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101. Effect Of Fascioliasis On The Blood Picture And Comparative Efficacy Of Different Fasciolicidal Drugs In Sheep

by Shazia Maqbool | Dr. Khalid Pervaiz | Dr. Mubasher | Dr. Muhammad Ashraf | Faculty of Veterinary Sciences.

Material type: book Book; Format: print ; Literary form: not fiction Publisher: 1995Dissertation note: Abstract Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 0471,T] (1).

102. A Study Of Changes In Blood Electrolytes And Pcv In Equine Colic

by Mazhar Ayaz, M | Dr. Khalid Pervaz | Dr. Muhammad Sarwar Khan | Dr. Shakil | Faculty of Veterinary Sciences.

Material type: book Book; Format: print Publisher: 1995Dissertation note: Besides mechanized transportation horses have still global importance not only for the communication but it is thought as symbol of superiority in many countries of the world. Horses are confronted with colic once in their life span that some times results in uncompareable loss to the owner. Only a timely and accurate diagnosis is the beacon of hope to save the life. To study the effects of colic on PCV and Blood Electrolytes, twenty horses suffering from colic were taken into investigation to asses the site and type of colic, while ten normal horses were kept as control. Diseased horses were divided into three groups A, B & C mild, moderate and severe respectively. Physical signs of group A were of mild nature comprising swishing of the tail, looking at the flank and lying down for the short periods, while group B showed moderate pain like lying down but not violently and increased bouts of pain. Animals in group C exhibited signs of severe pain by showing severe depression, restlessness, patchy sweating, struggling violently and kicking at the belly due to sharp continuous pain. The heart rate, respiration and rectal temperature in all groups was increased. Rectal palpation was performed in all groups to determine the site of the disease. Changes found in blood electrolytes like Na+, K+, C1- and HCO3 were measured by flame photometry. Group A, B and C showed decrease in Na+, and HCO3 concentration in serum while concentration of K and C1 in serum were normal in all groups. PCV was measured by Wintrobe micro-haematocrit method in all groups. Group A and C showed normal PCV but it was lower in group B. These all observations showed that the animals of group A were suffering from impaction of ileacaecal valve. Pain was not so severe nature that may cause death in colic cases while the animals in group B were showing signs of spasmodic colic. The abnormalities were not so severe to threat the life of the animal but were elevated than the normal. Group C was considerably serious that might lead to death if unattended because the variations and findings were similar with obstruction of small intestine. The serum electrolytes in this group were increased than the other two groups alongwith the elevated respiration, heart rate and rectal temperature that were helping in assessing the condition of the animal. PCV was the reliable tool to know the degree of dehydration in the severe cases. Rectal palpation helped in differentiating the various segments of the intestines involved and the severity of the disease in the diseased animals. Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 0472,T] (1).

103. Prevalence Of Camel Tuberculosis By Using Short Thermal Test & Identificatiuon Of Organism From Lymph

by Laeeque, Sh. M | Dr. Muhammad Athar Khan | Dr. M. Sarwar Khan | Dr. Muhammd | Faculty of Veterinary Sciences.

Material type: book Book; Format: print ; Literary form: not fiction Publisher: 1994Dissertation note: In the present study an attempt was made to measure the prevalence of tuberculosis in camels by applying tuberculin test and post mortem examination of reactors and non reactors. Gross and microbiological examination of various lymph nodes of reactors and non-reactors was conducted. Animals were physically normal, thin and emaciated and of different age groups. Short thermal test was employed as diagnostic test. The readings were taken at 8 hour post inoculation of tuberculin, and heat concentrated sysnthetic medium tuberculin (HCSM) was used at dose of 4m1 S/c. No adverse reaction of HCSM was noted during research. Eleven animals gave positive reaction while no false positive and false negative case was recorded. Similarly no case of milliary T.B. could be noted among experimental animals. Majority of the diseased animals were detected from a group of emaciated and aged animals. Whereas a small number from a group of thin animals was also affected. However, a group physically normal camels was found free from T.B. Positive reactors showed higher pulse and respiration rate compared with negative reactors, post 8 hour inoculation. Positive reactors were found to be a model set to observe the pattern of temperature rise during STT. 2 out of 3 positive reactors, showed macroscopic lesionsin mediastinal, lymph nodes. Out, of these 1 showed characteristic lesions of T.B. 1 showed only pin head point lesions in early stages. While other 1 showed only Mycobacterium tuberculosis on bacteriological examination and proved no visible lesions (NVL). It was found that distribution of lesions were high among those animals which showed temperature difference (4oF between first and final reading. This is notworthy that lung lymph nodes involvement was higher as compared to the lymph nodes from abdominal cavity, no lesion or acid fast bacilli (AFB) detected from supramammary lymph nodes of experimental animals Overall 3 of the animals tested showed prevalence of tuberculosis Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 0473,T] (1).

104. Helminthiasis: Its Dissemination And Treatment With Fenbendazole In The Migrating Sparrows

by Ali Razmaara, Syed | Dr. Muhammad Athar Khan | Dr. Haji Ahmad | Dr. Khalid Pervaiz | Faculty of Veterinary Sciences.

Material type: book Book; Format: print ; Nature of contents: biography; Literary form: Publisher: 1995Dissertation note: The present study was conducted to bust upon the worm load in the naturally parasitized migratory sparrows, and also to determine the effect of worm load on the blood picture. Furthemore the effect of broad spectrum anthelmintic like Panacur (fenbendazole) in the experimental group in terms of eggs per gm. of faeces pre and post medication. For this experiment 400 live migratory sparrows were purchased randomly, out of which 200 birds were slaughtered and an incidence of 64.5% parasitic fauna was found. Sparrows were found infected, with two species of nematode i.e. Ascaridia gaul was 39.5% and Heterakis gallinarum was 25% respectively. None of the bird was found infected with trematode and cestode. The hematology of the above 64.5% parasitized sparrows was performed. The study revealed that due to nematode infection there was a slight increase in Total leucocytic count and Heterophils whereas the Total erythrocytic count, Haernoglobin level, Lymphocytes and Eosinophils were decreased which may lead to anemia, loss of growth and production. From the left 200 wild naturally parasitized sparrows, 86 (43%) birds were found positive. These sparrows were divided into two groups one was left as control and the other group was subjected to drug efficacy. Panacur (fenbendazole) at the rate of 9.9 mg/kg body weight which was given orally. The results were observed in terms of eggs per gm. of faeces pre and post medication after 24, 48 and 96 hours respectively. The control group showed progressive increase in ova count i.e. 12.82%, 24.79% and 48.72% respectively, whereas reduction in the ova count of the medicated group was gradually observed as 83.72%, 92.25% and 95.35%. The poultry breeders and scientists are urged to make an effort how the wild birds could mechanically transmit the parasites from one region to another. An attempt should also be made for the better understanding of bacterial and viral infections dissemination. Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 0474,T] (1).

105. Comparative Evaluation Of Tension Band Wire And Steel Suture For Repair Of Transversepatellar Fracture In The Dog

by Sarfaraz Ahmad, M | Dr. Muhammad Arif Khan | Dr. Mazhar Iqbal | Dr. Mubashar | Faculty of Veterinary Sciences.

Material type: book Book; Format: print ; Literary form: not fiction Publisher: 1994Dissertation note: The fracture of patella usually falls in a special type of fracture, which is not treated by ordinary limb and bone fixation devices. Hence emphasis is given to counteract the distracting forces and to convert them into compressive forces to achieve the desired effects. Different types of internal fixation devices have been tried in the past for the repair of avulsion fractures like Tension Band wire, compression screws, compression plates, an steel sutures. This study was conducted on 20 mongrel dogs divided into two groups of 10 animals each. These groups were designated as group A and group B. Two methods, Tension Band wire and square steel suture were used for the repair of transverse patellar fracture in dogs. In group A, the right patella was surgically exposed, fractured and repaired by Tension Band wire with Thomas Splint on the same limb when the operated dog started bearing weight on its operated leg, the left patella was exposed and repaired using same technique but without Thomas Splint. In group B the right patella was repaired by square steel suture with Thomas Splint. After six weeks, the left patella was operated and repaired using same technique but without Thomas Splint. The dog of each group was kept for a period of 16 weeks after surgery. The results were obtained on the basis of their clinical and radiographic picture. The results of this study indicate that the use of steel suture is a better fixation device for the repair of transverse patellar fracture. Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 0475,T] (1).

106. A Comparative Study Of Different Anaesthetic Combinations In Equine

by Sajid Ijaz | Dr. Muhammad Arif Khan | Dr. Mubasher | Dr. Muhammad Ashraf | Faculty of Veterinary Sciences.

Material type: book Book; Format: print ; Literary form: not fiction Publisher: 1995Dissertation note: These days the scope of anaesthesia is consistently increasing due to increase in surgical patients in veterinary practice. This change in trend is due to the awareness of the owners to different surgical problems and their solutions. They do not hesitate to get their animals treated with modern equipments and highly expensive medicine. To meet this challenge and demand of the owners, veterinary surgeons are taking keen interest to get the advanced knowledge and latest information of modern equipments and their usage in veterinary practice. In the past surgery was performed by making temporary insensibility by asphyxiation, cerebral concussion by striking wooden bowl placed over the head with a hammer and a regional anaesthesia was attained by compression of nerves and blood vessels of the region to he operated upon. But these days different sedative and anaesthetic agents are being used to make the animal desensitize from all external stimuli. These drugs are available in volatile, nonvolatile and gaseous forms. The usage of anaesthetic agent entirely depends upon the species, age, weight, temperament of the patient, nature of the operation to he performed, cost and availability of the drug. In this project three different combinations were tried in thirty animals of equine species to find out the best selection for major surgical interventions. The animals were divided into three groups often animal each. These groups were designated as Group A, B and C. Group A was anaesthetized with XylazineiPentothal sodium, Group B with Acepromazine/Pentothal sodium and Group C with Diazepam/Pentothal sodium. The efficacy of these combinations was measured on the basis of nature of induction, recumbency period, nature of recovery, different body reflexes, recording temperature, pulse, respiration, and statistical analysis of results. The analysis of the results collected during this study clearly indicated that a combination of cliazepam with pentothal sodium was a better selection for anaesthetizing equine patients. This study aslo proved that combination comprising of xylazine and pentothal sodium could he used for minor surgical interventions as it produced light surgical anaesthesia. It was concluded that a combination consisting of diazepam and pentothal sodium should be used for all types of major surgical procedures in equine practice. Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 0476,T] (1).

107. Antimicrobial Efficacy Of Different Drugs Against Experimentally Induced Salmonella Pullorum Infection In Broilers

by Ashfaq Ahmad Mirza | Dr. Muhammad Sarwar Khan | Dr. Mazhar Iqbal | Dr. Shakil | Faculty of Veterinary Sciences.

Material type: book Book; Format: print ; Literary form: not fiction Publisher: 1996Dissertation note: A total of 120 broiler chicks were randomly selected and divided into six groups viz A, B, C, D, E and F, consisting of 20 birds each. At 4 week of age, A to E groups were experimentally infected with Salmonella pullorum inoculum. Group E (infected, non-medicated) and F (non-infected and non-medicated) were kept as control. The groups A, B, C and D were treated with Ampicillin 20%, Oxy-N-50, Chioricol10 and Trimodin forte, respectively, post infection. All the groups were kept under close observation to record signs and symptoms of disease, mortality, body weight gain and Feed Conversion Ratio. Gross lesions in visceral organs were also noted during this study. Some blood parameters (TEC, TLC and Hb content) were also estimated, pre and post infection. A mortality percentage in groups A, B, C and D were recorded as, 25%, 35%, 15% and 10%, respectively, while 70% mortality was recorded in control group F. According to this trial Trimodin forte (Trimethoprim Plus Sulphadiazine) . afforded maximum protection against infection and proved best in relation to weight gain and F.C.R. Chloricol-10 (Chioramphenicol) stood second in the list, while Ampicillin-20% (Ampicillin Trihydrate) was the third drug in furnishing protection against the infection. Whereas, Oxy-N-50 (Oxytetracycline plus neomycin sulphate) was the least effective drug in respect of protection against pullorum disease. The signs of ill health appeared 3 to 4 days post infection were listlessness, ruffled feathers, droopy wings, loss of appetite, poor growth, depression, increased thirst and severe diarrhoea of chalky white colour. The postmortem findings were enlarged and congested liver streaked with haemorrhages, 2-3 times enlarged spleen (spleenomegaly), enlarged heart and pericarditis, congested and distended kidneys, area of gray hepatization in lungs, thickened and inflammed intestinal walls and presence of necrotic foci in cardiac muscles, liver, spleen, lungs, caeca, large intestine and muscles of gizzard. The Total Erythrocytic count and Haemoglobin contents were decreased and Total Leukocytic Count, were increased 3 days post infection. The findings of the present study will further elucidate the disease and help in diagnosis and treatment of this malady on large scale. Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 0482,T] (1).

108. A Serological And Coprological Study Of Paramphistomiasis In Buffalo

by Jameel Ahmad | Dr. Khalid Pervaiz | Dr. Haji Ahmed | Dr. Muhammad Ashraf | Faculty of Veterinary Sciences.

Material type: book Book; Format: print ; Literary form: not fiction Publisher: 1997Dissertation note: Two hundred faecal samples, serum samples and paramphistomes used in the present study collected from main slaughter house of Lahore and from surrounding of the city. Faecal examinations were carried out with fresh smear technique and 61.5% animals found positive for paramphistomiasis. Serum was separated from the blood samples collected from infected and suspected buffaloes for the performance of enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Paramphistome crude antigen was prepared from fresh stomach flukes, which contained 95.66 mg proteins/mi at 545 nm. For performing the enzyme linked immunosorbent assay, the 96 well ELISA plates were coated with crude antigen & kept overnight & then the other procedure for the assay was followed, & the serum samples were tested with paramphistome crude antigen. In positive samples, the yellowish-brown colouration was formed. In faecal examination, 61.5% and in the ELISA 100% of the animal found positive. From the conclusion of the results if was found that ELISA (100%) has given more positive results then faecal examination (61.5%). Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 0490,T] (1).

109. Comparative Study Of Early And Delayed Skin Autografting On Front Of The Canine Knee

by Azhar Hanif Khatana, M | Dr.Mazhar Iqbal | Dr. Muhammed | Dr. Muhammed Arif Khan | Faculty of Veterinary Sciences.

Material type: book Book; Format: print ; Literary form: not fiction Publisher: 1996Dissertation note: Cutaneous injuries particularly when quite massive are burning problems for the working clinicians. Healing in such injuries is unduly prolonged with subsequent granulation and scar formation resulting in uncosmetic look of the skin. Wounds of the canine knee have plagued both the veterinarian and the owners since long. Most of these wounds fail to respond to conventional methods of treatment. In such cases skin grafting serves as a good alternative for successful covering of the lesions. The study was done on 20 randomly selected mongrel dogs of either sex. A skin defect starting from 3 cm above and going the same distance down the joint encompassing the medial, cranial and lateral aspects was created and covered with a full thickness skin graft harvested from the lateral aspect of the thigh. In half of the dogs the grafts were fenestrated whereas in the other half they were kept unfenestrated. In each of the group the right knee was grafted fresh while the left knee underwent delayed grafting when the wounds were uniformly granulating without any clinical signs of infection. The animals were kept under observation for a period of 21- days. The survival rate of the unfenestrated grafts was 70% (7 out of 10) and 50% (5 out of 10) for the right and left limb respectively whereas in the fenestrated group the success rate was 90% (9 out of 10) in the right limb and 60% (6 out 10) in the left limb. The results indicated that the fenestrated grafts had an edge over the unfenestrated ones whether they were used to cover a fresh or an old granulating wound on the cranial aspect of the canine knee. Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 0491,T] (1).

110. Comparative Efficacy On Newly Introduced Antibacterial Drugs Against Experimentally Induced Escherichia Coli

by Zubair, M | Dr. Khalid Pervaiz | Dr. Mubasher | Dr. Muhammad Sarwar Khan | Faculty of Veterinary Sciences.

Material type: book Book; Format: print ; Literary form: not fiction Publisher: 1996Dissertation note: Pakistan faces an acute shortage of animal protein which is acknowledged as a serious problem at national level. Since broilers are the fastest converters of crude protein into digestible high quality protein for human consumption. There is much need in the production of broilers for the said reason in Pakistan. The upgrading of poultry industry is suffered from huge losses caused by certain diseases of bacterial origin. Amongst bacterial diseases, Escherichia coli is the worst threat to poultry industry. Therefore, concrete and consistent effort was done in this project to control the Eschericia coli infection. The present project was done to study the efficacy of different drugs on prevalent strains of E. coli isolated from broilers that were collected from Diagnostic Laboratory, office of the Project Director, Poultry Production, 16-Cooper Road, Lahore and various Farms in the vicinity of Lahore. Six different antibacterial drugs which comprised of avitryl, advocin, plasmacolin, flumequine gentamicin and inoxyl were used to check the sensitivity of the isolates. In-vitro the sensitivity results was in this order avitryl, advocin, plasmacolin, gentamicin, flumeuine and inoxyl respectively. Avitryl emerged as best drug. The pathogenicity of the isolated strains was tested in albino mice taken from V.R.I., Lahore. The confirmed pathogenic isolates of . coli were diluted upto 3x108 bacteria per 0.25 ml, this dilution ws made after doing total viable count and the dose was injected intra-peritoneally to five albino mice while 5 albino mice were kept as controls. These six drugs were further tested for their efficiency in broilers against . coli infection. A total of two hundred and forty birds reared upto four weeks of age and then they were divided into eight groups, A, B, C, D, E, F, G and H, each having 30 birds. Group H was kept as non-infected and non- treated. While Group G was infected but not treated. The remaining groups A, B, C, D, E and F, 16 hours after infection were treated with avitryl, advocin, plasmacolin, flumequine, gentamicin and inoxyl for five days respectively. All the groups were kept under close observation and their mortality and feed efficiency was noted. In group G maximum mortality was noted i.e. 57.14 while in the group A, B, C, D, E and F, the mortality recorded was 22.72, 30, 33.33, 40.90, 47.82 and 52.17 respectively. Avitryl was proved to be the highest protection against coli infection and best in relation to F.C.R. by this experiment. Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 0492,T] (1).

111. A Clinico Pathological Examination And Treatment Of Experimentally Induced Salmonella Infection In Goats

by Baig Muhammad Kakar | Dr. Khalid Pervaiz | Dr. Khushi | Dr. Mohammad Sarwar Khan | Faculty of Veterinary Sciences.

Material type: book Book; Format: print Publisher: 1997Dissertation note: Salmonellosis is common problem for goat population of the country which is therefore, a constant threat for the farming community of the country during the summer season. The present study was undertaken to study the course of disease with relevance uo environmental factors and the efficacy of various antirnlcroblal drugs available in the market. Salmonellosis was clinically manifested by acute enteritis, dysentery, abdominal cramps, where as temperature, respiration rate and pulse rate were raised upto 2- 3.4°F, 16-23 times/minute and 10-16 times/minute respectively. Predominant postmortem lesions were dehydration, petechiation of the intestinal mucosa occasionally with the accumulation of reddish fluid in t1e intestinal lumen, thickening of the urinary bladder and Pale carcase along with decreased serum sodium concentration in such animals. Among the various antimicrobial drugs used invitro, Gentamycin and chloraphenicol were highly sensitive where as Oxytectracycline, trimethoprim apicillin and kananycin were quite sensitive. Results of in vivo traits for oxytetracycline, tribrissen, gentamycin were 0.00%, 80%, 80% and 100% respectively, whereas 100% mortality was recorded in untreated control group of animals. Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 0494,T] (1).

112. A Study On Clinico Serilogical Observations By Experimental Aflatoxicosis In Quails

by Mahmood Farooq Qureshi | Dr. Muhammed Athar Khan | Dr. Asif | Dr. Muhammed Sarwer Khan | Faculty of Veterinary Sciences.

Material type: book Book; Format: print Publisher: 1996Dissertation note: In this project the effect of orally administered aflatoxin in feed was observed in quails. Clinicopathological picture was recorded and serum levels in tile liver and intestines of the quails were tested. At the fifth week of age healthy quails in groups A, B, C and D were given feed containing aflatoxin at a rate of 20 PPM, 40 PPM, 60 PPM and zero PPM (control group) respectively. The average (four weeks) mortality rate for groups A, B, C, and D was 21.53%, 44.80%, 54.03% and 0.07% respectively. The average four weeks case fatality rate for group A, B, C and 0 was 82.15%, 90%, 70.33% and 87.50% respectively. The average four weeks aflatoxin level in the intestinal contents was 9.09 PPM, 10.02 PPM, 11.31 PPM and 3.67 PPM in group A, B, C, and 0 respectively. The various levels of aflatoxin in the liver during the four week averaged 0.06 PPM, 5.19 PPM, 16.57 PPM and 0.05 PPM in group A, B, C and O respectively. The various levels of aflatoxin in the serum, were a four week average of 0.11 PPM, 3.69 PPM, 12.44 PPM and zero PPM in group A, B, C, and 0 respectively. The clinical signs mainifested the birds were ruffled feathers, gathering in the corners of the case, drowsiness, whitish to yellow dilcoloration of eyes, cynchitis, watery discharge from the eyes and nostrils, loose yellowish-white faeces. irregular movement with nervous signs, stiffness of the joints and dehydration. The necropsy findings were enlarged liver, gastro-entertis and petechial haemorrhages on the amasal ad serosal part of the body, deposition of a yellowish white fluid in the abdominal and thoracic cavity. There wa also pen cardial fluId and asciise in the body. Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 0495,T] (1).

113. Efficacy Of Different Conjunctival Flaps For Corneal Ulceration In The Dog

by Mubashra Mukadas | Dr. Mazhar Iqbal | Dr. Muhammed Arif Khan | Dr. Shahkeel | Faculty of Veterinary Sciences.

Material type: book Book; Format: print Publisher: 1997Dissertation note: The use of conjunctival flaps is one of the procedures adopted for the repair of cornea in cases of corneal ulceration where the medicinal therapy has limited or no effect. In the begining of the twentieth century many ophthalmic surgeons of human side as well as veterinarians used conjunctiva for the repair of corneal ulcers. They adopted many procedures for this purpose but only a few were found to be successful. These procedures were used to relieve the animal from keratopathies such as infectious keratitis, severely chemically burnt eye, damage of the cornea during accident and progressive deep ulcers. These conditions mostly cause discomfort due to ocular pain and impairment of vision and corneal surgery becomes a necessity. During this study, fifteen healthy mongrel dogs of either sex were used. These dogs were divided into 5 groups of 3 animals each. The animals of group 1, 2, 3 and 4 were operated upon for the repair of experimentally produced corneal ulcers using conjunctival hood, bridge, complete and pedicle flaps respectively. Group No.5, was kept to serve the purpose of control animals. The cornea was superficially scratched with scalpel blade in all the animals from group No.1 through group No.4 to produce corneal ulcers. The animals were then kept for 15-20 days till corneal ulcers were fully developed. The corneal ulcers thus produced were repaired afterwards, using four different types of conjunctival flaps mentioned earlier. For preparing conjunctival hood flap, a 1800 incision was made in the bulbar conjunctiva at the limbus and the conjunctiva was superficially dissected towards the fornix. The flap was then pulled centrally and sutured to the sciera with simple interrupted sutures using 6-0 silk. The complete or double hood flaps were prepared by continuing the limbal based conjunctival incision 360° around the limbus. Superficial dissection of the conjunctiva was performed 1-1.5 cm towards the fornices, thus dorsal and ventral flaps were created (by mobilizing the bulbar conjunctiva) and advanced over the cornea to meet centrally. These flaps were apposed with horizontal mattress sutures of 6-0 silk. To prepare bridge or bucket handle flaps, the conjunctiva was first superficially dissected from the limbus and the flap was created via a second incision in the conjunctiva 1-1.5 cm from and parallel to the limbal incision. The flap was then made free and shifted over the corneal ulcer and sutured with simple interrupted sutures using 6-0 silk. The pedicle flaps were dissected and advanced from the limbus and sutured to sciera, covering the corneal ulcers, with simple interrupted sutures of 6-0 silk. The conjunctival defects were left un-sutured. These procedures were first carried out on the left eyes of all the dogs and then repeated on the right eyes after the healing of left ones. It was concluded on the basis of this study that: 1. The raw bulbar surface of conjunctiva providing direct access of vascular and fibrous connective tissues can be used, to repair the corneal ulcers. 2. Vision remains almost normal during post operative period without the use of any contact or intra ocular lens. 3. There was no recurrent corneal erosion or penetrating infection, so deeper layers of cornea as well as other intra ocular structures remained normal. 4. Use of topical and/or systemic antibiotics for a long time in the post operative period was not needed. The successful attempt at repairing the corneal ulcers with the conjunctival flaps strengthened the belief in cases where there was no other way of saving the animal's vision except surgical intervention. So, it is incumbent upon the veterinarian to involve himself devotedly in the operative procedure with the aim of achieving good results. Whether he succeeds or otherwise, he must have a satisfaction of being loyal to his profession. Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 0499,T] (1).

114. Efficacy Of Three Different Drugs Against Ectoparasites In Naturally Infested Dogs And Their Effect On Blood Parameters

by Sharoon Sabir | Prof.Dr.Muhammad Ashraf | Dr. Khalid Pervaiz | Dr. Mubsher | Faculty of Veterinary Sciences.

Material type: book Book; Format: print Publisher: 1996Dissertation note: The present study was designed to evaluate and compare different drugs in 40 naturally infested dogs (based on skin scrapping examination) taken from Dog Hospital, College of Veterinary Sciences, Lahore and different Pet Clinics. Ivomec, Neguvon and Sulphur Tar Oil were used in three groups while one was control group. Treatment in each group was repeated after 14 days. Blood parameters i.e. Hemoglobin Estimation (Hb), Packed Cell Volume (PCV), Total Erythrocytic Count (TEC) and Total Leucocytic Count (TLC) were estimated. Results of treatment were evaluated on 14 days and 21 days after the first treatment on basis of skin scrapping examination and improvement in clinical symptoms. Efficacy of ivermectin, trichiorophon and sulphur tar oil was 80%, 70% and 40% on 14th day after 1st treatment. Same results were observed one week after second treatment indicating no additional benefit.Based on these observations it was concluded that ivermectin (200 µg/kg, s/c) was safe to use and its efficacy was significantly higher than Neguvon and Sulphurate oil. Moreover a single injection is sufficient for mild cases of ectoparasites but in severe cases second injection may be repeated after 14 days interval. Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 0508,T] (1).

115. Comparative Evaluation Of Different Suture Materials With And Without The Usage Of Thomas Splint For The Repair Of Transversely Cut Tendo Achilles In The Dog

by Hassan Saqlain | Muhammad Arif Khan | Dr. Muhammad Younas | Dr. Shakil | Faculty of Veterinary Sciences.

Material type: book Book; Format: print Publisher: 1997Dissertation note: Tendons are an important link In the locomotive system, the main physiological function of which is to transmit forces that produce characteristic mechanical responses. The tendon function is extremely important in movement. Injuries and disturbances in tendon are common, thus creating extreme difficulties in locomotion. The repair of tendons had always been an enigma in the past. However with the advancement of surgery, the repair of tendon has become possible and the patient return to a normal functioning life. The present study was launched on twelve mongrel dogs. The achilles tendon was cut surgically and then repaired with two different suture materials i.e. stainless steel and Nylon (No.1). Three groups were made i.e. group A, B and C. Group A for repair of the achilles tendon with stainless steel wire (gauge 24) alongwith a comparison of repair with and without a thomas splint. The group 'B' was repmred with Nylon suture material (No.1) as well as with the comparison of thomas splint application The group C served as a control group in which no suture material was used, however the effect of thomas splint was compared with and without its application. Of the twelve animals, four were put into each group. In every group, first the achilles tendon of the right hindlimb was repaired with and without thomas splint. After eight weeks healing, the tendo-achilles of the left hind limb was repaired with the same suture material with and without thomas splint. The wounds were smeared with furacin ointment. Antibiotics were administered 24 hours prior to surgery and continued for 5 days post-surgically. All the dogs were kept under observation for eight weeks postsurgically. however, the total project took 16 weeks. The tendons were tested for repair (healing) by examination, lameness tests, posteuthanasia finding and histopathological studies. The success rate of the tendons repaired with stainless steel sutures (guage 24) was 50% and with Nylon suture material (No. 1) 100%. The results clearly Indicated that the application of Nylon. Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 0516,T] (1).

116. Anthelmintic Efficacy Of Caesalpinia Crista, Fumaria Parviflora, Mebendazole And Ivermectin Against Haemonchus

by Saeed Ahmad | Prof.Dr.Muhammad Ashraf | Dr. Khalid Pervez, CMS (25n) | Faculty of Veterinary Sciences.

Material type: book Book; Format: print Publisher: 1997Dissertation note: This study was conducted to evaluate the anthelmintic efficacy of Caesalpinia crista, Eumaria parviflora, Mebendazole and Ivermectin against Haemonchus ntortus in sheep. Anthelmintic efficacy of Casesalpinia crista at the dose level of 4 gm/kg body weight was 86.85%, Furneria parvifl at the dose level of 4 gm/kg body weight was 85.32%, Mebendazole at the dose level of 15 mg/kg body weight was 98.05% and Ivermectin at the dose level of 200 jig/kg body weight was 96.55%. There was marked decrease in EPG in all the four groups A, B, C and D treated with . crista, . p.ryjflora, Ivermectin and Mebendazole respectively, whereas an increased value of EPG was observed in group E (unmedicated control) in response to the increasing intensity of infection in sheep. Haematological study of infected animals revealed a considerable increase in Neutrophils, Monocytes, Basophils and Eosinophils while a considerable decrease in Lymphocytes, Total leukocytic count and Total serum proteins was observed. Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 0518,T] (1).

117. Comparison Of Perfused And Non Perfused Jejunal Auto Transplants For Reconstruction Of Massive Abdominal

by Ghalia Qayyum | Dr. Mazhar Iqbal | Dr. muhammad Younas | Dr. Shakil | Faculty of Veterinary Sciences.

Material type: book Book; Format: print ; Literary form: not fiction Publisher: 1997Dissertation note: Surgeons occasionally see patients who have malignant soft tissue tumors, loss of a part due to trauma or excessive debridement of the abdominal wall. Regardless of the etiology they represent challenging anatomical problems, both with respect to resection and especially to reconstruction. Many defects are unsightly and difficult to appose by the surrounding tissue. SuIeons in medical field as well as veterinarians have tried and reported many surgical corrections to these conditions. Twenty clinically healthy mongrel dogs of either sex were used for the experimental translocation of jejurial auto-grafts for the resurfacing of massive abdominal wall defects. The dogs were randomly divided into two groups of 10 animals each. Laparotomy was carried out by a vertical incision in right lateral recumbency. A portion of jejunum 12 cm long was selected and isolated from rest of the intestinal tract with its mesenteric blood supply intact. The continuity of the small bowel was restored by end-to-end anastomosis. The isolated segment of jejunum was then processed and cut open longitudinally along the antimesenteric border. After wards the open patch was cut into two equal pieces, perpendicular to the long axis and then sutured together parallel, so as to have even bigger surface area of the graft to cover a defect which was wider in width and could be repaired by single width of the intestine. In group I, both the parts of intestine sutured together retained their blood supply intact. In group II, one half of the transplant was rendered avascular. Using the previous incision site, a full thickness 6x6 cm, square shape defect was created in the abdominal wall. The jejunal patch was placed over the defect in the abdominal wall, with its mucosal surface apposing the external fascia. Simple interrupted sutures using chrornic cat gut No.2 were used to tailor the patch in such a way that normal contours of abdominal wall were reconstituted. A drain was placed at the site of operation and the subcutaneous tissue and skin were closed in a routine manner. In group-I there was no mortality and no herniation of the bowel occurred through the operative site. The graft was well tolerated by the animals as it was homologous. In group-TI the nonvascularised portion of the graft did not develop its new blood supply leading to its death and sloughing. Eventration took place on 6th day and the animals died, except one dog. It was concluded on the basis of this study that: 1. In group-I perfused pedicle grafts provided 100% resurfacing to the abdominal wall defects. 2. The mucosa of the bowel transplant under went degeneration. 3. The junctional histology of the graft revealed a thick layer of fibrous tissue indicating perfect union between the two portions of the graft. 4. A marked inflammatory reaction was also evident. 5. There was clear cut histological evidence of failure with loss of cellular integrity and no production of collagen fibers in the non perfused group. In a nut shell the chosen method of reconstruction was consistent with the hierarchy of treatment priorities, which makes survival paramount, followed by function, freedom from pain and acceptable appearances. Thus when there is no other way of saving the animals life other than surgical intervention, the satisfaction derived from such a successful, last resort operation is indeed a valuable encouragement to a young veterinary surgeon. Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 0527,T] (1).

118. Prevalence Of Puff Disease In Horses With Biochemical And Chemotherapeutic Studies

by Shamoon ur Rashid | Dr. Muhammad Sarwar Khan | Dr. Javed | Dr. Khalid Pervaiz | Faculty of Veterinary Sciences.

Material type: book Book; Format: print Publisher: 1997Dissertation note: This project was designed to find out the prevalence of puff disease in horses in Lahore area. This study also included chemotherapeutic effect of two different treatments and biochemical studies. This study was conducted during the month of July-September, 1996 at Outdoor Hospital, College of Veterinary Sciences, Lahore and around the city of Lahore. For the prevalence of puff disease 290 horses were examined and their clinical signs were observed. Investigation showed that the occurrence of puff disease in horses was 12.14% i.e. 36 horses out of 290 were found positive. Thirty positive cases were treated with two different groups of treatments. With 1st group of treatment 5 horses were cured completely and with 2nd group of treatment 11 horses were cured completely. The results of treatment were based on the reversal of clinical signs. Serum samples of positive horses were also observed before and after treatment for the detection of glucose, cholesterol and chloride levels. Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 0536,T] (1).

119. A Clinico Epidemiiological Study Of Bacterial And Parasitic Causes Of Respiratory Syndrome In Sheep And Goats

by Waseem Shahzad | Dr. Khalid Pervaiz | Dr. Khushi | Dr. Muhammad Sarwar Khan | Faculty of Veterinary Sciences.

Material type: book Book; Format: print Publisher: 1997Dissertation note: In Pakistan sheep and goats production is playing a very important role in bridging the protein gap among our population. Sheep and goats not only provide us high quality meat for our consumption but also wool fibre and high quality leather. In Pakistan every year there is lot of mortality due to respiratory tract infections in sheep and goats especially due to pneumonia which results from a variety of causes' namely, bacterial, viral, parasitic, mycoplasmal and fungal etc. It causes high economic losses due to increased rate of mortality. This study was carried out on two hundred sheep and goats of either sex including all age groups brought to out door hospital of College of Veterinary Sciences, Lahore during February 1997 to June 1997. In the present study isolation and identification of bacterial and parasitic etiological agents of the respiratory tract problems in sheep and goats was carried out. According to this study many bacterial agents causes respiratory problems in sheep and goats, out of 132 positive nasal samples Pasteurella multocida was isolated from 32 (24%), . haemolytica 43 (33%), Corynebacterium 26 (20%), 23 (17%), Streptococcus 18 (14%) and Escherichia ççjj 20 (15%) from affected sheep and goats. Similarly many lungworms cause respiratory problems, out of 82 positive faecal samples Dictvocaulus filaria was isolated from 76 (92.6%) and Protostrongvlus rufesence 6 (7.3%) from affected sheep and goats. The haematological study of the infected and non infected animal showed that there were decreased values of total erythrocytic count, packed cell volume and differential leucocytic count and increased values of total leucocytic count and erythrocytic sedimentation rate of affected animals. Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 0539,T] (1).

120. Comparative Study Of External Fixation Devices Used For The Repair Of Mid Shaft Tibial Fracture In The Dog

by Syed Mohsin Abbas Kazmi | Dr. M. Arif Khan | Dr. Kamran | Dr. Mazhar Iqbal | Faculty of Veterinary Sciences.

Material type: book Book; Format: print ; Nature of contents: biography; Literary form: Publisher: 1998Dissertation note: Mid shaft tibial fractures can be repaired by external and internal methods of fixation. The internal methods include bone plates, bone screws, intramedullary pins, circiage wires etc. whereas external fixation devices include K.E. apparatus, Thomas splint, P.O.P. (Gypsona cast splint) other casts and fixation devices. In the cases of mid shaft tibial fracture in the dog, it is not necessary all the times to repair it by internal methods of fixation. External methods of fixation are comparatively cheaper and easy to apply and handle and prevent the animal from the post-operative complications of internal methods of fixation. The present study was launched for the comparison of the external fixation devices used for the repair of mid-shaft tibia fracture in the dog i.e. a) Gypsona cast splint. b) K.E. apparatus. c) Thomas splint. The study was carried out on 12 mongrel dogs of either sex divided into four groups i.e. A, B, C and D and each groups comprising three animals designated as I, II and III. In group A, after the induction of mid shaft tibial fracture Gypsona cast splint was applied on right limb. In group B, K-E. apparatus and in group C Thomas splint was applied. The group D was held sham operated (control) after the induction of mid-shaft tibial fracture. The aforesaid devices were first applied on right tibia and then on left tibia of the same dog at an interval of 10 weeks. The dogs were kept in kennels for 20 weeks. At the end of experimental period, the dogs were euthanized and gross examination was conducted. The results were collected on the basis of clinical examination (lameness) radiographs and post-euthanasia findings. The results clearly revealed that K-E. apparatus was the best choice in cases of mid shaft tibial fracture in the dog, in terms of best immobilization and good calus formation. Although K.E. device is costly one, but it won't exceeds the cost of the animal in many cases. The results were excellent and procedure can easily be applied easily by an average Orthopaedic surgeon. Thomas splint comes next to K-E. apparatus. If properly applied gives good results. Gypsona cast splint was graded at the end, due to its less efficacy and accuracy. It usually resulted in bone bending after application. It could have been a better procedure if applied with some metallic cast or splint. Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 0545,T] (1).

121. Comparative Efficacy Of Oxyclozanide, Rafoxanide And Bithionol Sulphoxide Against Paramphistomiasis In Buffaloes

by Umar, M | Prof.Dr.Muhammad Ashraf | Dr. Haji Ahmad | Dr. Khalid Pervaiz | Faculty of Veterinary Sciences.

Material type: book Book; Format: print Publisher: 1998Dissertation note: The present project was designed to test the anthelmintic efficacy of oxyclozanide, Rafoxanide and Bithionol suiphoxide against paramph istomiasis in naturally infected buffaloes. The comparative anthelmintic trials were conducted among Nilzan drench - Id (Oxyclozanide 3.0% + Levamisole 1.5%,), Fasifree - Prix (Rafoxanide 30 mg/mI), Irchasol - Medivet (Bithionol sulphoxide 10% + Levamisole 1.5%) and Nilverm drench - ICI (Levamisole 1.5%) against paramphistomiasis in buffaloes. Seventy five naturally infected buffaloes were selected and divided into five equal groups i.e. A, B, C, D and E containing 15 animals each. Each animal of group A was given Nilzan drench (lml/2kg body weight), group B was given Fasifree (lml/4kg body weight), group C was given Irchasol (lml/2kg body weight), group D was given Nilverm (lml/2kg body weight), while group E was kept as control. The efficacy of anthelmintics was evaluated by counting eggs per gram (EPG) of faeces on day 7, 14 and 21 post-medication. The mean efficacyh of Nilzan drench was 97.29%, mean efficacy of Fasifree was 98.5% and of Irchasol was 85.56% while Nilverm did not have any effect for the treatment of Paramphistomiasis in buffaloes under field conditions. Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 0547,T] (1).

122. A Clinicopathological Study Of Lactic Acidosis In Sheep And Goats

by Usman, M | Dr. Khalid Pervez | Dr. Javed | Dr. Muhammad Ashraf | Faculty of Veterinary Sciences.

Material type: book Book; Format: print ; Literary form: not fiction Publisher: 1998Dissertation note: A total of 100 sheep and goats suffering from lactic acidosis brought to Outdoor hospital, College of Veterinary Sciences, Lahore were selected as experimental animals while the same number was kept as control to access the events of lactic acidosis. The temperature, pulse rate, respiration rate, rumen and serum p11, serum bicarbonate, packed cell volume, ruminal movements and ruminal protozoa of the two groups were studied. It was found that rectal temperature, blood pH, rumen p11, serum bicarbonate and ruminal movements decreased significantly in acidotic group as compared to control group. Simultaneously the pulse rate, respiration rate and packed cell volume increased, significantly in lactic acidotic group as compared to control group. Mean values observed in goat were serum pH 7.075±0.11 rumen p11, 4±0.57 serum bicarbonate, 12.42±0.59 mEq/liter, packed cell volume 67.50±3.2%, temperature 100.9±0.19°F, pulse rate 168.6±3.77 per minute and respiration rate 17.00±0.82 and in sheep mean values were 7.025±0.85, 4±0.57, 12.42±0.66 rnEq/liter, 64.25±0.21%, 100.9±0.82 °F, 168.6±3.77 per minute and 17.00±0.82 per minute respectively. The rumen protozoa was found to be completely destroyed in the experimental group. There was complete ruminal stasis in lactic acidotic group. Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 0550,T] (1).

123. Sero Epidemiology Of Foot And Mounth Disease In Tehsil Chichawatni, District, Sahiwal

by Mahmood Ijaz Gorsi | Dr. M. Athar Khan | Dr. Abdus | Dr. M. Sarwar Khan | Faculty of Veterinary Sciences.

Material type: book Book; Format: print Publisher: 1998Dissertation note: On a prescribed questionnaire an active surveillance was conducted in randomly selected 12 outbreak/infected villages of Tehsil Chichawatni District Sahiwal with FMD for epidemiological and serological observations. Morbidity, mortality and case fatality rates in cattle were 63.20%, 15.25% and 28.65% respectively. In young cattle, morbidity, mortality and case fatality were high 56.67%, 22.90% and 40.55% as compared to adult where it was 51.64%, 11.57% and 22.40% respectively. In buffalo population morbidity, mortality and case fatality rates were 61,69%, 20.80% and 33.72% respectively. Similarly as cattle morbidity, mortality and case fatality rates in young buffalo calves were high 65.82%, 30.77% and 46.75% as compared to adult buffalo 59.46%, 15.40% and 25.90% respectively. Young animals of both species were more effected. A total loss of Rs.27.449 million due to FMD in cattle and buffaloes were estimated. A total of 240 serum samples from buffaloes and cattle each were collected from the affected villages. In cattle and buffalo 116, 110 serum samples were positive against FMD antibodies through CFT. Serotypes observed in cattle were Asia-i 81(69.82%), type A 12(10.34%) and type 0 23(19.82%). While the buffaloes serotypes Asia-1 type A and type 0 were 71(64.54%), 15(13.63%) and 24 (21.81%) respectively. Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 0551,T] (1).

124. Surveillance Of Disease Problems And Economic Losses In Commercial Broiler Farms In And Around Lahore

by Mudasser Jamil, M | Prof.Dr.Muhammad Ashraf | Dr. M. Athar Khan | Dr. Shakil | Faculty of Veterinary Sciences.

Material type: book Book; Format: print Publisher: 1998Dissertation note: The main objective of present work was to investigate the prevalence of various diseases and economic losses, resulting due to various factors among the commercial broiler farms in and around Lahore. For this purpose, oniy those farms were included, for the purpose of collection of data which had a capacity from 5000 to 2000 birds. A questionnaire was designed to collect the data from each farm that related to morbidity rates, mortality rates, vaccination, susceptible age, managemental fault, economic losses and cost analysis for various diseases. This study project was divided into two portions. During one year retrospective study (October 1996 to September, 1997) data was collected from 28 broiler farms. They had a total capacity of 118,000 birds and overall diseases mortality rate was 9.09%. Important diseases observed in this study were IBD (2.5%), 1-IPS (2.09%), earJ' chick mortality (1.85%) followed by colibacillosis (0.6%). Respire tory disease complex (0.5%), Ascites (0.47%), Coccidiosis (0.4%), Aspergillosis (0.314%) and N.D. (0.05%). Economic losses due to these diseases were calculated to be about 4.7% ed on 10 farms randomly selected out of 28 farms. Influence of season on disease was observed by Jividing a calender year into winter season (October 1996 to March 1997) and summer season (April 1997 to September 1997). Comparison of winter and summer season revealed that the incidence of IBD, Ascites, Respiratory disease complex and early chick mortality were higher in winter than summer, while incidence of hydropericardium coccidiosis and colihacillosis were higher in summer than winter. In second phase of this project, a prospective study was arraiied from January, 1998 to March, 1998 in 22 farms. During this study, 21700 birds were examined and overall 9.91% mortality rate was recorded. Important diseases observed in this prospective study were IBD (2.9%), ECM (2.25%), Respiratory disease complex (1.08%) and lIPS (1.11%) followed by colibacillosis (0.67%), ascites (0.51%), foul typhoid (0.14%), coccidiosis (0.37%), aspergillosis (0.29%), fowl cholera (0.16%) and N.D. (0.13%) n descending order. Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 0552,T] (1).

125. Diagnosis And Treatment Trials Of Simple Indigestion In Sheep And Goat

by Basharat Ali | Dr. M. Sarwar Khan | Dr. Asif | Dr. M. Athar Khan | Faculty of Veterinary Sciences.

Material type: book Book; Format: print ; Literary form: not fiction Publisher: 1998Dissertation note: This research project was conducted at Outdoor 1-Jospital, College of Veterinary Sciences, Lahore. Forty animals i.e. sheep and goats suffering from simple indigestion were selected, the diagnosis was based on history clinical signs and physical examination Laboratory examination including rumen pH, serum pH, Ketone bodies estimation, protozoa motility test and cellulose digestion test were also performed to confirm the diagnosis, Animals were divided into four groups A,B,C, and D comprising 10 animals each. Animals of group A.B and, C were treated with Magnesium sulphate 50 gm. Magnesium hydro-oxide 50 gm and 1-1/2 liter normal saline once orally respectively while group D was kept as untreated control. Before treatment, rurnen pH, values 5.702±0.195, 5.681±0.180,5.466±0.074,5.813±0.276 and cellulose digestion test time values 31.3±2.4,31.3±2.3,33.6±0.7, 30.1±3.1 hours in the four groups respectively. Minor protozoa! motility was observed alongwith no serious changes in serum pH and absence of ketone bodies in all the groups. few cases of increased rumen pH were due to ingestion of legumes or urea. After treatment in group A protozoa motility was moderat while Rumen pH, cellulose digestion test time was 6.248±0.127 and 23.7±0.7 hours respectively. In group B which was treated with magnesium hydro-oxide normal rumen pH value was 6.981±0.034 and cellulose digestion test time 12.6±0.6 hours. In group C little protozoal movements were observed with minor improvement in rumen pH and cellulose digestion test time while in group D, the health of the animals further deteriorated with more disturbance in rumen pH and cellulose digestion test time values. Magnesium hydro-oxide emerged as effective and economical drug for the treatment of this condition. Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 0553,T] (1).

126. Comparative Evaluation Of Polyvinyl Tube And Cephalic Vein As Ureteral Substitutes In The Dog

by Bilal Qasim | Dr. Mazhar Iqbal | DR. Asim Aslam | Dr. M. Arif Khan | Faculty of Veterinary Sciences.

Material type: book Book; Format: print ; Literary form: not fiction Publisher: 1998Dissertation note: Ureteral prosthesis was the procedure adopted for the conduit of urine in the most natural way either by introducing synthetic graft, autograft or both at different ureters. In this project 21 healthy dogs of either sex were used. Laparotomy was performed under aseptic precautions on eighteen dogs with the remaining three as control animals. In group A an eight centimeter piece of left ureter was removed from its mid portion. One end of the selected polyvinyl tube was introduced into the lumen of the renal portion of the ureter in a telescoping fashion upto a distance of 0.5 cm and firmly secured with modified matress sutures using 4/0 prolene. Other end of the tube was secured in cystic portion of the ureter in the same manner. In group B, 8 cm segment of right ureter was removed in the same manner as described for group A, but in this group instead of Polyvinyl tube an 8cm cephalic vein graft, harvested from one of the forelimbs was used as a ureteral substitute. A 12 cm small diameter polyvinyl tube was passed through the lumen of the graft such that both the ends of the tube protruded beyon The protruding ends of the tube were passed into the renal and cystic segments of the ureter. This was done to stabilize the graft and proper approximation of the cut ends of the ureteral segments and the graft for suturing. The respective ends of the ureteral segments and the graft were sutured with horizontal mattress everting sutures using 4/0 prolene. Then a small nick was given in the renal ureteral segment to remove the tube. The nick was repaired with one horizontal mattress suture using the same suture material. In group C polyvinyl tube and cephalic vein were grafted in the left and right ureters respectively as described for group A and B. All the survivor dogs were kept under observation for 3 weeks and evaluated on clinical observations, biochemical studies and intravenous urography. Euthanasia was performed after the experimental period and operative sites were explored and gross changes were recorded. The analysis of the results clearly indicated that the use of polyvinyl tube was a better option over cephalic vein for the ureteral prosthesis. Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 0554,T] (1).

127. Comparative Efficacy Of Vetimast (Cibageigy), Tetra Delta (Upjohn) And Akamycin-D (Selmore)Against Mastitis In Buffaloes Under Field Conditions

by Razzaq, A | Dr.Iftikhar Gul Ahmad | Dr.Khushi | Dr.Muhammad Ashraf | Faculty of Veterinary Sciences.

Material type: book Book; Format: print ; Nature of contents: biography; Literary form: Publisher: 1998Dissertation note: The present project was undertaken to study the effectiveness of 3 different intramammary preparations in buffaloes suffering from clinical mastitis in the viscinity of Lahore and District Kasur. From these cases causative organisms were isolated and j vitro sensitivity was tested with 3 corresponding antibiotic discs and chemotherapeutic trials were conducted in the field. The following salient results were obtained: 1. Out of 45 milk samples of mastitic buffaloes examined, 53.33 percent were due to staphylococci, 40 percent due to streptococci and 6.66 percent due to gram -ye rods. 2. Among 53.33% strains of staphylococci, 83.33% were sensitive to cefacetrile (Vetimast) while remaining 16.67% were resistant. 3. 83.33.2 percent staphylococci, 83.3% of streptococci and 100% of gram -ye rods were sensitive to Tetra-delta. 4. 75 percent staphylococci, 83.33 percent streptococci and 100% gram -ye rods were sensitive to Gentamycin. 5. 88.88 percent streptococci and 100% E. coli were sensitive to Cefacetrile (Vetirnast). Remaining 11.12 percent of streptococci were resistant to Cefacetrile. Ten buffaloes (Group-A) were treated with 235 mg of cefacetrile, 5 bufffaloes (50%) got cured after 7 days of the end of the therapy and 2 more (20%) animals got cured after 14 day of therapy. Ten bufffaloes (group-B) were freated with TGtra-delta, 5 (5Ob) cured after 7 days of the end of treatment and 3 more buffaloes (30%) got cured after 14 days. Similarily, 10 animals (Group-C) were treated with Akamycin-D by intramammary infusion, 4 buffaloes (40%) got cured after 7 days of therapy and 2 more animals (20%) got cured after 14 days of the end of treatment. In the present study, the total financial losses of about Rs. 43660/has been estimated to be caused by clinical mastitis in buffaloes. These losses are preventable by effective chemotherapeutic and control measures. Clinical trials conducted under field conditions in treating the clinical mastitis in buffaloes have shown that tetra delta is efficacious and economical, as it is cheaper and single dose treatment as compared to vetimast and akamycin-D which are expensive. Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 0557,T] (1).

128. Comparative Efficacy Of Buparvaquone And Oxytetracycline Against Theileriosis In Cattle And Their Effect On Blood

by Sarvat Yab Khan | Prof.Dr.Muhammad Ashraf | Dr.Haji Ahmad | Dr.Muhammad Sarwar Khan | Faculty of Veterinary Sciences.

Material type: book Book; Format: print ; Literary form: not fiction Publisher: 1998Dissertation note: Theileriosis is a serious disease of the cattle which is caused by species of Theileria resulting in death due to severe anaemia. The present study was conducted to evaluate the comparative efficacy of buparvaquone (Butalex, ICI) and oxytetracycline (Terramycin 100 PVP) and their effect on various blood parameters, viz, total erythrocytic count (TEC), total leukocytic count (TLC), packed cell volume (PCV) and haemoglobin estimation (Hb) in and around Lahore. Thirty infected cattle showing clinical signs of Theileriosis (diagnosed based on blood smear examination) were used in this study. These animals were randomly divided into 3 groups designated as A, B and C comprising 10 animals each. Besides this 10 healthy cattle were kept as control as group D. Haernatological examination revealed a significant decrease in the erythrocyte count, packed cell volume and haemoglobin level of the infected cattles. Total leukocyte count was also decreased. Animal of group A was treated with single intramuscular injection of Butalex at the dose rate of 2.5 mg/kg body weight. The efficacy of the drug was 90 per cent. There was marked increased in the erythrocyte, leukocyte, packed cell volume and haemoglobin concentration. Group B was treated with intramuscular injection of Terramycin 100 PVP at the dose rate of 10 mg/kg body weight. The efficacy of the drug was 40% and there was slight increase in the haematological values. riThe haematological values of group C were much more decreased while in group D, these values were just same. From this study, it is concluded that buparvaquone 2.5 mg/kg body weight (Butalex ICI) is the drug of choice for the treatment of Theileriosis under field condition in our country. Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 0558,T] (1).

129. Epidemiological And Experimental Investigation Of Hydatidosis In Buffalo, Cattle And Dogs

by Ghulam Yasin | Dr.Muhammad Athar Khan | Dr.Kamran | Dr.Muhammad Sarwar Khan | Faculty of Veterinary Sciences.

Material type: book Book; Format: print ; Literary form: not fiction Publisher: 1998Dissertation note: In the epidemiological investigation of present project, 1300 slaughtered buffaloes and 1300 slaughtered cattle were inspected for hydatidosis from two different abattoirs in Lahore district. rllhe results showed that the Overall prevalence of hydatidosis in buffalo was 33.9% (Male 30% and Female 37.81%). Overall prevalence of hydatidosis in cattle was 31.2% (Male 30% and Female 32.42%). Higher prevalence was due to examination of only adult/older animals. As regard to distribution of hydatid cyst, the lungs were more effected than any other organs of both cattle and buffalo. The number, size and state of hydatid cysts were also examined and their results are briefly discussed. While in experimental investigation of said project, twenty dogs were maintained for a period of two and a half month and the results showed that the dogs infected experimentally with . granulosus did not exhibit any significant and specific symptoms. Among three drugs used against experimentally induced E. granulosus, the Mannsonil (Niclosamide) is the drug of choice (87% effective) while Forbenda (Albendazole) is the drug of choice (87% effective) while Forbenda (Albendazole) is ineffective and Chanazole (Mebendazole) is also very good. The best method to confirm the infection in live dogs is the purgation of the dogs, while in dead dogs is the postmortem examination and inspection of small intestine for E. granulosus. Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 0559,T] (1).

130. Retrospective Epidemiological Study And Clinico Serological Observations On Haemorrhagic Septicaemia In Cattle And Buffaloes In District Dera Ghazi Khan During 1996

by Zaka Saeed | Dr. M. Athar Khan | Dr. M. Naeem | Dr. Muhammad Ashraf | Faculty of Veterinary Sciences.

Material type: book Book; Format: print ; Literary form: not fiction Publisher: 1998Dissertation note: An active surveillance was conducted to understand the incidence and economic losses due to Haemorrhagic septicaemia in randomly selected 10 villages of tehsil/district Dera Ghazi Khan. The informations about the morbidity, mortality and case fatality rates related to HS were collected on a prescribed questionnaire during the previous year. The data of 4248 animals from the affected villages was cllected which included 2963 buffaloes (1042 young and 1921 adult) and 1285 cattle (417 young and 868 adults). The morbidity, mortality and case fatality rates were 22.3%, 19.64% and 88.04% in buffaloes (with 57.58%, 52.30% and 90.83% in young and 3.17%, 1.92% and 60.65% in adult animals) and 6.07%, 3.19% and 52.56% in cattle (with 8.63%, 5.27% and 61.11% in young and 4.83%, 2.18% and 45.23% in adult animals) respectively. The clinical signs observed were body temperature 104-107°F (17.39%), respiratory distress (14.61%), salivation (14.54%), nasal discharge (9.67%) and edema around throat (9.34%). The average total serum protein, serum albumin and serum globulin of diseased buffalo were 4.99g/dl, 2.60g/dl and 2.42g/dl while in diseased cattle the values were 5.78g/dl, 2.47g/dl and 2.35g/dl. Indirect haemagglutination test (IHA) used for the antibody detection against H.S. revealed that the GMT of diseased buffaloes and cattle was lower than that of healthy animals. No carrier buffalo and cattle could be detected by nasopharyngeal swabs. Economic losses due to haemorrhagic septicaemia have been estimated to be Rs. 2.615 million per annum. Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 0560,T] (1).

131. Comparative Efficacy Of Three Newly Introduced Drugs For The Control Of Experimentally Induced Coccidiosis In Broiler Chicks

by Aslam, M | Dr. M. Sarwar Khan | dr. Kamran | Dr. Khalid Pervaz | Faculty of Veterinary Sciences.

Material type: book Book; Format: print ; Literary form: not fiction Publisher: 1998Dissertation note: One hundred and fifty brioler chicks reared under standars and managmental conditions, were divided into five groups A, B, C, D and E each comprising 30 birds at the ag of 21 days. From 22nd day to onward group A, B and C were given feed mixed with coccidiostats i.e. diclazuril (200mg/kg of feed), maduramicin ammonium 500mg/kg of feed) and salinomycin (1gm/kg of feed) respectively till the end of experiment while group D and E were fed with usual feed. On 28th day, the group A, B, C and D were infected with 75000, sporulated occyst/bird while gropu E was non-infected non-medicated control. Clinical signs were observed only in group B, C and D. The total oocyst count in all groups on zero day of infection was zero. On 1st, 4th and 8th day after the appearance of clinical symptoms, the total oocyst count in group A, B, C and D were 2500, 4900, 9700 and 209600 respectively, while group E examined nil being control non-infected group. Morbidity observed in group B, C and D was 3.33% 16.66% and 83.33% respectively while in group A and E morbidity was not observed. Mortality was observed only in groups C and D that was 3.33% and 30% respectively. The feed intake and feed conversion ratio of group A, B and C was almost equal, while of group D (infected and non-medicated) is concerned it showed better result. Postmortem examination revealed severe enteritis an hemorrhagic lesions in small intestines and caeca, while on histopathology, damage to the absorptive tissue and destructions of the intestinal villi alongwith the merozoites, schizonts and gametocytes in the mucosa and sub-mucosal region of intestine and caeca were observed. The study showed the prophylactic efficacy of diclazuril, maduramicin ammonium and salinomycin in descending ordre respectively. Diclazuril was to be the drug of choic against coccidiosis. Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 0561,T] (1).

132. Prevalence And Chemotherapy Of Cestode Infection In Wild Felidae

by Zahid Zia | Dr. Khalid Pervaz | Dr. M. Akram | Dr. M. Sarwar Khan | Faculty of Veterinary Sciences.

Material type: book Book; Format: print Publisher: 1998Dissertation note: The present wok was conducted to see the efficacy of Niclosamide (Yomesan), Mebendazole (Vermox) and Praziquantel (Droncit) against cestode infection in wild felids in captivity because zoological gardens are permanent source of parastic infestation A survey was conduced to estimate ethe prevalence of various specises of cestodes in 40 wild fields kept in Lahore Zoo and Luch Irani Circus. The prevalence rate was recorded for Lahore Zoo 42.86% and for Lucky Irani Circus 100%. Overall prevalence was estimated (60%). The prevalence rate of Dipylidium caninum, Echinococcus/Taenia species, Spriometra felis and Joyeuxiella pasaquaeli was recroded 32.60, 55.33, 39.81 and 27.90 percent, respectively. The animals showing moderat to heavy infection were selected for therapeutic trails. Two trainls were conducted wild felids kept in the Lahore Zoo and Luch Irani Circus comprising 12 animals each. In both experimental station four groups i.e. A, B, C and D of animals were made. Group A, B and C wre treated with Niclosamide (Yomesan)Mebendazole (Vermox) and Praziquantle (Droncit) respectively, while group D was kept as untreated control group. The efficacy of the drug was detrmined on the basis of reduction in the number of ova and segments discharged in the faeces on 7th, 14th, 21st and 28th day of post medication. Results revealed that Praziquantel (Droncit) was the drug of choice against all species of cestodes, as it was found highly effective throughout the experiment. Membendazole (Vermox) was also found 100% effective against different species of cestodes upto 14th day of the experiment. Niclosamide (Yomesan) was not found as effective as other two drugs. Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 0567,T] (1).

133. Prevalence Of Ascaridiosis In Domestic Pigeons, Its Chemotherapy And Effect On Blood Parameters In Lahore

by Imran Ali | Dr.Muhammad Sarwar Khan | Dr.Haji Ahmad | Dr.Muhammad Athar Khan | Faculty of Veterinary Sciences.

Material type: book Book; Format: print Publisher: 1998Dissertation note: This project was designed to study the prevalence of Ascaridia çolumbae in domestic pigeons and its chemotherapy with two anthelmintics to see the efficacy of two drugs and effect on some blood parameters (TLC and DLC). To find out the prevalence, fifty pigeon shops and houses of pigeon owners were visited in and around Lahore each month. A total of 150 samples from June to August 1998 were collected. An overall prevalence recorded in domestic pigeons was 60 percent. It was highest (72%) in August and lowest (58%) in July. The prevalence of infection was higher in birds raised under unhygienic and poor managemental conditions. For drug efficacy and haematology, 60 pigeons were purchased from local market and divided into 4 groups comprising of 15 birds each and grouped as under: Group A (15 birds) infected and medicated with Albenzole. Group B (15 birds infected and medicated with Chanazole. Group C (15 birds) infected and non-medicated (control) Group D (15 birds) Non-infected and non-medicated (control). Three samples of faeces and blood were collected from each group on zero day, 7th day, 12th day of medication. In group A, egg count decreased to 60.8% and 96.70% on 7th and 12th day of medication respectively. In group B, egg count decreased to 68.60% 86.0% on 7th and 12th day respectively. While in group C, egg count increased to 7.70% and 218% on 7th and 12th day of medication. Group D, remained free from infection and non-medicated throughout the experiment and kept as control. As regards the efficacy of drugs, the Albenzole was found highly effective and reduction percentage was 96.70 eggs ocr gram of faeces. While in Chanazole reduction percentage was 86.0. Total leukocyte count in group A, B and C increased on zero day, 7th day and 12th day of medication. In group 0, total leukocyte count remained constant throughout the experimental period. Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 0569,T] (1).

134. Prevalence And Chemotherapy Of Strongylosis And Its Effect On Various Blood Parameters In Horses

by Abid Saleem | Dr.Khalid Pervez | Dr.Haji Ahmad | Dr.Muhammad Sarwar Khan | Faculty of Veterinary Sciences.

Material type: book Book; Format: print Publisher: 1998Dissertation note: The present project was designed to find out the prevalence of strongylosis, to test the anthelmintic efficacy of Albendazole, Oxfendazole and Piperazine and to study the effect of strongyloids on blood parameters. For this purpose the faecal samples of one hundred and twenty horses were processed through coprological examination. Out of 120 horses 68 were found positive, so the prevalence of strongylosis was recorded as 56.66%. Out of the positive animals, 60 were randomly divided into four groups A, B, C and D comprising of 15 animals in each group. Each animal of group A was given Farbenda (7.5 mg/kg body weight), group B was given Oxafax (10 mg/kg body weight), group C was given Coopane (0.2 g/kg body weight) while group D was kept as control (untreated). The efficacy of anthelmintics was evaluated on the reduction of eggs per gram (EPG) of faeces on 7th, 14th and 21st day post-medication. Efficacy of Farbenda (Albendazole) was 64.2%, 53.1% and 42.1% on 7th, 14th and 21st day, respectively. Efficacy of Oxafax (Oxfendazole) was 100%, 98.7% and 98.1% on 7th, 14th and 21st day, respectively. Efficacy of Coopane (Piperazine) was 52.3%, 38.8% and 28% on 7th, 14th and 21st day, respectively. It was concluded from above results that Oxfendazole was found the most effective than Albendazole and Piperazine, while Albendazole showed better efficacy than Piperazine. Haematological parameters showed significant reduction in total erythrocyte count (TEC), haemoglobin (Hb) level and packed cell volume (PCV) while total leukocyte count (TLC) remained within normal limits. Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 0570,T] (1).

135. Prevalence Of Mixed Infection Of Nematodes And Trematodes In Camels At Lahore And Their Effect On Blood Picture

by Asif, M | Dr. M. Sarwar Khan | Dr. Khalid Pervaiz | Dr. M. Afzal | Faculty of Veterinary Sciences.

Material type: book Book; Format: print ; Literary form: not fiction Publisher: 1998Dissertation note: The present project was designed to know the prevalence of mixed infection of Nematodes and Trematodes in camels at Lahore and the effect of this condition on different blood parameters. The source of camels was Lahore Abattoir. A total of 200 camels were examined from June 1998 to September 1998. Fecal samples were taken from the camels and at the same time blood samples were also taken from the same camel. Fecal samples were examined at Central Diagnostic Laboratory. Medicine Section, and College of Veterinary Sciences Lahore. Fecal samples were examined by the direct smear examination and salt floatation method. Camels were divided into four groups, group A. camels positive for any nematode, liver fluke and paramphistome, group B. camels positive for liver fluke and nématode, group C. camels positive for paramphistome and nematode and an other group D was comprised of camels declared negative I or above mentioned helminthes. The blood samples of only those camels were subjected for examination, which were declared positive for any of the three groups. The prevalence of group A camels was 2.5% and highest prevalence of these camels was observed in the months of June and September. The prevalence of group B was 8 %. and of group C was 3 %. The overall prevalence of nematodes and treniatocles was 70 0o. Only 30 % camels were free of these helminthes. I3lood examination conducted for group A revealed increased Total leukocyte count average was 44000/cubic mm. and range was 40000-48000/cubic nun. Average T.E.C was 3.9 M/cubic mm. and Hh. 11 gm!dl., range for T.E.C 3.6- 4.3 M/cubic mm and I-lb.. was 9-l3gm/dl. D.L.C revealed average neutrophils 75%, lymphocytes 25% and range in neutrophils was 73-77% and lymphocytes were 23-27%. Blood examination conducted for group B revealed increased Total leukocyte count average was 38000/cubic mm. and range was 33000-42000/cubic mm. Average T.E.C was 4.4 M/cubic mm. and Hb. 11.2 grnldl.. range for T.E.C 4- 4.8 M/cubic mm and I-lb. was 8-l3gm/di. D.LC revealed average neutrophils 70%, lymphocytes 28% and range in neutrophils was 68-73% and lymphocytes were 26-30% average monocytes were 2.1% and range was l-S%. Blood examination conducted for group C revealed increased Total leukocyte count average was 35000/cubic mm. and range was 28000-39000/cubic mm. Average for T.E.C 4 M/cubic mm. and Hb. 10.5 gm/dl.. range for T.E.C 3.8-4.5 M/cubic mm and Hh., was 8.8-1 1.7 gm/dl. D.L.C' revealed average neutrophils 75%, lymphocytes 24.6% and range in neutrophils was 74-77% and lymphocytes were 23-26% average range of monocyte was 0.3%, 0-1% respectively. Blood examination conducted for group D revealed increased Total leukocyte count average was 156000/cubic mm. and range was 13900-20000/cubic mm. Average for T.E.C 5.27 M/cuhic mm. and fIb. 14.6 gm/dl., range for T.E.C 4.9-5.6 M/cubic mm and Fib., was 12-l6gm/di. D.L.C revealed average neutrophils 6.8%, lymphocytes 28.4% and range in neutrophils was 65-72% and lymphocytes were 25-3O% for monocytes and eosinophil average was 1.8%, 0.8% and range was 0-3°/o,0-25 respectively. Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 0572,T] (1).

136. Surveiilance Of Disease Problems & Economic Losses In Commercial Layer Farming In Tehsil Arifwala

by Javid Iqbal, M | Prof.Dr.Muhammad Ashraf | Dr.Muhammad | Dr.Muhammad Athar Khan | Faculty of Veterinary Sciences.

Material type: book Book; Format: print Publisher: 1998Dissertation note: The main objective of the present study work was to investigate the prevalence of various diseases and economic losses resulting because of various factors among the commercial layer farming in Tehsil Arif Wala. The farms having housed birds 5000 - 15000 were visited in this study work. The project was divided into two portions. The data of retrospective study revealed total mortality of 16.44% ( 58725/357100 ) due to various diseases. Highest mortality was due to gumboro (27.50%) followed bt leukosis (26.38%), Newcastle disease (15.33% observed only in one farm) early chick mortality ( 5.06%), heat stress ( 4. 14 %), coryza (3.09%) and Salmonellosis ( 1.98% ). The diseases in which the mortality was less than 2% were E-coli, Coccidiosis, C.R.D., I.B., Aspergillosis, Enteritis and Pox. In active surveillance mortality was 27.28% (52019/190700) clue to various diseases. Highest mortality was due to Icukosis (24.57%) followed by Marek's disease (12.98%), early chick mortality (12.75%), gumboro (10.54%), C.R.D. (7.39%), Aspergillosis (7.10%), E-Coli (6.75 %), Coayza (4.81%), saimonellosis (4.33%) and enteritis (3.86%). The diseases in which the mortality was less than 3% were Coccidiosis, l.B., and Heat Stress. In retrospective study economic losses by different factors were chicks ( 25.61%), feed (67.31%) and medicine (7.08%). In active surveillance economic losses due to different factors were chicks (32.29%), feed (62.53%) and medicine (5.18%). From this study it is concluded that viral infections such as gumboro, leukosis, Marek's and N.D. are important in layers responsible for high mortality and economic losses. Therefore, it is recommended that proper vaccination should be done and propel vaccination schedule should be adopted The diagnosis of each disease was made by clinical findings and postmortem findings but in case of active surveillance, the diagnosis of Salmonelosis was confirmed by the laboratory tests. A questionnaire was also designed to collect the data from each farm that was related to morbidity rates, mortali rates , vaccination, susceptible age , managemental faults & economic losses for various diseases. Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 0581,T] (1).

137. Prevalence Of Trichomoniasis In Domestic And Wild Pigeons And Its Effect On Some Blood Parameters Nd Weight Gain

by Hassan Saleem, M | Dr.Khalid Pervez | Dr.Kamran | Dr.Muhammad Sarwar Khan | Faculty of Veterinary Sciences.

Material type: book Book; Format: print ; Literary form: not fiction Publisher: 1999Dissertation note: The present project was designed to study the prevalence of Trichomonas gallinae (Trichomoniasis) in domestic and wild pigeons and its effect on some blood parameters and also on weight gain. To find out the prevalence of T. gallinae in domestic and wild pigeons 100 pigeons were examined between March and Apr11, 1998 from different shops of New Tollinton Market and Lahore Zoo, Lahore. The overall prevalence in domestic and wild pigeons was 41%, which was 30% in March and 52% in April. The birds which were kept in unhygienic conditions and ill fed had more chance of having T. galllnae and have higher prevalence. For the haematological study 10 healthy and 10 infected pigeons were randomly selected (from the already tested -ye and +ve of the infection) and their blood was examined for ITh, Tl.C, DLC and PCV. The values of Hh, PCV and Monocytes of unhealthy pigeons are lesser than the healthy pigeons, while values of TLC, hetorophils, lymphocytes and Eosinophils are higher in diseased pigeons than the healthy pigeons. There is a significant difference between the means of Hb, PCV, TLC, Monocytes, Lymphocytes, Eosinophils, while there is no significant difference between the means of Ileterophils. Finally for weight gain 10 healthy and 10 infected pigeons were randomly selected from already tested and confirmed -ye and +ve pigeons and weight them very carefully and recorded. Both types of birds were kept under observation and after 4 days again weighed them. Which showed that apparently the infected pigeons had lesser weight than healthy ones. There is also a significant difference between their means. Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 0587,T] (1).

138. Comparative Efficacy Of Bone Plate And Plaster Cast For The Repair Of Mid Shaft Metacarpal Fracture In Equine

by Iftikhar Safdar Wahla, M | Dr. M. Arif Khan | Dr. M. Sarwar Khan | Dr. Shakil | Faculty of Veterinary Sciences.

Material type: book Book; Format: print ; Nature of contents: biography; Literary form: Publisher: 1999Dissertation note: The fractures of long bone specially the metacarpal and metatarsal are quite common in race, polo as well as tonga horses. Mostly they appear as simple fracture as they do not involve the skin. These fractured cases are mostly euthanised due to lack of facilities and skills to handle such type of orthopedic problems. Different types of external fixation devices are used to immobilize such types of orthopedic ailments. But these methods cannot fulfill the requirements of an ideal union. In this project the internal method of fixation has been compared with the external method. The project was carried out 16 healthy donkeys divided into four groups of 4 animals each. In group A single plate, in group B double plates at right angle to each other and in group C plaster of paris were tried. Where as group D was considered as sham operated (control). The experiment animals kept over a period of 8 weeks postoperatively at Surgery Section of College of Veterinary Sciences, Lahore and different parameters were studied to pick-up the best procedure for the repair of mid-shaft metacarpal fracture in equine. The analysis of the results clearly indicated that the use of double broad (dynamic compression plate) plates at right angle to each other has an edge over the single plate and plaster cast. However, the single plate can also provide successful results in certain cases, where the movement of the animals is restricted and kept under closed observations. The gypsona cast applied alone can not immobilize the fracture site as required for the ideal healing. Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 0591,T] (1).

139. Epidemiology And Economic Losses Of Trichostrongylid Parasites In Sheep

by Sarwar Khan, M | Dr. Muhammad Athar Khan | Dr. Haji Ahmad | Dr. Khalid Pervaiz | Faculty of Veterinary Sciences.

Material type: book Book; Format: print Publisher: 1997Dissertation note: The meteorological data recorded during the study period from 1.1.96 to 31.12.96 showed the maximum temperature in June as 36.5°C and minimum temperature in December as 6.8°C. Maximum and minimum Humidity was recorded in the month of September and April as 85% and 55% respectively. The maximum rainfall during the year was recorded in the month of August as 660 mm. The faecal egg counts of sheep grazing on permanent pasture showed the minimum EPG during first week of January while maximum EPG on nid of September and first week of October. Pasture larval counts were performed on permanent pasture and experimental plot for the recovery of trichostrongylid larvae. The maximum number of larvae was recovered on 16th September, 1996, while minimum number was recovered in January and February from permanent pasture and experimental plot respectively. Two species of trichostrongylids were identified i.e. Haemonchus contortus and Trichostrongvlus colubriformis. The faecal and larval counts were very low in the months of January and February, the counts started rising in March. Peak counts were seen in the month of September. Decline in counts started in late October and reached to minimum in December. Mature and immature worm counts of slaughtered sheep were performed at 15 days interval. The, overall prevalence oftrichostrongylid parasites was 34%. The maximum number of mature parasites were seen during first week of October which was886 whereas maximum number of immature parasites including hypobiotic was 326 on 1st of December. During this study the average fecundity/female of contortus and L colubriformis parasites were calculated as 721 and 209 respectively. A spring rise in worm egg counts was experienced in mid of March. A pen parturient rise in the worm egg counts of pregnant and lactating ewes indicated the maximum counts during lambing week. An experimental group of sheep with mixed infection of trichostrongylid parasites showed the similar pattern of EPG counts as of naturally infected sheep. A study was performed to evaluate any protection provided by a particular Flaemoglobin type to trichostrongylid infection hut not difference could be observed. The Asparate Aminotransferase (AST) and total protein levels of infected sheep were decreased as a result of increase in the intensity of infection. A decrease in R.B.C. counts, Haemoglobin, Packed cell volume and lymphocyte counts was observed both in experimentally and naturally infected slaughtered sheep. However, an increase in total leukocytic count (TLC) alongwith an increase in the ratio of neutrophils, eosinophils and basophils was observed. At the end of experiment infected sheep gained 5.71 Kg/head less body weight and produced 4 3 grn less wool as compared with non-infected group. Based on epidemiological information the suggestions for control of the, trichostrongylid infection are submitted alongwi th recommendations for further studies. Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 0595,T] (1).

140. Evaluation Of Liver Functions At Varying Degrees Of Hepatectomy In Dogs

by Farhan Ahmad Atif | Dr. M. Arif Khan | Dr. Asim Aslam | Dr. Muhammad Ashraf | Faculty of Veterinary Sciences.

Material type: book Book; Format: print Publisher: 1999Dissertation note: Liver is the most important organ because of its multiplicity of functions. It played a pivotal rote in the nutrition and maintenance of the body. In this project 16 dogs were taken and divided into 4 groups comprising 4 dogs each. In group-A total removal of right lateral lobe was performed. In group-B half part of the right lobe was resected. Group-C was sham operated in which only laparotomy was experienced. Whereas, group-D acted as control. Liver function tests were conducted in all the groups before and after surgery. rfhe.e was slight elevation in the values of liver enzymes which remained within the normal range except alkaline phosphatase. Metabolic ability was not affected appreciably after resection of half and complete removal of right lateral lobe. All the dogs were euthanized after 8 weeks post-operatively. The dogs of group-B showed hepatic regeneration that was 31.2, 38.8 and 28.3 percent in dog No.6, 7 and 8 respectively. The histopathology of regenerated tissue revealed normal hepatic tissue. The analysis of results has clearly indicated that resection of liver upto this extent does not alter liver functions noticeably and thus partial hepatectomy can be performed without any fear. Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 0596,T] (1).

141. Treatment Of Experimentally Induced Coccidiosis And Its Effect On Various Blood Components In Quails

by Hameed, A | Dr. M. Sarwar Khan | Dr. Asif | Dr. Khalid Pervez | Faculty of Veterinary Sciences.

Material type: book Book; Format: print ; Literary form: not fiction Publisher: 1999Dissertation note: This project was designed to study the effect of experimentally induced coccidiosis on some blood parameters and its treatment with Amprolium 20% and Suiphadimidine alone and with Vitamin A and Vitamin K supplementation in quails. For this purpose one hundred and eighty (180) quails of two weeks old were obtained and reared controlled coccidia free conditions and provided coccidiostat free feed. At the age of 3 weeks birds were divided into 6 groups (i.e. A, B, C, D, E and F) comprising 30 birds in each groups. Group-A: Infected and medicated with Amprolium. Group-B: Infected and medicated with Sulphadimidine sodium. Group-C: Infected and medicated with Amprolium and Vitamins A&K. Group-D: Infected and medicated with Suiphadimidine sodium and Vitamins A&K. Group-E: Infected and non medicated. Group-F: Non infected non-medicated (Control). The clinical symptoms were more pronounced in those birds which were treated with Suiphadimidine and Amprolium without any supplementation of Vitamins A and K. The mortality rate lower and OPG was nil at 12th day of medication in the group which was treated with Amprolium and Vitamins A&K supplementation than the other groups. Feed conversion ratio (FCR) and average weight gain of the birds was significantly improved by the addition of Vitamins A and K supplementation with Sulphadimidine and Amprolium than of the birds which were medicated without any vitamin supplementation. The average FCR of those groups which were medicated without vitamin supplementation and with vitamin supplementation were calculated as 3.9, 4.2, 3.7 and 3.9, respectively. Haemoglobin estimation was also improved in the groups which were treated with the supplementation of vitamin A and vitamin K. And highest haemoglobin value was estimated in group C (9.8 gm/100 ml at 12th day of medication), which was medicated with Amprolium and vitamin A and vitamin K supplementation. The study showed efficacy of Amproliurn and Suiphadimidine with Supplementation for vitamins A and K in descending order. Amprolium with supplementation of vitamins A and K was proved to be best drug against coccidiosis in quails. Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 0598,T] (1).

142. Comparative Efficacy Of Various Drugs Used Against Equine Colic

by Hamad Bin Rashid | Dr.Khalid Pervez | Dr.Asim Aslam | Dr.Muhammad Ashraf | Faculty of Veterinary Sciences.

Material type: book Book; Format: print ; Literary form: not fiction Publisher: 1999Dissertation note: Horse is a delicate animal and has a marked tendency towards gastro-intestinal disorders. Unlike other diseases of equines, colic provides the horse a lot pain, the veterinarian and the horse owner much anguish and loss. This study was designed to evaluate the efficacy of hyoscine-n-butylbromide, pentazocine lactate and detomidine hydrochloride. Eighteen horses suffering from colic brought to the Veterinary Hospital, Lahore Race Club, Lahore and the Outdoor Hospital, College of Veterinary Sciences, Lahore were used in this study, while 6 normal horses were kept as control. rI1i diseased horses were randomly divided into A, B and C groups. The physical examination of the affected animals was performed to determine the degree of dehydration, PCV and concentration of serum electrolytes i.e. Sodium, Potassium, Chloride and Bicarbonate were measured before treatment, 1 hour and 2 hour post treatment by flame photometry. In healthy animals PCV and serum electrolytes were in normal range. Increased PCV was observed in most of the affected horses (range 27-64% Mean 43.22%). One hour after the treatment the PCV ranged from 29.1-62.8% (Mean 43.82) while after 2 hours, It was 30.82-60.1% (Mean 43.77%). The lower values of PCV could be attributed to parasitic anaemia. Serum Sodium, Chloride and Bicarbonate concentrations were decreased i.e. 108-13 1 mEq/L (Mean 118.88), 70-91 mEq/L (Mean 79.26) and 23.3-31.1 mEq/L (Mean 26.67) respectively. While serum Potassium concentration was increased i.e. 3.0-5.4 mEq/L (Mean 4.25). One hour after the treatment the values of Nat, OF, HC03 and K were 108.8-132.4 (Mean 121.1), 74.1-94 (Mean 81.6), 24-31.4 (Mean 27.24), 3.3-5.2 mEq/L (Mean 4.39), respectively, while 2 hours after the treatment the values of Na, CF, HC03 and K were 109-133.1 (Mean 122.97), 74.5-99 (Mean 83.55), 24.5-31.9 (Mean 27.83) and 3.7-5.1 mEq/L (Mean 4.53) respectively. The efficacy of hyoscine-n-butylbromide was 100% within 5 hours post treatment. The efficacy of pentazocine lactate was 100% within 4 hours post treatment, while the efficacy of detomidine hydrochloride was 100% 4 hours post treatment. Among pentazocine and detomidine, the efficacy of detomidine was better as more horses recovered in the same time period as compared to pentazocine. Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 0599,T] (1).

143. Comparative Efficacy Of Various Drugs Used Against Naturally Infected Horsed With Babesiosis

by Mamoona Ali | Dr. Khalid Pervez | Dr. Asif | Dr. Muhammad Sarwar Khan | Faculty of Veterinary Sciences.

Material type: book Book; Format: print ; Literary form: not fiction Publisher: 1999Dissertation note: Abstract Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 0600,T] (1).

144. Chemoprophylactic Trials Against Neonatal Calf Diarrhoea And The Study Of Relevant Haematological & Serological

by Muzaffar Hussain Bukhari, Syed | Dr.M.Athra Khan | Dr.M.Sarwar Khan | Dr.Sameera | Faculty of Veterinary Sciences.

Material type: book Book; Format: print ; Literary form: not fiction Publisher: 1999Dissertation note: The economy of Pakistan depends upon its live stock population production. The present situation does not match this fact due to high calimortality rate due to infective agents in animals. The mortality rate is significantly higher in the neonates primarily due to neonatal calf diarrhoea. As the management of neonates is usually not upto the mark and the health of calf is further endangered by the lack of laboratory diagnostic facilities and veterinary medical services at the village level. The present project was designed to solve the problem of our masses which was assume to study the effect of various chemoprophylactic agents against neonatal calf diarrhoea and the study of hematological, serological and bacteriological parameters. For the present study thirty neonates were subjected through systematic random sampling for the comparative efficacy of colimune ora, cosumix plus, streptomagma, N.M.K. powder and biovct and their effect on haemotological, serological and microbiological parameters was studied. None of the animal manifested any clinical sign like diarrhoea, dehydration, scpteccmia or any of the organism was isolated from the fecal samples, which shows that all the drugs worked well prophylactically against neonatal calf diarrhoea. Only one out of five calves in group A (colirnune ora) died 48 hours after its birth. Postmortem rcpors revealed that there was a lot of fluid accumulation in gastero intestinal tract. The present project was conducted at the Animal Nutrition centre, Rakh Dera Chahi, Lahore. Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 0601,T] (1).

145. Drug Efficacy Against Experimentally Induced Escherichia Coli Infection In Three Different Types Of Poultry

by Ibrahim | Dr.Muahammad Athar Khan | Dr.Shakil | Muhammad Sarwar Khan | Faculty of Veterinary Sciences.

Material type: book Book; Format: print ; Literary form: not fiction Publisher: 1999Dissertation note: The present project made an effort to study the efficacy of different drugs on various prevalent strains of Escherichia coil isolated from chickens that were submitted for postmortem at College Of Veterinary Sciences, Lahore and Veterinary Research Institute, Lahore and also by visiting various poultry farms in Lahore region. Six different antibacterial drugs which included Amoxycillin , Enorfioxacine, Neomycin Gentamycin, Furazolidone & Flumequne were used to observe the sensitivity of the isolates. In-vitro condition, Enrfloxacine. Gentamycin and Flumequne emerged as drugs of choice in order of their decreasing importance in the experiment. The pathogenicity of the isolated strains was tested in Swiss white mice after viable cell count, 5 mice were injected interaperitoneally with the suspension of the isolated strain at the dose rate of 0.25 ml having 3x108 bacteria while 5 mice were kept as control. The three best drugs were further tested for their efficacy in protecting the birds from Escherichia coil infection. A total of 225 birds, comprising of 75 broiler, 75 layer and 75 indigenous (Desi chicks), each type representing a group were reared upto 6 weeks of age. At 29th day of age, each of the three group was divided into 5 sub groups comprising 15 birds each. Four sub groups out of 5 of each type was injected with pathogenic isolates of E.coli, cultured already in fresh Nutrient broth and incubated at 37°C for 24 hours, having 3x108 bacteria per 0.25 ml interaperitoneally. One sub group of each type was kept as control (uninfected and untreated). One of the four infected sub groups in each type was not treated while the remaining three infected sub groups in each type were treated with Enrofloxacine, Gentamycin and Flumequene respectively. All the groups were kept under close observation and their mortality was recorded. Maximum mortality was recorded in sub group 1 of group A (i.e. 66.67%) while in the sub groups 2 of B & C, the mortality recorded was 60% and 66.66% respectively. According to the trial Enrofloxacin afforded maximum protection against the infection and feed efficiency, Flumequen stood second and Gentamycin stood third in boilers. Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 0604,T] (1).

146. Prevalence Of Mixed Infection Of Hematodes & Cestodes In Sheep, Its Chemotherapy & Effect On Certain Blood

by Jawaria Ali Khan | Dr.Muhammad Sarwar Khan | Dr.Asif Rabbani | Dr.iftikhar Gul Ahmad | Faculty of Veterinary Sciences.

Material type: book Book; Format: print ; Literary form: not fiction Publisher: 1999Dissertation note: A Study was conducted to assess the effects of albendazole and oxfendazolc agaitist mixed infection of nematodes and cestodes in naturally infected sheep on he bases of post medical ion reduction of egg per grain oF ficces and its certain blood ComponentS. The animals were emaciated in diarrhoeal condition rough body coat and progressive loss of weight. Three hundred sheep were selected. I 24 sheep showed positive infection. Out of 1 24 sheep 30 sheep were positive fir mixed infection of nematodes and cestodes. They were divided into three groups each containing 10 animals naturally infected A, 13 & C while group 1) was kept non-infected and non-medicated, Group A was treated vith albendazole (Albavel, tab I 52mg Medi Vet) 5mg/Kg bw orally. Group 13 was treated with oxlcn(lazote (Oxafax suspension, Glaxo, Wellcome) 5mg/Kg b.w orally. Group C kept as mfecte(l untreated control while group 1) was uninfected untreate(l negative control group. The egg per gram 1ieccs was formed on the fl, 31(1 and day of treatment which indicated (hat both drugs were effective against G .1 .T nematodes and cestodes infection. The chemotheraputic examination Showed that egg per gram of faeces in group A, B & C were 2683, 2561 and 2712 respectively on 0 day while group D examined nil being control non-infectcd group. The EPG in group A. B, C was nil, 122, 2740,respectively, on 3rd day and on 10th day nil, 114, 2973 respectively. While in group D the egg per gram of faces was zero due to uninfective negative control group. The haematological Studies showed that the average haematological values were increased toward nor vial with treatment in group A & B. There was fall in the haemoglobin value in untreated infected group C during experiment while iii group D, there was no significant change in haemoglobin levels which was almost same throughout the experiment. The total leukocyte count returned towards iii all groups normal except group C. The differential leukocytic count, the Basophils decreased, lymphocytes increased and Neutrophils, Fosinophils and Monocytes showed variation in their number. No side effects in both medicines were recorded tInting experiment. Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 0605,T] (1).

147. A Population Based Active Disease Surveilance And Drug Trials Of Mastitis In Cattle And Buffaloes Of District Sargodha

by Ghulam Murtaza Arshad | Dr.Muhammad Athar Khan | Dr.Muhamad Sarwar Khan | Dr.Muhammad | Faculty of Veterinary Sciences.

Material type: book Book; Format: print ; Literary form: not fiction Publisher: 1999Dissertation note: An active surveillance was conducted in Sial Sharif, 134-S.B., Bhabra, Bir Bal Sharif and private farm of district Sargodha on prescribed Questionnaires over a period of one year to determine the incidence of mastitis. Sub-clinical mastitis, antimicrobial susceptibility testing, efficacy of drugs i.e. Farmox (Amoxycillin Trihydrate), Floxatryl (Norfioxacin), Tyloject (Tylosin), Tribrissen (Suiphadiazine and Trimethoprim) and Rasomycine (Oxytetracycline MCI) under field condition and ocnnoniicnl losses due to mastitis at a farmer level. In total adult female buffalo and cattle population 1784 and 747, the incidence rate of clinical mastitis in buffalo and cattle was 25.67 and 18-20% respectively, while 12(20%), 55(23.91%), 76(24.43%), 240(26.84%) and 75(25.95%) in Private farm, Sial Sharif, 134-S.B., Bhabra and Bir Bal Sharif respectively, the incidence rate of clinical mastitis in cattle was 12.5%, 16.84%, 17.64%, 19.88% and 19.44% in Private farm, Sial Sharif, 134-S.B., Bhabra and Bir Pal Sharif respectively. The incidence rate of mastitis in fore and Hind Quarter was 34.34 and 60.78% respectively. While 29 (4.88%) case were also recorded in which both quarters were effected. The incidence rate of mastitis was highest 39.05% in animals of 7-9 lactation number. The incidence rate of mastitis was also higher 50.16% in early stage of lactation. The incidence of mastitis in right and left quarter was non-significant. The overall prevalence of subclinical mastitis in buffalo was 32.22%, while 20%, 33.33%, 30%, 38.46% and 27.77% in group Private farm, Sial Sharif, 134-SB, Bhabra and Bir Bal Sharif, respectively. The incidence rate of subclinical mastitis in cow was 29.29% while 20%, 28.57%, 33.33%, 30.55% and 29.41% in group A, B, C, D and E respectively. Pathogen present in milk sample were susceptible to Tylosin, Amoxycillin, Norfloxacin, Sulphadi azine and Trimethoprim and Oxytetracycline. The comparative drugs efficacy were Farmox 85%, Floxatryl 55%, Rasomycin 35%, Tribrissen 75% and Tyloject 90%. The total economical losses due to mastitis was Rs.5539100. The total economic losses due to mastitis at a farmer level was Rs.8405 per annum. Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 0608,T] (1).

148. Effect Of Probiotics & Hydrated Sodium Calcium Aluminosilicates On The Performance Of Broilers

by Iftikhar Hussain Akram | Prof.Dr.Muhammad Ashraf | Dr.Javed | Dr.Muhammad Sarwar Khan | Faculty of Veterinary Sciences.

Material type: book Book; Format: print ; Nature of contents: biography; Literary form: Publisher: 1998Dissertation note: This project was designed to observe the effects of Probiotics and Hydrated Sodium Calcium Aluminosilicates on the growth, weight gain, feed consumption, feed conversion ratio (FCR) and the antibody titers of N.D. vaccine in broiler chicks. For this, 360 chicks from SB chicks were purchased and were divided into four groups each comprising 90 chicks and furthermore each group was divided into three replicates in each having 30 chicks in it. The experiment lasted for forty two days. The birds were vaccinated according to the program of Rhone Merieux. The probiotic ( Protexin ) was given in group A @ 0.1% in feed and Mycotoxin (Mycoad ) was used in group B 0.2%, in group C ( combination of ProtexinO. 1%+Myco-ad 0.2% ) was given and group D was kept as control. The experiment was carried out at the level of 50ppb on aflatoxins. The use of probiotics and HSCAS is really beneficial in broiler production. The probiotics caused more weight gain (1925 gms. ) and better feed efficiency (F.C.R.2.2 ). On the other side, the results in case of HSCAS were really appreciating as there was controlled mortality (2.2%) acceptable weight gain (186 1.7gms.) and F.C.R.(2.13). To use the product was also economical but in case of brobiotiscs it was uneconomical to use. The combination of both product gave very poor results which was, perhaps, due to antagonistic effect of both. The titers in group B where HSCAS was used, were found excellent ( day 28:35.2 GMT, day 35:4 1.6 GMT, day 42:46.4 GMT) as compare to control( day 28:20.8GMT, day 35:17.6 GMT, day 42:15.2GMT). So the group B (HSCAS ) gave the excellent performance in terms of weight gain, F.C.R., mortality % and remained quite protective throughout the experimentation against the N.D. disease. Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 0614,T] (1).

149. Serodiagnosis & Chemotherapy Of Haemonchosis In Sheep & Its Effect On Various Blood Parameters

by Saeed, M | Dr.Iftikhar Gul Ahmad | Dr.Asif Rabbani | Dr.Muhammad Sarwar Khan | Faculty of Veterinary Sciences.

Material type: book Book; Format: print ; Literary form: not fiction Publisher: 1999Dissertation note: The present project was carried out to check the prevalence of H. contortus with Double Immuno Diffusion (DID) test and coprological technique, to test the anthelmintic efficacy of Albendazole and Levamisole and to study the effect of haemonchosis on blood parameters. For this purpose faccal sample and blood sample from 150 naturally infected sheep were processed through coprological examination and DID test. Out of 150 animal 107 were found positive with coprological studies and 81 with DID test, so the prevalence was recorded as 71.34% and 54% respectively. Out of positively animal, 60 were divided into A, B and C groups with the heavy infection in A awl B groups. Each animal of group A was given Albendazole (Albenzole granule; Selmore) (4mg/kg) and group B was drenched Levamisole (Nayverm; Syrnans) (5mg/kg) while C group was kept as control (untreated). The efficacy of Albendazole and Levarnisole was 90.2% and 62.06% respectively. Hematological parameters showed significant increase in haemoglobin (1-Ib) concentration and Packed cell volume (PCV) after treatment. Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 0615,T] (1).

150. Comp;Arative Efficacy Of Ivermectin, Levamisole And Levamisole Plus Cobalt Against Gastro Intestinal Nematodes Of Sheep Under Field Conditions In District Kohat

by Zahir Shah | Dr.Iftikhar Gul Ahmad | Dr.Haji Ahmad | Dr.Muhammad Ashraf | Faculty of Veterinary Sciences.

Material type: book Book; Format: print ; Literary form: not fiction Publisher: 1999Dissertation note: The present project was designed to evaluate the anthelmintic efficacy and effect of treatment on weight gain of sheep. Fighty sheep of local breed aged 8-10 months positive for gastro-intestinal nematodes were selected from surrounding areas of district 1(ohat (N.W.F.P) and were divided into 4 groups (20 animals in each group). Group A, B and C were given Ivermectin (0.2mg/kg body s/c), Levarnisole 7.5 mg/kg body orally) and Levamisole plus Cobalt (7.5 mg/kg body weight orally) respectively and group U remained as untreated control group. Egg per gram (EPG) of faeces were recorded on "0" day before treatment and on 7th, 14th, 21st and 28th days after treatment.. The efficacy of these drugs were evaluated on the basis of reduction of eggs per gram (EPG) of faeces after medication. These drugs showed a progressive decrease in the faecal egg counts. The percent efFicacy of Tvermectin, Levamisole and Levamisole plus Cobalt on 7th, day after medication was 100%, 98.65% and 98.73% respectively and on 14th, 21st and 28th days, the efficacy of all drugs was 100%. rIIIere was no significant difference (P<0.01) in effectiveness of the drugs. However, there was highly significant difference (P<0.01 between treated and control groups. The Weights of animals were recorded on "0" day before medication and on 7th, 14th, 21st and 28th days after medication. The average weight gain in group A, B and C was 1.8kg, 2.10kg and 3.21kg respectively and the percentage of increase in live weight was 6.57% in group A, 7.63% in group B and 12% in group C. Whereas members of control group reduced their weight by 1.68kg. There was highly significant difference (P<0.01) among the treatments as well as the control group. Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 0616,T] (1).



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