete healing while 40% bird were still in healing phase, the dead percentage was 30. While in term of leakage at day 20, zero percent of the birds SUMMARY 49 showed leakage while no leakage percentage was 70% and the dead percentage was 30. Pigeons in Group B (double layer closure) showed significant good healing during the research period. At day 30 total of 80% of the birds were completely healed while 20 % bird in healing phase, percentage of no wound healing and the dead was zero. In term of leakage, at day 20 total of 100% of the birds were showed no leakage, leakage percentage was zero percent and the dead percentage was zero. In group C ( closure with glue) At day 30 , 50% of the birds were completely healed, 20% birds were in healing phase, no wound healing percentage was 10% , dead percentage was 20 and wound dehiscence was zero percent. While in term of leakage, at day 20 only 50% of the birds showed no leakage, leakage percentage was 30% and the dead percentage was 20 %. In term of postmortem changes it was noticed that fibrosis and narrowing of crop lumen was less in double layer closure birds it showed good healing. In birds treated with single layer closure showed more fibrosis and narrowing of crop lumen while in group where glue is used less narrowing of crop lumen and more fibrosis was seen which showed poor healing. Conclusion The verdict based explanations for better and reliable closure technique for ingluviotomy in pigeons using double layer closure is that this procedure enables proper apposition of crop edges and in addition, there is less tension at apposed site. Besides this, there is more vascular supply in the crop area,that enhances faster and reliable healing of crop repair. As the double layer closure stands to be novel procedure for crop repair, it should be used by avian surgeons worldwide. Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 2518-T] (1).

397. Detection of Antibodies For Mycobacterium Avium Sub-Specie Paratuberculosis in Sheep Population Along With Its Associated Risk Factors in District Rahim Yar Khan

by Muhammad Arif Rizwan (2014-VA-228) | Dr. Waseem Yaqub | Prof. Dr. Aneela Zameer Durrani | Dr. Arfan Ahmad.

Material type: book Book; Literary form: not fiction Publisher: 2016Dissertation note: Johne’s disease (JD), caused by Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis, is a chronic enteric disease of ruminants. The disease manifest itself in sense of trade restrictions production losses. Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis(MAP) is manifested by an incubation period of several years. During subclinical stage of infection, paratuberculosis pass out in feces through which the disease get approaches to other animals in herd. It is also shed in the milk of infected animal, cannot be killed even on pasteurization and in human beings cause a disease (Crohn's disease). Johne’s disease is somewhat difficult to detect in animals having sub clinical infection. Moreover, the animals in the early stages of infection is often has an immune response that is detectable by ELISA which is not elicited by the animal in time. ELISA is affordable, efficient, one-step and in sheep and goats is very sensitive for the detection of antibodies. So, keeping in mind the economic and public health importance of this disease, present study was formulated with the purpose to detect the MAP in sheep in district in Rahim Yar Khan. 5 ml blood samples, total 100 (n=100 sheep) blood sample out of which 50 animals were selected on the basis of clinical signs (shooting diarrhea, decrease in milk production and weight loss in spite of good appetite) and 50 animals were selected from the surrounding exhibiting no clinical signs but on suspicion of being carrier from local animal markets, different slaughtering site of animals and in periphery of District, RahimYar Khan. The data regarding all the animals was collected on a predesigned questionnaire. Serum was separated by centrifugation and was stored in deep freezer having temperature (-400 C) until analyzed by indirect ELISA through commercial ELISA, Mycobacterium Paratuberculosis Antibody Test Kit (IDEXX Paratuberculosis Screening) and results was recorded through ELISA reader. The ELISA positive serum samples was processed further for the estimation of serum protein analysis. Sero-detection of antibodies for Mycobacterium avium sub-specie paratuberculosis (MAP) was estimated based on indirect ELISA results. In present study the overall prevalence in sheep for mycobacterium avium sub specie paratuberculosis in district Rahim Yar Khan in different marketed and slaughtering animals irrespective of breed age and sex. When the serum samples of the suspected sheep were subjected to the serum biochemistry for analysis of total proteins in the body of sheep, it was overall decrease in the serum proteins of the sheep (p<0.05) which were infected with MAP while using the paired t-test statistics. On the other hand, it was found 92% malnutrition, 77% poor sanitation, 85% combine housing, 87% open grazing and 29% tick infestation they may act as a source of infection for spreading of paratuberculosis. Sheep than goats is high in the prevalence of the MAP. There is no doubt that Johne’s disease infected herds may suffer severely. However, as a whole, the economic loss to the sheep industry is of questionable significance. Johne's disease is zoonotic potential threat that it represents as a problem. The sheep industry is in an exceptional position, given its low incidence or occurrence of paratuberculosis to set in motion a strategy to confine or control the spread of malady. The national control of MAP will be a huge undertaking because of subtle nature of this disease and relatively poor performance of tests that are currently available. It is necessary to develop specific best management practices in the sheep industry, taking into account the biology and ecology of the disease. The implementation of the program against Johne's disease is an important proactive step.However, MAP has struck the sheep industry for many years and will probably continue to remain a major challenge for the foreseeable future. Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 2519-T] (1).

398. Evaluation Of Risk Factors And Molecular Diagnosis Of Dermatophytosis In Dogs

by Muhammad Haseeb Saeed (2008-VA-241) | Prof. Dr. Aneela Zameer Durrani | Dr. Hassan Saleem | Prof. Dr. Azhar Maqbool.

Material type: book Book; Literary form: not fiction Publisher: 2016Dissertation note: Dogs are most kept and beloved pets in Pakistani society. Dermatophytosis is among the common disease of the pets. Many predisposing factors are involved in development of clinical cases of dermatophytosis including climatic conditions, housing condition of dogs and physical attributes such as coat hair size. Dermatophytosis is not only of concern as being infection of pets but also of its zoonotic importance hence it is very crucial to diagnose dermatophytic infection well in time. Dermatophytosis is caused by Dermatophytes,Microsporum, Trichophyton and Epidermophyton, the fungal species. It is difficult to diagnose the Dermatophytosis from other skin infections by routine tests in most of the cases especially subclinical. Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR) is advanced and the most reliable technique to detect genome of Dermatophytes even in minute quantities specifically and can efficiently detect the presence of any Dermatophyte specie on the skin of dog. The current study was planned to develop and validate a diagnostic assay which could be able to detect and distinguish tree important dermatophytes species including Microsporum, Trichophyton and Epidermophytonby a uniplex PCR reaction. Analysis of involvement of certain predisposing factors in dermatophytosis was second goal to be worked on in this study. Samples of suspected pet dogs (n=50) were collected by scraping the skin at affected areas over skin. DNA was extracted from the skin scraping samples by organic Phenol Chloroform Isoamyle Alcohol method. Primers, specific to the 18-S ribosomal RNA region of genomes of the Dermatophytes, were designed after alignment of available sequences of Microsporum,Trichophyton and Epidermophyton at NCBI. Annealing temperature and recipe of PCR reaction was optimized by gradient PCR in BIO-Rad thermal cycler. Amplification reaction of all samples collected was carried out as per optimized reaction conditions, afterwards. Amplified products obtained were subjected to genotyping by agarose gel electrophoresis for size based separation of the amplified products. The specific amplified bands of desired genomic region of dermatophytes were seen in UV light transilluminator. The data of results of predisposing factors involved in dermatophytosis wasanalysedby using Pearson’s chi squared test with the help of Statistical Package for the Social Science (SPSS) Program. Genome specific product sizes of Microsporum and Trichophyton i.e. 366 bp and 351 bp in respective positive samples were observed. Out of 50 suspected samples 46 samples were positive for dermatophytosis out of which 38 samples (82.6%) were positive for Microsporum, 6 samples (13%) for Trichophyton and 2 samples (4.4%) were positive for both Microsporumand Trichophyton. This study will help to validate a diagnostic technique for Dermatophytosis with greater efficacy and reliability. Moreover, this investigation may become basis for the future research activities in this field in Pakistan. Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 2528-T] (1).

399. Immunotherapeutictrials Of Newcastle Disease In Domestic Pigeons

by Mohsin Hassan (2009-VA-391) | Dr. Saeed Saleem Ahmad | Dr. Muhammad Avais | Prof. Dr. Khushi Muhammad.

Material type: book Book; Literary form: not fiction Publisher: 2016Dissertation note: Pigeon belongs to the avian family, Columbidae with in the order Columbiformes. They are strong kept by the humans for variety of purposes such as food, hobby(racing) and treatment of various diseases. However, pigeons are susceptible to a variety of diseases, but viral diseases are more common. Newcastle disease (ND) is an acute, highly contagious viral disease in birds, which can cause high level (up to 100%) mortality in chickens, the most important natural host of the disease, but it can also affect a wide variety of avian species, causing severe disease. This disease is endemic in Pakistan and has a huge impact on the poultry industry. Besides vaccination if hyper immune yolk is properly harvested and purified it can be used in field condition for the treatment of infected birds .Therefore this study had been conducted to check the effectiveness of hyper immune yolk in treatment of experimentally infected birds.Suitability in usage of hyperimmune yolk in field condition aginst NewCastle Disease.In order to get the hyper immune yolk 10 eggs from Big Bird hatchery were collected.Antibody titer against NDV in egg yolk was determined by Haemagglutination inhibition test HI their titer was 1:512 which was significant for trial.Birds were separated into five groups A, B, C, D and E. They were challenged with NDV and treated with hyper immune yolk in different concentration.Group A was given hyper immune yolk first then after 24 hour NDV was given, Antibody titers at different days were calculated .Geometric Mean Titer (GMT) values of Heamagglutination Inhibition (HI) test against NDV at day 0, 10, and 22 were log2 `2.23, log2 3.23, and log2 3.18 respectively.Group B hyper immune yolk and NDV were given simultaneously in group the GMT values of Heamagglutination Inhibition (HI) test against NDV at day 0, 10, and 22 were log2 log2 2.35, and log2 3.19 an log2 3.22 respectively.Group C NDV was given first then after 24 hour hyper immune was Summary 41 injected intramuscularly. Geometric Mean Titer (GMT) values of Haemagglutination Inhibition (HI) test against NDV at day 0, 10, and 22were log2, log2 2.47, and log2 2.99 and log23.16 respectively.In Group D NDV given first then after signs and symptoms hyper immune yolk was injected.GMT values of Heamagglutination Inhibition (HI) test against NDV at day 0, 10, and 22 were log2 2.30 log2 2.83, and log2 3.06 respectively was calculated.Group E was kept as positive control it was infected with NDV only the GMT values of Heamagglutination Inhibition (HI) test against NDV at day 0, 10, and 22 were log22.13 log2 0.00, and log2 0.00 respectively was calculated. The hyper immune yolk containing 32 units against NewCastle Disease virus was injected in group A and B induced 80% protection.The yolk containing 64 units of antibodies was given in the group C resulted into 60% protection.Hyper immune yolk consisting 128 units of antibodies injected in the group D,in which clinical sign and symptoms of disease were shown given 60% protection against the New Castle Disease. From this experiment it is inferred that usage of 128 units of antibodies can induce protection against NDV infected birds and 32 and 64 units of HIY can be used as prophylactic measure. Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 2532-T] (1).

400. Point Prevalence Of Gastrointestinal Helminthes Along With Their Effect On Various Hematological Parameters In Commercial Dairy Herds In District Kasur, Punjab

by Inam Ullah (2007-VA-145) | Dr. Muhammad Hassan Saleem | Dr. Syed Saleem Ahmad | Dr. Muhammad Haroon Akbar.

Material type: book Book; Literary form: not fiction Publisher: 2016Dissertation note: Parasitic problem is a major constraint of ruminant production and causes great economic loss to dairy industry by retarded growth, low productivity and increased susceptibility of animals to other infections. Gastrointestinal helminthes are prevalent in dairy animals in and around district Kasur and have significant effect on the hematological parameters of the infected animals (Hypothesis). Samples were randomly collected from 200 apparently healthy animals (n = 100 cattle; n =100 buffalo). From each animal a hand full of fecal sample was collected directly from the rectum in a disposable polythene sleeve. Proper dress was adopted during sample collection. The samples were kept in refrigerator at 4oC for examination on same day or next day. Each animal sample was identified, labeled and information about age, sex, body condition, management, current disease, vaccination, deworming. (Performa attached) are recorded. Samples were brought to Medicine Lab, CMS, UVAS, Lahore, for examination of helminthes eggs in the fecal samples. For hematological examination samples were refered to university diagnostic lab (UDL) UVAS, Lahore. Out of 100 cattle 24 (24%) were found positive and out of 100 buffalo 37 (37%) were found to be positive for gastrointestinal helminthes. It can be seen that prevalence was more in buffalo as compared to cattle. The species wise prevalene for cattle was Toxocara 29.16 %, Haemonchus 12.5%, Fasciola 4.1%, Strongyloids 12.5%, Trichostrongyloids 12.5%, Ostertagia species 8.33 % and mixed infections were 8.33% and for buffaloes it was Toxocara 35.13 % , Haemonchus 16.21%,, Fasciola 5.40%, Strongyloids 13.51% , Trichostrongyloids 16.21%, Ostertagia species 10.81% and mixed infections was 8.11%. Female cattle and buffalo (31.72%) were more prone to infection than male animals (14.28%). The age wise prevalence for less than 6 month, 6-12 month, 1-2 years, 2-3 years Summary 47 and more than 3 years was 52.5%, 78.26%, 16%, 14.04% and 20% respectively. The haemotological values for cattle and buffaloes infected with gastrointestinal helminth for TEC (%), Hb (g/dl), MCV (fl), MCHC (g/dl), Lymphocyte (%), Monocyte (%), Eosinophil (%) and Basophils( %) are 4.07±0.065, 7.010±0.052, 48.45 ± 0.20, 28.26 ± 0.074, 53.72 ± 0.112, 3.143 ± 0.117, 4.067 ± 0.021, 0.298 ± 0.031 and 5.09 ± 0.76, 8.012 ± 0.058, 50.56 ± 0.21, 30.71 ± 0.085, 55.82 ± 0.114, 4.167 ± 0.236, 5.076 ± 0.023, 0.301 ± 0.034 respectively. Data regarding the prevalence and associated risk factors were analyzed using Pearson’s chi-square test. The data regarding hematological study were analyzed by Students T-test using SPSS (Statistical package for social sciences) version 20. P < 0.05 were considered significant. Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 2531-T] (1).



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