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151. Drug Efficacy Against Experimentally Induced Escherichia Coli Infection In Three Different Types Of Poultry

by Ibrahim | Dr.Muahammad Athar Khan | Dr.Shakil | Muhammad Sarwar Khan | Faculty of Veterinary Sciences.

Material type: book Book; Format: print ; Literary form: not fiction Publisher: 1999Dissertation note: The present project made an effort to study the efficacy of different drugs on various prevalent strains of Escherichia coil isolated from chickens that were submitted for postmortem at College Of Veterinary Sciences, Lahore and Veterinary Research Institute, Lahore and also by visiting various poultry farms in Lahore region. Six different antibacterial drugs which included Amoxycillin , Enorfioxacine, Neomycin Gentamycin, Furazolidone & Flumequne were used to observe the sensitivity of the isolates. In-vitro condition, Enrfloxacine. Gentamycin and Flumequne emerged as drugs of choice in order of their decreasing importance in the experiment. The pathogenicity of the isolated strains was tested in Swiss white mice after viable cell count, 5 mice were injected interaperitoneally with the suspension of the isolated strain at the dose rate of 0.25 ml having 3x108 bacteria while 5 mice were kept as control. The three best drugs were further tested for their efficacy in protecting the birds from Escherichia coil infection. A total of 225 birds, comprising of 75 broiler, 75 layer and 75 indigenous (Desi chicks), each type representing a group were reared upto 6 weeks of age. At 29th day of age, each of the three group was divided into 5 sub groups comprising 15 birds each. Four sub groups out of 5 of each type was injected with pathogenic isolates of E.coli, cultured already in fresh Nutrient broth and incubated at 37°C for 24 hours, having 3x108 bacteria per 0.25 ml interaperitoneally. One sub group of each type was kept as control (uninfected and untreated). One of the four infected sub groups in each type was not treated while the remaining three infected sub groups in each type were treated with Enrofloxacine, Gentamycin and Flumequene respectively. All the groups were kept under close observation and their mortality was recorded. Maximum mortality was recorded in sub group 1 of group A (i.e. 66.67%) while in the sub groups 2 of B & C, the mortality recorded was 60% and 66.66% respectively. According to the trial Enrofloxacin afforded maximum protection against the infection and feed efficiency, Flumequen stood second and Gentamycin stood third in boilers. Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 0604,T] (1).

152. Prevalence Of Mixed Infection Of Hematodes & Cestodes In Sheep, Its Chemotherapy & Effect On Certain Blood

by Jawaria Ali Khan | Dr.Muhammad Sarwar Khan | Dr.Asif Rabbani | Dr.iftikhar Gul Ahmad | Faculty of Veterinary Sciences.

Material type: book Book; Format: print ; Literary form: not fiction Publisher: 1999Dissertation note: A Study was conducted to assess the effects of albendazole and oxfendazolc agaitist mixed infection of nematodes and cestodes in naturally infected sheep on he bases of post medical ion reduction of egg per grain oF ficces and its certain blood ComponentS. The animals were emaciated in diarrhoeal condition rough body coat and progressive loss of weight. Three hundred sheep were selected. I 24 sheep showed positive infection. Out of 1 24 sheep 30 sheep were positive fir mixed infection of nematodes and cestodes. They were divided into three groups each containing 10 animals naturally infected A, 13 & C while group 1) was kept non-infected and non-medicated, Group A was treated vith albendazole (Albavel, tab I 52mg Medi Vet) 5mg/Kg bw orally. Group 13 was treated with oxlcn(lazote (Oxafax suspension, Glaxo, Wellcome) 5mg/Kg b.w orally. Group C kept as mfecte(l untreated control while group 1) was uninfected untreate(l negative control group. The egg per gram 1ieccs was formed on the fl, 31(1 and day of treatment which indicated (hat both drugs were effective against G .1 .T nematodes and cestodes infection. The chemotheraputic examination Showed that egg per gram of faeces in group A, B & C were 2683, 2561 and 2712 respectively on 0 day while group D examined nil being control non-infectcd group. The EPG in group A. B, C was nil, 122, 2740,respectively, on 3rd day and on 10th day nil, 114, 2973 respectively. While in group D the egg per gram of faces was zero due to uninfective negative control group. The haematological Studies showed that the average haematological values were increased toward nor vial with treatment in group A & B. There was fall in the haemoglobin value in untreated infected group C during experiment while iii group D, there was no significant change in haemoglobin levels which was almost same throughout the experiment. The total leukocyte count returned towards iii all groups normal except group C. The differential leukocytic count, the Basophils decreased, lymphocytes increased and Neutrophils, Fosinophils and Monocytes showed variation in their number. No side effects in both medicines were recorded tInting experiment. Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 0605,T] (1).

153. A Population Based Active Disease Surveilance And Drug Trials Of Mastitis In Cattle And Buffaloes Of District Sargodha

by Ghulam Murtaza Arshad | Dr.Muhammad Athar Khan | Dr.Muhamad Sarwar Khan | Dr.Muhammad | Faculty of Veterinary Sciences.

Material type: book Book; Format: print ; Literary form: not fiction Publisher: 1999Dissertation note: An active surveillance was conducted in Sial Sharif, 134-S.B., Bhabra, Bir Bal Sharif and private farm of district Sargodha on prescribed Questionnaires over a period of one year to determine the incidence of mastitis. Sub-clinical mastitis, antimicrobial susceptibility testing, efficacy of drugs i.e. Farmox (Amoxycillin Trihydrate), Floxatryl (Norfioxacin), Tyloject (Tylosin), Tribrissen (Suiphadiazine and Trimethoprim) and Rasomycine (Oxytetracycline MCI) under field condition and ocnnoniicnl losses due to mastitis at a farmer level. In total adult female buffalo and cattle population 1784 and 747, the incidence rate of clinical mastitis in buffalo and cattle was 25.67 and 18-20% respectively, while 12(20%), 55(23.91%), 76(24.43%), 240(26.84%) and 75(25.95%) in Private farm, Sial Sharif, 134-S.B., Bhabra and Bir Bal Sharif respectively, the incidence rate of clinical mastitis in cattle was 12.5%, 16.84%, 17.64%, 19.88% and 19.44% in Private farm, Sial Sharif, 134-S.B., Bhabra and Bir Pal Sharif respectively. The incidence rate of mastitis in fore and Hind Quarter was 34.34 and 60.78% respectively. While 29 (4.88%) case were also recorded in which both quarters were effected. The incidence rate of mastitis was highest 39.05% in animals of 7-9 lactation number. The incidence rate of mastitis was also higher 50.16% in early stage of lactation. The incidence of mastitis in right and left quarter was non-significant. The overall prevalence of subclinical mastitis in buffalo was 32.22%, while 20%, 33.33%, 30%, 38.46% and 27.77% in group Private farm, Sial Sharif, 134-SB, Bhabra and Bir Bal Sharif, respectively. The incidence rate of subclinical mastitis in cow was 29.29% while 20%, 28.57%, 33.33%, 30.55% and 29.41% in group A, B, C, D and E respectively. Pathogen present in milk sample were susceptible to Tylosin, Amoxycillin, Norfloxacin, Sulphadi azine and Trimethoprim and Oxytetracycline. The comparative drugs efficacy were Farmox 85%, Floxatryl 55%, Rasomycin 35%, Tribrissen 75% and Tyloject 90%. The total economical losses due to mastitis was Rs.5539100. The total economic losses due to mastitis at a farmer level was Rs.8405 per annum. Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 0608,T] (1).

154. Effect Of Probiotics & Hydrated Sodium Calcium Aluminosilicates On The Performance Of Broilers

by Iftikhar Hussain Akram | Prof.Dr.Muhammad Ashraf | Dr.Javed | Dr.Muhammad Sarwar Khan | Faculty of Veterinary Sciences.

Material type: book Book; Format: print ; Nature of contents: biography; Literary form: Publisher: 1998Dissertation note: This project was designed to observe the effects of Probiotics and Hydrated Sodium Calcium Aluminosilicates on the growth, weight gain, feed consumption, feed conversion ratio (FCR) and the antibody titers of N.D. vaccine in broiler chicks. For this, 360 chicks from SB chicks were purchased and were divided into four groups each comprising 90 chicks and furthermore each group was divided into three replicates in each having 30 chicks in it. The experiment lasted for forty two days. The birds were vaccinated according to the program of Rhone Merieux. The probiotic ( Protexin ) was given in group A @ 0.1% in feed and Mycotoxin (Mycoad ) was used in group B 0.2%, in group C ( combination of ProtexinO. 1%+Myco-ad 0.2% ) was given and group D was kept as control. The experiment was carried out at the level of 50ppb on aflatoxins. The use of probiotics and HSCAS is really beneficial in broiler production. The probiotics caused more weight gain (1925 gms. ) and better feed efficiency (F.C.R.2.2 ). On the other side, the results in case of HSCAS were really appreciating as there was controlled mortality (2.2%) acceptable weight gain (186 1.7gms.) and F.C.R.(2.13). To use the product was also economical but in case of brobiotiscs it was uneconomical to use. The combination of both product gave very poor results which was, perhaps, due to antagonistic effect of both. The titers in group B where HSCAS was used, were found excellent ( day 28:35.2 GMT, day 35:4 1.6 GMT, day 42:46.4 GMT) as compare to control( day 28:20.8GMT, day 35:17.6 GMT, day 42:15.2GMT). So the group B (HSCAS ) gave the excellent performance in terms of weight gain, F.C.R., mortality % and remained quite protective throughout the experimentation against the N.D. disease. Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 0614,T] (1).

155. Serodiagnosis & Chemotherapy Of Haemonchosis In Sheep & Its Effect On Various Blood Parameters

by Saeed, M | Dr.Iftikhar Gul Ahmad | Dr.Asif Rabbani | Dr.Muhammad Sarwar Khan | Faculty of Veterinary Sciences.

Material type: book Book; Format: print ; Literary form: not fiction Publisher: 1999Dissertation note: The present project was carried out to check the prevalence of H. contortus with Double Immuno Diffusion (DID) test and coprological technique, to test the anthelmintic efficacy of Albendazole and Levamisole and to study the effect of haemonchosis on blood parameters. For this purpose faccal sample and blood sample from 150 naturally infected sheep were processed through coprological examination and DID test. Out of 150 animal 107 were found positive with coprological studies and 81 with DID test, so the prevalence was recorded as 71.34% and 54% respectively. Out of positively animal, 60 were divided into A, B and C groups with the heavy infection in A awl B groups. Each animal of group A was given Albendazole (Albenzole granule; Selmore) (4mg/kg) and group B was drenched Levamisole (Nayverm; Syrnans) (5mg/kg) while C group was kept as control (untreated). The efficacy of Albendazole and Levarnisole was 90.2% and 62.06% respectively. Hematological parameters showed significant increase in haemoglobin (1-Ib) concentration and Packed cell volume (PCV) after treatment. Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 0615,T] (1).

156. Comp;Arative Efficacy Of Ivermectin, Levamisole And Levamisole Plus Cobalt Against Gastro Intestinal Nematodes Of Sheep Under Field Conditions In District Kohat

by Zahir Shah | Dr.Iftikhar Gul Ahmad | Dr.Haji Ahmad | Dr.Muhammad Ashraf | Faculty of Veterinary Sciences.

Material type: book Book; Format: print ; Literary form: not fiction Publisher: 1999Dissertation note: The present project was designed to evaluate the anthelmintic efficacy and effect of treatment on weight gain of sheep. Fighty sheep of local breed aged 8-10 months positive for gastro-intestinal nematodes were selected from surrounding areas of district 1(ohat (N.W.F.P) and were divided into 4 groups (20 animals in each group). Group A, B and C were given Ivermectin (0.2mg/kg body s/c), Levarnisole 7.5 mg/kg body orally) and Levamisole plus Cobalt (7.5 mg/kg body weight orally) respectively and group U remained as untreated control group. Egg per gram (EPG) of faeces were recorded on "0" day before treatment and on 7th, 14th, 21st and 28th days after treatment.. The efficacy of these drugs were evaluated on the basis of reduction of eggs per gram (EPG) of faeces after medication. These drugs showed a progressive decrease in the faecal egg counts. The percent efFicacy of Tvermectin, Levamisole and Levamisole plus Cobalt on 7th, day after medication was 100%, 98.65% and 98.73% respectively and on 14th, 21st and 28th days, the efficacy of all drugs was 100%. rIIIere was no significant difference (P<0.01) in effectiveness of the drugs. However, there was highly significant difference (P<0.01 between treated and control groups. The Weights of animals were recorded on "0" day before medication and on 7th, 14th, 21st and 28th days after medication. The average weight gain in group A, B and C was 1.8kg, 2.10kg and 3.21kg respectively and the percentage of increase in live weight was 6.57% in group A, 7.63% in group B and 12% in group C. Whereas members of control group reduced their weight by 1.68kg. There was highly significant difference (P<0.01) among the treatments as well as the control group. Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 0616,T] (1).

157. Comparative Efficacy Of Different General Anaesthetics With & Without Surgical Intervention In Dogs

by Faisal Ibrahim Khan | Dr.Muhammad Arif Khan | Dr.Muhammad Sarwar Khan | Faculty of Veterinary Sciences.

Material type: book Book; Format: print ; Literary form: not fiction Publisher: 1999Dissertation note: These days the scope of anaesthesia is consistently increasing due to increase in surgical patients" in veterinaty practice. This change in trend is. due to the awareness of the owners to different surgical problems and their solutions. They do "not hesitate to get their animals treated with modem equipments and highly expensive medicine. To meet this challenge and demand of the owners, veterinary surgeons are taking keen interest to get the advanced knowledge and tatest information of modem equipments and their usage in veterinary practice. In the past surgery was perfonned by making tempormy insensibility by asphyxiation, cerebral concussion by striking wooden bowl placed.over the head with a hammer and regional aneathesia was attained by compression of nerves and blood vessels of the region to he operated upon. But these days different sedative and anaesthetic agents are being used to make the animal desensitize from all extemal stimuli. These drugs are available in volatile, nonvolatile and gaseous forms. The usage of anaesthetic agent entirely depends upon the species, age, weight, temperament of the patient, nature of the operation to be perf01med, cost and availability of the drug. In this project tlu°ee different general anaesthetics were tried in 18 animals of canine species to find out the best selection of anaesthesia with and without surgical interventions. The animals were divided into three major groups of six. animals each. These groups were designed as A, Band C. The major gronps were further divided into sub groups At, A2, Bl, B2, Cl and C2 respectively. Sub group was anaesthetized with pentothal sodium without surgery, sub groups B1 with ketamine and sub groups C1 with halothane gas anaesthesia. In sub groups A2, B2 and C2 surgical operations castration was performed with their respective general anaesthetics. The efficacy of these general anaesthetics was measured on the bases of nature of induction, recumbency period, nature of recovery, temperature, pulse TLC, TEC, PVC, Hb, ALT AST, Serum Creatinine, Serum Urea and Statistical analysis of results. The analysis of results collected during the study clearly indicated that halothane gas anaesthesia was a better selection for anaesthetizing canine patients for minor and major surgeries. It was concluded that halothane gas anaesthesia should he used for all types of major surgical procedures in canine practice. Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 0617,T] (1).

158. Prevalence Of Gastro Intestinal Nematodes In Aquatic Birds At Lahore Zoo And Their Chemotherapy With Three Different Anthelmintics

by Ihsanullah | Dr.Iftikhar Gul ahmad | Dr.Haji Ahmad | Dr.Muhamad Sarwar Khan | Faculty of Veterinary Sciences.

Material type: book Book; Format: print ; Literary form: not fiction Publisher: 1999Dissertation note: The present study was undertaken to find out the prevalence of gastro-intestinal nematodes in aquatic birds at Lahore zoo and to evaluate the comparative efficacy of Albendazole (Albenzole granules; Selmore Agencies), Levamisole (Vormatox liquid; Welcome Pak. Ltd.) and piperazine (Coopane powder; Glaxo Weilcome). Ninety faecal samples were examined in Medicine Laboratory, College of Veterinary Sciences, Lahore with direct smear method or flotation technique for identification of nematode ova. Seventy one of 90 (78.89%) were found positive for single or mixed infections of Capillaria anatis (38.89%), Trichostrongylus tenuis (26.66%), Amidostornum anseris (21.11%), Tetrameres fissispina (14.45%), Heterakis gallinae (11.11%) and Ascaridia gaul (5.56%). Out of seventy one infected birds, 60 were chosen randomly for medication and divided into three groups, each consisting of 20 birds (A = crane group, B = duck group and C = geese group). These three groups were further divided into four sub-groups (Al, A2, A3 and A4, similarly Bi, B2, B3, B4 and Cl, C2, C3 and C4), each comprising of 5 birds. Faecal samples of the experimental birds were examined for counting of eggs per gram of faeces on day "0" (pre-medication) with McMaster technique (Soulsby, 1982). Albendazole was given orally to sub-groups Al, Bi and Cl, similarly Levamisole and Piperazine were given to sub-groups A2, B2, C2 and A3, B3 and C3. The sub-groups A4, B4 and C4 were kept as untreated infected controls. Faecal egg counts were again carried out on days 7 and 14 of medication and the results were compared with control sub-groups. Regarding the efficacy of anthelmintics, piperazine was highly effective with reduction of 88.66 and 99.31 per cent eggs per gram of faeces on 7th and 14th day of medication. Levamisole was found to reduce 84.38 and 97.57% eggs per gram of faeces followed by Albendazole with 83.16 and 95.79% reduction in the eggs per gram of faeces. Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 0618,T] (1).

159. Prevalence & Chemotherapy Of Ascariasis & Its Effect On Various Blood Parameters In Horses

by Saqlain Shah Bukhari | Dr.Khalid Pervez | Dr.Muhammad Sarwar Khan | Prof.Dr.Muham | Faculty of Veterinary Sciences.

Material type: book Book; Format: print ; Literary form: not fiction Publisher: 1999Dissertation note: (Albendazole) was 64.95%, 52.26% and 44.02% on 7th, 14th and 21st day, respectively. Efficacy of Oxafax (Oxfendazole) was 99.18%, 98.36% and 97.95% on 7th, 14th and 21st day, respectively. Efficacy of Ivomec (Ivermectin) was 100%, 10O% and 100% on 7th, 14th and 21st day, respectively. It was concluded from above results that Ivermectin was found the most effective than Albendazole and Oxfendazole, while Oxfendazole showed better efficacy than Albendazole. Haematological parameters showed reduction in total erythrocyte count (TEC), haemoglobin (Hb) level and packed cell volume (PCV). Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 0629,T] (1).

160. Prevalence Of Nematodes & Comparative Efficacy Of Albendazole, Mebendazole & Niclosamide Against Nematodes, In Wild Felidae

by Waqar Ali Khan | Dr.Khalid Pervez | Dr.Haji Ahmad | Dr.Muhammad Ashraf | Faculty of Veterinary Sciences.

Material type: book Book; Format: print Publisher: 1996Dissertation note: The present study was conducted to estimate the efficacy of Bovisol (Albendazole), Vermox (Mebendazole) and Yomesan (Niclosamide) against nematodes i.e. Toxocara canis, Toxocara mystax and Ancylosloma braziliense in wild felidae, kept in captivity in Lahore Zoo and Lucky Irani Circus, because wild felidae are prone to a number of parasitic infection and zoological gardens served as permanent source of parasitic infestation. A survey was carried out to estimate the prevalence of Toxocara canis, Toxocara mystax and Ancvlostoma braziliense in wild felidae kept in Lahore Zoo and Lucky Irani Circus. The incidence rate of these parasites was 84.62%, 84.62% and 69.23%, respectively in the Lucky Irani Circus; and 62.07%, 48.28% and 20.69%, respectively in the Lahore Zoo. All the animals showing infection were selected for therapeutic trials. The anthelmintic trials were conducted on 19 and 13 wild felidae kept in the Lahore Zoo and Lucky Irani Circus, respectively. In each experimental Station, i.e. the Lahore Zoo and Lucky Irani Circus, four groups designated A, B, C and D were made. Groups A, B and C were treated with Bovisol (Albendazole), Vermox (Mebendazole) and Yomesan (Niclosamide), respectively. While one group i.e. D, was kept as control (untreated). The percent efficacy of each drug was determined on the basis of reduction in the number of ova discharged in the faeces of experimental animals on 7th, 14th, 21st and 28th day after medication. Results showed that Vermox (Mebendazole) and Bovisol (Albendazole) are approximately equally effective against roundworms and hookworms. Efficacy of Yomesan (Niclosamide) did not show good results throughout the experiment. The efficacy of all the three anthelmintics lowered down with the passage of time. Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 0634,T] (1).

161. A Clinico Coprological Study & Comparative Efficacy Of Systamex, Albendazole, Ivomec Against Nematodes

by Ghulam Hassan | Dr.Khalid Pervez | Dr.Baig | Dr.Kamran Ashraf | Faculty of Veterinary Sciences.

Material type: book Book; Format: print ; Literary form: not fiction Publisher: 2000Dissertation note: The present project was designed to find out the incidence of nematodes and to chalk out the comparative efficacy of Systamex, Albendazole, Ivomec against naturally occurring gastrointestinal nematodes in camel under field conditions in and around Lesbela District, Balochistan. For this purpose, 60 naturally infected camels were divided into 4 groups (15 camples in each group). Group-A Systamex (Oxafendazole; ICI-Pakistan) was given at dose rate 1 ml/8 kg body weight. Group -B Albendazole (Star Labs.) was given at dose rate of 5mg/kg body weight. Group - C Ivomec (Rhone-Poulenc) injection was given at dose rate 0.2 mg/kg body weight subcutaneously. EPG in four groups of animals a day before treatment was as under: Camels in group-A received oxfendazole treatment, mean EPG was 1760. Mean EPG values calculated on days 7, 14, 21 and 28 were 400, 280, 120 and 55, respectively. The percentage efficacy on days 7, 14, 21 and 28 was 77.27%, 84.09%, 93.18% and 98.87% respectively. Group B was treated with Albendazole, EPG values day 0, 7, 14, 21 and 28 were 2130, 630, 317, 190 and 95, respectively. The percent efficacy was 70.42%, 85.11%, 91.08% and 95.54% on day 7, 14, 21 and 28 respectively. Animals in group C were treated with Ivermectin, mean EPG value on days, 0, 7, 14, 21 and 28 were 1950, 432, 285, 120 and 30, respectively. The percent efficacy was 77.85%, 85.38%, 93.85% and 98.46, respectively. Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 0635,T] (1).

162. A Study On The Evaluation Of Oxytetracycline Potentiation With Citric Acid, Calcium Sulphate & Terephthalic

by Adeel Sial, M | Dr.Iftikhar Gul Ahmad | Dr.Kamran | Dr.Muhammad Ashraf | Faculty of Veterinary Sciences.

Material type: book Book; Format: print ; Literary form: not fiction Publisher: 2000Dissertation note: Oxytetracycline (OTC) is administered frequently in veterinary field for the treatment of infectious diseases in large animals and small animals and in the birds. 11 is readily absorbed from the intestine by most mammals but intestinal absorption in poultry is restricted. This project was designed to get more beneficial effect of oxytetracycline in poultry by adding some potentiating substances like citric acid, terephthalic acid and calcium sulphate in the diet. For this purpose 100 day old chicks were purchased from the local market. These were reared in the poultry house in the College of Veterinary Sciences, Lahore. They were provided self prepared poultry ration and water ad-lihilum for three weeks. After three weeks these birds were randomly divided into five groups A, B, C, 0 and E comprising twenty birds each. Five (lilferent experimental rations were fed for one week to each group. Group. "A" was given the ration without oxytetracycIine and was kept as control. Group "B" was given the ration with 200mg oxytetracycline per kg of ration. Similarly Group "C" was given the ration with 200mg OTC and 200mg citric acid per kg of ration. Group "I.)" and "F" were fed on ration with 5.9gm terephthalic acid (0.59%) +200mg OTC per kg of ration and 8 gm calcium sulphate (8.0%) + 200mg OTC per kg of ration respectively. The blood samples were collected at 1st, 3rd and 7th day of treatment and serum concentration of oxytetracycline was measured by using the agar well diffusion method with Bacillus subtilis using as test organism. rllhe average values of concentration of OTC in serum of group, B were 0.807±0.56, 0.897±0.63 and 0.886±0.64 on 1st, 3rd and 7th day, which indicated increase from 3rd to 7th was not significant. In group "C" the average values of OTC concentration in serum were 1.366±0.66, 1.767±0.62 and 1.657±0.67 on 1st, 3rd and 7th day respectively, which indicated that citric acid had immediate potentiating affect when mixed with oxytetracycline. however, this effect remained constant during further days of treatment. Similarly the blood serum level of OTC in group I) and E was also increased by TPA and calcium sulphate used a potentiating agents. however, these agents are not SO effective primarily as citric acid in group C. The result of the present study suggest that oxytetracycline concentration remains constant during all the days of treatment if it is supplemented alone in ration. however, in the presence of other drugs or salts used alongwith it as potentiating agents its concentration in the blood varies according to the nature of the drug or salt incorporated. Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 0636,T] (1).

163. Prevalence & Therapeutic Control Of Surra (Trypanosomiasis) In Camels In District Kech, Turbat

by Faqir Muhammad | Iftikhar Gul Ahmad, 12n (CMS) | Baig | Khalid Pervez, 25n (CMS) | Faculty of Veterinary Sciences.

Material type: book Book; Format: print ; Literary form: not fiction Publisher: 2000Dissertation note: The most important protozoan disease of camels is Trypanosomiasis caused by T. evansi, brucei, I. vivax etc. But the most widespread and serious pathogenic Trypanosome of camels is T. evansi. There was little epidemiological information on the prevalence of infection and of the likely vectors of the parasite. Control of infection depends on accurate diagnosis and treatment with Trypanocidal drugs. Although only a few Trypanocidal drugs are available and there were reports of resistance, the actual extent of this was not known. So due to the economical losses, the disease became even more important and demanded further work. This study was designed to help in getting information on prevalence and therapeutic control of disease. In the study out of total 500 animals 42 were found infected with trypanosomiasis, the prevalence being 8.4 percent. With regard to the comparative efficacy of the three trypanocidal drugs, Tripasan, Berenil and trypamidium. The efficacy of Tripasan was excellent being 90% effective. The efficacy of Berenil was found somewhat less being 70% effective. This may be due to the low dosage or resistance development against the drug in the protozoan parasite. The efficacy of Trypamidium was 70% percent. Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 0640,T] (1).

164. Clinico Haematological And Therapeutic Studies On Experimentally Induced Spirochaetosis In Broilers

by Ashraf Qaisrani, M | Muhammad Sarwar Khan | Dr.Haji Ahmad | Muhammad Athar Khan | Faculty of Veterinary Sciences.

Material type: book Book; Format: print Publisher: 2000Dissertation note: To final out the comparative efficacy of different control measures against Argas persicus, In-Vitro and In-Vivo studies were carried out for the in-Vitro studies three thousand soft ticks Argas Persicus at different stages of their development were used in the experiment. The ticks were divided in to 5 groups A, B, C, D and E having 600 ticks in each group. The ticks of each group (600) were further divided in to three replicates having 200 ticks in each. The ticks were maintained in small plastic boxes containing tick rearing medium at a controlled temperature of 25 Co and 60% relative humidity. The 5 treatments are applied with a small (1 liter) hand held sprayer at the rate of 20ml per box 345 cm2 surface area. The first application was made after 24 hours and repeated twice at 48 hours intervals. On day 0,3,5,7 and 10, the ticks were separated from the manure by immersing the manure in water and retrieved the ticks with the help of sieve. The ticks relating to each group were counted and the counts of each group were compared. The reduction in the counts in test groups as compared to control group A indicated the efficacy of the treatment. It was noticed by the comparative mortality of the ticks in the replicates of different groups that in mortality of ticks in Group A occurred as 6.17% in B as 67.67% in C as 70.67% , in D as 100% and in E as 71.83%. The findings of the In Vitro experiment showed that the efficacy of Tiekide was 100% and in ranking order was placed at No. 1 amongst the test groups and the difference was statistically significant (P<0.05) as compared to B, C and E groups. However the findings of Groups B, C and E were not significant amongst each other (P>0.05). For the In-Vivo studies, the experiment was conducted on a layer farm infested with Argus persicus. A total of 100 layers infested with Argas persicus were reared under experimental conditions on particular farm. One hundred infested birds were divided into 5 groups i.e A,B,C,D and E, each group consisting of 20 birds. The ticks of all members of the groups were counted on day 0,3,5,7 and 10. Group A acted as infested and non treated, B was treated by application of EM1 under the infested wings, C was applied EM5, D was applied Tiekide (Homoeopathic formula) under the wings the medicine was also orally administered @ 2 drops in 1 ml water and members of Group E were applied 1% solution of Ivomec (Ivermectin). The results indicated that the reduction in the mean tick counts was 95.74% in Group D which was placed at No. I, in descending order the mean tick counts reduced by 70.97% in Group E, 68.59% in Group C, 67.63% in Group B and only 1.93% in control Group A. The Tiekide was claimed to be a drug of choice. Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 0641,T] (1).

165. A Study On Prevalence, Chemotherapy & Blood Parameters Of Mixed Infection Of Fascioliasis & Haemonchosis In Goat

by Jawwad Shabbir Yousafi | Muhammad Sarwar Khan | Dr.Iftikhar Gul Ahmad | Dr.Shakil | Faculty of Veterinary Sciences.

Material type: book Book; Format: print ; Literary form: not fiction Publisher: 1999Dissertation note: Total of 300 goats showing sign of diarrhoea and ill health were brought at Outdoor Hospital, College of Veterinary Sciences, Lahore and 40 goats suffering from Fascioliasis and/or Haemonchosis were selected and divided into 4 groups i.e. A (Mixed infection of’ Fasciola and Haemonchus spp.), B (Haemonchosis), C (Fascioliasis), D (uninfected control). Faecal egg count was performed on day 0 (before treatment), day 3 and day 10 (post treatment) by MacMaster technique. lOmi of venous blood was collected in a test tube (added with 1% EUTA) from the same animals for estimation of Total serum protein, Total leucocytic count and SGPT. The results showed that Albendazole is effective against mixed and single infections of Fasciola spp. and Haemonchus app. The efficacy of drug was 96.1%, 95.32%, 98.3% and 96.8% respectively. In infected animals there was a considerable decrease in total serum protein. Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 0643,T] (1).

166. Comparative Efficacy Of Melia Azadarch Linn (Neem) And Sulphaquinoxaline Sodium Against Coccidiosis And Their Effect On Haemoglobin And Total Serum Protein In Rabbits

by Wajid Mehmood | Muhammad Sarwar Khan, 15n (CMS) | Muhammad Ashraf, 64 (CMS) | Faculty of Veterinary Sciences.

Material type: book Book; Format: print ; Literary form: not fiction Publisher: 1999Dissertation note: Forty coccidia free rabbits reared at College of Veterinary Sciences, Lahore were divided into 4 groups A, B, C and D. Each comprising 10 rabbits. Groups A, B and C were inoculated with 50,000 oocyst/ml/animal orally and group D was kept as control. Groups A and B were treated with Melia azadarch Linn (Neem) at the dose rate of 200 mg/kg body weight in drinking water and suiphaquinoxaline sodium at the dose rate of 1 g/l in drinking for 5 days, respectively. Main clinical signs were anorexia, emaciation, Greenish or brownish diarrhoed, sitting hunched up with its legs extended forward and postmortem lesion like Haemorrhagic gastroenteritis, perimeal region is smeared with faecal material. Caecum and colon contained dark greenish or brownish faecal material. Morbidity rate in group A, B and C was observed on day 10th, i.e. 37.5%, 10% and 100% and mortality rate was 20%, Nil and 50%, respectively. No mortality and morbidity was observed in group D. OPG (Oocyst per gram) in group A, B and C on zero day was 57,000, 55,000 and 60,500 and on 7th day was 30200, 2000 and 81500 and on 10th day 11,500, Nil and 95,000, respectively. OPG significant decrease in group B than A. Haemoglobin estimation value and total serum protein in group A, B and C on zero day were 11.30 gIdl, 11.20 g/dl and 11.40 g/dl and 4.5 g/dl, 4.7, 4.6 gfdl, respectively. On 7th day Hb value 11.50, 12.00 and 10.80 g/dl. Total serum protein values 4.7, .2 and 4.1 g/dl on 10th day Hb values 12.00, 13.50 and 10.00 g/dl, respectively and total serum protein was 5.5, 6.3 and 3.9 g/dl, respectively. Further decrease in group C was observed during the experiment. A considerable increase in lib and total serum protein values of group B was observed than group A. So suiphaquinoxaline sodium proved better anticoccidial drug than Melia azadarch linn (Neem). Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 0644,T] (1).

167. Prevalence Of Natural Coccidiosis, Chemotherapy Of Experimental Infection And Its Effects On Various Blood

by Ayub, M | Muhammad Sarwar Khan | Haji Ahmad | Muhammad Arif Khan | Faculty of Veterinary Sciences.

Material type: book Book; Format: print ; Literary form: not fiction Publisher: 2000Dissertation note: This project was designed to study the prevalence of a natural and experimentally induced coccidiosis on some blood parameters and its treatment with furoxone and suiphadimidine in pigeons. For prevalence a total of 300 pigeons were examined from pigeon shops and houses of pigeon owners. The faecal samples were examined by direct method. Out of these, 4Q% cases were found to be positive, whereas 54% cases were found to be negative. The highest rate of infection was Ein-ieria colunibarum during the months of July and August. Sixty young pigeons were obtained and reared under coccidia free conditions and provided coccidiostat free feed. The pigeons were randomly divided into four groups comprising of 15 birds in each (A, B, C and 0). Group A was infected and medicated with furoxone. Group B was infected and medicated with sulphadimidine. Group C was infected but non-medicated and group D was noninfected, non-medicated (control). The clinical symptoms were more pronounced in group C and in those birds which were treated with sulphadimidine. The mortality rate was low and OPG was less at 8th day of medication in group A than other experimental groups. Haemoglobin (Hb) estimation was done. Group A showed highest Hb value (11.054) at day 8th of medication, _which is very closed to value of group D (control) (11.190), which was treated with furoxone. It is evident from the results and can be estimated that the leukocytic count rate of group A increased from the day of infection, reached maximum 35700 per ml and then started decreasing to normal. The differential leukocytic count, lymphocytes decreased while heterophils and monocytes increased and eosinophils and basophils showed variation in their number as compared to control group. The results of the present study indicate that furoxone is better drug than sulphadimidine for control of experimentally induced coccidiosis in pigeons. Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 0645,T] (1).

168. Comparative Anthelmintic Efficacy Of Moxidectin, Ivermectin And Albendazole Against G.I.T. Nematodes Of Sheep Under Field Conditions

by Ali Abdullah Shah, M | Prof.Dr.Muhammad Ashraf | Haji Ahmad | Muhammad Athar Khan | Faculty of Veterinary Sciences.

Material type: book Book; Format: print ; Literary form: not fiction Publisher: 2000Dissertation note: In this experiment comparative anthelmentic efficacy of moxidectin, ivermectin and albendazole was studied in sheep under field conditions. For this purpose, 60 sheep positive for nematodal infestation and 20 negative based on faecal examination were selected from the field. They were divided into 4 groups A, B, C & D having 20 animals in each group. Animals of group-A, B, C were medicated with moxidectin (0.2 mg I kg SIC injection), ivermectin (0.2 mg / kg S/C injection) and albendazole (5 mg / kg, orally) respectively. Animals of group-D were kept as control group. Eggs per gram of faeces were counted by McMaster technique on day 0, 7th 141h day post medication. To calculate the weight gain by these animals, weight was measured on day 0, 28th day of post medication Based on the reduction in the number of eggs per gram of faeces, efficacy of moxidectin was estimated to be 98.65% and 99.7% on day 7 and day 14 post medication respectively. Efficacy of ivermectin was estimated to be 98.9% and 100% while that of albendazole 94.96% and 97.67% on day 7, day 14 respectively. The weight gain observed after 281h day of post medication was 1.18 kg, 1.37 kg, 1.05 kg, 0.5 kg for animals treated with moxidectin, ivermectin, albendazole and control groups respectively. In conclusion, moxidectin and ivermectin are injectable preparations available in the market and can be used for the treatment of nematodes in sheep under field conditions in this area quite successfully. Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 0649,T] (1).

169. Epidemiology And Economic Importance Of Various Diseases Of Cattle And Buffalo In Mohmand Agency (Fata)

by Said Akbar | Iftikhar Gull Ahmad | Khalid Saeed | Sajjad Ahmad | Faculty of Veterinary Sciences.

Material type: book Book; Format: print Publisher: 2000Dissertation note: An active surveillance study was conducted in 16-(I0%) of 1 60 villages of Mohmand Agency for one year period (June 1998 to May 1999) on epidemiology and economic importance of various diseases of cattle and buffalo. The informations were recprded on a questionnaire. Fecal samples were collected from 320 animals and sent to V.R.T, N.W.F.P. Peshawar for detection of parasite infection. The data were analysed and the following conclusions were drawn, about the morbidity, mortality and case fatality of various diseases and their economic impact. Black quarter disease was recorded only in cattle with an incidence rate of 42(0.83%) of 5067 in young and 179 (1.9%)out of 9427 total adult cattle population. The over all incidence was 1 .52%. The case fatality rate was 100% for all. Foot and mouth disease occurred in 14.67% young and 13.13% in adult buffalo population. In cattle the morbidity mortality and case fatality due to FMD vas recorded as 15.95%, 0.098% and 0.62% in young and 13.19%. 0.01% and 0.08% in adult cattle. Occurrence of haeniorrauic septicaemia was higher in buffalo than in cattle. In Buffalo the incidence in young and adult was 2.17% and 2.98% Case fatality was 100% for both the age groups. In cattle the incidence in adult was 0.026% with 100% fatality rate. In buffalo 16.85% young and 955% adult population was affected by endoparasite while in cattle 47.01% young and 25.34% adult population was affected. Morbidity, mortality and case fatality of diarrhoea in young and adult buffalo was 19.02% and 12.83%, 7.06% and 0.6%, 37.14% and 4.65% respectively while in cattle these valuefor young cattle were 13.02%, 1.89% and 14.57% and in adult cattle 9%, 0.46% and 5.36% respectively. Ectoparasite affected 4.89% young and 5.07% adult buffalo population while cattle were affected by 8.82% young and 8.2 1% adults. Incidence, mortality and case fatality of milk fever in buffalo was 4.9%, 0.7% and 14.28% and in cattle 2.47%, 0.67% and 27.27% respectively, Repeat breeding occurred in 0.7% buffalo and 8.6% cattle. Incidence, mortality and case fatality of P.P. haemoglobinuria in buffalo was 1.4%, 0.35% and 25% and that in cattle 1.13%, 0.63%, and 55.8% respectively. Mastitis occurred in 9.12% buffalo and 4.55% cattle. Incidence of abortion in buffalo was 1 .4% and in cattle 2.58%. The incidence, mortality and case fatality olmetritis in buffalo was 6.66%, 1.4% and 21% and in cattle 3.38% 0.66% and 19.53%. Dystochia occurred in 2.8% buffalo and its incidence, mortality and case fatuity rates in cattle were 2.11%, 0.79, 37.5% respectively, 1.05% buffaloes and 3.73% cows retained placenta. The incidence mortality and case fatality of post-parturn prolapse in buffalo was 2.8%, 0.7% and 25% and in cattle 0.75% 0.22% and 29.8%, respectively. Anthrax occurred only in cattle with an incidence rate of 0.73% in young and 0.275% adult cattle with 100% case fatality rate in both the age groups. Three-day-sickness affected 0.08% young and 3.28% adult cattle sudden deaths occurred 1.08% in young and 0.3% in adult buffalo and 0.24% in young and 0.17% in adult cattle. Monetary losses of Rs. 2 1650863/- annually were estimated due to various diseases of cattle and buffaloes in Mohmand Agency during one year (June 1998-May 1999). Most of the villages are not in access to avail hospital facilities, for timely and appropriate treatment of their live - stock. Awareness about dewonning, vaccination, management and feeding of live stock was poor in the area. Suggestions and Recommendations The following suggestions are put forward to the live stock health and production policy maker which vi1l help in minimizing the disease prevalence in live stock and thus affect to minimize the economic loses due to these diseases. 1. Raising awareness in the farmers through mass media e.g. Radio, TV., newspapers and through extension workers about the deworming, vaccination, management, breed improvement, feeding. 2. Provision of high and appropriate quality vaccine well in time he fore an outbreak occurs. 3. Installation of new hospitals with the provision of quality health, Al. services, and diagnostic laboratories. 4. Check on import of live stock to prevent introduction of new diseases. 5. Strict enforcement of slaughter house rules to prevent spread of the diseases. Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 0652,T] (1).

170. Prevalence Of Canine Babesiosis In District Lahore & Comparative Efficacy Of Different Drugs Against Naturally Infected Dogs With Babesiosis

by Haroon Ahmad | Dr.Khalid Pervaiz | Dr. Muhammad Ashraf | Dr.S.A.Jafri | Faculty of Veterinary Sciences.

Material type: book Book; Format: print ; Literary form: not fiction Publisher: 2000Dissertation note: Abstract Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 0655,T] (1).

171. Anthelmintic Efficacy Of Moxidectin, Ivermectin And Levamisole Against Toxocara Vitulorum In Buffalo Calves

by Rahmatullah | Prof.Dr.Muhammad Ashraf | Dr. Muhammad Athar Khan | Dr.Kamran | Faculty of Veterinary Sciences.

Material type: book Book; Format: print ; Literary form: not fiction Publisher: 2000Dissertation note: hits study was conducted to evaluate the anthelmintic efficacy of newly introduced drug moxideclin against Toxocara vitulorun, in buffalo calves under held conditions and to compare its efficacy and treatment cost with other anthelmintics (ivermectin atid levamisole) being used. In this project total of 80 buffalo calves Positive for Toxocara i'itulorum. based on faecal examination, were selected from (he field, and divided randomly into four equal groups i.e. A, 13, C and 1) containing 20 animals in each. Calves of group 'A' were treated with moxidectin, group 'B' were treated with ivermectin. group 'C' were treated with levamisole and group '1)' were kept as untreated control. Faecal samples were collected from each calf at clay zero (premedication), day 7th, day I 5th, and day 21st postmedicalion. Ffhicacy of each drug was calculated on the basis of reduction in eggs per gram of faeces. Anthelmintic efficacy of moxidectin at (lie (lose level of 200ug / kg body weight was I 00%,efficacy of ivermectin at the close level of 200ug/kg body weight was 99.55%, and the efficacy of levamisole at the close level of 7.5mg/kg body weight was 99.035%, 21 st days post medication. From this study it was concluded that moxiclectin and ivermectin has excellent effect against Toxocara i'lluloriun but they are much expensive while levamisole has also excellent efficacy against T vituloruni and (his drug is more economical for the farmers. Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 0658,T] (1).

172. Magnitude Of Health Problems Of The Livestock Population, Serological Findings And Cost/Benefit Ratio At A Farmer Level

by Ajmal Shahid, M | Dr . Muhammad Athar Khan | Dr . Muhammad | Dr . Muhammad Ashraf | Faculty of Veterinary Sciences.

Material type: book Book; Format: print Publisher: 1999Dissertation note: An active surveillance was conducted in 10% villages of canal irrigated, waterlogged, Idara-e-Kissan, river side and urban areas of tehsil Renalá Khurd district Okara through a questionnaire over a period of one year i.e. March, 1998 to February, 1999 to determine the magnitude of various livestock health problems. In total buffalo population 7333 of all the strata morbidity, mortality case fatality was 57.73%, 10.07% and 17.45% while in 2635 cattle, these observation were 38.44%, 1.25% and 3.2% respectively due to various livestock problems. In 3445 goat, 1604 sheep population, the result were 27.95%, 8.06%, 28.86% and 30.17, 9.35%, 30.99% respectively. The highest incidence of haemorrhagic septicaemia 25.38% and 6.48% in young and adult buffalo population respectively was observed in river side area. Waterlogged area was next 24.38%1and 5.165% to river side while least incidence in urban area. Foot and mouth disease incidence was highest 19.28% and 22.01% respectively in young and adult buffalo along river side with no incidence in urban area. Highest. incidence of diarrhoea 11.11% in young buffalo population was observed in waterlogged area. Similarly highest incidence of Mastitis observed was 3.07% in waterlogged area in adult cattle. The highest incidence 23.64% of FMD was observed in waterlogged areas. Incidence of enterotoxemia in young sheep population were high 18.40% than young goat 12.35% while it was high in adult goat 10.23% than 8.99% in adult sheep. Total economical losses due to various livestock disease was calculated R.8408067 (US$ 158642.77). The cost and benefit ratio at a farmer level was 1:2.03. Antibodies were detected against haemorrhagic septi caem i a through IHA, in buffalo and cattle revealed that highest GMT in vaccinated buffalo and cattle was 55.69 each. These titers were also observed in affected and unvaccinated (might be as carrier) along with the recovered animals. Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 0664,T] (1).

173. Comparative Efficacy Of Craniodorsal & Ventral Surgical Approaches For Femoral Head And Neck Excision In Dogs

by Aamir Aslam, Ch | Dr . Muhammad Arif Khan | Dr . Asim Aslam | Dr . Muhammad Sarwar Khan | Faculty of Veterinary Sciences.

Material type: book Book; Format: print ; Literary form: not fiction Publisher: 2000Dissertation note: There are different joint problems in dogs but out of all the incidence of hip joint problems is higher. There are different problems of hip joint mainly, hip dysplasia, leg-calve-perthes disease, degenerative joint disease, irreparable fracture of acetabulum, femoral head and neck. Different methods are used as a treatment for above mentioned ailments. The methods used for such type of problems are categorized into conservative, palliative and surgical. The surgical treatment is further divided into (1) salvage procedure i.e. femoral head and neck excision (2) total hip replacement. The present project was launched to find out the efficacy of two approaches used for the femoral head and neck excision in dogs. The study was conducted on 18 mongrel dogs of either sex ranging in weight from 20.25 kg, which were divided into three groups of 6 dogs each. In group A femoral head and neck excision was performed by using craniodorsal approach, whereas in group B ventral approach was used for the same procedure. Group C was kept as control in which the femoral head was luxated by using either approach. All the dogs were kept in kennels for a period of sixteen week and results were collected on the basis of clinical and radiographic evaluations. All the dogs were euthanized at the end of experimental period and operation sites were explored to find out the gross changes and also to find out the evidence of false joint formation in the muscles. The analysis of results clearly indicated that craniodorsal approach was a better procedure than ventral approach for the femoral head and neck excision in dogs. Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 0667,T] (1).

174. Effect Of Low Level Feeding Of Tylosin And Zinc Bacitracin On The Weight Gain And Immunity Of Broiler Chicks Vaccinated Against Newcastle Disease Virus

by Rahat Ali | Prof.Dr.Muhammad Ashraf | Dr.Iftikhar Gul Ahmad | Dr.Muhammad | Faculty of Veterinary Sciences.

Material type: book Book; Format: print ; Literary form: not fiction Publisher: 2000Dissertation note: The study was aimed to reveal the effect of low level feeding of Tylosin (tylan premix) and Zinc bacitracin (Albac) on the weight gain and immune response of broiler chicks vaccinated against Newcastle disease virus. Two hundred and forty day-old chicks were purchased from local market. They were divided into 3 groups i.e., A, B and C, each group was further divided into 2 sub-groups i.e. A1, A2, B1, B2, C1 and C2. Group A was fed Tylosin (Tylan premix) at the dose rate of 20gm/50kg of feed, 10-42 days of age. Group B was fed Zinc bacitracin (Albac) at dose rate 12gm/50gm of feed, 1.42 days of age. Group C was fed on un-medicated feed A1, B1 and C1 were vaccinated at 7 and 21 days against NDV and A2, B2 and C2 were reared without vaccination. The parameters studied were (1) the effect of low level feeding of Tylosin and Zinc bacitracin in broiler chicks on weight gain, (2) feed conversion ratio and HI titre of Newcastle disease virus vaccination was monitored on weekly basis upto 42nd day of age. This study indicated that Tylosin and Zinc bacitracin when used at recommended dosage levels (20gm/50kg feed and 12gm/50kg feed respectively) did not interfere with the development of birds, immune response of birds in vaccinated groups. Their medication in feed rather produced beneficial effects on weight gain and antibody production due to heavier weight and good health status. Their weight gain studies indicated that the medicated and vaccinated birds fed on Tylosin and Zinc bacitracin medicated feeds had significantly higher body weights than those fed on nonmedicated and non-vaccinated group at 42 days of age. The immune response of vaccinated birds was higher than those of non-vaccinated birds in the presence of medication. However, there was a need for further investigation. Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 0671,T] (1).

175. Comparative Efficacy Of Different Drugs Used Against Mange Mite Infestation In Sheep

by Zafar Iqbal, Syed | Dr . Lftikhar Gul Ahmad | Dr . Asif | Dr . Muhammad Ashraf | Faculty of Veterinary Sciences.

Material type: book Book; Format: print Publisher: 2001Dissertation note: Parasitic inFestation arc the major problem that hinder in the smooth rearing of sheep. Among the parasitic infestations ecto parasites are of major importance. Among the ecto-parasites mange mites are of prime importance as they damage skin, hide, wool etc. Mange mile infestation is considered to be highly responsible for substantial economic losses in the livestock industry (Hourrign, 1979). The present study was conducted to determine the comparative efficacy of different drugs used against mange mites in sheep. For this purpose a total of 60 animals diagnosed positive by skin scraping technique (Tarry, 1991) were randomly divided into 3 groups (A, B and C) each group comprising of 20 animals. Group A was treated with Ivojec (Ivernwctin 1%) at a dose rate of lml/50 kg body weight. Group B was treated with Seguvon (Trichiorphon) at a dose rate of 10gm/lit/animal. Group C was kept as positive untreated control. Observations were made at one week intervals for 3 weeks. The overall efficacy of Ivermectin and Seguvon at the end of study was 90% and 80% respectively. Animals were also observed for any side effect of the product. No side effect was observed during and after the study completion in both groups i.e. A and B group. No spontaneous recovery was noted in control group. From the present study it is concluded that Ivojec (Ivermectin) is the drug of choice for the treatment of mange mite infestation in sheep. Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 0677,T] (1).

176. Chemotherapeutic Studies On Experimentally Induced Ascaridia Galli Infection In Broilers

by Basir Ahmed | Dr.Muhammad Sarwar Khan | Dr.Iftikhar Gul Ahmad | Dr.Shakil | Faculty of Veterinary Sciences.

Material type: book Book; Format: print ; Literary form: not fiction Publisher: 2000Dissertation note: The study was conducted to assess the effectiveness of albendazole and oxfendazole. It was found that abendazole at dose rate of 10 mg / kg bodyweight (once orally) was 87.87% effective and oxfendazole at dose rate of 7.5 mg / kg bodyweight (once orally) was 90.90% effective against Ascaridia gjjJ infection. Parasite effected the live weight of birds and thymus weight significantly. Similarly, the total serum protein level, serum glucose and haemaglobin level were reduced significantly in infected groups as compared with group A (control non infected). The infected groups C & D were treated with albendazole and oxfendazole respectively, although treatment had reduced the number of worms but the live bodyweight, thymus weight, total serum protein, serum glucose and haemoglobin values were not significantly increased in five days post treatment as compared with group B (control infected). The GMHI titre (Geomatric Mean Haemagglutination Inhibition Titre) against Newcastle disease vaccine was much low in infected groups (B, C and D), than control non-infected group (A). The GMHI titre in medicated groups (C&D) having some improvement of GMHI titre than control infected (B) in five days, but comparatively much low than group A. The development in poultry improvement is possible if there is anthelmentic treatment which not only increases the bodyweight of the bird, but also help in better immune response against different diseases of the bird. It is suggested that sub clinical I un observed parasitic infection should be checked with oxfendazole and albendazole treatment and particularly the layers type of birds should be dewormed at an interval of 90 days at least. Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 0685,T] (1).

177. Effect Of Different Antimicrobials At Therapeutic Dose Level On Blood Parameters Of Clinically Normal And Diseased Sheep

by Sheraz Bashir | Dr . Muhammad Athan Khan | Dr . Muhammad Ashraf | Dr . Saghir | Faculty of Veterinary Sciences.

Material type: book Book; Format: print Publisher: 2000Dissertation note: The effect of amoxycillin, oxytetracycline and chloramphenicol at therapeutic dose level on the blood parameters of clinically normal and diseased (pyretic) sheep was studied in 18 febrile and 18 non febrile sheep for a period of 3 consecutive days. Amoxycillin treated diseased animals showed a gradual decline in temperature, pulse, respiration rate, neutrophil count, lymphocyte count, monocyte count and total serum protein, while total erythrocyte count, packed cell volume, total leukocyte count, eosinophil count and basophil counts were increased. In oxytetracycline treated affected animals, temperature, pulse, total erythrocyte count, neutrophil count, monocyte count, basophil count and total serum protein decreased while respiration rate, packed cell volume, total leukocyte count, lymphocyte count and eosinophil count increased gradually with time. In chloramphenicol treated pyretic animals temperature, pulse, respiration rate, total erythrocyte count, total leukocyte count, neutrophil count, lymphocyte count, basophil count and total serum protein decreased and packed cell volume and eosinophils increased while no effect was noted on monocyte count from day zero progressively. In amoxycillin treated non affected animals, total erythrocyte count, packed cell volume, neutrophils, lymphocytes, monocytes and eosinophil increased while pulse, total leukocyte count and total serum protein decreased and no effect was observed on temperature, respiration and basophil count. In oxytetracycline treated normal animals pulse, respiration rate, total erythrocyte count, packed cell volume, total leukocyte count and eosinophil increased while neutrophil and total serum protein decreased gradually and there was no effect on temperature, lymphocytes, monocytes and basophils. In chloramphenicol treated clinically normal animals, pulse, lymphocytes, monocytes and eosinophH increased while total erythrocyte count, total leukocyte count, neutrophil and total serum protein values decreased from day zero to onward. But there was no effect on temperature, respiration rate, packed cell volume and basophil count from day zero to day second. Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 0686,T] (1).

178. Comparative Efficacy Of The Latest Antibacterial Drugs Against Experimentally Induced Pullorum Disease

by Dr . Khalid Omran, M | Dr . Khalid Pervaiz | Dr . Khushi | Dr . Mohammad Sarwar Khan | Faculty of Veterinary Sciences.

Material type: book Book; Format: print ; Literary form: not fiction Publisher: 1997Dissertation note: A total 210 birds were reared upto the age of 4 weeks and the divided into 7 groups viz A, B, C, D, E, F and G, comprised of 30 birds in each group. At the age of 28 days the groups A to E were experimentally infected with Salmonella pullorum inoculation intraperitoneally with the dose rate of '/2 ml. The group F was infected but non-medicated and the group G was kept as control (non infected and non medicated). The groups A, B, C, D, E and E were treated with Anflox, Inoxyl, Triquine, Flumiquine and Gentamycine respectively. All the groups were kept under close observation to record clinical signs, mortality rate, weight gain and feed conversion ratio. Postmortem of dead birds was also conducted. The blood parameters TEC, TLC, and DLC were also estimated post medication on 1st, 3rd and 5th day. The mortality before medication in groups A, B, C, D, E and F was 10%, 16.67, 6.67%, 13.34%, 13.34% and 6.67% respectively. While the mortality during treatment in each group was 25.92%, 32%, 39.28%, 19.23%, 46.16%, 64.28% respectively. The mortality in control group was 6.66% during these days. According to this trial Flumiquine provided maximum protection against Salmonella pullorum infection and proved best in relation to weight gain and FCR. Anflox stood second in the list while Inoxyl was the 3rd drug which provided protection against the infection, whereas Triquine and Gentamycin were the least effective drugs. The signs which appeared after 18-24 hours post infection were listlessness, ruffled feathers, droopy wings, loss of appetite, poor growth, depression, increased thirst and severe diarrhoea of chalky white color. The post mortem findings were enlarged spleen, congested liver with streaked haemorrhages, congested and distended kidneys, grey hepatization in lungs and enlarged heart. The total erythrocytic count decreased in infected non-medicated birds while in medicated groups it remained in normal range. The same was true of total leucocytic count. However, in DLC the heterophil indicated increased percentage after inoculation of infection while the lymphocytes, basophils, eosinophils and monocytes remained within range after the infection. The findings of the present study elucidate the disease and help in diagnosis and treatment of this malady. Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 0688,T] (1).

179. Serological Investigations Into Caprine Brucellosis

by Zulfiqar Ahmad | Dr . Khalid Pervez | Dr . Mubashar | Dr . Muhammad Sarwar Khan | Faculty of Veterinary Sciences.

Material type: book Book; Format: print Publisher: 1985Dissertation note: In the present study an attempt was made to measure the incidence of brucellosis in goats. A total number of five hundred blood samples were collected from animals including 237 males and 263 females, belonging to various age groups, different sources and different breeds. The clear serum was separated and subjected to microscopic slide agglutination test and serum tube agglutination test. On the basis of microscopic slide agglutination test 5.2% goats were found positive for brucellosis. By serum tube agglutination test the percentage of positive cases was 1.2%. A total number of 159 milk samples from the individual animals were subjected to milk ring test. Of these samples 5.03% were found positive for the disease. A comparison amongst the methods used for diagnosis of brucellosis indicated that serum tube agglutination test was the most reliable test for diagnosis of caprine brucellosis. Anyhow, the other two test can be used for screening under field condition. The overall incidence of caprine brucellosis recorded in this study was 1.2% Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 0702,T] (1).

180. Prevalence And Chemotherapy Of Namatode Infestation In Sheep

by Ghulam Murtaza | Dr . Lftikhar Gul Ahmad | Dr . Khalid | Dr . Khizar Hayat | Faculty of Veterinary Sciences.

Material type: book Book; Format: print Publisher: 2001Dissertation note: The present project was designed to find out the prevalence of nematodes and to evaluate the comparative efficacy of Albendazole, Levamisole and Oxfedazole against naturally occurring gastrointestinal nematodes in sheep under field conditions in and around Bhakkar city. For this purpose the faecal samples of two hundred sheep were processed through coprological examination. Out of 200 sheep, 127 were found positive, so the prevalence of nematode was 63.5%. Out of positive animals 40 were randomly divided into four groups (10 sheep in each group). Group A: Albendazole (Albazole, Nawan Lab.) was given at dose rate of 5 mg/kg body weight. Group B: Levamisole (Nilverm, ICI) was given at dose rate of 7.5 mg/kg body weight. Group C: Oxfendazole (Oxafax, Glaxowelicome) was given at dose rate of 4.5 mg/kg body weight, while group D was kept as positive control non-medicated. The efficacy of anthelmintics was evaluated on the basis of reduction of eggs per gram (EPG) of faeces on 7th, 14th and 21st day post-medication. Efficacy of Albendazole (Albazole) was 96.33%, 97.61% and 98.89% on 7th, 14th and 21st day, respectively. Efficacy of Levamisole (Nilverm) was 99.26%, 100% and 100% on 7th, 14th and 21st day, respectively. Efficacy of Oxfendazole (Oxafax) was 98.39%, 99.46% and 99.82% on 7th, 14th and 21st day, respectively. It was concluded from the above results that Levarnisole (Nilverm) was more effective than Albendazole (Albazole) or Oxfendazole (Oxafax). However, Oxfendazole showed better efficacy than that of Albendazole. Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 0710,T] (1).

181. Chemotherapy Of Gastro Intestinal Nematodes In Common Peafowl (Pvo Cristatus) At Lahore Zoo

by Faisal Noman Waraich | Dr.Iftikhar Gul Ahmad | Dr.Khalid | Dr.Muhammad Sajid Afzal | Faculty of Veterinary Sciences.

Material type: book Book; Format: print Publisher: 2001Dissertation note: The present study was undertaken to find out the prevalence of gastro-intestinal nematodes in common peafowl (Pavo cristatus) at Lahore Zoo and to evaluite the comparative efficacy of Albendazole (Farbenda; Farvet), Levamisole HC1 (Nilverm; ICI) and Oxfendazole (Systamax; Id). Fifty two faecal samples of the birds were examined in Medicine Laboratory, College of Veterinary Sciences, Lahore with direct smear method and also flotation techniques for the identification of nematode ova. Forty two samples out of 52 were found positive (80.77%) for single or mixed infections of Capillaria spp., Ascaridia galli and Heterakis gallinae, the individual percentages being 59.62%, 38.46% and 13.46%, respectively. Out of forty two infected birds, forty were chosen for medication and divided into four groups, each consisting of 10 birds. (A= infected treated with Albendazole, B= infected and treated with Levamisole, C= infected and treated with Oxfendazole and group D= infected & untreated control). Faecal samples of experimental birds were examined for counting of eggs/gram of faeces on day'O' (pre-medication) with McMaster technique (Soulsby, 1982). The group D was kept as untreated infected controls. Faecal egg counts were again carried out on days 5 and 10 of medication and percentage reduction of EPG calculated. Oxfendazole was found to be the most effective (98.88%) among the three anthelmintics and levamisole the second most effective (97.93%). The Albendazole was the least effective (95.60%) anthelmintic in the study. The overall prevalence of gastrointestinal nematodes in common peafowl was found 80.77%. Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 0715,T] (1).

182. Comparative Efficacy Of Different Injectable Anaesthetics In Indigenous Chicken

by Akram Khan, M | Dr.Muhammad Arif Khan | Dr.Asim Khalid Mahmood | Dr.Muhammad | Faculty of Veterinary Sciences.

Material type: book Book; Format: print ; Literary form: not fiction Publisher: 2001Dissertation note: Indigenous chicken are the most commonly kept domestic animals in Pakistan and there are many large collections of this species at home and farm level. The demand for their veterinary care is increasing and hence the knowledge for the current methods of their restraint and sedation has become the present need. The study was conducted on thirty clinically healthy male chickens of twelve to sixteen weeks of age and weight ranging from 1000-1200 grams. They were divided into three groups namely Group-A, B and C comprising ten chicken each. Each group was divided into subgroups i.e Al, A2, Bi, B2, & Cl, C2. To study the effect of surgical stress, castration was performed on birds of subgroup A2, B2 and 02. Birds of the three groups A, B, and C were anaesthelized with ketamine HOl @20 mg/kg body weight, kelarnine 1-101 (@ 20 mg/kg body weight) + xylazine HCL (@ 2mg/kg body weight) and ketamine HCL (@ 25 mg/kg body weight) ± Diazepam (@ 2.5 mg/kg body weight) intramuscularly, respectively. After getting anaesthesia, the effects on various body reflexes were recorded in order to assess the induction and surgical stage longevity. The time taken by Ketamine 1-101 to induce anaesthesia was 3.6±0.22 minutes. Katamine 1-IC1 induced anaesthesia persisted upto 17 ±0.88 minutes with the presence of corneal, palpebral and wing stretching reflexes. The birds took 59.5±2.90 minutes to recover. Ketamine HCI/ Xylazine HC1 took 9.6±0.58 minutes to induce anaesthesia which persisted for 30± 1.84 minutes with almost complete absence of all reflexes. The birds took 90.4±9.61 minutes to stand on their feet. Ketamine HCL/Diazepam induced anaesthesia within 5 ±0.33 minutes for 38± 1.12 minutes with almost absence of corneal, palpebral, wing stretching and mandibular tone reflexes. The birds recovered after 162.4± 10.76 minutes. The analgesia & muscle relaxation was very poor in group A as the birds of subgroup A2 exhibited severe pain and resentment when they underwent caponization. It was very good in group B & there was almost complete absence of all reflexes during surgical anaesthesia so caponization was easily performed on birds of subgroup-B2. However in group C, some birds showed unwanted movements (Excitement, shivering, backward pulling of neck) during the procedure. The results of this study clearly indicated that the combination comprising Ketamine HCI and Xylazine HC1 proved to be an ideal cocktail to induce anaesthesia in the chicken. The study also proved that combination provided maximal analgesia which is normally required for a major surgical intervention. The said combination provided excellent muscle relaxation with smooth induction and recovery. It was also concluded that cocktail consisting of Ketamine HC1 and Diazepam can effectively be recommended for minor surgical exercises. Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 0717,T] (1).

183. Prevalence Of Tuberculosis In Cattle Around Lahore Using Intradermal Test

by Maqsood ur Rehman, Lt.Col | Dr.Khalid Pervez | Dr.Masood | Dr.Mohammad Sarwar Khan | Faculty of Veterinary Sciences.

Material type: book Book; Format: print Publisher: 2001Dissertation note: The present study was designed to study the prevalence of tuberculosis in cattle in cattle-colony Rakh Chandrai-near Lahore using double intradermal tuberculin test using tuberculin prepared at Veterinary Research Institute, Ghazi Road, Lahore. A total of 300 cattle of either sexes and having age groups in between 3-6 years, 6-10 years, 10 years and above were subjected to interdermal tuberculin. Veriner caliper was used for the exact measurement of the skin before injection tuberculin and 72 hours later. Their results were interpreted according to the standard procedure. No bull was found suffering from tuberculosis, similarly in the age group of 3-6 years no positive case was found. However, in the age group of 6-10 years, 4 cases were found positive and in age group 10 years and above, 6 cases were positive. Generally tuberculosis was positive in emaciated and debilitated animals and less common in fair animals. The study has generally a help in diagnosing the prevalence of tuberculosis in cattle, particularly in the cattle colonies in the vicinity of Lahore. More studies are recommended in the area to estimate the prevalence of bovine tuberculosis on profound basis. Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 0720,T] (1).

184. Prevalence Of Ectoparasites And Chemotherapy Of Lices In Cattle And Buffaloes

by Manzoor Hussain | Dr.Muhammad Sarwar Khan | Dr.Iftikhar Gul Ahmad | Dr.Kamran | Faculty of Veterinary Sciences.

Material type: book Book; Format: print ; Literary form: not fiction Publisher: 2002Dissertation note: Ectoparasites are serious problem of domestic cattle in Malakand Agency, N.W.F.P. The present study was conducted to find out the prevalence of ectoparasites on cattle and buffaloes and the effect of ectoparasites on various blood parameters were also studied, like TlC, llaemoglobin (Hb) estimation and differential leukocytic count and also to find out the comparative efficacy of (Endectin; ICI Pakistan) and Ivermectin (Ivoject; China) against ectoparasites in cattle and but laloes. The study was conducted from May to August, 2001. Out of 392, 21 positive cattle and buffaloes were divided into three equal groups (A, B and C) comprising 7 animals each. However, group D was kept as control group i.e. free from ectoparasites. Seven animals of group-A (4 buffaloes and 3 cattle) were injected lvermcctiii (lndectin, 1CI Pakistan) @ 1 mg/50 kg body weight once and the seven animals of group-B were treated with iverinecti ii (I voject; China) at the same dose rate. The results were recorded on day 10th post-medication for [he presence of lice. More than 92% lices (6 out of 7) were disappeared after the injection of Endectin; ICI Pakistan and only 72% (5 out of 7) of lices were recovered in these animals. Group-C out of 7 animals (3 cattle and 4 buffaloes), all were positive for lices. These animals were not given any type of medication or injection. They were kept under observation after environmental exposure to check the immunity of the bodies, from day zero. At day 10 the animals were checked again and found remained positive for lices. The animals of group-D were untreated control. They were examined on day zero and found free for lices. They were further examined on day 10, and found negative for lices. From the results of present study it has been concluded that Endectin (Ivermectin) was the drug of choice for the treatment of ectoparnsitcs in cattle and buffaloes when it is given at the dose rate of 1 mg/5() kg body weight by subcutaneous injection. Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 0728,T] (1).

185. A Study On The Effects Of Chemotherapy On Experimentally Induced Heterakis Gallinarum Infestation Of Layer Chicks

by Aatif Haseeb Ahmad | Dr.Muhammad Sarwar Khan | Dr.Khalid Pervez | Dr.Muhammad | Faculty of Veterinary Sciences.

Material type: book Book; Format: print ; Nature of contents: biography; Literary form: Publisher: 2001Dissertation note: Heterakis gallinarum is the commonest nematode inhibiting the digestive tract of poultry that inflects heavy economic losses in poultry industry through causing anaemia, reduced production and loss of weight. These symptoms show that parasitic diseases are the constraints in the development of profitable poultry industry. The present study was conducted to access the effectiveness of Albendazole (Farbenda 10%, Farvet) and Fenbendazole (Hunter 10, Frontline) against j gallinarum and effects of parasitism on blood parameters such as haemoglobin, TLC, DLC and weight gain in layer chicks. For this purpose, 80, 6-week old layer (Fayoumi) were purchased from the local market and 60 birds were infected with . gallinarum ova (100 ova/bird) through oral route while 20 bird were kept as non-infected (control). Five randomly selected birds were slaughtered post infection period at 15th day to confirm the maturity of worms. On 28th day post infection, birds were divided into 3 groups A, B and C (15 bird/group), 15 birds remained as control group D. Five randomly selected birds from each group were slaughtered and worm count was done. On the same day treatment trial were started. On 33rd day post-infection (5th day post-medication), all birds were slaughtered and effect of Albendazole and Fenbendazole was ascertained on the parasite by counting them. According to results obtained, Albendazole which was given to group A, was 78.88% effective while Fenbendazole which was given to group B was 72.22% effective against H. gallinarum. Blood samples were taken on 28th day and 33rd day post infection (5th day post-medication) for haematological studies. Significantly lower values of haemoglobin were estimated in infected groups A, B and C as compared to control group D, while higher values were obtained for heterophil, monocyte, eosinophil and basophil resulting in overall increase in total leukocyte count (TLC). Chicks of group A, B, C and D were weighed on weekly basis starting from 12th day post infection to see the effect of II. gallinarum on body weight. There was a significant decrease in weight in group A, B and C as compare to control group D. Clinical signs of the diseased birds were noted and at the end of experiment, post-mortem examination was done to examine the intestinal lesions. Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 0729,T] (1).

186. Comparative Efficacy Of Polypropylene Mesh Graft And Jejunal Graft For The Repair Of Abdominal Wall Defect In Dogs

by Umar Farooq | Dr.M.Arif Khan | Dr.M.Sarwar Khan | Dr.Nisar Ahmad | Faculty of Veterinary Sciences.

Material type: book Book; Format: print Publisher: 2002Dissertation note: Abdomen is a very delicate portion of the body. It is prone to trauma and clinical cases like malignant soft tissue tumors, abdominal hernias are quite common in both young and mature dogs. In massive abdominal wall defect the use of graft becomes mandatory to achieve desirable results. Different techniques have been performed to overcome this challenge. The present project was launched to find out the efficacy of two techniques for repair of abdominal wall defect. The study was conducted on 10 mongrel dogs of either sex. The dogs were divided into two groups i.e. group-A and group-B, comprising 5 dogs each. In group-A abdominal wall defect was repaired by polypropylene mesh and in group-B it was repaired by auto genousjejunal graft with intact blood supply. All the dogs were kept in kennels in Surgery Department College of Veterinary Sciences Lahore for a period of 60 days and results were evaluated on basis of clinical and postmortem findings. In group-A, all the dogs survived and they did not show any mortality and herniation through operative site. Whereas in group-B, a lot of postoperative complications were seen. The results of the study clearly indicated that polypropylene mesh graft was better choice over the autogenous jejunal graft for the repair of abdominal wall defect in dogs. Although polypropylene mesh is bit expensive as compare to auto grafting, but as far as life of animal is concerned it is need of modern surgery and an ideal choice dealing in emergency cases where life of animal is main objective. Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 0730,T] (1).

187. Comparative Efficacy Of Wiring And Plating For The Repair Of Mandibular Fracture In Dogs

by Ijaz Khalid Sheikh | Dr.Muhammad Arif Khan | Dr.Muhammad Athar Khan | Prof.Dr.Rashid | Faculty of Veterinary Sciences.

Material type: book Book; Format: print ; Literary form: not fiction Publisher: 2002Dissertation note: Mandibular fractures in dogs mostly occur as a result of road accidents, usually due to hit by vehicle and during dental extractions. Immobilization is essential and must resist the stresses of eating and chewing. Different techniques have been established in the past for the repair of mandibular fractures such as bone plating, wiring, pinning, use of K.E. apparatus, use of lag screw for repairing symphyseal fracture and application of tape muzzle. Among the above mentioned techniques bone plating and wiring are frequently used methods for repairing mandibular body fracture in dogs. The present project was designed to compare the two techniques i.e. plating and wiring for the repair of mandibular fracture in dogs. Study was conducted on twelve adult dogs, which were divided into two groups i.e. A and B, comprising six animals each. In group A, fracture was repaired with Auto Compression Plate and in group 13, with stainless steel wire. The dogs of group A were numbered from 1 to 6 and those of group B from 7 to 12 for identification purpose. All the experimental dogs were kept over a period of three months post-operatively at Surgery Section, College of Veterinary Sciences, Lahore. Different parameters were studied to select the best technique for the repair of mandibular fracture in dogs. These parameters were as under: 1. Physical examination 2. Radiographic evaluation 3. Post-Euthanasia examination The analysis of the results clearly indicated that the use of hone plating was a better option over wiring for the repair of mandibular fracture. Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 0731,T] (1).

188. Sero-Epidemiological Study Of Various Livestock Diseases And Cost/Benefit Raio At Farmer Level In Tehsil Dera Ghazi Khan

by Shafiq-ur-Rahman | Dr. Muhammad Athar Khan | Dr. Muhammad | Dr. Muhammad Sarwar Khan | Faculty of Veterinary Sciences.

Material type: book Book; Format: print Publisher: 2002Dissertation note: The epidemiological surveillance was conducted in 10% villages of Tehsil Dera Ghazi Khan which consisted of three different categories i.e. Urban, Rural and Tribal. These 10% villages were randomly selected and epidemiological survey was done during a period of one year i.e. August, 2000 to July, 2001 to determine the magnitude of various livestock diseases. In the buffalo population of 9649 head, morbidity, mortality, case fatality rates were 61.50%, 14.41% and 23.43% while in 9224 cattle, these observations were 41.98%, 2.48% and 5.90% respectively due to various livestock diseases. In 2318 camel population morbidity, mortality and case fatality rates were 30.62%, 6.90% and 22.53% respectively. In goat population morbidity, mortality and case fatality rates were 34.54%, 11.20% and 32.42% respectively. In sheep population the morbidity, mortality and case fatality rates were 37.80%, 11.15% and 29.49% respectively. The highest incidence was due to haemorrhagic septicaemia i.e., 29.50% in young and 6.28% in adult buffalo population of rural category. In urban category, incidence rate was 13.51%, 6.10% in young and adult buffalo population respectively, while least incidence in tribal category where it was 1.80%, 4.21% in young and adult buffalo population. The highest incidence of Foot and Mouth disease was 20.48%, 23.76% in young and adult buffalo population of rural category with no incidence in urban and tribal area. Highest incidence of idiopathic diarrhoea of 11.62% in young buffalo population was observed in rural category. Similarly highest incidence of mastitis 5.84% recorded in buffalo population of rural category. In cattle, highest incidence of mastitis 2.74% observed in rural category. The highest incidence of Foot and Mouth disease 25.45%, 26.89% observed in young and adult cattle population of rural category. Incidence of enterotoxemia 18.44% in young sheep population was higher than young goat 12.50%, while it was high in adult goat 12.42% than in adult sheep 9.12% respectively. The GMT was recorded highest in vaccinated buffalo and cattle while found lowest in affected buffalo and cattle respectively. Total economical losses due to various livestock diseases was calculated Rs.16726578/-. The cost and benefit ratio at a farmer level was 1:1.73. Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 0739,T] (1).

189. Effect Of Ivermetin On Liver At Therapeutic And Higher Doses In Healthy And Diseased Dogs

by khawar Qayyum | Prof.Dr.Muhammad Ashraf | Dr. Asim Aslam | Dr. Muhammad Sarwar Khan | Faculty of Veterinary Sciences.

Material type: book Book; Format: print Publisher: 2002Dissertation note: The project was designed to evaluate the efficacy of ivermectin against external parasites as well as its toxicity on liver at therapeutic and higher doses in healthy and disease (positive for external parasites) dogs of local breeds. For this purpose forty dogs were selected and divided into four groups (A, B, C and D) comprising 10 dogs in each. Dogs of groups A and B were healthy while dogs of group C and D were positive for external parasites. Dogs of group A were administered ivermectin at therapeutic doses (0.2mg/kg body weight subcutaneously) while of group B were given ivermectin 10 times higher dose (2mg/kg body weight subcutaneously). Similarly dogs of group C and D positive for external parasites were given normal and higher doses of ivermectin respectively. To assess the efficacy of ivermectin, skin scrapping examination was performed before and after treatment, while to evaluate the toxicity alkaline phosphatase and alanine aminotransferase enzyme activity was measured before and after treatment. The results indicated that ivermectin was quite effective against external parasites 70% and 80% at therapeutic and higher doses respectively, but the efficacy against ticks was 100% at both the dose rates without any side effect except in one dog showing irritation at the site of injection at the higher dose of ivermectin. Liver enzyme study indicated that alkaline phosphatase was not altered significantly in diseased or healthy dogs at low or higher doses of ivermectin. Alanine aminotransferase activity was also not altered significantly in diseased as well as in healthy dogs. Therefore it is concluded that ivermectin is a safe drug for the treatment of ectoparasites in local breeds of dogs. Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 0742,T] (1).

190. Comparative Efficacy Of Yucca Schidigera Extract And Frusemide In Ascites Of Broiler Chicks, Under Field

by Sohail Ejaz | Prof.Dr.Muhammad Ashraf | Dr. Masood | Dr. Muhammad Athar Khan | Faculty of Veterinary Sciences.

Material type: book Book; Format: print Publisher: 2002Dissertation note: This project was designed to study the comparative efficacy of Yucca schidigera extract Norponin-200) and frusemide in ascites of broiler chicks. For this purpose twenty flocks affected from ascites were selected to carry out this experiment. From each flock thirty birds were randomly selected and were divided into three groups A, B and C having ten birds in each group. Twenty-four hours light was provided to all the experimental birds. Fresh and clean water was provided to them at all the time. The birds were fed ad libitum. The chicks of group "A" were given Yucca schidigera Extract (Norponin-200) at the rate of 10ml/200L of drinking water for three days. The chicks of group "B" were given frusemide (Frusicon) at the rate of 1gm/liter of drinking water for three days while the chicks of group "C" served as control. In this study feed intake, water intake, weight gain and reduction in the ascitic fluid was recorded before and after the treatment. The treated birds were significantly better than untreated birds. In Yucca schidigera treated birds, feed intake, water intake and weight gain was significantly higher than that of frusemide treated birds while reduction in ascitic fluid was significantly higher in frusemide treated group. From this study it is concluded that use of Yucca schidigera extract in ascites of broiler chicks is a better choice than that of frusemide. Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 0744,T] (1).

191. Cholecystoduodenostomy As A Surgical Attempt To Establish Biliary Redirection In Dogs

by Hamid Akbar | Mr. Muhammad Arif Khan | Dr. Muhammad | Dr. Muhammad Athar Khan | Faculty of Veterinary Sciences.

Material type: book Book; Format: print Publisher: 2002Dissertation note: Liver is the largest paranchmatous organ of body. Gall bladder is embedded in lobes of liver and it acts as a store house of bile. Liver pours its secretion into gall bladder which temporarily stores it and transports it to duodenum by bile duct which is a small pathway. Sometimes this pathway (bile duct) is disturbed due to any of multiple reasons described earlier and bile is not transported. Hence there is an immediate need to develop a new connection to restore flow of bile. Cholecystoduodenostomy is a good technique in such cases to restore bile flow. In this project twelve healthy dogs were selected and divided into 3 groups namely, A, B and C. Group A consisted of 8 dogs in which cholecystoduodenostomy was performed. Group B consisted of 2 dogs, in which only laparotomy was experienced, whereas group C also consisted of 2 dogs acted as control. Liver function tests were carried out in all the dogs before and after surgery. The enzyme values were increased when tested at 8 weeks post-operatively. The dogs were also monitored for various parameters to check the efficacy of technique. All the dogs were euthanized at 12th week post-operatively to chck healing at surgical site. The analysis of results has clearly indicated that cholecystoduodenostomy is a safe and sound method in obstructive bile duct problems, and this technique can be used without putting the patient in dilemma. Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 0745,T] (1).

192. Comparative Efficacy Of Crossed Pinning And Plating For The Repair Of Supracodylar Femoral Fracture In Dogs

by Imtiaz Rabbani | Mr. Muhammad Arif Khan | Mr. Asim Khalid Mahmood | Faculty of Veterinary Sciences.

Material type: book Book; Format: print ; Literary form: not fiction Publisher: 2002Dissertation note: The supracondylar femoral fracture usually falls into a special type of fracture, which is not treated by ordinary limb splintage devices because of its location near the joint as well as strong distraction of the thigh muscles. hence, emphasis is given to convert the distracting forces into Compressive forces to achieve the desired effects. Different types of internal fixation devices have been tried in the past for the repair of this type of fracture like placement of intramedullary pins, rush pins, intramedullary pins in crossed fashion and the application of the bone plate. The present study was conducted on 12 mongrel dogs divided into two groups of 6 animals each. rfhese groups were designated as group A and group B. Two methods, crossed intramedullary pinning and application of the bone plate were carried out for the repair of supracondylar fernoral fracture in dogs. In group A, the supracondylar region of the femur was surgically exposed, fractured and repaired by crossed intramedullary pinning technique. Whereas in group B the supracondylar region was repaired by the application of bone plate (T-plate). The dogs of each group were kept for a period of 16 weeks postsurgery. '['he results were obtained on the basis of clinical, radiographic and postmortem evaluation. The results of the study clearly indicated that the use of bone plate is a better fixation device with minimal post-operative complications for the repair of supraconclylar femoral fracture in dogs. Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 0747,T] (1).

193. An Experimental Study Of End-To-End Intestinal Anastomosis In The Dog

by Mumtaz Ahmad Khan | Mr. Nusrat Iqbal Chaudhry | Mr. Anwar-ul-Haq | Mr. Tariq Aziz | Faculty of Veterinary Sciences.

Material type: book Book; Format: print ; Nature of contents: biography; Literary form: Publisher: 1981Dissertation note: Abstract Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 0750,T] (1).

194. The Effect Of Continuous Administration Of Water Soluble Cocidiostatic Drugs At Low Level Against Natural Infection Of Cocidiosis in Broiler Chicken

by Mohammad Athar Khan | Altaf Hussain Sheikh | Mubashar | Zafar-ud-Din Mian | Faculty of Veterinary Sciences.

Material type: book Book; Format: print ; Literary form: not fiction Publisher: 1981Dissertation note: Abstract Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 0751,T] (1).

195. Effect Of Different Fasciolicides Against Fascioliasis In Buffalo Cows

by Azhar Maqbool | Dr. Mohammad Irfan | Iqbal Ahmad | Mubashar Saeed | Faculty of Veterinary Sciences.

Material type: book Book; Format: print ; Literary form: not fiction Publisher: 1981Dissertation note: A total of 275 buffaloes in and around Lahore showing chronic debility were examined for the presence of liverfluke infestation. Fascioliasis was confirmed by faecal examination in 183 animals, of which 80 showed heavy infection. These animals wre divided into four groups A, B, C and D, each having 20 animals. Animals in group A, B and C were treated with Zanil, Fascol super and Trodsax respectively. Group D was kept as control. Most of the animals cleared up after the first treatment whereas others were given a second dose on 21st day after the first treatment. The efficacy of the drug was calculated on the basis of reduction in the number of ova discharge in the faces after medication as confirmed by faecal examination on 3rd, 7th 18th, 28th and 35th day after treatment. Zanil, faxcol super and Trodax caused 85.7 percent 82.8 percent and 80 percent reduction it he number of ova when used as a signle dose and 100 percent, 97.1 perecent and 95.7 percent reduction respectively after the second dose. Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 0752,T] (1).

196. Comparative Prevalence And Chemotherapy Of Pasciolosis In Cattle Of Lahore And Attock Areas

by Tahir Hamid | Dr. Muhammad Sarwar Khan | Dr. Haji Ahmad | Dr. Muhammad Athar Khan | Faculty of Veterinary Sciences.

Material type: book Book; Format: print ; Literary form: not fiction Publisher: 2002Dissertation note: This project was designed to study the comparative prevalence of fasciolosis in cattle in two different areas (plane area and sub-hilly area) having different climatic and environmental conditions in terms of temperature, humidity, rain fall and water resources etc. For the purpose, Lahore and Attock were selected. In this present study, the efficacy of newly introduced homeopathic drug "Trematox" against fasciolosis in cattle was determined by comparing it with nitroxynil (Trodax 34%) and Albendazole (Farbenda 10%). The prevalence was observed in such a way that at both the places i.e. Lahore and Attock, the animals were examined to select 80 positive cases (40 at Lahore and 40 at Attock). Subsequently, the animals were divided into 8 groups i.e. A, B, C, D, E, F, G and H. Groups A, B, C and D were kept at Lahore and groups E, F, G and H were kept at Attock. Groups A and E were untreated control groups. The eggs per gram (EPG) counts are estimated by using McMaster technique at day zero (before medication) and day 7. Then groups B&F, C&G, D&H were treated with Nitroxynil, Albendazole and Trernatox, respectively. Nitroxynil and Albendazole were used @ 10 mg/kg body weight each. The Homeopathic drug "Trematox" was injected 5 ml to each animal i/rn. At day 7, post-medication the EPG was measured. It was observed that at 7th day Nitroxynil showed the efficacy of 92.49%, Albendazole 77.77% and Trematox 42.75%. No side effects in any animal were observed during the experiment. Hence Nitroxynil, Albendazole and Trematox were concluded to be the safe drugs against fasciolosis in cattle. It was observed that medium temperature between 10-25°C and high humidity offer optimal conditions for the occurrence of fasciolosis. Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 0757,T] (1).

197. Prevalence Of Clinical Mastities And Diagnosis Of Subclinical Mastitis In Cross Bred Cows

by Muhammad Yaqoob | Dr. Muhammad Sarwar Khan | Dr. Muhammad | Dr. Muhammad Athar Khan | Faculty of Veterinary Sciences.

Material type: book Book; Format: print Publisher: 2002Dissertation note: The study was conducted to find out the prevalence of clinical mastitis and diagnosis of subclinical mastitis in crossbred cows in and around Lahore. One hundred crossbred cows were selected in and around Lahore. The data for clinical and subclinical mastitis was collected by different means such as observation, palpation of udder, by streaks and surf field mastitis test. Prevalence of clinical mastitis was estimated by collected data. In this project the prevalence of clinical mastitis was 14.23%. Prevalence of clinical mastitis in different farms was different. In three selected farms "Farm A, Farm B and Farm C", the prevalence of clinical mastitis was 16.66%, 12.72% and 13.33% respectively. For diagnosis of subclinical mastitis, samples were collected from selected farms. One hundred crossbred cows were selected. Two different tests were applied for diagnosis of subclinical mastitis such as surf field mastitis test and white side test. The overall percentage of subclinical mastitis was 12.62% with both tests. The percentages of three farms were as such 10%, 14.54% and 13.33% respectively. Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 0762,T] (1).

198. Comparative Efficacy Of Various Suturing Techniques For End To End Anastomosis Of Jejunum In Dogs

by Abdul Rauf, Rana | Dr. Muhammad Arif Khan | Dr. Muhammad | Dr. Muhammad Athar Khan | Faculty of Veterinary Sciences.

Material type: book Book; Format: print ; Literary form: not fiction Publisher: 2002Dissertation note: Diseases of gastro-intestinal tract like intestinal foreign body, intussusception with obstruction and adhesion, gangrene, volvulus and abdominal trauma amenable to surgical correction with enterectomy, segmental resection and end-to-end anastomosis had been a nightmare with both human and veterinary surgeons. Most of the techniques evolved in the past were not commensurate with the criteria of physiological restoration of normality, absence of leakage and minimal lumen stenosis. The present study was undertaken to compare the three suturing techniques viz; simple interrupted crushing sutures, simple interrupted lembert sutures and simple continuous lembert sutures for end-to-end anastomosis. Study was conducted on 12 clinically healthy dogs of mixed breed divided equally into three groups. The versatility and comparison of the techniques were evaluated on the basis of clinical parameters, hematological value, radiographic examination and postmortem findings. It was observed that simple interrupted crushing technique was comparatively more compatible and superior due to its simplicity, economical, less lumen reduction as compared to other techniques viz; simple interrupted Lembert technique and simple continuous Lembert technique. The results of this study clearly indicated that the use of simple interrupted crushing sutures has an edge over the simple interrupted lembert suture and simple continuous lembert sutures for end-to-end anastomosis of jejunum in dogs. Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 0766,T] (1).

199. Effect Of Exposure Of Organophosphate Insecticide (Trichlorfon) On The Health Status Andweight Gain In Broiler Chicks

by Misbah Zulfiqar | Dr. Muhammad Sarwar Khan | Dr. Khalid Pervez | Dr. Muhammad | Faculty of Veterinary Sciences.

Material type: book Book; Format: print Publisher: 2002Dissertation note: The investigation was conducted to study the effects of organophos)hate insecticide Trichlorft)n (Nawagon) on heal Lii status, weight gain in broiler chicks and to see the elTicacy ol atropinc sulphate against this problem. Seventy five day old broiler chicks were reared upto 3 weeks of age under proper managemental conditions. At the end of 2nd week they were randomly divided into 5 groups i.e. A, 13, C, D and E containing 15 chicks in each group. Group A was maintained on a Iced containing Nawagon at dose rate of 20mg/kg in feed. Group B was maintained on a feed containing Nawagon at dose rate of 50mg/kg in feed . Group C was maintained on feed containing Nawagon at dose rate of 100mg/kg in feed. Group D was maintained on feed containing Nawagon at dose rate of 200mg/kg in feed. Group E was kept as control. A-Il the groups were maintained on this feed for 7 clays. The weights of birds from each group were taken bebore treatment with Nawagon. The symptoms were recorded thrmighout the experiment and observed (hat during 4th week fteci intake of all the treated groups was decreased, growth was retarded significantly. Group A and B showed no symptoms. There were 3 mortalities in group C. The postmortem findings were small haemolThages throughout the body muscles liepatoinegaly, spleenomegaly, enlarged heart, swollen kidneys. All other birds of group C showed dyspnea, tremor exhaustion, in coordination and dropping of wings. There were no mortalities in group D but birds showed dyspnea, tremors, exhaustion, in coordination, ataxia, dropping of wings and paralysis of legs. So some birds were disable to walk at the end of 4111 week. During 5th week the birds of group C and D were treated with atropine sulphate. At the end of 3rd or 4th day of' 5 week. The birds were normal. Feed intake and growth was normal. Legs were normal. At the end of 6th week all the birds of treated group showed normal behaviour when compared with the control group. No clinical signs were observed in liver, heart, spleen and kidneys of group E (control). Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 0768,T] (1).

200. Prevalence And Chemotherapy Of Ascariasis In Cross-Bred Calves In And Around Lahore

by Waqar Ahmad | Dr. Muhammad Sarwar Khan | Dr. Khalid Pervaiz | Dr. Muhamad | Faculty of Veterinary Sciences.

Material type: book Book; Format: print ; Literary form: not fiction Publisher: 2002Dissertation note: The present project was designed to find out the prevalence of ascariasis in cross-bred calves in and around Lahore and to evaluate anthelmiiitic efficacy of albendazole, oxfendazole and fumaria parviflora against ascariasis. For this purpose the faeces of 203 cross-bred calves under 3 months aged from various localities in and adjoining city of Lahore were examined for the presence of ascariasis. Forty calves were found positive. It was observed that the prevalence of ascariasis was 19.62%. Forty naturally infected calves having moderate to heavy infection were divided into 4 groups A, B, C and D, each having 10 calves. Ten calves were acted as non-infected and non-medicated (control) as group E. The anthelmintic efficacy of albendazole, oxfendazole and fumaria parviflora was studied by administering to group A, B and C respectively. The efficacy of the drug was determined on the basis of reduction in number of ova count, present in the faeces after medication. Anthelmintic efficacy of albendazole (@ 5mg/kg body weight), oxfendazole (@ 4.5mg/kg body weight) and fumaria parviflora (@ 2gm/kg body weight) was observed to be 83.67%, 95.09% and 0% at clay 5 respectively and at 10 days 99.65%, 100% and 20.15% respectively. It was found that systamex was the most effective drug for the treatment of ascariasis in crossbred calves. Second was the albenclazole. None of these drugs produced any side effects. Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 0770,T] (1).



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