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1. Experimental Treatment Of Bovine Brucellosis Using Phyto-Chemo-Immuno Theraputic Agents

by Muhammad Kaleem (2013-VA-860) | Prof. Dr. Aneela Zameer Durrani | Dr. Ihtisham Khan | Dr. Muhammad Hassan Saleem | Prof. Dr. Khushi Muhammad.

Material type: book Book; Literary form: not fiction Publisher: 2015Dissertation note: Bovine brucellosis is very important zoonotic disease in respect of outbreak that resulted in reproductive loses through storm of abortions in herds and infertility in bulls. Currently, no phyto treatment for complete recovery from brucellosis is available. Phyto Chemo-immune therapeutic agents are effective for recovery from bovine brucellosis (Hypothesis) Group A was comprise five adult cows (n=5) positive for brucellosis. Animals in this group were given 3 shots of Oxytetracycline LA at 20mg/kg BW (IM) repeated every 48 hrs. Streptomycin @ 13mg/kg BW IM was given for six consecutive days. Furthermore, flunixin meglumine @ 2mg/kg BW IM for 3 days in combination with antibiotic. Selevit injection containing selenium and vitamin E was administered (IM) for consecutive five days. At next day all the animals in this group were vaccinated with a combined vaccine of RB51 and FMD (Oil based) at a dose of 3mL/animal through deep IM route. In group B, all the animals were given Saafi (Herbal Product) orally consecutively for six days. Furthermore, flunixin meglumin @ 2 mg/kg BW IM was administered for three days. All these treatments were given simultaneously. Then injection Selevit containing selenium and vitamin E were administered (IM) for consecutive five days. After treatment all animals were vaccinated with RB51 + FMD (oil based) 3mL/ animals deep intramuscularly. In group C, flunixin meglumin @ 2 mg/kg BW IM was administered for three days. After NSAID, Selevit injection containing vit. E and selenium was administered (IM) for five days regularly. After treatment, animals were vaccinated with RB51 + FMD (oil based) 3 mL/ animals (IM). In D group five negative adult animals were included in this group and vaccinated subcutaneously with RB51 and FMD (Oil based) at a dose of 3 mL/animal. Summary 40 Data regarding this study was analyzed with ANOVA and completely randomized design was used to compare the mean between different groups using statistical package for social science (SPSS) version 20. P < 0.05 was considered significant. The results showed OD values after 1st, 3rd and 6th month were significantly different in all groups. The mean values depicted that OD values was significantly higher (2.886±0.099) in vaccinated (positive) animal’s vs the other three groups. There was no significant difference in OD values of herbal treated, antibiotic treated and health control animals. The lowest OD values was found in healthy control animals, though significantly similar with herbal treated, antibiotic treated. The mean OD value at 3rd month after treatment is significantly higher (1.794±0.090) in herbal treated and vaccinated positive groups but the OD value of healthy group was lowest (1.794±0.090) after 3rd month of treatment. After 6th month of treatment the OD value of positive vaccinated group was found significantly highest (1.146±0.194). On the other hand lowest value (0.595±0.079) was found in healthy control group. All the groups have found non-significant difference in all group. Regarding Real time PCR the value range from 0-40 Ct values. In the present study the Ct values of the control positive was found to be 13 which indicate control positive. The antibiotic treated group had a Ct value found in this range 35.61 to 38.13. The herbal treated group were all positive and the values were 31.34 to 37.42 Ct. The vaccinated immune booster group. The Ct values in the group was found to be 30.83 to 34.21. The birth weight and placenta dropping time was normal in antibiotic treated animals. There were no significant results found in all groups. Summary 41 This study concluded that herbal regimen is effective in vitro against brucellosis but in vivo it is yet not to be evaluated. The antibiotics can be effective to treat the Brucellosis with this protocol. This was help to control bovine brucellosis, and extensive economic losses. Comparative efficacy of four commonly-immune therapeutic agents were help in choosing the most effective therapy/method for the recovery of bovine brucellosis. Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 2388-T] (1).

2. Comparative Efficacy Of Allopathic And Herbal Drugs Against Nematodes In Equines

by Muhammad Irfan (2008-VA-297) | Dr. Jawaria Ali Khan | Dr. Syed Saleem Ahmad | Dr. Nisar Ahmad.

Material type: book Book; Literary form: not fiction Publisher: 2015Dissertation note: Parasitic problem has been a major mounting problem of equids which severely creates the hindrance in performance in equine which leads to weakness, emaciation, colic, diarrhea, anemia, thriftiness, loss of energy and ultimately death. Looking at the importance of equine and its utilization by poor farmers there is need to cure the malady. GIT Nematodes are prevalent in Equines in district Jhang. Novel combination of Abamactin + Praziquantel was very efficacious to subside parasitic load in Equines. GIT Nematodes have some effects on blood parameters (TEC, HB, and PCV). A total 200 (100 horses and 100 donkeys) from different areas of district Jhang were included in the study. For this, fresh fecal sample were carefully collected into a sealed container from each horse and donkey and were transferred to Medicine lab, UVAS, Lahore in containers with ice packs. Each samples were examined for nematodes eggs and for larvae by using different techniques i.e. Direct Smear Method and fecal culture technique while the eggs count was performed by McMaster technique. To study the effect of Gastrointestinal nematodes on various blood parameters of equine, blood samples were collected from selected animals and were analyzed for hemoglobin (Hb), total erythrocytes count (TEC) and packed cell volume (PCV) by using Hematology Analyzer. For therapeutic trails, a total of 12 horses and 12 donkeys positive for nematodes were taken and divided into groups A, B and C comprising of 8 animals each. Group C was comprised of 8 animals as Positive control and fourth group D was comprised of 8 animals as negative control. Group A was treated with abamactin + praziquantel (EQUITAK) orally @ 1ml/20kg bodyweight PO once at 0 day and group B was treated with herbal ingredients Summary 49 (EVERZAN) @ 1ml/20kg bodyweight PO once at 0 day. Efficacy was determined on the basis of reduction of eggs in feces at day 0, 7th and 21th day (post-treatment). Data was recorded in a questionnaire regarding age, sex, breed, nutritional status and disease condition. The present study was designed to check the comparative efficacy of two different drugs such as Equitak (Allopathic) and Everzan (herbal) against gastrointestinal nematodes and its effects on blood parameters in both horses and donkeys. According to therapeutic trial, Equitak presented very good response against GIT nematodes by fast decreasing EPG in both experimental animals and showed its efficacy more than 80% but Everzan showed poor response against nematodes in both experimental animals and its efficacy less than 30%. By administering Equitak in both experimental animals gave good results regarding blood parameters such as total erythrocytes count (TEC), packed cell volume (PCV) and Hemoglobin (Hb) and its values had been continuously increasing in 7th and 21st day since administration. But in contrast to Equitak, Everzan showed poor response regarding blood parameters and values did not increased at 7th and 21st days. It has been proved that Equitak has its very strong effect against strongylus spp than other parasites that come under the category of roundworms. So Equitak proved more effective against nematodes in Equines than Everzan. Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 2418-T] (1).

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