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251. Status Of Calcium And Phosphorus In Soil,Fodder, And Blood Serum Of Buffalo Calves In District Kasur

by Waqas Ali | Mr.Asim Khalid Mahmood | Prof.Dr.Muhammad Sarwar Khan | Faculty of Veterinary Sciences.

Material type: book Book; Format: print ; Literary form: not fiction Publisher: 2009Dissertation note: To determine the levels of calcium and phosphorus in buffalo calves of district Kasur 100 blood samples were collected. In addition to blood samples, fodder and soil samples were also collected from same areas. For blood samples buffalo calves were divided in to group A from 0-6 months of age and B from 6-12 months of age. Fifty samples were collected from each group. The mean plasma calcium values in group A of buffalo calves were higher than the group B of buffalo claves in district Kasur. On the other hand phosphorus levels observed were higher in group B. Soil calcium levels showed variation in different areas and were found highest in Khudian Khass and lowest in Khara areas of district Kasur. Whereas soil phosphorus values were observed highest in Khara and Shams Pura. Feedstuffs, dry roughages and concentrates showed great variation in both the minerals. Calcium was found higher in rapeseed and barseem fodders in Khara and Chak 45 areas and in dry roughages was higher in Amer Kot region and was found highest in rice straw. Calcium was higher in cotton seed cake concentrates in Khudian Khas. On the other hand phosphorus levels were found higher in rapeseed fodder. In dry roughages the phosphorus levels were higher in Khara whereas phosphorus values were highest in sugarcane tops. In concentrates the phosphorus values were higher in Shams Pura of district Kasur and maximum phosphorus values were in wheat bran. Soil samples were collected from each location sampled for fodder and processed according to method described by Singh. The calcium levels in soil of different areas of Kasur were highest in Khudian Khas and other areas have little variation in soil calcium. The phosphorus values of soil were found highest in Khara and Shams Pura but over all there is mineral variation among the areas for phosphorus levels. It is concluded that the levels of calcium and phosphorus in blood serum are entirely dependant on feed source and the levels in ration are dependant on the mineral levels of soil from where obtained. Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 1056,T] (1).

252. Clinico-Biochemical Studies At Variable Degree Of Jejunal Resection In Dogs

by Muhammad Sohail Dilawer | Prof.Dr.Muhammad Arif Khan | Mr.Shahan Azeem | Faculty of Veterinary Sciences.

Material type: book Book; Format: print Publisher: 2010Dissertation note: The present study was designed to evaluate the effects of jejunectomy; indicated in case of necrosis, devitalization, malignancy, and evidence of foreign body and trauma in jejunum. A total of 20 mongrel dogs were selected which underwent a clinical evaluation to be termed physiologically normal. These were divided into four groups A, B, C, D designated for 70% jejunal resection, 80% jejunal resection, 100% jejunal resection and control without resection respectively. The dogs within the groups were evaluated on 15, 30, 45, 60, 75 and 90 days post-operative for various blood parameters, serum sodium, potassium, chloride and bicarbonate ions, body weight and fecal consistency. After the study, dogs were euthanized and postmortem was conducted to observe and analyze the changes associated with the respected portion Regain in body weight was evident in group A, B but it was very slow in group C. Fecal consistency became soft and firm on day 15 in group A, B and on day 45 in group C . No effect between jejunectomized groups and control without jejunectomy was observed for chloride, potassium and bicarbonate ions. However, significant difference was observed for sodium ions indicating low serum sodium levels for jejunectomized group compared control. The WBCs levels were significant in all jejunectomized groups compared to normal indicating higher WBCs in the former groups. Granulocytes and lymphocytes were also higher in group A, C and Group B respectively as compared to D at the 90 day the study. Red blood cells, hemoglobin, PCV, MCH, MCHC values were significant at various days of study period between the different groups but their values were within the normal range indicating the blood parameters reversion to normalcy. For platelets, the values were also in the normal range in the studied groups when compared with control. A total number of 3 dogs died during the study, all of them from jejunectomized groups. At the end of experiment, the dogs euthanized for postmortem findings depicted no abnormal condition at the anastamotic site and in abdominal cavity. CONCLUSION: The study indicated that after the surgical procedure of jejunectomy, the dogs tend to reinvigorate their blood physiological parameters and serum ions. Three dogs died out of 15 jejunectomized thereby indicating that there is a probability of postoperative complication, which in that case was strangulation and torsion. Regain in body weight was the slowest in group C indicating the loss of nutrients essential for maintaining body weight. Therefore it is better to go far 700/G resection and 80% resection. RECOMMENDATIONS: Further research regarding the various aspects necessary for maintaining health should be studied before coming to a decision about the percentage of resection performed. The metabolic problems that may arise due to removal of jejunum and loss of nutrients because of loss of absorptive capacity needs to be studied and standardized in this regard. Post operative care and duration of study for experiments should be increased to observe changes in physiological parameters with the passage of time. Other parameters like Liver Function Tests, Kidney Function Tests be studied and clinical nutrition trials be conducted so as to counter the negative effects of jejunectomy. Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 1089,T] (1).

253. Comparative Efficacy Of Intramedullary Pinning And Plating For The Repair Of Mid-Rami Mandibular Fracture In Dogs

by Saman Bhatti | Prof.Dr Muhammad Arif Khan | Dr.Asim Khalid | Prof.Dr.Muhammad Sarwar | Faculty of Veterinary Sciences.

Material type: book Book; Format: print ; Literary form: not fiction Publisher: 2010Dissertation note: All the experimental dogs were kept over a period of 4 months postoperatively at surgery section, University of Veterinary and Animal Sciences Lahore. Different parameters were studied to select the best technique for the repair of mandibular fractures in dogs. These parameters were as under: 1- Physical examination 2- Radiographic evaluation 3-. Postmortem examination The analysis of the results clearly indicated that the use of bone plating was a better option over intramedullary pinning for the repair of mandibular fractures. Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 1110,T] (1).

254. A Study On Surveillance Of Various Diseases/Problems Of Commercial Broiler Farming In Azad Kashmir

by Shaista Fazil | Dr. Muhammad Athar Khan | Dr. S. Naeem Jafary | Miss Sameera | Faculty of Veterinary Sciences.

Material type: book Book; Format: print Publisher: 2001Dissertation note: The main objective of present work was to investigate the prevalence of various diseases and target the managemental factors affecting the prevalence of various diseases in broiler farming in Azad Kashmir. For this purpose, the project was divided into three portions. In the first portion, a data regarding the prevalence of various diseases in broiler farms was collected from 1990-2000. Maximum mortality was due to infectious bursal disease which caused mortality percentage of 15.4. Other important diseases observed were coccidiosis (12.9%), Omphalitis (8.8%), Colibacillosis (8.2%). In the second portion of the project, one year retrospective study was done. This study was conducted from December, 1999 to December 2001. During this period, twenty broiler farms were visited. These birds had housed birds from 1000 to 5000. The information was collected from farmers, attendants and daily mortality register present at the farms. The influence of season on the prevalence of disease was also observed. A questionnaire was designed to collect the data from each farm that related to mortality rates, vaccination, susceptible age, managemental fault. Highest mortality was due to viral diseases. Infectious bursal disease was the great problem with morality percentage of 29.2 followed by Hydropericardium syndrome having mortality percentage of 20.3 and omphalitis with mortality percentage of 19. Influence of season on the disease was observed by dividing a calendar year into two portions i.e. summer and winter and mortality due to various diseases into two seasons was compared. Early chick mortality, Gumboro disease, Newcastle disease and respiratory diseases were observed to have high incidence in winter than summer while Hydropericardium, colibacillosis and coccidiosis were common in summer than winter. In the third portion of the project, a three months duration study period was decided from June to March, 2001. During this period, twenty broiler farms were visited and study on the prevalence of various diseases, disease mortality rates and managemental factors responsible for various diseases was done. During this period overall mortality was 15.4% due to various diseases. Important diseases causing mortality were Gumboro (25.9%), Hydropericardium (19.3%), Colibacillosis (14.5%) and Omphalitis (14%). Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 1115,T] (1).

255. Physiological Udder Oedema And Congesion Of Cows And Buffaloes

by Iqbal Ahmad | M.S. Khan.

Material type: book Book; Format: print Publisher: 1977Dissertation note: A study involving 150 cases consisting of 122 buffaloes and 28 cows brought to the out patiently hospital at the College of Animal Husbandry, Lahore, with a history of physiological oedema and congestion of udder was conducted to get a clinico pathological picture and ascertain the various etiological factors involved therein. Out of the total 150 cases udder investigation 11(8 buffaloes + 3 cows) 15 (14 buffaloes + 1 cow), 59 (48 buffaloes + 11 cows), 18 (13 buffaloes + 5 cows) 28 (22 buffaloes + 6 cows), and 19 (17 buffaloes + 2 cows) were diagnosed to be suffereing from myocardial asthenia, milk fever syndrome, malnutrition, adrenal hormonal imbalance (stress diases), mastitis and simple physiological udder oedma due to pressure by the foetus respectively. The clinical findings of different ailments was almost similar in the early stages, From the data obtained during the present study, it j clearly evident that cases showing symptoms of udder oedema and congestion were due to myocardial asthenia, milk fever syndrome, malnutrition, harmonal disturbances ( as allergy, sting bites etc), Mastitis and simple physiological udder oedema due to pressure by the foetus. It may be concluded that low food (Protein) intake during pregnancy is a major cause of udder oedema and congestion in late pregnancy in cows and buffaloes here. Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 1118,T] (1).

256. Fixation Of Fractures By Stainless Steel Intramedullary Pins And Plates Tereatment Of Tibial Fractures In The Dog

by Dr. Mazhar Iqbal | Zafar ud Din Mian | Altaf Hussain | Mr. Muhammad Tufail Khan | Faculty of Veterinary Sciences.

Material type: book Book; Format: print Publisher: 1978Dissertation note: The study of "Treatnt of TibiaS fractures in the cog" through pinning end plating was undertaken primarily for introducing this branch of orthopaedic surgery here to keep pace with other countries of the erld, besides ascertaining the conp are- tive efficiency of both the aforesaid techniques. A total number of 32 dogs of local breed were selected for this purpose and were divided into eight groups of four animals each, The ani:aals in one group n of the sane sex and aqroximately of uniform age, size and weight, tine group of animals was used at a time, The left tibiae of the animals were broken approximately in the zui&ie with the help of chisel and haaaer under general anaesthesia of Intraval Sodiwa, Half of the fractures were ictnobilized using stainless steel intrameduUary pins and the recaining half by stainless steel bone plates, The aninols were kept under the same environmental conditions and fed on sane ration during the post-operative period, The results indicated that both the methods were just equaUy good as far as iaobilization art callus formation was concerned, However, pinning is prefexrd in view of its being simple ext less laborious both at the time of its introduction and removal after recovery. runhcr,,:e, from experiencing very negligible post-operative cocç; ications, pinning was quite economical as compared to plating, Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 1122,T] (1).

257. Investigation On Epidemiology And Economics Imporatanc Eof Major And Common Livestock Diseases In Distt. Gujrat

by Mohammad Riaz | Dr. Muhammad Sarwar Khan | Dr. Asif | Dr. Muhammad Ashraf | Faculty of Veterinary Sciences.

Material type: book Book; Format: print Publisher: 1990Dissertation note: Livestock sector has faced great set back in its development programmes because of the economic losses resulting from various animals diseases. Such losses, though highly colosol in nature, had never been determined precisely in the past, hence, it became a dire necessity, the present study aimed at estimating the losses caused by various animal diseases in District Gujrat and to find out the possible contributory factors. An active surveillance was conducted, in Tehsil Gujrat. The data was collected by a survey on the basis of a comprehensive questionnaire through personnel interview of livestock owners at their places. The blood samples were collected of aborted animals and serum samples were submitted to College of Veterinary Sciences, Lahore, Laboratory for diagnosis of brucellosis. In pursuance of the present study the data was analyzed statistically and the main conclusions drawn were as under. The incidence, mortality rate and fatality rate due to H.S. were in young buffalo 14.64%, 12.40% and 84.69%. In adult buffaloes were 2.36%, 1.01% and 42.79% respectively. Diseases of various categories have been given below in order of their respective rate of mortality such as abortion 0.29% in buffalo, 0.44% in cattle and 0.08% in goat. Mastitis in buffalo 0.04%, Haeinoglobinurea in buffalo 0.46% and in cows 0.44%. Milk fever in buffalo 0.17% post parturient prolapse in buffalo 0.25%, Metritis in buffalo 0.17% and in cattle 0.22%. In case of foot and mouth disease in young buffalo incidence 5.75% and in adult 11.72%. In cattle incidence was 9.01% in young and in adult 15.11%. In case of enterotoxaeinia disease in young goat, the morbidity, mortality and fatality 0.75%, 0.75% and 100% respectively. In adult goat 10.60%, 9.83% and 92.73% respectively. In case of young sheep incidence, mortality and fatality rate were 10.08%, 9.24% and 91.66% in adult sheep 10.89%, 7.26% and 66.66% respectively. A monetary loss of Rs.1.33 million was estimated annually in buffalo and cattle, sheep and goat, due to various diseases in surveyed area in District Gujrat. It is evident from the informations gathered from the respondents that the livestock owners residing at distant places from a veterinary hospital may not comfortably utilize the hospital facilities. The village ponds as the important disease spreading factor among the livestock (Nazir al. 1978) poisonous plants and entry of new animals to herd flock with out adopting precautionary measures. Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 1139,T] (1).

258. The Impact Of Community Based Animal Helth Services Delivery System On Epidemiological Parameters And Farmer'S

by Farrukh nazir | Dr. Muhammad athar khan | Dr. Haji ahmad hashmi | Dr. Muhammad.

Material type: book Book; Format: print Publisher: 2006Dissertation note: A study was conducted to understand the impact of community based animal health services delivery systems on epidemiological parameters and farmer's economic sustainability in Central Punjab. In Pakistan three systems for the animal health services delivery are being practiced without any data base and conclusive findings for the comparison purposes and in terms of the replication if needed in future, therefore, a study was planned to quantify and compare the three systems. These systems are; community based, public based and conventional based animal health services delivery systems. As the community based system was launched as Halla scheme, in Central Punjab through the German Technical Cooperation program / funding. Therefore, the other two systems i.e. public and conventional based were selected in the areas adjacent to the community based system (Halla Cluster). The project area was selected because of the similar geographical, environmental, socio cultural and political similarities. One cluster of five villages was selected randomly for each system. The data was obtained from each cluster through active disease surveillance and was recorded on a questionnaire. Each questionnaire was used for one farmer. The cluster of five villages was 'considered as one herd. In the 1st project, the clusters were quantified and compared on different parameters, like provision of animal health services, provided from the system to the member farmers. Epidemiological parameters like morbidity and mortality rate were recorded and analyzed statistically. In the 2IId project, the community trials were also conducted to compare the efficacy of prophylactic interventions, for the economically important diseases of buffaloes and cattle i.e. the haemorrhagic septicaemia and foot and mouth disease. The effect of deworming was also recorded with reference to morbidity and mortality. In the third project the sustainability of the farmers residing in the systems were compared in terms of cost benefit ratio. Animal health services were arranged like vaccination, treatment, deworming, artificial insemination and nutrition support. Poor, good and better services were provided in conventional based, community based and public based animal health services delivery systems, respectively. The impact of services on morbidity and mortality was recorded, the minimum morbidity and mortality rate was recorded in the community based system and moderate and maximum morbidity rate, mortality rate, number of outbreaks and fertility rate due to various diseases were recorded in the conventional based animal health service delivery system. The results were statistically analyzed and significant difference at a level 5% was estimated. The efficacy of the vaccination was estimated and it was statistically found that the morbidity and mortality rates were significantly low in the intervention herds of buffaloes and cattle, as compared to non intervention herds. The overall sustainability of the farmer in term of cost benefit ratio was higher in community based as compared to public based and conventional based animal health services delivery system. In conclusion the better the animal health services delivery system, the more prosperous was the farmer. So, it is recommended that the community based animal health service system be promoted and replicated on priority basis. The animal health services are provided by public based service deliverers but they are not of the same quality as were provided by the community based system in Halla Cluster. This is the reason that in spite of all the services provided by the public based system, the morbidity rate and mortality rate due to various infectious and non infectious diseases were higher in buffaloes and cattle as compared to the community based system. In conventional based system neither the community based services nor the public based services were available for the farmers because those areas were remote and far from the public veterinary hospitals. Therefore, the morbidity rate and mortality rate at the highest spectrum of ranking and disease burden/disease load. The magnitude of disease problems was highest in the conventional based, lowest in the community based system and intermediate in the public based system. Better the quality of services are provided the minimal are the losses due to the diseases in the animal populations and in turn better the cost benefit ratio and ultimately the more prosperous is the farmer. The only way of poverty alleviation in the rural communities is to replicate the community based animal health services delivery system (Halla) with certain modifications in the Provinces of Punjab and Sindh in particular and in North West Frontier Province and Balochistan in general Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 1147,T] (1).

259. Comparative Efficacy Of Guar (Gyamopsis Tetragonoloba) And Salinomycine Sodium Against Coccidiosis in Broiler Chicken

by Omer Naseer | Dr. Jawaria Ali Khan | Dr. Muhammad | Dr. Muhammad Sarwar Khan | Faculty of Veterinary Sciences.

Material type: book Book; Format: print ; Literary form: not fiction Publisher: 2010Dissertation note: Parasitic diseases are major problems disturbing the poultry industry and coccidiosis is one of most dangerous diseases that affect the national economy. One hundred and twenty (120) day old broiler chicks free from coccidial infection were purchased from local market. The broiler chicks were divided into four groups viz. A, B, and I) each comprising of 30 birds. Each group was further divided into three replicates comprising 10 chicks each. All groups except group D was induced 10,000 sporocyst of Eimeria species orally on day 14th. Guts from the broiler chicks suspected with coccidiosis were collected from the field and local poultry farms. The coccidial oocysts in faeces were isolated and sporulated. Oocysts were collected from the gut samples. The counting of oocysts in samples was performed by McMaster technique. The experimental birds were vaccinated against various diseases i.e., Gumboro (IBI)) and Newcastle Disease. Salinomycin and guar was used against coccidiosis as per medication protocol the dose rate of 5 gm/kg in feed and Sgm/95 gm of feed given to group A and B respectively. While group C consist of positive control and group I) was negative control. OPG, weight gain and FCR was also being recorded as well as postmortem was performed in case of mortality. For statistical analysis one way ANOVA technique was used. It is concluded that Salinomycin 5 gm/kg in feed had shown best results in terms of maximum weight gain. FCR as compared to Guar 5gm/95 gm of feed which shown reduced oocyst count and mortality. It was not clear which specific compounds in guar contributes to the anticoccidial or growth inhibitory effects. Further research is needed to investigate whether the anticoccidiosis effect of guar was due to residual guar gum (galactomannans), saponins, or some unknown component of guar. It is anticipated that the results of this study will help the poultry farmers and other concerned peoples to choose best possible drug to eradicate coccidiosis and take maximum production. Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 1153,T] (1).

260. Prevalence Of Cestodes And Comparative Efficacy Of Niclosamide, Mebendazole And Fenbendazole In Pet Dogs

by Muhammad Shahid | Dr. Asim Khalid Mahmood | Prof. Dr. Muhammad Sarwar Khan | Faculty of Veterinary Sciences.

Material type: book Book; Format: print Publisher: 2010Dissertation note: This study was conducted to assess the prevalence of cestodes infestation in pet dogs in district Lahore and to evaluate the efficacy of niclosamide, mebendazole and fenbendazole against them. For this the samples were collected from three different clinics in Lahore for a period of 3 months. A total of 400 samples were collected. Three types of cestodes were identified (E.granulosus, T.hydatigena and D.caninum). The highest prevalence revealed was that of T.hydatigena and the lowest was of D.caninum in pet dogs. For the drug trials, 32 dogs were divided into four groups named group A (niclosamide), group B (mebendazole), group C (fenbendazole) and group D (positive control). The sampling was performed on day 0, 7 and 21 & the treatment with each drug was made on 0 and 7 days. Later on the reduction in EPG and the calculation of efficacy revealed that mebendazole is the best drug among the three drugs used and the efficacy of fenbendazole was found to be very poor. Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 1164,T] (1).

261. A Comparative Study On Clinico -Hemotological & Therapeutic Trails In Indigestion & Lactic Acid In Small Ruminents

by Muhammed Abdul Basit | Dr. Syed Saleem Ahmad | Prof. Dr. Muhammad Sarwar Khan.

Material type: book Book; Format: print Publisher: 2010Dissertation note: The Indigestion and lactic acidosis are most common non infectious managmental problem in small ruminants that have been causing global concern as a potential threat. Some cases shows the clinical signs very early while some shows late clinical signs most of which arc common among these two diseases. So it is a matter of priority to develop quick and efficient methods for differential diagnosis and quick response of the therapeutical agent. It was found that rectal temperature, Ruminal fluid pH, and ruminal movements decreased significantly in Indigestion and lactic acidosis in sheep and goats before the treatment in comparison to the control group. On the other hand it was observed that pulse and respiration rate were increased in both groups D-l and D-2 as compare to control group. In present study design, 2 groups of animals were designed for Indigestion and lactic acidosis (I for each disease). Each group was divided into 4 sub group each comprising 10 animals (sheep and goats). The group 1-1 of D-l was provided with Acetic Acid Vinegar 500-800 ml per animal per oral while 1-2 of D-l group was treated with Stomach powder @ 50-70 grams per animal per oral. Similarly sub group LA-l of D-2 was treated with sodium bicarbonate 5% 200-3 00 ml per animal intravenously and sub group LA-2 of D-2 group was provided with sodium bicarbonate @ 40-60 grams per animal per oral. On the other hand sub group 1-3 of D-l and LA-3 of D-2 was kept as diseased untreated control and subgroup 1-4 of indigestion group and LA-4 of Lactic acidotic group was kept as healthy control. Mean values obtained after treatment for D- I group (Indigestion) were rectal temperature increases more significantly in I-I than that of 1-2 while pulse rate of 1-2 sub group was significant than I-i. Respiration rate change was also significant in I- I sub group. Blood pH of 1-2 was significant while ruminal fluid p11 increases more significantly in 1-1. On the other hand mean values obtained allcr treatment for D-2 group (Lactic acidosis) were rectal temperature and pulse rate changed significantly in LA-i sub group. Respiration rate change was significant in LA-2 sub group Blood pit of LA-i & LA-2 in similar range while ruminal fluid pH increases more significantly in LA-I that LA-2 sub group. Ruminal protozoa were not seen in ruminal fluid of both groups. Ruminal movements was rarely observed in indigestion group and not observed in lactic acidotic glol''). Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 1167,T] (1).

262. Descriptive Epidemiology Of Bovine Subclinical Mastitis And Non-Functional Teats

by Zaheer Hussain | Dr. Muhammad Athar Khan | Dr. Muhammad Sarwar Khan | Dr. Shakil | Faculty of Veterinary Sciences.

Material type: book Book; Format: print ; Literary form: not fiction Publisher: 2002Dissertation note: The study was conducted to understand the prevalence of subclinical mastitis prevalence of non-functional teats and various factors associated with it, viz lactation age, lactation number, housing and hygiene. The economical losses due to subclinical mastitis and non-functional teats were also estimated. Four village Munianwala, Kot Lehnadas, Rossy and Damiranwala and two private farms located in Jattan Tha Warda and Wazirpur were selected on the basis of availability and non-availability of veterinary medical services. The prevalence of subclinical mastitis was found to be 39.46% (58 affected cattle out of 147 lactating cattle) in cattle and 29.13% (162 affected buffaloes out of 556 lactating buffaloes) in buffaloes on animal basis and 12.79% (37 affected quarters out of 2791 quarters at risk) on quarter basis collectively in both species. The occurrence of subclinical mastitis was higher in hindquarters 60% than 40% in fore quarters. The prevalence of subclinical mastitis was recorded, 32.21%, 27.73%, 21.84% and 18.20% in right hind, left hind, left front and right front quarters respectively from 220 affected animals. The prevalence of subclinical mastitis was highest in 5th and 6th lactation animals, 36.23% in buffaloes and 42.85% in cattle followed by 3rd and 4th lactation animals 32.57% in buffaloes and 39.39% in cattle and 1st and 2nd lactation animals 24.50% in buffaloes and 39.34% in cattle. The lowest prevalence of subclinical mastitis was in group of animals which were in > 6th lactation. The highest prevalence of subclinical mastitis was observed in late stage of lactation in both buffaloes and cattle i.e. 33.65% and 56.09% respectively. The prevalence of subclinical mastitis was found 27.71% in buffaloes and 31.57% in cattle in mid stage of lactation and 26.11% in buffaloes and 34.66% in cattle in early stage of lactation. The prevalence of subclinical mastitis in animals with poor, fair and good hygienic status was found to be 50%, 30.58% and 19.62% respectively. The prevalence of non-functional teats was found to be 0.75% (21 non-functional teats out of 2812 quarters at risk) on quarter basis and 2.84% animals (n=20/703) had non-functional teats. The economical losses due to non-functional were estimated to be Rs.340 per lactating animal and Rs.929 per farmer per annum. Losses due to subclinical mastitis were estimated to be Rs.536 per lactating animal and Rs.1467 per farmer per annum. Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 1175,T] (1).

263. Prevalence Of Caprine Mycoplasmosis In Different Areas Of Pakistan

by Waseem Shahzad | Prof. Dr. Mohammad Sarwar Khan | Prof. Dr. Muhammad Arif Khan.

Material type: book Book; Format: print Publisher: 2010Dissertation note: A study was conducted to characterize caprine mycoplasma species and to know its prevalence in different areas of Pakistan during 2006 to 2007. For this purpose a total of 1440 different samples such as nasal discharge, pleural fluid, lung piece, synovial fluid, and milk samples (1180), and 260 serum samples were collected from clinically affected goats of different breeds, age and sex. These samples were collected from twelve districts including Mansehra, Peshwar, Swabi, Kohat, Abbottabad, Dera Ghazi Khan, Quetta, Pishin, Jhang, Sargodha, Lahore and Faisalabad with 6 union councils (UC) in each district. Twenty samples of different nature were collected from each of union council. These samples were subjected to cultural isolation, Growth inhibition test (GIT) using rabbit polyclonal antiserum against Mycoplasma mycoides subspecies capri, latex agglutination test (LAT) for the detection of Mycoplasma capricolum subspecies capripneumoniae and polymerase chain reaction (PCR). One twenty one samples out of 1180 showed turbidity in PPLO broth whereas out of these 121 samples 58 grew on PPLO agar. All 58 field isolated organisms showed positive reaction to GIT. None of the serum sample showed a positive reaction with LAT kit. Thirty five samples out of 1180 prior to culturing were positive for Mycoplasma mycoides cluster through PCR and identified as Mycoplasma mycoides subsp. capri (Mmc) through DNA sequencing, whereas 58 samples were positive with this technique after culturing. Prevalence of mycoplasmosis in hilly and plain areas (5.8 and 4.5 % respectively) is not significantly higher as compared to semi desert and sub hilly areas (3.3 and 2.9 % respectively) which may be due to chance alone. Furthermore, the adult group-3 (age > 1 year) has significantly lowest prevalence (2.7 %) of Mmc as compared to age group-1 (age < 181 days) with 5.1 % prevalance and age group-2 (age: 181 to 365 days) with 4.4 % prevalence. This difference may be due to chance but not areal difference. Similarly prevalence (4.7%) of mycoplasmosis in female goats is not significantly higher as compared to males (3.2%). Beetal, Piamiri, Beetal teddy cross, Baltistani and Desi breeds of goats showed higher prevalence only by chance as compared to other breeds in the areas under study. Saponin inactivated vaccine was prepared from this field strain and found to be effective against Mycoplasma mycoides subsp. capri in goats. This study focuses on characterizing the interaction of M. ovipneumoniae with ovine PBMC using carboxy-fluorescein-succinimidyl-ester (CFSE) loading and flow cytometry to measure lymphoid cell division. M. ovipneumoniae induced a strong in vitro polyclonal suppression of CD4+, CD8+, and B blood lymphocyte subsets. The suppressive activity could be destroyed by heating to 60 ºC, and partially impaired by formalin and binary ethyleneimine treatment that abolished its viability. The activity resided on the surface-exposed membrane protein fraction of the mycoplasma, since mild trypsin treatment not affecting viability was shown to reduce suppressive activity. Trypsintreated mycoplasma regained suppressive activity once the mycoplasma was allowed to re-synthesize its surface proteins. Implications for the design of vaccines against M. ovipneumoniae are discussed. Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 1188,T] (1).

264. A Study Of Giardiasis And Its Chemotherapy With Metronidazole And Albendazole In Dogs

by Ayesha sara | Dr. Jawaria Ali Khan | Prof. Dr. Muhammad Sarwar Khan.

Material type: book Book; Format: print Publisher: 2010Dissertation note: Giardiasis is an intestinal pathogenic protozoan which infect humans and a wide range of animals including dogs prevalence of giardia varies widely depending on the detection method, geographic localization and population studied. The objective of the study was to determine the percentage of giardiasis in dogs, its treatment and blood examination before and after treatment. The study was conducted in pet center of university of veterinary and animal sciences (UVAS) and private clinics in Lahore; collected sample were processed in medicine laboratory, department of clinical medicine and surgery (UVAS), Lahore. Faecal samples of five hundred dogs suspected with giardiasis were collected and assessment of giardia cyst were seen using zinc sulphate floatation technique and sucrose gradient centrifugation method, then the positive dogs were separated and divided into four groups viz A, B, C, groups D was negative control, group A was treated with Metronidazole and its efficacy wasll.3 %,64 % & 85 % on day 31,5th & 7th day post treatment while group B was treated with Albendazole & its efficacy was 16.3 % ,44.2 % & 74 % on day 31,5th & 7th day post treatment the results showed that the Metronidazole was better in efficacy then Albendazole, C group was serve as positive control & all these results were compared with negative control (healthy dogs) that is group D.The efficacy of the drugs was determined by the disappearance of giardia cysts from feceas. The blood examination total leukocyte count & Differential Leukocyte Count was conducted before & after the treatment with drugs & it showed that there was mild increase in TLC but not more increase in DLC & no adverse effect of drugs on blood parameters and values were almost normal and close to the values of negative control(healthy dogs). It has been observed during the present study that metronidazole & albendazole showed their mild effect on blood parameters as a result of curing giardiasis. Statistical analysis of data revealed non significant difference (p>O.O5) between groups, A, B, & D (-ye control) on day 3 & 7 of treatment. it was observed that metronidazole was the most effective 85% followed by albendazole 74% against giardiasis in dogs. Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 1192,T] (1).

265. A Study Of Parasitic Causes Of Diarrhea In Cattle Calves In District Gujranwala

by Muhammad Salman | Prof. Dr. Muhammad Sarwar Khan | Dr. Jawaria Ali Khan | Prof. Dr. Azhar.

Material type: book Book; Format: print ; Literary form: not fiction Publisher: 2010Dissertation note: The loss of fluids through diarrhea can- cause severe dehydration which is one cause of death on diarrhea sufferers. In present study cattle calves up to six months of age in district Gujranwala were examined for parasitic infestation. The samples were collected from different Government farms, veterinary hospitals and from villagers having livestock. A total number of 300 cattle calves were examined during the period of three months. The effect of parasitic diarrhea according to the factors like sex and age were studied, the percentage of parasitic diarrhea in cattle calves were also studied. Collected samples were processed at medicine laboratory of university of veterinary and animal sciences Lahore. Fecal samples were processed for different coporological tests, including direct smear, floatation, sedimentation, McMaster and for cryptosporidial examination, staining of fecal smears were used. Blood parameters like Hemoglobin level, TLC & DLC was also be studied. The faecal samples result showed that 147 samples were positive from parasitic diarrhea out of 300 samples and percentage was 49 % including cryptosporidium, cooperia, oesophagostomum, fashiodorous, toxocara, coccidian & eurytrema. The samples were collected age wise as 0-1 months, 42 samples were positive out of 90 samples showing 46.6%, in 1-3 months 47 samples were positive out of 95 samples showing 49.47 %, 1n3- 6 months 58 samples were positive out of 115 showing 50.43 %.while the blood parameters Hb level, TLC & DLC were altered in parasitic diarrhea which showed milk decrease in TLC & DLC as compared to normal values while Hb level was also decreased in parasitic diarrhea. Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 1193,T] (1).

266. Comparative Study Of Primary And Secondary Bloat In Buffaloes

by Sajjad Ahmad | Prof. Dr. Muhammad Sarwar Khan | Dr. Zia-ur-Rehman | Prof. Dr. M.

Material type: book Book; Format: print Publisher: 2010Dissertation note: Bloat (tympany) is the abnormal distension of rumen and reticulum caused by excessive gases of fermentation, either in the form of persistent foam mixed with rumen contents or as free gas separated from the ingesta. The experimental study on bloat was conducted at outreach clinic of university of veterinary and animal sciences, Lahore and adjacent areas. There were 500 buffaloes, out of these cases 86 were diagnosed to be suffered from bloat (60 were suffering from primary bloat, 2o were suffered from secondary bloat as shown in the table No 5 and table No 6). Six animals were expired from primary bloat as shown in the table No 10. They were expire without any treatment. Thus the disease percentage recorded was 17.4 A systemic clinical examination of each animal was conducted. The age, breed, sex and general heath of the animal was also recorded. Complete history of each affected animal was recorded. Diagnostic confirmation between primary bloat and secondary bloat was done through stomach tube. Primary bloat was easily recognizable and there were no other diseases of reticulorumen that result in ruminal tympany. Secondary bloat was differentiated from causes of failure of eructation including esophageal obstruction,chromic reticuloperitonitis, vagal indigestion, tetanus, injury and rumen impaction. Treatment trials were carried out on the basis of grouping of animals. The buffaloes which are under attack of bloat were classified into two main groups i.e. group A and group B, which were further divided into four sub groups, which were A1, A2, B1 and B2.Animals suffered from primary bloat were kept into Group A1 and A2. While the animals suffering from secondary bloat were kept into Group B1 and Group B2. Treatment trials for Group A1 and Group B1 were same, while for Group A2 and Group B2 were same. The efficacy of drug was evaluated on reversal of clinical signs. The bloat affected buffaloes recovered with in 2 to 3 hours after the administration of medicine. No Side effects of these drugs, if any, was recorded the animals was examined for 24 hours after medication. Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 1194,T] (1).

267. Comparative Efficacy Of Intravesical Mucosal And Extravesical Apposition Techniques For Ureteroneocystostomy in Dogs

by Muhammad Talha Sajjad | Prof. Dr. Muhammad Arif Khan | Dr. Aneela | Dr. Shahan Azeem.

Material type: book Book; Format: print ; Literary form: not fiction Publisher: 2011Dissertation note: This project was designed to evaluate the comparative efficacy of two different techniques of Ureteroneocystostomy for ureteral reimplantation in dogs. Sixteen stray dogs were selected and were divided into two groups i.e. group A & B, comprising eight animals each. The efficacy of the procedures was evaluated on the basis of physical examination, serum evaluation for creatinine & urea, contrast radiography and post mortem findings. The surgery was conducted through ventral midline celiotomy from umbilicus to a variable distance caudally under general anesthesia in both the groups and urinary bladder was exteriorized in both the groups. In group A, longitudinal incision was made near the bladder dome, a mosquito hemostat was passed from the surface of the bladder through the bladder wall at an oblique angle then the ureter was brought to the level of the bladder mucosa incision. A 6-0 Polyglactin 910 (Vicyrl,Jhonsons & Jhonsons Pharma) suture with double needles was then placed at each apex of the spatulated ureter and the full-thickness of ureter anastomosed to the bladder mucosa in one layer with a continuous, nonlocking stitch. In group B, two small incisions were made at the outer part of the bladder wall until the mucosa was seen through the cuts. Then a submucosal tunnel was dissected between them and the graft's ureter was introduced. Once the ureteral end has been spatulated, a reabsorbable 4-0 suture thread with independent needles at each end was passed (each needle goes from the outer to the inner side of the ureteral wall. Afterward, both needles were advanced into the bladder by the creation of a mucosal incision at the distal hole; these two needles then transfixed the bladder wall from inside about 2 cm distally. During knotting of the suture (outside the bladder) the distal ureter was pushed to the bladder wall that it anchored against the mucosa. The results of this study clearly indicated that both techniques are equally effective for the reimplantation of the ureter to bladder but an extravesical ureteroneocystostomy (Modified Lich Gregoir) has an edge over in intravesical mucosal apposition technique (Modified Lead better-Politano) in terms of effectiveness , safety and minimum postoperative complications. Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 1210,T] (1).

268. Epidemiology Diagnosis And Chemotherpy Of Strangles In Equines

by Muhammad Ijaz | Prof. Dr. Muhammad Sarwar Khan | Prof. Dr. Muhammad Arif Khan.

Material type: book Book; Format: print Publisher: 2010Dissertation note: Strangles is an infectious malady of equidae characterized by upper respiratory tract infection, dysponea, anorexia, regional suppurative lymphadenitis and causes high morbidity and low mortality. Considering the significance and utilization of equines in our country and the substantial losses rendered by Strangles, the present project was designed to study epidemiology, diagnosis and chemotherapy of strangles in Lahore and Sargodha districts of the Punjab province in Pakistan. The present study comprised of five phases. In phase-I, epidemiology of the disease including prevalence, variations in SeM, SzPSe and Se18.9 proteins and mortality rate were studied in Lahore and Sargodha districts. For epidemiology, nasal swabs and pus samples from the affected lymph nodes of 500 equines (nr=250 horses, rutz250 mules) suspected for strangles were collected and cultured for identification of S. equl. The collected samples were processed at Medicine and Microbiology Laboratories of the University of Veterinary and Animal Sciences, Lhore, Pakistan and Gluck equine research center, Department of Veterinary Science, University of Kentucky, USA. Out of 250 horses and 250 mules, 113(45.2%) horses and 99 (3 9.6%) mules tested positive for S. equi. on the basis of culture. Number of S. equl isolates were significantly higher (P<0.05) in pus samples taken from sub-mandibular lymph nodes as compared to nasal discharge samples. The difference was significant (P<0.05) among mules of different age groups. The highest prevalence of strangles was recorded in horses and mules less than 2 year of age as compared to those having age more than 2 years. In the present study, prevalence of strangles round the year in horses and mules were also calculated and it was found to be the highest during the months of February, March, April and May while few cases were seen during the months of January, June and July and no cases were observed during others months. The significant difference was observed (p<O.O5) among the prevalence levels of strangles in different months of the year. Similarly when compared the prevalence of strangles in different seasons of Pakistan i.e. summer, winter, spring and autumn. The highest prevalence rate was recorded during the spring season. The prevalence on the basis of Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) of S. equi in horses and mules was also recorded. Out of 250 horses and 250 mules tested, 122(48.8%) horses and 113(45.2%) mules were positive for S. equi. When compared the prevalence rate on the basis of PCR and culture of nasal and pus samples from affected submandibular lymph nodes it revealed that the sensitivity of Polymerase chain reaction appears to be much greater than culture. The culture along with PCR is the best diagnostic technique for S. equi as PCR test does not differentiate between dead and live bacteria, hence a positive test may not correlate with active infection; therefore, a positive culture may be necessary to confirm the diagnosis. In this phase of epidemiological study of disease, effect of selective pressure of allelic diversity in SeM of S. equi on immunoreactive proteins SzPSe and Se 18.9 was also studied. The aim of this study was to determine whether variations in SeM are accompanied by variations in the immunoreactive surface of exposed SzPSe and secreted Se18.9. Sequences of genes of 25 S. equi alleles isolated from different countries of the world over a period of 40 years were compared. Twenty different SeM alleles were identified including 6 not included in the data base (http:// pubmlst.org/szooepidemicus). Amino acid variation was also detected distal to the N- terminus of SeM. No variation was observed in SzPSe except for an Australian isolate which showed a deletion of one PEPK repeat. The Se 18.9 protein in all 25 isolates of S. equi did not exhibit any variation. Interestingly, only 2 SNP loci were detected in Se 18.9 compared to 93 and 49 in SeM and SzPSe respectively. The greater frequency of mutation in SzPSe compared to Se18.9 may be related to a high rate of recombination of SzPSe and the inclusion of exogenous DNA sequence based on the atypical GC percentage of its central hyper variable region. In horses the mortality rate was recorded as 1.64% whereas the mortality rate in mules having less than 5 years of age was found to be 0.88%. No significant difference (P>0.05) in mortality rate among horses and mules of different age groups affected with strangles was observed. In phase-I! of the present study, carrier status of the horses and mules were studied. Out of 122 horses found positive to PCR, 20 horses (10<2 years and 10 between 2 and 5 years of age) were selected and monitored for 12 weeks. Their nasal swab samples were used for identification of bacteria through culture and PCR on weekly basis. Till the end of 3rd week all horses <2 years of age remained positive but at the end of 4th to 7th weeks there remained positive only 5, 2, 1 and zero horses out of 10, respectively on the basis of culture whereas through PCR at the end of the 4th week all horse <2 years of age were found positive, but at the end of 5th to 10th weeks there remained 7, 5, 4, 2, 1 and zero horses out of 10, respectively. While all the horses aging between 2 to 5 year, were positive up to the 1St week but at the end of 2nd to 8th week out of 10 there were 9, 7, 6, 3, 1, 1 and zero horses respectively positive on the basis of culture but through PCR, all horses were positive till 4th week but at the end of 5th to 9th week number was reduced to 9, 7, 6, 3, 2 and zero. Similarly, out of 113 mules, 20 mules (10<2 year and 10 between 2 and 5 years of old) were also monitored for 12 weeks to study their carrier status. After the end of 2nd week all mules <2 years of age were positive but at the end of 3rd to 6th weeks there remained 7, 3, 1 and zero mules out of 10, respectively on the basis of culture but through PCR at the end of the 5th week all mules <2 years of age were positive, but at the end of 6th to 10th weeks there remained 9, 7, 3, 2 and zero mules out of 10, respectively. While in 2 and 5 year old mules, all were positive up to the 2nd week but at the end of 3rd to 7th weeks there were 6, 4, 2, 1, 1 and zero mules out of 10, respectively on the basis of culture but through PCR, all mules were positive up to 5th week but at the end of 6th to 10th weeks there were 8, 5, 2, 1 and zero. Horses and mules were declared free of infection on the basis of three consecutive negative samples through culture and PCR. From the result of present study, it may be concluded that sensitivity of Polymerase Chain Reaction appears to be much greater than culture for study of carrier status of equines. Moreover, recovered animals should be kept in quarantine period at least upto 9th week because the recovered horses and mules remain carrier for prolonged period of time and can act as source of infection for susceptible animals through periodic shedding of S equi. (comprising 10 horses and 10 mules) for in-vivo trials. Efficacy of the antibiotics was assessed weekly on the basis of negative nasal swab culture. Results of in-vitro antibiotic sensitivity revealed that in horses and mules, S equi was most sensitive to Procaine penicillin followed by ceftiofur Na, cephradine, erythromycin, ampicillin, tetracycline, chloramphenicol, sulfamethoxazole, trimethoprim + sulfdiazine and gentamycin whereas the result of in-vivo antibiotic trials revealed that horses and mules suffered from strangles without abscess formation were most sensitive to Procaine penicillin followed by ceftiofur Na, cephradine and erythromycin whereas animals which developed abscess showed no response. It is concluded from the result of present study that Procaine penicillin is most effective in-vitro and in-vivo antibiotic followed by ceftiofur Na and cephradine. These antibiotics might be used for the treatment of strangles infection. Phase-V, comprised over in-vitro trials of disinfectants. Efficacy of disinfectants, like povidone iodine, 0.6% H2S04, dettol and bleach was assessed. Phenol Co-efficient Test was applied, to ascertain efficacy of these disinfectants, used in, in-vitro trials. Among four disinfectants, povidone iodine was found to be the best one with a phenol coefficient of 1.25 that is greater than phenol i.e. 1.00 while 0.6% H2S04 showed similar phenol coefficient as that of phenol. The phenol coefficient of dettol and bleach were observed as 0.5 and 0.75 respectively. Therefore it is recommended that S. equi is highly sensitive to povidone iodine and 0.6% H2S04. Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 1211,T] (1).

269. Comparative Efficacy Of Suturing Techniques And Suture Materials For End-To-End Anastomosis Of Small Intestine in Dogs

by Adeel Shahbaz | Prof Dr. Muhammad Arif Khan | Mr. Shahan Azeem | Prof. Dr.

Material type: book Book; Format: print Publisher: 2010Dissertation note: The small intestine is a tube-like structure, which extends between the stomach and largeintestine. It starts at the pylorus and terminates at the cecocolic junction. Small intestine plays an important role in the absorption of amino acids, carbohydrates, fats and electrolytes like sodium, potassium, chloride and bicarbonate ions. Any disease condition of jejunum like neoplasia or devitalization due to foreign body necessitates the resection of it. This project was designed to evaluate the comparative efficacy of different suturing techniques and suture material applied during end-to-end anastomosis of small intestine. The study was designed on eighteen stray dogs. The dogs were divided into 3 groups i.e group A, B, and C comprising 6 animals each. Each group was further subdivided into the subgroups as, Al, A2, Bi, B2 and Cl, C2. The dogs of group A was numbered from 1-6, group B from 7-12, and group C from 13-18 for the identification purpose. The surgery was conducted through ventral midline celiotomy from umbilicus to a variable distance caudally under general anesthesia. In group A, Simple interrupted, group B modified Gambee and in group C interrupted Lembert suturing technique for end-to-end anastomosis of small intestine was used. In subgroup Al, B, C! chromic catgut and in subgroup A2, B2 an C3 polyglyconate suture materials was used. In group Cl, operated dog No.2 died on day 16 post operatively. The versatility and comparison of the techniques were evaluated on the basis of health status including vomiting, diarrhea, and weight gain or weight loss, wound healing, radiographic assessment, decrease in lumen diameter, alignment of tissue plane and quality of wound healing of the anastomotic site in all three group A, B and C. The leakage was checked at 2, 4, 6 and 12 week post surgery using contrast radiographs. During the study period the dogs were housed in the kennels available at Surgery Section, Department of Clinical Medicine and Surgery, University of Veterinary and Animal Sciences, Lahore. The present project is clearly indicated that modified Gambee suturing technique was found to be more suitable and compatible anastomotic technique with excellent clinical superiority. It resulted in the batter wound healing, minimal lekage, minimal reduction in lumen diameter at the anastomotic site, excellent in its alignment of tissue plane, satisfactory clinical layer to layer healing , is simple to duplicate under field conditions and minimal abdominal complication. Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 1218,T] (1).

270. Comparative Efficacy Of Billroth-1,Billroth-11 And Roux-En-Y Procedures As Remedy To Pyloric Stenosis in Dogs

by Shaista Gul Bukhari | Prof.Dr.Muhammad Arif Khan | Dr.Shahan | Prof.Dr.Azhar Maqbool.

Material type: book Book; Format: print Publisher: 2011Dissertation note: The dog's stomach is a sac-like structure designed to store large volumes of food and begin the digestive process. Where the stomach empties into the duodenum, there is a circular valve-like muscle called the pyloric sphincter. The stomach can be divided into cardia, fundus, body, antrum, and pylorus. Gastric glands provide all the secretions.The stomach wall is made up of different layers, which are (from lumen outwards). The mucosa, the submucosa, two layers of muscularis, with an outer longitudinal and an inner circular layer the serosa. Nonspecific, self-resolving acute gastritis or gastroenteritis is the most common GI disease seen in small animals. Congenital pyloric stenosis caused by congenital muscular hypertrophy also leads to pyloric outflow Obstruction. Acquired pyloric stenosis may be the result of external compression of the pylorus, caused, for example, by a pancreatic or hepatic tumor. Pyloric obstruction is common in humans and dogs. The only conclusive diagnostic test for pyloric stenosis is a satisfactory response to surgery, Ramstedt's pyloromyotomy being the simple and safest procedure. Various surgical procedure have been described for the relief of pyloric stenosis. Pyloroplasty (Heinekemukulicz procedure) , Y-U pyloroplasty, gasttroduodenostomy, gastrojejunostomy , and the procedures including the various bypass operations. In the view of above the present study was designed to evaluate the efficacy of Biliroth I, Biliroth II, and Roux-en-y resection procedure as a treatment of pyloric stenosis in dogs with special emphasis on the effectiveness of procedures used in the terms of physical evaluation, healing of wound, radiography, and postmortem studies. Twenty four mongrel dogs were selected and divided into four groups comprising six animals each. In group A, group B, and group C, Biliroth I, biliroth II, and roux-en-y resection procedures were used respectively. Group D was kept as a control group. The operations were conducted in aseptic condition. The stomach was exposed through the celiotomy incision to proceed the three surgical procedures in dogs of group A, group B, and group C. The incision was closed in routine manner. Clinical evaluation was performed to evaluate the efficacy of the techniques and postmortem was performed to see the gross changes in the stomach and abdomen cavity of dog. The results of this study suggested that all the three procedures are effective roux-en-Y resection procedure was more effective and useful. Although Roux-en-Y resection procedure is more difficult procedure to perform but it is more effective than Biliroth - I and Billroth - II procedures regarding clinical evaluation (vomiting, diarrhea, healing of wound) delayed gastric emptying time and least postoperative complications and postmortem studies. Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 1222,T] (1).

271. Prevalence Of Salmonella And E.Coli In Diarrheic Calves

by Muhammad Anwar ullah | Dr.javeria Ali Khan | Prof.Dr.Muhammad Sarwar Khan.

Material type: book Book; Format: print Publisher: 2011Dissertation note: Calf diarrhea causes mortality and heavy economic losses. In this study, calf diarrhea caused by Salmonella and E. coli was particularly focused. The samples were collected from different private livestock farms, small livestock holders belonging to different villages and civil veterinary hospitals of district Jhelum during period of 3 months. A total 150 calves up to 6 months of age with signs of diarrhea were examined. Fresh faecal and blood samples were collected. Faecal samples were cultured on McConkey and on S-S agar for isolation of bacteria. These colonies were identified by using API 20 E Kit. Total number of 50 calves found positive out of 150 calves. Prevalence of salmonella and E. coli was 18.6% and 14.6% respectively. Occurrences of diarrheal disease due to various risk factors like age, sex were recorded for determining these risk factors. Total positive samples of male were 18 and total female positive samples were 32 with prevalence rate of 12% and 21% respectively. Cattle positive sample found in the study were 31 and buffalo positive sample were 19 with 21% and 12% prevalence for cattle and buffalo. Calves were divided into three different age groups of 1-30 days, 31-90 days, 91-180 days of age. The number of positive samples for male and female in these three different age groups were also noted. The prevalence of bacteria in these three groups of cattle and buffalo were also considered in this study. Blood parameters values of total leukocyte, hemoglobin erythrocyte sedimentation rate, neutrophils, eosinophils, basophils, lymphocytes and monocytes were also compared between cattle and buffalo and also in total calves of different age groups. The effect of environmental influences; rainfall, temperature on infectious calf diarrhea was also observed. Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 1233,T] (1).

272. Different Appositional (Anastomotic) Techniques For The Repair Of Ruptured Ureter In Dogs

by Asim Riaz | Prof.Dr.Muhammad Arif Khan | Mr.Shahan Azeem | Prof.Dr.Muham.

Material type: book Book; Format: print Publisher: 2011Dissertation note: The ureters are the thick, long 'tube& that aid the urine in moving from the kidneys to the bladder. They are about 10 to 12 inches in length and the urine moves downward by gravity and peristalsis (waves of contractions). The ureters enter the urinary bladder at an angle to help prevent any backflow (reflux) of urine back into the ureter. The walls of the ureter contain I smooth muscles. The ureter enter the bladder through the detrusor muscle in the trigone region of I the bladder. The ureters course oblique for several centimeters through the bladder wall. The normal tone of the detrusor muscle in tends to compress the ureter, thereby preventing back flow I of urine from the bladder when pressure build up in the bladder during micturation or bladder compression. The backflow of urine is prevented by valves known as ureterovesical valves. Any disease condition of ureter like ectopic ureter or devitalization due to foreign body necessitates the resection of it. This project has been designed to evaluate different suturing techniques like end-to-end anastomosis,slanting and telescoping. The study has been designed on twenty four stray dogs. The dogs will be divided into 3 groups i.e group A, B, and comprising 8 animals each. The dogs of group A will be numbered from 1-8, group B from 9-16, group and C from 17-24 for the identification purpose. The surgery will be conducted through ventral midline celiotomy from umbilicus to a variable distance caudally under general anesthesia. In group A, Slanting, in group B, end to end anastomosis and in group C Telescoping technique will be practiced. Simple interrupted suturing techniques with 3-0 Poly galactin 910 (Vicryl) will be performed . In group A, operated dog No.5 died on day 15 post operatively. The versatility and comparison of the techniques were evaluated on the basis of health status including vomiting, diarrhea, and weight gain or weight loss, urographic assessment, of the anastomotic site in all three group A, B and C. The leakage was checked at 15, 30, 45,75 and 90 days post surgery using contrast urographs. During the study period the dogs were housed in the kennels available at Surgery Section, Department of Clinical Medicine and Surgery, University of Veterinary and Animal Sciences, Lahore. The present project is clearly indicated that slant suturing technique was found to be more suitable and compatible anastomotic technique with excellent clinical superiority. It resulted in the better minimal leakage at the anastomotic site ,satisfactory is simple to duplicate under field conditions and minimal urological complications. Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 1235,T] (1).

273. Prevalence And Chemotherapy Of Ear Mite Investiation In Cat

by Tariq Khan | Dr. Asim Khalid Mahmood | Dr. Kamran | prof. Dr. M. Sarwar Khan.

Material type: book Book; Format: print Publisher: 2011Dissertation note: Cates are a common companion animal and their worldwide population exceeds 500 million. The ear mite O. cynotis is the most common mange mite of dogs and cates. In the presence tudy, the prevalence of Otocdectes cynotis was reorded in pet cats in the area of district Lahore. The animals found positive with O. cynotis were divided into four groups. In group A, ivermctin was applied topically in the ears at the dos rate of 500 ug/kg B.W (0.05ml) twise a week in the form of drops. The efficacy of ivermectin was observed by collecting the sample on day 7, 14 and 28 after the commencement of treatment. Similarly, in Group B, Fipronil (0.5ml) and in Group C, cypermethrin at the dose of 0.5ml/each ear were employed however, Groiup D was kept as control and was not given any treatment. The data obtained was statistically analysed under analysis of variance technique. Results showed that prevalence was 45.34%, 6.17% and 25.71% in Persian, Siamese and Local breeds of the cats respectively. Age wise prevalence i.e., biorth to 12 months, 1-5 years and 5 plus age group was 40.38%, 27.97% and 17.5% respectively. Insecticides used in study i.e, Iveremectin (A) and Fipronil (B) showed 100% efficacy while, Cypermethrin (c) was 75% in its performance. Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 1238,T] (1).

274. Epidemiology Of Diarrheal Diseases Of Bovine Calves In Punjab

by Jawaria Ali Khan | Prof.Dr.Muhammad Sarwar Khan | Prof.Dr.Azhar | Prof.Dr.Muhammad Arif Khan.

Material type: book Book; Format: print Publisher: 2010Dissertation note: Abstract Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 1254,T] (1).

275. Comparayive Efficacy Of Chemotherapeutic Trails Against Hypodermosis In Cattle In Rajanpur

by Muhammad Zahid | Dr. Aneela Zameer Durrani | Dr. Muhammad Hassan Saleem | Prof. Dr. Azhar.

Material type: book Book; Format: print Publisher: 2011Dissertation note: Study was carried out in district Rajanpur from February, 2011 to April, 2011 to find out percentage of infestation and to study chemotherapeutic trails against warble fly infestation in cattle in three tehsils namely Rojhan, Rajanpur and Jampur of district Rajanpur. In each tehsil 200 cattle were examined to record clinical signs of hypodermosis. For treatment of affected animals drug trail were done with Trichlorophon (Tagafon Star,Pakistan) and Ivermectin (Imec, SJG, Pakistan) 1% subcutaneously @ 0.2mg/kg body weight. Study included percentage of infestation in cattle in the households, veterinary hospitals and private farms. Average percentage of warbles in cattle was calculated and found 10 %, 17% and 16.5% in Rojhan, Rajanpur and Jampur respectively. It was found that percentage of infestation was 12% to 18% in hilly areas as compared to semi-hilly areas with 8% to16% and riverine areas 8% to 18% warble fly infestation in cattle. It was observed that warble fly infestation in cattle was absent in some plane areas in tehsil Jampur. The comparison of different chemotherapeutic trails against Hypodermosis in cattle were observed and recorded. Three groups of cattle were made for chemotherapeutic trails against hypodermosis. Application of Tagafon in two different groups of cattle was carried out to evaluate their efficacy against Hypodemosis. In one group Trichlorophon (Tagafon Star,Pakistan) was applied with cotton gauzes by swabbing and spraying method with 5% solution of trichlorophon. In second group Trichlorophon (Tagafon Star, Pakistan) was given by drenching method with 2% solution at a dose rate of 0.2ml/kg body weight. In third group (Inj.Imec, SJG, Pakistan) Ivermectin 1% at dose rate of 0.2mg/kg body weight subcutaneous injection was carried out. Ivermectin1% was found to be 100% effective. Tagafon (Trichlorophon) was found 90% effective by swabbing and spraying method with 5% solution and Tagafon (Trichlorophon) by drenching method with 2% solution was found 85%effective against warble fly infestation in cattle in the study area. The data was analyzed statistically and found significant. Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 1297,T] (1).

276. Diagnosis And Treatment Of Strongylosis Using Neem Leaves And Ivermectin In Donkeys

by Muhammad waqas | Dr. Muhammad sarwar khan | Dr. aneela zameer durrani | Dr. Muhammad.

Material type: book Book; Format: print ; Nature of contents: biography; Literary form: Publisher: 2011Dissertation note: Donkeys act as draught animals and are used for a variety of purposes. Donkeys are still the "beasts of burden". Helminthes parasites, particularly strongyle nematodes, are the common inhabitants of the gastro-intestinal tracts of equines. Strongylosis is one of the most important parasitic diseases of equines. Diarrhea, anorexia, weight loss and moderate anaemia are the clinical signs in infected animal resulting in heavy mortality. The present project was therefore designed to investigate the infection rate of nematodes in donkeys, to calculate the efficacy of Ivermectin and Neem against strongylosis and to study the effect of strongylosis on various blood parameters (DLC and Hb). Three hundred donkeys (n=300) were examined coprologically for the presence of nematodes. 167 donkeys were found infected with various parasites with the overall infection rate being 55.66%. Out of 167, 85 donkeys were infected with strongylus, 29 with trichostrongylus, 19 with trichonema, 19 with gastrodiscuss and 15 with mixed infection. So the infection rate for strongylus, trichostrongylus, trichonema, gastrodiscuss and mixed infection was 28.33%, 9.66%, 6.33%, 6.33% and 5% respectively. For drug trails thirty donkeys naturally infected with strongylosis were selected. These animals were divided into three groups A, B and C, comprising of 10 animals each. Another group D comprising of 10 healthy animals was also made. Group A was treated with ivermectin at the dose rate of 0.2 mg/kg body weight (1 ml/50 kg b w) once. Group B was treated with neem dry leaves at the dose rate of 375 mg/kg body weight mixed with wheat bran for four days. Group C was kept as positive control (Infected-Untreated) and Group D was kept as negative control (Uninfected-Untreated). The faecal samples were collected on day zero pre-medication and on day 7 and 14 post-medication. The efficacies of ivermectin and neem were calculated on the basis of reduction in number of eggs per gram (EPG) of the faeces. The efficacy of ivermectin was 73.21 and 96.42% on day 7 and 14 respectively. The efficacy of neem was noted to be 22.22 and 33.33% on day 7 and 14 post-medication respectively. It was concluded that ivermectin was most effective. The blood samples were also collected on day zero (pre-medication) and on day 7 and 14 (post-medication) and were examined for hematology. Groups A, B and C had low haemoglobin values. The values get improved in groups A and B after treatments but the value further decreased in group C because this group was kept as infected control. The Hb value remained normal in group D as the animals in this group were healthy. In group C there was significant increase in eosinophils. Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 1302,T] (1).

277. The Efficacy Of Chemotherapeutic Agents Against Paramphistomum In Sheep

by Muhammad Mashhood Hassan | Dr. Jawaria Ali Khan | Prof. Dr. Muhammad Sarwar Khan.

Material type: book Book; Format: print Publisher: 2011Dissertation note: The present project was carried out to diagnose the paramphistomum infection in sheep and to evaluate the efficacy of oxyclozanide and albendazole and to observe the effect of paramphistomum on various blood parameters, haemoglobin estimation, erythrocytes sedimentation rate and packed cell volume. For this purpose twenty four Sheep were selected and divided into 4 groups. Each group comprised of 6 animals. Faecal samples were collected from Out Reach centre Sitar wala and its adjacent areas and out door clinic UVAS Lahore for the diagnosis of paramphistomum. The faecal and blood samples were collected on day zero pre-medication, and day 7 and 10 post-medication. The drug efficacy was checked at those animals which were positive for the paramphistomum. The animals in Group A were treated with Oxyclozanide (Zanil) at a dose rate of 15 mg/kg body weight. The animals in Group B were treated with Albendazole (Albensel) at a dose rate of 10 mg/kg body weight. The animals in Group C were kept as positive control (infected-untreated) and Group D were kept as negative control (uninfected-untreated). Eggs per gram (EPG) of the faeces were noted on day 0 day before medication. The efficacy of these drugs was calculated on the basis of reduction of eggs per gram (EPG) of faeces after treatment. Zanil showed a progressive decrease in the faecal egg counts. The efficacy of Oxyclozanide (Zanil) was 58.33% on day 7 and 83.33 % on day 10. The efficacy of Albendazole (Albensel) was 36.36% on day 7 and 56.36 % on day 10. It was observed that Oxyclozanide (Zanil) showed better efficacy than Albendazole. Haematological parameters showed different results. A marked decrease in haemoglobin was observed after the study of infected sheep and the haemoglobin value was in normal range in healthy sheep on day zero. Packed cell volume was reduced on day zero in all infected groups, but was normal in the group of healthy sheep. After the treatment these values increased towards normal range in group A and B. The erythrocyte sedimentation rate was increased after 24 hours on day zero in all infected groups A, B, and C but was normal in the group D of healthy sheep. Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 1303,T] (1).

278. Prevalence Of Dermatophytosis In Domestic Dogs And In-Vivo Evaluation Of Topical Anri-Fungal Agents

by Muhammad Mudassar Aziz | Dr. Asim Khalid Mahmood | Dr. khalid Saeed | Dr. Muhammad Hassan Saleem.

Material type: book Book; Format: print ; Literary form: not fiction Publisher: 2011Dissertation note: The pet dog is a domesticated animal, belonging to the family Canidae and it comes within the order Carnivora. The given nomenclature is used for all varieties of pet dogs. Earlier, this pet animal was used for different purposes which include hunting, fighting and also different types of work had been taken from it. Dermatophytosis is the common skin infection in dogs especially in the young ones. A total of 300 samples were collected. The 36 samples were found positive and then divided into 3 groups. In group K, Ketoconazole was applied topically twice a week. Later on the efficacy of Ketoconazole was observed by collecting the samples on day 7, 14 and 21 after the commencement of treatment, which was 20%, 60% and 90% respectively. Similarly, Group L was treated with Lime sulphur and the efficacy of Limesulphur against M.canis infection, was found to be 60%, 80% and 100% on day 7, 14 and 21 respectively. Group M was treated with Miconazole. The efficacy of miconazole against M.canis was found to be 50%, 75% and 100% on day 7, 14 and 21 respectively. At the end, it was concluded that Lime sulphur was the best drug of choice among the three drugs used and the efficacy of ketoconazole was lesser than the others. Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 1304,T] (1).

279. Efficacy Of Antifungal Agents Against Dermatophytosis In Cats

by Muhammad Irfan Saleem | Dr. Asim Khalid Mahmood | Prof. Dr. Muhammad Sarwar Khan.

Material type: book Book; Format: print Publisher: 2011Dissertation note: The cat is commonly kept as pet all over the world. The dermatophyte Microsporum canis is the most common fungal agent of dogs and cats. In the presence study, the prevalence of Microsporum canis was recorded in pet cats in the area of district Lahore. The animals found positive with Microsporum canis were divided into three groups named, group A (griseofulvin), group B (ketoconazole) and group C (terbinafine). All the drugs were given orally and the efficacy of each drug was observed by collecting the samples on 15 days interval after the commencement of treatment until the mycological cure was achieved up till day 90th. Prevalence of M. canis infestation was 31%. The breed wise prevalence was highest in Persian cats as compared to Siamese and local breed and the prevalence were also higher in young ones as compared to old age cats. Later on the calculation of efficacy revealed that griseofulvin was the best drug among the three drugs used. Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 1305,T] (1).

280. Study Of Incidence Rate And Chemotherapy Of Balantidiasis In Donkeys

by Adnan Khan | Prof. Dr. Muhammad Sarwar Khan | Dr. Asim Aslam | Dr. Muhammad Avais.

Material type: book Book; Format: print Publisher: 2011Dissertation note: Equines have been serving the mankind for many purposes since as early as the human history. In equines parasitic infection is a major problem. Factors such as continuous exposure to parasites, climatic conditions, and lack of knowledge on the part of livestock farmers regarding parasitic transmission play an important role in sustaining parasitic diseases. Balantidium coli causes a protozoal disease known as Balantidiasis. It is normally found in large intestine of pigs (wild and domestic) and also explained in camels, primates including human, rodents, and equines but distinctly found in dogs. Balantidiasis is manifested by diarrhea, dysentery, severe colic pain, tenesmus, anorexia, nausea and vomiting. Balantidium coli may act as opportunistic pathogen in other infectious diseases. There is considerable information on B. coli in cattle and buffalo raising communities in the world. Investigations on Balantidium coli have not been conducted actively in the study area where equine rearing is one of the major occupations. This study will therefore is expected to serve as base line data for further work on this parasite. The faecal samples of 400 donkeys irrespective of age and sex reared in and around Lahore were examined coprologically out of which 73 were found positive for Balantidium coli yielding the incidence rate of 18.25%. Chemotherapeutic trials of Secnidazole and Nigella sativa were performed on a group of 10 donkeys each (Group A & B) along with keeping 10 donkeys as positive & 10 donkeys as negative control (Group C & D). The animals of group A were treated with secnidazole (Dysen forte) at a dose rate of 10mg/kg orally for one day. The group A Showed the efficacy of 89.51% at day 14th (post treatment). The animals of group B were treated with Nigella sativa (Kalonji) at a dose rate of 200 mg/kg body weight orally for five days. This group showed the efficacy of 40.02% at day 14th after medication. Similarly the effect of B. coli on various blood parameters (Hemoglobin and Packed cell volume) was studied in these animals. At day zero (pre-medication), the average Hb (g/dl) and PCV (%) values of groups A, B, C and D were 10.61 + 0.076, 10.61 + 0.13, 10.60 + 0.15, 11.01 + 0.068 and 31.47 + 0.27, 31.48 + 0.22, 31.47 + 0.24, 32.14 + 0.243 respectively. On day 14th after medication the average Hb (g/dl) and PCV (%) values of groups A, B, C and D were 10.79 + 0.094, 10.69 + 0.126, 10.60 + 0.15, 11.01 + 0.068 and 31.79 + 0.16, 31.64 + 0.13, 31.47 + 0.24, 32.14 + 0.243 respectively. On day zero (pre-medication), the hemoglobin and pack cell volume values of groups A, B and C were below the normal (Hb = 11.0 - 11.6 g/dl, PCV (%) = 32 - 33) while of group D were approximately normal. On day 14th (post-medication), there was increase in Hb and PCV values of groups A and B. The Hb and PCV values of group C and D were not changed. Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 1307,T] (1).

281. Compaiativ Efficacy Of Different Electrolyte Solutions On Heat Stress And Their Efiect On Hematology And Blood

by Hafiz Tariq Mehmood | Dr. Aneela Zameer Durrani | Dr. Hassan Saleem | Prof. Dr. Azhar.

Material type: book Book; Format: print ; Literary form: not fiction Publisher: 2011Dissertation note: The present project had been designed to study the effect of heat stress on cattle calves and to evaluate the efficacy of electrolytes solution (Normal Saline and Ringer Lactate) on various blood parameters. Five groups of calves comprising 10 in each group were selected for experimental study. Group A: Affected calves with heat stress were provided shade after taking TPR and the effect of shade were checked after one hour. Group B: Heat stressed calves of same age group were given Normal Saline IV according to their body weight and the effect were checked through TPR, hematology and blood electrolyte. Group C: Heat stressed calves of same age group were given Ringer's Lactate IV according to their body weight and the effect were checked through TPR, hematology and blood electrolyte. Group D: calves of same age group affected with heat stress were taken as the positive control. Group E: calves of same age group were normal healthy calves (negative control). Temperature was taken at regular intervals of one hour daily. Respiration was observed by placing the hand in front of nostrils. Heart rate was observed by stethoscope daily in morning and evening. The blood sample of each calf was collected both for control and experimental animals through disposable syringe from jugular vein. The blood was shifted to University Diagnostic laboratory, University of Veterinary and Animal Sciences Lahore. The samples were taken before and after therapeutic trials. Blood samples were taken for blood electrolyte examination and hematology. Serum of the blood was separated by centrifugation for electrolytes measurements. The flame photometer was utilized to measure the serum sodium (Na+) potassium (K+) Chloride (Cl+) and Bicarbonate (HCO3) concentration. The physical sign of experimental group before cooling were noted .sever sweating and panting were observed under physical sign. The pulse rate, respiration and rectal temperature of experimental group before cooling were increased. Changes found in CBC and blood electrolytes like sodium, potassium, chloride and bicarbonate were measure by flam photometry. These all observation showed that the animal of experimental group before cooling were suffering from electrolyte imbalance ,but it was not so serious which may result in death of the animal, however the persistence of that condition might result in heat stroke which is often lethal. It is concluded that serum electrolyte concentration, CBC and pulse rate, respiration and rectal temperature help in accessing the condition of animal suffering form the heat stress. From the present study it can be concluded that heat stress cause changes in biochemical and Hematological parameters in calves. These changes can be overcome by giving animal's fluid therapy and by providing good shade in hot summer. Further studied are required to Conducted on other species of animals to understand the effect of heat stress .Other biochemical and hematological parameters should be studied in bovine calves and other animals for the better understanding the effects of heat stress. Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 1309,T] (1).

282. Studies On Cyanide Toxicity In Ruminants

by Muhammad Avais | Prof. Dr. Muhammad Sarwar Khan | Prof. Dr. Muhammad Arif Khan.

Material type: book Book; Format: print Publisher: 2011Dissertation note: The present study was conducted with the objectives to: (a) determine the cyanogenic potential of various livestock fodder and grasses, (b) determine CN? content in blood of ruminants feeding cyanogenic plants, (c) develop a simple, reliable and inexpensive assay for the determination of CN? in blood, (d) evaluate the efficacy of various antidotes against CN? toxicity in a rabbit model, (e) find out the effect of CN? on hematological and biochemical profile, (f) study the postmortem and histopathological changes associated with CN? toxicity in various organs and (g) study alterations in tissue oxygenation and metabolic variables during acute CN? toxicity in pigs. For this purpose a total of 500 samples of various plants being used as fodder to livestock were collected from the field and analyzed for CN? content spectrophotometerically. To develop a simple picrate method for CN? estimation in blood, two goats were infused with KCN at 0.6mg/kg for 1 hours. Blood samples were collected at intervals and were subjected to the general method. Standard curve was developed using standard solutions of various concentrations of CN?. Additionally 6 rabbits were also given CN? orally for 40 days and blood samples were collected for CN? estimation. Later on, this method was successfully used to determine CN? levels from 500 blood samples of cattle, buffaloes, sheep and goats (n=125 each) feeding cyanogenic plants which were collected from the field. For antidotal studies forty two rabbits were randomly divided into seven groups viz. A, B, C, D, E, F and G each comprising of six animals. Rabbits in group A were given feed only and served as negative control, while the rabbits in group B received feed plus oral solution of potassium cyanide (KCN) and were positive control. Animals in group C were given feed, KCN and intraperitoneal (IP) injection of garlic extract. Rabbits in group D were treated with feed, KCN and IP injection of sodium thiosulfate (STS). Members in group E received feed, KCN and IP injection of both garlic extract and sodium nitrite (SNT). Animals in group F were treated with feed, KCN and IP injection of both STS and SNT whereas the rabbits in group G were given feed, KCN and hydroxocobalamin IP. The treatments were given to respective groups for a period of 40 days. At the end of 40 days, serum and fresh urine samples were drawn from each rabbit to study biochemical panel. Subsequently the rabbits were euthanized for postmortem and histopathological changes in various organs. For hematological and growth rate studies 12 rabbits were divided into two groups of six viz. A and B. Rabbits in group A were given feed only while members in group B were treated with feed and oral KCN at 3mg/kg for 40 days. The animals were weighed after every 10 days. Feed consumption rate, feed efficiency and weight gain for the members of each group were recorded. Blood samples were also collected for hematological studies at 0, 10, 20, 30 and 40 days. To study tissue oxygen and metabolic variables during acute CN? toxicity, 26 piglets were anesthetized. The non-invasive monitors were used to measured oxygen saturation, heart rate and rhythm and cerebral response to sedation. The invasive monitors were placed to measured beat to beat variability of the arterial blood pressure, pulmonary artery pressures. Mixed venous oxygen saturation (SvO2) and cardiac output were continuously monitored. Regional brain O2 (cerebral cortex) and skeletal muscle O2 saturation (rSO2) were also measured via sensors. After getting baseline metabolic and hemodynamic measurements that included arterial and venous blood gas analysis, lactates and cyanide levels, all pigs were started on an infusion of NaCN (0.55 mg/kg/hr). The infusion continued until the occurrence of sustained apnea (?3 minutes). A non-significant difference was found in the CN? content of Sorghum bicolor and S. sudanese, while a significant difference was observed between the CN? content of Jumbo grass (S. bicolor x S. Sudanese hybrid) and S. halepense. Jumbo grass and S. halepense were found to have significantly higher CN? concentrations than S. bicolor or S. Sudanese. Maize has significantly lower CN? content compared to S. bicolor, S. sudanese, Jumbo grass, or S. halepense. A gradual increase in CN? content with increasing height of plants was also observed. Highest CN? levels were observed at heights of 91-100 cm in sorghum varieties. At greater heights, a gradual decrease in CN? content was seen in all plant species, with the lowest levels at heights of 200 cm or above. No CN? was detected in maize at heights over 131 cm. In picrate method, the calibration curve was linear (R2=0.99) in the range of 0.3-120 mg CN?/L. In standard CN? solutions a color change in picrate paper from yellow to brown was observed at a concentration of 3 mg CN?/L and above. This method was sufficiently sensitive to quantify the low concentrations (0.3mg CN?/L) of CN? found in ruminant blood. In goats infused with KCN, the CN? concentration in blood was time-dependent and continued rising during infusion, gradually declining after infusion ceased after 1 h. Blood CN? levels showed a time-dependent increase in all experimental rabbits with the maximum concentration (1.34 mg/L) at day 40. The highest blood CN? concentrations were found in cattle, followed by goats and buffalo, with the lowest in sheep. When blood CN? levels of these species were compared statistically, a non-significant difference was observed. A non-significant difference was found between males and females. No relationship was observed between blood CN? levels and age of the animal for any species. Buffalo, cattle, sheep, and goats allowed to graze showed significantly higher blood CN? levels than animals kept in a stall feeding system. Animals grazing on jumbo grass were found to have significantly higher blood CN? levels than those fed S. bicolor or S. sudanese with a non-significant difference found between animals fed S. bicolor or S. sudanese. No CN? was detected in blood samples of animals fed maize. Hydroxocobalamine was found to be a significantly more effective CN? antidote than garlic, STS, SNT plus garlic extract, or SNT and STS, either alone or in combination. A combination of SNT and garlic extract was the second most effective CN? antidote. The efficacy of garlic alone was significantly higher than STS or SNT in combination with STS. The efficacy of combined SNT and STS was superior to STS alone in treating rabbits with CN? toxicity. No rabbits in any group demonstrated gross deviation from the normal organ structure. The activities of serum ALT, AST, ALP, and LDH enzymes, as well as serum bilirubin, were significantly increased in CN? treated rabbits compared to controls. Severe hepatocyte vacuolation and degeneration were present in liver of rabbits in the CN? treated group. Liver of rabbits in the control group showed normal morphological patterns. The concentrations of serum urea, uric acid and creatinine were significantly higher in CN? treated rabbits than in control group. Urinary thiocyanate levels were also significantly higher in the CN? group than in controls. Kidneys of rabbits in the CN? group demonstrated severe glomerular and tubular necrosis and congestion. Pyknotic nuclei were present in tubular epithelial cells, whereas a normal histological pattern was observed in kidneys of rabbits in control group. Serum T3 and T4 levels were significantly lower in the CN? group compared to controls. A non-significant difference in blood glucose levels was recorded between rabbits in control and CN? treated groups, and histological examination of pancreas revealed no microscopic lesions. No significant differences were observed in serum cholesterol levels of CN? and control group rabbits. The serum albumin and total protein concentration in CN? treated rabbits were significantly lower than in the control group. Heart of rabbits in both CN? and control group did not show histopathological changes under microscopic examination. The erythrocyte count, the hemoglobin concentration, packed cell volume and mean corpuscular hemoglobin were all found to be significantly lower in blood of CN? treated rabbits than control group. The mean corpuscular hemoglobin concentration was significantly higher in the CN? group rabbits than control group animals. On the other hand, the difference in leukocyte count, differential leukocyte count and platelets were non-significant. The difference in total and daily feed consumption between CN? and control group rabbits was non-significant, whereas the feed efficiency of rabbits in the control group was significantly higher than for rabbits in CN? fed group. The net weight gain of rabbits in the control group was significantly higher than in the CN? fed group. Cyanide infusion to pigs resulted in toxic levels of blood CN? accompanied by lactic acidosis. In addition, there was a progressive increase in cardiac output, Venous oxygen saturation, heart rate, elevation of central venous pressure and pulmonary artery blood pressure. Skeletal muscle rSO2 progressively and significantly decreased with increasing lactate and CN? levels. However, there was no significant change in brain rSO2. Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 1322,T] (1).

283. Determinaton Of Multiple Drug Resistance Against Pasteurella - Multocida Isolates From Cattle And Buffalo In District Naseerabad, Balochistan

by Abdul Salam Baloch | Dr. Muhammad Hassan Saleem | Prof. Dr. Muhammad Sarwar Khan.

Material type: book Book; Format: print ; Literary form: not fiction Publisher: 2011Dissertation note: Hemorrhagic Septicemia is one of the major problems from livestock point of view with high morbidity, mortality, loss of production and cost of treatment. The predisposing factors such as high temperature, high humidity and uncontrolled transportation of cattle and buffalo round the clock favor outbreak from time to time in the District Naseerabad, Balochistan. Forty samples were collected aseptically from Cattle and Buffalo and transported for further processing placing temperature 4 0C in to the Laboratory Department of Clinical Medicine and Surgery, University of Veterinary and Animal Sciences, Lahore. Samples were cultured on blood agar for isolation and purification .These isolate were identified macroscopic, microscopic and biochemical profile characteristics test. The antibiotic sensitivity test of Ceftriaxone, Cephaloridine, Trimethoprim, Streptomycin, Cinoxacin, Colistin, Ciprofloxacin, Norfloxacin, Chloramphenical and Amoxycillin were determined for P. multocida isolates and also observed noticeable resistance against these antibiotics. The collected data was tabulated and analyzed statistically. The aim and objective of present study was to determine multiple drug resistance against Pasteurella multocida so that proper antibiotic for the above said ailment with recommended dosage may be accomplished according to standard dosage. Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 1333,T] (1).

284. Prevalence Of Gryptosporidiosis In Per Dogs And Comparative Efficacy Of Azithromycin, Clindamycin And Tylosin

by Muhammad Jameel | Dr. Asim Khalid Mehmood | Prof.Dr. Muhammad Sarwar Khan.

Material type: book Book; Format: print Publisher: 2011Dissertation note: Cryptosporidiosis is one of the important parasitic diseases of dogs and other canine and feline species which is of special concern with reference to the immuno-compromised individuals. Several trials have been run to estimate the prevalence and treatment of the said disease in different regions of the globe, in immuno-competent and in immuno-compromised patients as well. The aim of this study was not only to determine the prevalence of Cryptosporidiosis in pet dogs in the Lahore district but to evaluate the comparative efficacy of Azithromycin, Clindamycin, Tylosine and combination of Clindamycin and Tylosine as well. For this purpose, in first phase of the trial, oocyst enumeration was performed in 300 samples collected from three different clinics in Lahore district. The prevalence was found to be 21.33%. In the second phase, 32 Cryptosporidiosis positive dogs were selected and were randomly divided into four equal groups. These four groups of dogs were given afore-mentioned dosages of the above mentioned drugs and oocyst count was done on d 7, d 14 and d 21. The results revealed that Azithromycin proved itself as the most successful drug in elimination of Cryptosporidium in dogs as it showed 79.26% efficacy as compared to the combination of Clindamycin and Tylosine (43.58%), Clindamycin (26.53%) and Tylosine (16.03%). It should be stated that the future trials may manipulate the dose rates and the period of therapy to achieve even better results. The efficacy results for the combination of Clindamycin and Tylosine also suggested a positive innovation in its regimen in future studies. And last but not least, the efficacy percentages of Clindamycin and Tylosine (as individual drugs) demonstrated them poor drugs to be used against Cryptosporidiosis specifically in dogs atleast in context of the dosage regimens and therapeutic periods employed in the current study. Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 1344,T] (1).

285. Molecular Diagnosis Of Bovine Anaplasmosis In District Lahore

by Aqsa Mushtaq | Dr. Aneela Zameer Durrani | Dr. Hassan Saleem | Prof. Dr. Azhar.

Material type: book Book; Format: print Publisher: 2011Dissertation note: The present study was designed to determine diagnosis and infection percentage of Bovine anaplasmosis in cattle and buffalo of different age groups in and around District Lahore, and to study the comparative efficacy of diagnostic methods that is Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and Microscopic Examination. For this purpose 160 blood samples were collected from cattle and buffaloes ,randomly from eight villages , during the month of May, June, July, August of 2010 in and around District Lahore.80 samples were collected from cattle and 80 were collected from buffaloes and these samples were further categorized into two age groups that is 40 samples were collected from calves of 1 month to 6 month of age and 40 samples were collected from calves of 7 month to 12 month of age of each species. Screening was done by blood smears, stained by Giemsa'wright staining technique and later the blood samples from the same animals were also processed by PCR. The blood smears showed Anaplasma marginale as dense , round, deeply stained body, approximately 0.3-1.0um in diameter. Most of them were located on or near the margin of the erythrocyte.On the basis of Microscopic examination overall 11.25% (18\160) prevalence was recorded. On the basis of polymerase chain reaction (PCR) prevalence of Anaplasma marginale 25.6%(41\160) was recorded, showing the presence of carrier animals in District Lahore. The blood smears showed maximum prevelance in cattle of age 7 months to 12 months of age that is 20% (8\40) than animals of age 1 month to 6 month of age 10% (4\40).The blood smears showed maximum prevelance in buffalo calves of age 7 months to 12 months of age that is 10% (4\40) than animals of age 1 month to 6 month of age 5% (2\40). The blood smears showed that the prevelance of Bovine anaplasmosis is more in cattle 15% (12\80) than buffalo 7.5% (6\80). The overall prevalence 25.6% (41\160) was recorded for Bovine anaplasmosis , during summer season on the basis of PCR. The Polymerase chain reaction showed maximum prevelance in cattle of age 7 months to 12 months of age that is45 % (18\40) than animals of age 1 month to 6 month of age 20% (8\40). The Polymerase chain reaction showed maximum prevelance in buffalo animals of age 7 months to 12 months of age that is 27.5% (11\40) than animals of age 1 month to 6 month of age 10% (4\40). The Polymerase chain reaction showed that the prevelance of Bovine anaplasmosis is more in cattle 32.5% (26\80) than buffalo18.75 % (15\80).The results have shown high efficacy of PCR as compare to Microscopic Examination. It is anticipated that present study was proved helpful in diagnosis of Anaplasma in infected as well as in carrier animals in District Lahore , and will be beneficial for further study. Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 1346,T] (1).

286. Sero Epidemiology Transmission Dynamics And Hematological Studies On Neospora Caninum In Dairy Buffaloes

by Amir Nasir | Prof.Dr.Muhammad Ashraf | Prof. Dr. Muhammad Sarwar Khan.

Material type: book Book; Format: print Publisher: 2011Dissertation note: The current study was carried out in two districts of the Punjab province (pakistan), viz. Lahore and Narowallocated;on the eastern part of the province bordering Indian Punjab ::. and the first study assessing the epidemiology of N caninum in dairy buffalo in Pakistan. Overall, the true sercprevalence of Neospora caninum in dairy buffalo (assessed by using cELISA validated for buffalo by using IFAT as reference test) of the two districts was 39.4 % - with no significant difference in the prevalence of N caninum antibodies between male (29.5%) and female (41.5%) dairy buffalo. However, in the Lahore district alone, the prevalence in the female (46.1 %) buffalo was significantly higher than in their male (23.8%) counterparts. In contrast, in Narowal district, the prevalence in male (42.4%) buffalo was higher than females (32.2%) but this difference was not statistically different. The other risk factors evaluated in regards to the prevalence of N caninum in buffalo were similar overall in both the districts; these included age-specific, season-specific, pregnancy-specific, parity- specific, abortion-specific and dog contact-specific prevalence. The difference in sero- prevalence was not significant amongst all the ages but was significant between the younger " 3yrs.) and adult (> 3yrs.) age buffalo. The adult buffalo showed a higher prevalence of N caninum antibodies compared with younger buffalo. Anyhow, the age group of buffalo >3-5 yrs. showed consistently the highest prevalence of N caninum antibodies overall and in both the districts in the current study. The summer season was the one in which buffalo of the two districts and overall showed the highest prevalence, followed by high prevalence in autumn; while the lowest prevalence of N caninum antibodies was observed in buffalo sampled during the winter. The prevalence in the higher parities buffalo was significantly higher than the lower parity and pregnant heifers. The prevalence in pregnant dams was significantly higher than in non- pregnant buffalo in the herds in different areas of the two districts. Similarly, aborting buffalo in regular contact with dogs- at the dairy properties showed significantly higher prevalence of N. caninum antibodies than non-aborting buffalo without the contact of dog. The serological analysis-of dogs (using cELIS A) present at some dairy buffalo '" properties generally showed high prevalence of N. caninum; antibodies at the dairy properties where the buffalo were in regular contact with dogs compared with farm premises and their buffalo without any contact with dogs at the farm. This signifies the roleof the dogs in the - . transmission of N. caninum oocysts and infection to buffalo (intermediate host) as the isolates of dog and bovine origin has been reported to be identical (Stenlund et al., 1997). The analysis of milk samples from the dairy buffalo. also tested for serum antibodies using iscom (immune stimulating complex) ELISA and showed a good level of agreement (Kappa ratio=O.567) between the performance of two tests (iscom ELISA versus cELISA). However, the cELIS A (VMRD, Pullman, W A) showed higher sero-positivity compared to iscom ELISA (SV ANOV A, Uppsala, Sweden). Therefore, the use of either ELISA used on milk for evaluating the prevalence of N. caninum antibodies in buffalo can give good results . for lactating buffalo, but cELIS A appeared to have superior sensitivity in our study. The use of iscom ELISA offers advantages regarding ease of sampling and repeated screening of lactating herds but with little lower sensitivity than serum antibody cELISA. The co-existence of N. caninum with Br. abortus, another important abortifacient pathogen in buffalo, is quite significant as the probability of such infectious abortions is increased in the susceptible herds resulting in more economic losses compared to those caused by single pathogen. The co-existence of Br. abortus in N. caninum seropositive buffalo in the current study was 13.2%, while the overall prevalence of Br. abortus antibodies in buffalo of two districts was 12.2%. The prevalence trend of Bt: abortus was related to age, ~ though not exclusively; as prevalence continued to increase with age except in the age groups of 6-7 yrs, and> 7 yrs. old buffalo. The higher prevalence in the adult age groups indicates the association of Br. abortus with development of the reproductive system of the host (buffalo). It also suggests the increase in the exposure of the buffalo to the pathogen with increase.in age to some good extent. However, this prevalence was statistically not signific~ "0. in all the age groups of buffalo. The prevalence of co-existence was highest (18.5%) in -, buffalo >3-5 yrs. old followed by 18.2% in buffalo >7 yrs. age. Howe er, statistically, the difference in the prevalence of co-existing antibodies against N caninum and Br. abortus in buffalo was not significant. Hematological analysis of the N caninum sere-positive and sero-negative dairy buffalo for different haematological determinants, such as total leukocytic counts (TLC), differential leukocytic counts (DLC), RBCs, haemoglobin, haematocrit, platelets and blood plasma glucose level showed no difference in sero-positive and sero-negative two groups particularly, regarding the effect of sero-positivity in buffalo. Albeit, some interactions such as season x N caninum seropositivity showed significantly lower monocyte counts and high blood glucose level in N caninum sere-positive buffalo compared with sero-negative buffalo. Overall, in both groups no significant changes were observed in the seropositive buffalo compare to sero-negative ones. Some interaction have independently affected certain haematological parameters although, the animals were not seropositive. This suggests the effect of some environmental factors and physiology states of the buffalo on its haematological dynamics. These effects included the effect of lactation on the lymphocyte count in the lactating and non-lactating buffalo, where lymphocyte counts were higher in non-lactating compared with lactating buffalo most possibly due to the recruitment of lymphocytes in the udder for excretion in milk. Similarly, blood haemoglobin was lower in the hot months and packed cell volume was higher in the cooler months of the year in the buffalo. Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 1366,T] (1).

287. Epidemiology, Serodiagnosis And Chemotherapy Of Anaplasmosis In Cattle

by Farhan Ahmad Atif | Prof. Dr. Muhammad Sarwar Khan | Prof. Dr..Muhammad Arif Khan.

Material type: book Book; Format: print ; Literary form: drama Publisher: 2011Dissertation note: Anaplasmosis is globally distributed tick-borne disease of livestock with great economic importance in cattle industry. The current project was designed to estimate the prevalence of anaplasmosis, ticks and risk factors associated with seroprevalence of Anaplasma marginale among cattle in Sargodha, Khushab and Rawalpindi districts, Punjab, Pakistan. Moreover, haematological changes in A. marginale infected cattle and efficacy of chemosterilization regimens were evaluated using locally available drugs for the elimination of adult naturally infected carrier cattle. A total of 1050 blood, serum and tick specimens were collected from randomly selected small holders (n=90) and private livestock farms (n= 12) using multistage cluster random sampling technique. A total of 30 union councils, 34 cattle farms (30 small holders and 4 livestock farms) and 350 cattle were selected as primary, secondary and elementary sampling units from each district. Sampling unit was indigenous and crossbred cattle of both the sexes. Microscopic examination of the Giemsa stained blood mears revealed an overall prevalence of blood parasites as 21.14%. Anaplasma marginale was the highe t prevalent (5.81 %) haernoparasite of cattle followed in order by Theileria sp. (5.14%) and Babesia bigemina (4.76%), respectively. Crossbred cattle were more susceptible to TBDs as compared to the indigenous cattle. Highest prevalence of TBDs was recorded in summer. The prevalence of tick-transmitted diseases was higher in small holders (31.3%) than private livestock farms (17.5%). Chi square analysis indicated a significant association (P<0.05) among indigenous and crossbred cattle to selected TBDs. Wherea. non- significant association between different age groups, seasons, sex and farm sizes were revealed. The overall seroprevalence of Anaplasma marginale in cattle using cELlSA was 31.05%. Seroprevalence was higher in crossbred cattle of more than 4 years of age and there was a significant (P<O.OO I) association between different age groups and breed. The seroprevalence was significantly (P<0.05) higher in summer season in Sargodha and Khushab districts. Moreover, the seroprevalence was significantly higher in small holders in all study districts. The epidemiological data and relevant information regarding area, host and farm management factors were collected on a questionnaire through interview from each dairy farmer, attendant or manager from September, 2009 to August, 20 10. Multivariate analysis of risk factors revealed that cattle of more than 4 year of age (OR=5.42), heavy tick infested (OR =2.10), crossbred (OR = 1.59) cattle were significantly at higher risk for seroprevalence to Anaplasma marginale. Presence of Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus (OR=3.70), use of ivermectin (OR=3.97), moderate interval of acaricide frequency (OR= 16.50), stall feeding (OR=4.90) and use of unhygienic needles (OR=24.00) were significantly associated with seroprevalence to Anaplasma marginale in cattle (P<0.05). The Sargodha district was at higher risk (OR = 1.81) as compared to Khushab and Rawalpindi. The tick species identified from cattle were Hyalomma anatolicum anatolicum, Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus, Rhipicephalus sanguine us, Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) annulatus and Haemaphysalis sp. The overall prevalence of tick infestation among cattle was 54.76%. The highest prevalence (57.71%) of cattle tick infestation was tick infested sites in cattle followed by dewlap (92%), inner thighs (90%), neck & back (54%), tail (26%), ears (13%), around eyes (10%), flanks (4%) and legs (2%). The haematological changes were studied at different levels of parasitaemia " 7%, >7-15% and> 15%) in Anaplasma marginale infected Sahiwal and crossbred cattle. There was a significant difference (P<O.OS) among total erythrocyte count (TEC), total leukocyte count (TLC), haemoglobin (Hb), packed cell volume (PCV), mean corpuscular haemoglobin (MCH), mean corpuscular haemoglobin concentration (MCHC) at different levels of rickettsemia in both breeds. ignificant difference (P<O.OS) was noticed among RBCs, PCV and MCH blood parameters between Sahiwal and crossbred cattle. A total of sixty Anaplasma marginale seropositive adult Sahiwal cattle were selected having their ages between 3-4 years ranging in weight from 246-341 kg. The animals were divided in four groups designated as OXY -group-I, E RO-group-II, IMC- group-III and control-group-IV, comprising IS animals each. The seropositive animals received oxytetracycline (22 mglkg IV once in a day for five days), enrofloxacin (S mglkg IV once in a day for five days) or imidocarb (S mglkg 1M twice, 7 days apart). Re ult of chemosterilization study indicated that oxytetracycline 13/1S (86.67%) and irnidocarb dipropionate II/IS (73.33%) eliminated Anaplasma marginale infection in adult naturally infected carrier cattle on S6th day. The carrier clearance was confirmed by cELISA followed by subinoculation of blood in seronegative splenectomized calves. It was concluded that TTBDs are widely distributed in Punjab, Pakistan. Host. management and area factors are involved with the seroprevalence of Anaplasma marginale in cattle. Haemolytic anaemia is the major haematological finding of Anaplasma marginale in cattle. Oxytetracycline is more effective and safe In chemosterilization of persistent Anaplasma marginale infection in cattle. There is a need for country wide epidemiological studies on ticks and TBDs using advanced serological and molecular techniques. Moreover, the identification of the potential vector of anaplasmosis should be required for the effective prevention and control of anaplasmosis in Pakistan. Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 1368,T] (1).

288. Seroepidemiology And Immunoprophylactic Trials Of Rabies In Dogs

by Uzma Farid Durrani | Dr. Muhammad Sarwar khan | Dr. Muhammad Arif khan | Factuly of veterinary science.

Material type: book Book; Format: print Publisher: 2010Dissertation note: A field and an experimental study were carried out on pet and experimental stray dogs, respectively. The objectives of these studies were to evaluate the rabies immunoprofile of dogs vaccinated with different rabies vaccines under field and experimental conditions and determine the relation between vaccine type, post vaccination intervals, health status, breed, age, gender and dewormers on rabies virus neutralizing antibody (RVNA) titer. Field study was carried out on 300 pet dogs including 1-108 months old males and females. Dogs were allocated to three groups; (I) regularly vaccinated (II) irregularly vaccinated (III) maternally immunized, each with 100 dogs bled at various stages. Experimental study was carried out on 16 adult, healthy stray dogs equally allocated to four groups; three groups for monovalent and polyvalent vaccine trials with Rabisin, Rabisyva-VP13 and Hexadog DHP-LR at day 0 and 21. Fourth group was negative control. Sample collection was carried out on day 0 and day 21 post vaccination followed by sampling at 30 days intervals till ten months, in each group. RVNA titers of the serum samples were determined by Rapid Florescent Focus Inhibition Test (RFFIT) at Rabies Lab., Kansas State University, USA. In field study 58% dogs regularly vaccinated with Rabisin, Hexadog DHP-LR and Rabisyva-VPl3 vaccines, were diagnosed with protective RV A titers while 33% dogs were suffering vaccine failure. Mean protective RVNA titers monovalent Rabisin, Rabisyva-VP13 vaccines were higher than polyvalent Hexadog DHP-LR vaccine without a significant difference. Among irregularly vaccinated dogs, only 25% dogs exhibited protective RVNA titers while 25% dogs were diagnosed with vaccine failure. 50% irregularly vaccinated dogs exhibited RVNA titer below minimum protective level. Maternal rabies immunity was minimum protective level. Maternal rabies immunity was diagnosed in 20% puppies with protective RVNA titers and 20% puppies were suffering immunity failure. Remaining samples were either diagnosed with RVNA titers below minimum protective level or dcould not be assayed due to toxic effect on BHK cells. No relation was observed among RVNA titers and vaccine type, health status and gender in any field study group while a significant relation was observed among RVNA titers, breed, age and post immunization intervals with a significant difference in all groups. In experimental study there was no case of vaccine failure in any group and all groups exhibited high protective RVNA titers at the termination of study. Both the increasing and decreasing trends were observed at various intervals of experimental study. Mean RVNA titers Were 4.53±4.23, 3.48±3.40, 9.36±7.12 in Rabisin, Hexadog DHP-LR and Rabisyva-VP13 vaccinated groups, respectively. A relation was observed among RVNA titers, vaccines and post vaccination time intervals with a significant difference. However health status, gender and use of imomodulatory levamisol were not found to be significantly affecting RVNA titers in any group. On the basis of the present study it is concluded that monovalent rabies vaccines Rabisyva-VP13 and Rabisin generate higher RVNA titers as compared to polyvalent Hexadog DHP-LR vaccine under the both field and experimental conditions however, a high incidence rate of vaccine and maternal immunity failure is one of the factors that can be responsible for high incidence of rabies especially in rabies endemic area. It is also concluded that health status, gender and immunomodulatory effect of levamisol do not significantly affect the rabies immunity however, there is the significant effect of age and post immunization intervals on rabies immunity. Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 1384,T] (1).

289. Clinico-Epidemiological And Therapeutical Studies On Coccidiosis ( Isospora ) In Dogs In And Around Lahore;

by Awais Younas | Dr. Muhammad Sarwar Khan | Dr. Kamran | Dr. Muhammad Ijaz | Faculty of veterinary science.

Material type: book Book; Format: print Publisher: 2012Dissertation note: The present project was designed to find out the prevalence of coccidiosis (Isosporiosis), to evaluate the comparative efficacy of Sulfadimethoxine and Furazolidone and to study the effect of Coccidiosis on blood parameters. For this purpose, the faecal samples of three hundred dogs were examined in the Medicine laboratory, University of Veterinary and Animal Sciences, Lahore by direct smear method and concentration technique. Out of three hundred dogs, forty nine were found positive for coccidiosis, showing the prevalence of 16.33%. For the chemotherapeutical trials, forty five naturally infected and fifteen non-infected were selected and divided randomly into four groups having fifteen dogs in each group wise A, B, C and D. Group A was treated with Sulfadimethoxine at the dose rate of 60 mg/kg (orally). Group B was treated with Furazolidone at the dose rate of 20 mg/kg (orally). Group C was kept as infected non-medicated control. Group D was kept as non-medicated and non-infected control. The faecal samples of experimental dogs were examined for OPG (oocyst per gram) counts on zero day (pre-medication), 3rd day, th day, and 14th day medication and percentage reduction of oocysts was' calculated. Sulfadimethoxine showed 66.69%,90.89% and 98.29% efficacy and Furazolidone showed 63.95%, 88.78% and 96.64% efficacy on 3rd, th and 14th day, respectively. Haematological study showed that the values of haemoglobin, packed cell volume and total erythrocyte count were lower in groups A, Band C as compared to non-infected control group. The values of total leucocyte count were higher in group A, B and C' as compared to non-infected group. As a result of treatment in group A and B, the values of haemoglobin, packed cell volume and total erythrocyte gradually increased while that of total leucocyte count gradually decrease on day 3rd ,7111 and 14th post-medication. It has been observed during the present study that sulfadimethoxine and Furazolidone showed their effect on blood parameters as a result of coccidiosis. Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 1389,T] (1).

290. Chemotheraph Of Ancylostomiasis In Cats In Lahore.

by Awais Bokhari | Prof. Dr. Muhammad Sarwar Khan | Dr. Muhammad Hassan Saleem | Dr. Nisar.

Material type: book Book; Format: print ; Literary form: not fiction Publisher: 2012Dissertation note: It has been a long time since the affection of cats is with human beings. Cats have recorded as most adoptable pet of the modern world. Cats can be found anywhere in the world. Many diseases of cats are zoonotically important and they may cause zoonotic problem in human and mainly these pathogen are involved in enteric problems. The relationship of feline with human does provide many benefits to them but also act as a cause of zoonotic diseases. A total of 300 fecal samples were collected from cats and were examined in the Clinical Medicine Laboratory, University of Veterinary and Animal Sciences, Lahore. The positive samples for Ancylostoma were 65 out of 300, indicating prevalence of Ancylostomiasis was 21.66%. For the chemotherapeutical trails 18 positive cats and 6 healthy cats were divided into four groups viz. A, B, C and D with 6 animals in each group. The cats of group A were treated with Pyrantel Pamoate @ 20mg/kg orally. The cats of Group B were treated with the Albendazole @ 50mg/kg orally. The cats of Group C were kept as positive control while the cats of Group D were kept as negative control. The fecal samples were collected on day 0 pre-treatment and then on day 7th, 14th and 21st of post-treatment. The efficacy of the drugs was calculated on the basis of reduction of the eggs count from the fecal samples on the respective days. The efficacy of Pyrantel Pamoate on these days was 43.47%, 67.39% and 94.20% respectively, against Ancylostoma. The efficacy of Albendazole on these days was 30.77%, 60.44% and 86.81% respectively, against Ancylostoma. Thus it was recorded that Pyrantel Pamoate was more effective against Ancylostoma than Albendazole as it caused more reduction of the egg count than albendazole. Hematological study showed that the values of hemoglobin, packed cell volume and total erythrocyte count were lower in groups A, B and C as compared to non-infected control group. The values of total leukocyte count were higher in group A, B and C as compared to non-infected group. As a result of treatment in group A and B, the values of hemoglobin, packed cell volume and total erythrocyte gradually increased while that of total leukocyte count gradually decrease on day 7th, 14th and 21st post-medication. It has been observed during the present study that Pyrantel Pamoate and Albendazole showed their positive effect on blood parameters as a result of Ancylostomiasis with more efficacy of Pyrantel pamoate as compared to that of Albendazole. Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 1391,T] (1).

291. Prevalence And Chemotherapy Of Gastro-Intestinal Paradites In Deer In Punjab, Pakistan.

by Ruheeb Aslam | Dr. Jawaria Ali Khan | Dr. Muhammad Hassan Saleem | Dr. Nisar.

Material type: book Book; Format: print ; Literary form: not fiction Publisher: 2012Dissertation note: The parasitic load on deer affects them badly and eventually leads to death. In the present study a total of 100 feacal samples were collected from deer and were examined in the Clinical Medicine Laboratory, department of CMS, University of Veterinary and Animal Sciences, Lahore. Out of 100 samples thirty eight were positive and among these thirty eight, 12 deer were infected with cestodes, 6 with nematodes, 12 with trematodes, and 8 with the mixed infection of parasites. So, the prevalence of the cestodes, trematodes, nematode and mixed infection was 12%, 12%, 6% and 8% respectively. For the chemotherapeutic trails thirty positive animals and 10 healthy animals were divided into four groups A, B, C and D with 10 animals in each. The animals of group A was treated with albendazole @ 7.5mg/kg orally. Those of group B was treated with the ivermectin @ 1mg/ 50kg orally. The group C animals were kept as positive control and group D were kept as negative control. The feacal samples were collected on the 0 day (pre-treatment), 7th, 14th and 21st day (post-treatment). The efficacy of the drugs were calculated on the basis of reduction of the eggs count from the feacal samples on the respective days. The efficacy of albendazole 42.59 %, 71.3% and 87.96% against cestodes, 33.33%, 60.3% and 82.88% against nematodes and 40.18%, 68.22% and 89.72% against trematodes at day 7, 14 and 21 respectively.. The efficacies of ivermectin were 42.59 %, 73.15% and 88.88% against cestodes, 51.78%, 76% and 91.07% against nematode while 42.85%, 64.28% and 85.71% against trematodes at day 7, 14 and 21 respectively. It is thus concluded that the ivermectin is more effective drug than albendazole as it caused more reduction of the egg count than albendazole. Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 1392,T] (1).

292. Epidemiology And Prophylaxis Of Babesiosis In Felidae

by Syed Saleem Ahmad | Prof. Dr. Muhammad Sarwar Khan | Prof. Dr. Muhammad Arif Khan.

Material type: book Book; Format: print ; Literary form: not fiction Publisher: 2011Dissertation note: Abstract Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 1425,T] (1).

293. Prevalence And Chemotherapy Of Schistosomiasis In Cattle

by Mudassar Nazar | Prof. Dr. Muhammad Sarwar Khan | Dr. Syed Saleem Ahmad | Prof. Dr.

Material type: book Book; Format: print ; Nature of contents: biography; Literary form: Publisher: 2012Dissertation note: Abstract Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 1433,T] (1).

294. Molecular Diagnosis And Therapeutic Trials On Fasciolosis In Sheep And Goats

by Khalid Mehmood | Dr. Muhammad Ijaz | Prof. Dr. Muhammad Sarwar Khan.

Material type: book Book; Format: print Publisher: 2012Dissertation note: The fasciolosis in sheep and goat is an important and infectious disease of ruminants characterized by dullness, weakness, lack of appetite, pallor and edema of mucosa and death of animal. The accurate diagnosis of Fasciolosis remained a difficult task for the field practitioners and the right choice of medicine. For this purpose 600 sheep and goats was examined for fasciolosis. The fecal samples were collected directly from rectum while bile samples were collected from various private and public slaughter houses of districts Okara, Sahiwal and Lahore. Fasciola egg was identified by standard text while molecular conformation of Fasciola spp. was done by using PCR. For therapeutic trials, sixty animals (n=30 sheep; n=30 goats) positive for Fasciolosis was equally divided into A, B and C groups and each group comprising of 20 animals (n=10 sheep; n=10 goats). The animals of group A was given Zanil (Oxyclozanide) orally @ 1ml per 3kg body weight; the animals of group B was given Albendazole orally @ 1ml per 3kg body weight and the animals of group C was given the grounded powder of Neem leaves (Azadirachta indica) @ 5-6 teaspoon (25-30gm) orally. Efficacy of drugs was measured on the basis of disappearance of Fasciola eggs at 3, 7 and 14 day of post-medication. Data on the prevalence of fasciolosis was analyzed by Pearson's chi-square test while therapeutic trials data was analyzed with one way ANOVA using Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS); P < 0.05 was considered significant. To study fasciolosis in sheep and goats, samples were collected from Lahore, Okara and Sahiwal. The collected samples were processed at the Medicine laboratory at UVAS, Lahore and LPRI laboratories of Bahadurnagar, Okara. In this study first of all the fecal and bile samples were examined through microscope then these samples were processed by PCR test. No study was conducted previously on the molecular diagnosis of fasciolosis in sheep and goats in Pakistan, this is the first report for the molecular diagnosis of fasciolosis. In all F. hepatica positive samples approximate 300-bp fragment was generated on gel tested with DSJF/DSJ3 primers for sheep and goats. All positive samples by microscope were also positive by PCR, but out of the 92 samples positive (43 in sheep; 49 in goats) by PCR test, out of these 14 (7 in sheep; 7 in goats) were negative by microscopy. This study provides the base line data for the molecular diagnosis of fasciolosis in sheep and goats in Pakistan. Overall prevalence of fasciolosis in sheep in both fecal and bile samples in various districts of Punjab was calculated. Out of 300 samples (150 fecal; 150 bile) of sheep, F. hepatica prevalence rate was 12% (36 samples) by microscopic examination while 14.33% (43 samples) by PCR test. On the basis of microscopic examinations districts wise prevalence rate was 11, 12 and 13% in Lahore, Okara and Sahiwal respectively and by PCR test prevalence rate was 13, 14 and 16% in Lahore, Okara and Sahiwal respectively. Prevalence of F. hepatica was more in Sahiwal than Okara and Lahore in sheep in both fecal and bile samples on the basis of microscopic examination and PCR. Overall prevalence of fasciolosis was also calculated in goats on the basis of microscopic examination and PCR in both fecal and bile samples. Among 300 samples (150 fecal; 150 bile) of goats F. hepatica prevalence was 14% (42 samples) by microscopic examination while 16.33% (49 samples) by PCR. On the basis of microscopic examinations the prevalence was 13, 15 and 14% in Lahore, Okara and Sahiwal districts respectively while on basis of PCR test prevalence was 15, 18 and 16% in Lahore, Okara and Sahiwal districts respectively. Prevalence of F. hepatica was more in Okara than Sahiwal and Lahore in goats in both fecal and bile samples on the basis of microscopic examination and PCR. The eggs per gram (EPG) values and efficacy of Oxyclozanide (Zanil), Albendazole and Neem leaves against fasciolosis in 30 positives sheep was recorded at 3, 7 and 14 days after the treatment. As group A was treated with oxyclozanide (Zanil), its efficacy was 50, 75 and 90% at 3rd, 7th and 14th day respectively after treatment. The efficacy of albendazole was 46, 65 and 81% at 3rd, 7th and 14th day respectively while the efficacy of Neem leaves was lowest that was 15, 30 and 42% at day 3rd, 7th and 14th day respectively. The efficacy of oxyclozanide and albendazole was significantly higher (p= 0.000) than Neem leaves. In sheep against the fasciolosis Oxyclozanide significant effect on EPG followed by albendazole and Neem leaves. The EPG and efficacy of Oxyclozanide (Zanil), Albendazole and Neem leaves were determined in 30 goats against fasciolosis at 3, 7 and 14th day of post treatment. The efficacy of oxyclozanide was 57, 76 and 90% at 3, 7 and 14th day of post treatment, respectively. The efficacy of oxyclozanide was higher than Albendazole against the fasciolosis. The efficacy of albendazole was 55, 68 and 79% at day 3, 7 and 14th, respectively. Efficacy of Neem leaves against fasciolosis was lower as compared to other two drugs, it was 15, 23 and 40% at day 3, 7 and 14th, respectively. When the efficacy was compared at different days, Oxyclozanide reduced the EPG significantly, followed by Albendazole and Neem leaves. From this study it was concluded that PCR is more reliable technique than microscopic examination for the diagnosis of fasciolosis in sheep and goats. Microscopic technique provides the base line data for the diagnosis of fasciolosis in sheep and goats but PCR provides help to conduct further molecular diagnosis on fasciolosis as well as others parasitic diseases. Secondly fasciolosis which is an important parasitic problem of ruminants is significantly prevalent in sheep and goats in Lahore, Okara and Sahiwal districts of Punjab. Oxyclozanide is the most effective drug while albendazole and neem leaves (Azadirachta indica) are relatively less effective against fasciolosis in sheep and goats. Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 1434,T] (1).

295. Clinico-Chemotherapeutic Study On The Occurrence Of Navel Ill In Cow Calves

by Safdar Abbas | Dr. Syed Saleem Ahmed | Prof. Dr. Muhammad Sarwar Khan.

Material type: book Book; Format: print Publisher: 2012Dissertation note: Navel ill occurs commonly in young calves. Calves less than 1 week of age are most commonly affected by infections of navel because the umbilical stump usually takes 7-10 days to dry up. Infection of navel develops when pathogenic bacteria contaminated the wet umbilicus under the unhygienic environmental conditions. It may also cause the death of newborns calves due to bacterimia and septicemic shock. The unhygienic environmental conditions like parturition of cow in dirty pen, poor navel hygiene practices, inadequate colostrum feedings within 6 hours after parturition or when umbilical cord is cut too close to abdominal wall of calf, may predispose a calf to navel ill. The present study was conducted in and around Kahna region of Lahore to find out the disease percentage of navel ill in newborn calves, and chemotherapeutical trials were conducted to see the comparative effect of topical, parenteral and topical with parenteral therapy. For this purpose, 400 newborn calves of 15 days or less than 15 days age were randomly selected from small dairy farms and small holder farmers of study area. Among 400 calves, 197 calves were randomly selected from different small holder farmers of study area and 203 were selected from small dairy farms. Among 197 calves from different local areas of Kahna, the occurrence of disease percentage of navel ill was 46.19% and among 203 calves from small dairy farms of study area, the occurrence of disease percentage of navel ill was 12.80%. The overall occurrence of diseased percentage of navel ill from dairy farms and small holder farmers of study area was 29.25 %. The overall percentage of infection at dairy farms and local small holder farmers of study areas was 21.73%, 37.50%, and 14.28%, 22.22% and 14.10% among Friesian, Sahiwal, Jersy, Cholistani and Crossbred female calves respectively. The overall percentage of infection at dairy farms and local small holder farmers of study area was 22.22%, 88.23%, 16.66%, 33.33% and 40.98% among Friesian, Sahiwal, Jersy, Cholistani and Crossbred male calves respectively. For chemotherapeutical trials, calves were divided into five groups. Calves of group A (n=10) were treated with topical application of Pyodine solution and Cicatrin powder, applied to navel cord topically twice a day for five days. The average percentage recovery of group A among males was 41% and among females was 46.5 %, but the overall recovery in group A was 43.75%. Similarly, when calves of group B (n=10) were treated with parenteral therapy of Moxin and Meloxicam for five days, then the average percentage recovery of group B among males was 41.47 % and among females was 48.08 %, but the average recovery among male and female calves of group B was 43.60 %. Calves of group C (n=10) were treated with topical application of Pyodine solution and Cicatrin powder plus parenteral therapy of Moxin and Melacam for five days. The average percentage recovery of group C among males was 76 % and among females was 90 %, but the average recovery among male and female calves of group C was 83 %. Calves of group D (n=10) were kept as positive control to observe complications. They were of diseased conditions. Among these calves, three calves got maggot wounds; one died due to septicemia, two calves got small hernia and remaining calves showed no further complications except existing signs. Calves of group E (n=10, healthy calves) were kept as negative control. Among these healthy calves, three calves became thin and emaciated but all others remained healthy and showed no clinical signs of any disease. Finally, the obtained data were statistically analyzed by using Chi Square method (software stata). In conclusion, the statistical analysis showed that occurrence of disease percentage of navel ill was more in male as compared to female calves. Similarly, the occurrence of diseased percentage of navel ill was high in local areas i.e. small holder farmers as compared to dairy farms of study area. The chemotherapeutic trials conducted among different groups of calves showed variable results. Topical treatment showed some better results than parenteral treatment, but when topical treatment was given with parenteral therapy, the calves showed maximum recovery. On the behalf of this study, it was concluded that the occurrence of disease percentage of navel ill is high in calves reared under unhygienic conditions. At dairy farms, hygienic conditions were better due to some good calf rearing practices as compared to local small holder farmers, that's why the occurrence of disease percentage of navel ill was high at local small holder farmers than that of dairy farms. Similarly, the results of chemotherapeutic trials showed that simple topical or parenteral therapy alone was not effective much as compared to when both topical and parenteral therapy was given at the same time. Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 1436,T] (1).

296. Pereentage Of Hemorrhagic Septieemia Carrier Buffalo And Their Immunity Status At District Swat, Khyber

by Ikramul Haq | Dr. Aneela Zameer Durrani | Dr. Ayesha | Dr. Jaweria Ali Khan.

Material type: book Book; Format: print Publisher: 2012Dissertation note: The study was conducted in District Swat, Khyber Pukhtoonkhwa province, to study the percentage of carrier buffaloes of hemorrhagic septicemia in the region and Immune status of buffaloes. Tracheal swabs and blood were collected from 200 buffaloes slaughtered at Saidu Sharif slaughter house. The selected buffaloes were divided into four age groups, the first group had animals of two and less than two years of age, the second had animals with age of three years, the third group, five years and fourth group had animals with age of more than five years. Tracheal swabs were cultured for the isolation of Pasteurella multocida, for identification of carrier animals and blood sample were processed to determine the antibodies titer of buffaloes against Pasteurella multocida. The results showed that 8 (4%) out of total 200 examined buffaloes were identified as carriers of hemorrhagic septicemia by isolating the Pasteurella multocida from their tracheal swab. Out of 8 carrier buffaloes 4 were from group IV, 3 from Group III and 3 from group II. The percentage of carrier buffaloes in four age groups was 0%, 2%, 6% and 8% in group-I, group-II, group-III and group-IV respectively, showed that percentage of carrier buffaloes were high in group IV while lowest in group I. The Pathogenicity tests of the all 8 isolates showed that they were pathogenic to mice and cause their death within 24 hours of incubation. Serological study of blood sample for antibodies titer showed that out of 200 buffaloes 156 (78%) showed antibodies titer ?1:16 which were considered immune against hemorrhagic septicemia. Out of 156, 17 were from group-I, 46 from group-II, 46 group-III and 47 from group-IV. Percentage of immune buffaloes in different age groups was 34%, 92%, 92% and 94% in group-I, group-II, group-III and group-IV respectively. The higher number of immune animals i:e 94% were in group-IV and the lowest were in group-I i:e 34%. Results showed that all the carrier buffaloes had antibodies titer more than 1:16. The antibodies titer of the 4 carrier buffaloes were 64, 2 had 128 while 1, 1 had antibodies titer 16 and 32 respectively. Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 1443,T] (1).

297. Comparative Study Of Different Suturing Techniques For Cystotomy Closure In Canines

by Imdadullah Khan | Prof. Dr. Muhammad Arif Khan | Dr. Ayesha Hassan | Pror. Dr.

Material type: book Book; Format: print Publisher: 2012Dissertation note: The cystotomy is an incision in to the wall of urinary bladder which is commonly indicated for the removal of urinary stones and for the excision of invading tumors. Cystotomy wound is closed by varieties of suturing patterns which commonly include simple appositional and inversion types of suturing patterns. Appositional patterns are used in single-layer while double-layer appositional pattern is also used. Inversion types of suturing patterns are commonly used in double layers. Single-layer appositional patterns are commonly used in small and young animals while double-layer inverting pattern is preferred to apply in large animals. Double-layer inversion pattern has been found to decrease the size of bladder lumen when the bladder wall is thick. Bladder mucosa in all cases is not penetrated because of the danger of the formation of bladder stones. In three-layer closure mucosa is sutured as a separate layer and is indicated commonly when there is bleeding. The present project is aimed to conduct a comparative study of appositional versus inversion type of suturing patterns and two-layer versus three-layer of bladder wall repair. The study was conducted on 24 dogs divided into four groups comprising 6 dogs each. In 18 dogs experimental cystotomies were performed which were closed in following manners. Group-A: the cystotomy wound was closed in two-layer simple interrupted suturing pattern, group-B: cystotomy wound was closed in two layers by simple continuous and continuous lembert suturing pattern, group-C: the cystotomy wound was closed in three layers and group-D was the control group. These suturing techniques were evaluated for leakage with the help of contrast radiography, ultrasonography, renal function tests and physical signs. These techniques were also evaluated for their effect on residual urine volume with the help of ultrasound machine. All the suturing techniques provided water tight closure when evaluated through radiography, ultrasonography, kidney function tests and physical examination. The two-layer inversion patterns and three-layer closure techniques were found to effect residual bladder volume but the effect of three-layer closure technique was more pronounced. No crystals/stones were observed on postmortem examination of the urinary bladder in each operated dog. A well demarcated stricture was noted in dogs whose bladders were sutured in three layers. It was thus concluded form the research that appositional patterns do not affect the residual bladder volume, the catgut can be penetrated through the mucosa without endangering for cystolithiasis and the two-layer appositional suturing pattern is as effective as three-layer closure of cystotomy wound for the control of hemorrhage from the bladder mucosa. Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 1445,T] (1).

298. Study On Different Closure Techniques Of Nephrotomy In Dogs

by Muhammad Imran | Prof. Dr. Muhammad Arif Khan | Dr. Ayesha Safdar Chaudary.

Material type: book Book; Format: print Publisher: 2012Dissertation note: Kidney is a vital organ of body. It plays an important role in whole-body homeostasis, regulating acid-base balance, electrolyte concentrations, extracellular fluid volume, and regulation of blood pressure. Kidney performs these functions in coordination of various endocrine functions; these include renin, angiotensin II, aldosterone, antidiuretic hormone, and atrial natriuretic peptide. There are different problems of the kidney like calculi lodged in the renal pelvis and neoplasia of the kidney in which nephrotomy is indicated. The project was designed to find out the most suitable technique of closing nephrotomy incision. For this purpose three groups A, B and C of dogs were arranged containing eight animals in each group. In group A after performing nephrotomy, 2/0 absorbable suture was placed through the cortex in horizontal mattress fashion and renal capsule was closed with 4/0 absorbable suture in a simple continuous fashion while in group B nephrotomy incision was apposed by applying gentle digital pressure for five minute and incision in the renal capsule was closed with 3/0 synthetic absorble suture. Whereas, in group C cut edges was apposed through tissue adhesive glue (cyanoacrylate). Physical evaluation, Urine examination i.e urine colour, Complete blood count, blood urea Nitrogen, serum creatinine and excretory urography at different intervals was carried out to evaluate the efficacy of these three techniques. The present project clearly indicated that suturless nephrotomy closure technique was found to be more suitable and compatible technique with excellent clinical superiority in terms of good weight gain, better hemostais, minimal post operative complication and maintaining kidney function. Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 1447,T] (1).

299. A Study On Different Placements (Onlay, Inlay & Sublay) Of Prolene Mesh For The Repair Of Incisional Hernia

by Aftab Hussain | Prof. Dr. Muhammad Arif Khan | Dr. Ayesha Safdar Chaudary.

Material type: book Book; Format: print ; Literary form: drama Publisher: 2012Dissertation note: Abstract Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 1448,T] (1).

300. Clinico-Biochemical Study After Partial And Complete Blockage Of Ureters In Dogs.

by Naveed Hussain | Prof. Dr. Muhammad Arif Khan | Prof. Dr. Muhammad Sarwae Khan.

Material type: book Book; Format: print Publisher: 2012Dissertation note: Ureteral obstruction is one of the most common problems associated with urinary system. It imparts serious consequences on the system, if not treated sharply. The present study was performed in twenty dogs after producing experimental obstruction through ureteral ligations of variable nature. The aim of the experiment was to identify the effects of variable ligations on obstructed and contralateral kidney with the help of blood parameters including hematology and serum analysis along with diagnostic imaging i.e. radiography and ultrasonography. It was noted that hematology was of least significance as diagnostic aid while serum analysis i.e. BUN and S/Cr were of some worth in early stages. As far as diagnostic imaging was concerned IV urography is considered as first line diagnosis in advanced cases revealing kidney size, parenchyma and hydronephrosis, while Ultrasonography is more sophisticated and advanced which is helpful in initial diagnosis and can study deep structures of the kidney. Results revealed that in partial obstructions, in obstructed kidneys severity of hydronephrosis and kidney damage was less than complete obstructions. In complete ureteral obstruction, deterioration of total internal structures including medulla , cortex and renal pelvis was observed. Role of contralateral kidney was also evident during the experiment, which compensated the physiological changes due to obstruction and helped the patient in returning to normal life but structural damage of variable nature was also noted depending upon the severity of obstruction in the ureter. It was observed during experiment that the revival of renal function is time dependent which is inversely related to duration of obstruction. If obstruction, mild or severe, is released earlier, recovery is quick and complete renal function restoration is possible in 24 to 48 hours of obstruction, depending upon its severity. But if delay occurs, it results in irreversible damage to the obstructed kidney and after three to six weeks no functional parenchyma is detectable in severe and mild obstructions respectively. Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 1450,T] (1).



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