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301. Prevalence And Therapeutic Studies On Diabetes Mellitus In Pet Dogs At Lahore.

by Salman Khalid | Prof. Dr. Muhammad Sarwar Khan | Dr. Muhammad Ijaz | Prof. Dr.

Material type: book Book; Format: print Publisher: 2012Dissertation note: Diabetes mellitus is one of the most important maladies of endocrine glands in dog and cats. It is due to the insufficient production of insulin by the pancreas. The multi-factors such as obesity, feeding, exposure to toxic drugs etc. are involved for the onset of this chronic disease. The basic energy fuel of the body is glucose. In the absence of insulin the glucose level in the blood is increases which can be noticed as hyperglycemia (high blood glucose level). There are the three types of diabetes mellitus which includes insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (type I or IDDM), noninsulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (type II or NIDDM) and secondary diabetes mellitus. The dogs play a vital role in our society. The present study was conducted on diabetes mellitus to study its prevalence, its effect on various blood parameters and to evaluate the efficacy of insulin therapy in pet dogs in Lahore, Pakistan. The 500 blood samples were collected from the dogs of age ?5 years, presented at Pet centre of the University of Veterinary and Animal Sciences (UVAS) Lahore and various private clinics in Lahore, and was processed in Medicine Laboratory of UVAS, Lahore. The blood glucose level was measured with the aid of glucometer. Out of 500, 16 (n=5 male & n=11 females) were positive for diabetes mellitus. The 3.2% prevalence of diabetes mellitus was recorded in pet dogs in Lahore. The study concluded that the prevalence of diabetes mellitus in female dogs (68.75%) was significantly (p<0.05) higher than that of male dogs (31.25%). The results of this study showed that the prevalence of diabetes mellitus was higher in old age dogs (>9 years) as compared with other age groups. Diabetes mellitus was found to be more prevalent in winter season same as in human beings. The clinical signs like Polyuria (81.25%), Polydipsia (68.75%), Hyperglycemia (100%), Dehydration (43.75%), Anemia (56.25%) and cataract (18.75%) were commonly observed in diabetic dogs. In the present study the pet dog breed like Yorkshire terrier, Samoyed, Pomuranian and Cross bred were prone to have diabetes mellitus whereas German shepherd, Bull dogs, Pugs and Labrador retriever were at low risk for this malady. In the present project, the haematological study was conducted on 28 dogs (n=14 diabetic and n=14 healthy dogs). The five ml blood sample were collected from each dog directly from the cephalic vein and were shifted into a sterilized plastic bottle coated with EDTA@1mg/ml and were further analyzed through haemtological analyzer. The results showed the decreased number of RBCs (4.63±0.42) and an increased in PCV values (62.91±4.18). The results also showed dehydration and anemia in diabetic dogs. In the present study the 21 dogs (n= 14 diabetic dogs, n= 7 healthy dogs) were selected for therapeutic trials. The dogs were divided into further three groups; A, B and C. Each study group was comprised of 7 animals. Group A (comprised of diabetic dogs) was treated with Humulin-N (Insulin) @ 0.5 U/Kg, q12h, SC for 7 days. The group B (comprised of diabetic dogs) was kept as positive control while the healthy dogs were kept in group C for negative control. After the seven days treatment of group A, the blood samples were collected every 2 hr interval for 12 hrs for measuring the glucose value. The process was repeated once in a week for one month. The four blood glucose curves were made. Each blood glucose curve has its own nadir value. The time of glucose nadir value was indicated the peak action of insulin. The blood glucose curves were made to evaluate the effectiveness of insulin. The therapeutic results of this study concluded that the Humulin-N (insulin) was much effective for management of diabetic dogs. Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 1467,T] (1).

302. Prevalence And Chemotherapy Of Theileriosis In Equines In And Around Lahore

by Muhammad Azhar | Dr. Muhammad Ijaz | Dr. Muhammad Hassan Saleem | Prof. Dr. Azhar.

Material type: book Book; Format: print Publisher: 2012Dissertation note: Theileriosis is an infectious malady of equidae characterized by intermittent fever, loss of appetite, anemia, loss of weight, dyspnea, pale mucous membranes, jaundice and recumbency. Considering the significance and utilization of equines in our country and the substantial losses rendered by theileriosis, the present study was designed to study prevalence and chemotherapy of theileriosis in equines in and around Lahore. For this purpose 300 equines (Horses=100; mules=100; donkeys=100) were examined for theileria infection.The blood was collected by ear tip puncture and from Jugular venipuncture. Then thin blood smear slide was prepared and dried up in air and stained with Geimsa's staining method and examined under microscope. Theileriaequiwere identified by their morphological characteristics as described by Rashid et al. (2009) and Guimaraeset al. (1997).Over all prevalence of Theileriaequiin equines was estimated as 58%. There was also a mixed infection of Theileriaequi and Babesiacaballiin some cases. Individually there was 54%, 64% and 56% prevalence of Theileriaequi found in horses, mules and donkeys respectively. The effect of theileriosis on various blood parameters (Hb, ESR, TEC, TLC, DLC and PCV) was determined in 30 equines (Horses= 10; mules= 10; donkeys= 10). The remarkable decrease in hemoglobin, TEC, PCV and lymphocytes was observed. The value of ESR increased while there were no remarkable changes in TLC, monocytes, basophils, neutrophils and eosinophil. For chemotherapy, 36 equines (Horses=12; mules=12; donkeys=12) positive for theileriosiswere divided into three groups (A, B, and C). Each group was further subdivided into three subgroups comprising of 4 animals in each subgroup. The animals of group A (Horses=4; mules=4; donkeys=4) were treated with Imidocarbdipropionate (Imizol®, ICI, Pakistan) @ 2 mg/kg BW I/M, and the efficacy of drug was found 91.7% in equines against theileriosis.The group B (Horses=4; mules=4; donkeys=4) was treated with Buparvaquone (Butalex®, ICI, Pakistan) @ 2 mg/kg BW I/M alone and was observed 66.7% effective. While the group C (Horses=4; mules=4; donkeys=4) was treated with Auk(Calotropisprocera)@ 0.3mg/kg BW, 8 doses at alternate days (local treatment), which was found 58.3% effective. The efficacy of drugs was measured on the basis of disappearance of clinical signs and blood smear examination at day 2, 4, 6 and 10 of post-medication. The efficacy of each drug was measured through recovery rate of the animals. Finally, the data on prevalence of theileriosis was estimated by Pearson's chi-square test for significance whereas data on hematology was analyzed by Student's T-test using statistical software package STATA 9.1 (College Station T×77845, USA), P < 0.05 was considered significant. Considering the significance and utilization of equine in our country and the substantial losses rendered by theileriosis, the present project was designed to check prevalence and chemotherapy of theileriosis in equines in and around Lahore. The results of this study will help farmers and veterinary practitioners in field. Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 1487,T] (1).

303. Prevalence And Chemotherapy Of Trichuriasis (Whi Worm) In Dogs.

by Muhammad Ramzan | Dr. Muhammad Hassan Saleem | Prof. DR. Muhammad Sarwar Khan.

Material type: book Book; Format: print ; Literary form: not fiction Publisher: 2012Dissertation note: In developing countries like Pakistan the trend of establishment of kennel clubs are increasing day by day. While the population of dogs increase the strong practice of vaccination and deworming increase as well. Parasitism is a major problem in our country. It causes great economic losses. The genus Trichiuris is one of the important nematode which affect the dogs. Therefore a study of genus Trichiuris was conducted in month of March to May, 2012. For this purpose 300 hundreds dogs of different breeds of dogs were selected for investigation of Trichiuris vulpis. Samples were collected and brought to the Clinical laboratory of Department of Clinical Medicine and Surgery in University of Veterinary and Animal Sciences Lahore. In laboratory positive samples for Trichiuris vulpis were recorded. The overall prevalence of Trichiuris vulpis was found to be 20% .The dogs positive for Trichiuris vulpis were divided into three groups A, B and C having 10 dogs in each group. Group A and B were treated with pyrantal pamoate and fenbendazole respectively. While the group C was positive control. The efficacy of both the drugs were measured by the decrease in egg per gram of faeces after medication. The egg counts were made at day zero, 7th and 14th. The efficacy of pyrantal pamoat recorded on day 7th and 14th was 95.30 and 98.61% respectively while the efficacy of fenbendazole recorded on day 7th and 14th was 90.76 and 93.84% respectively. The obtained data was tabulated and analyzed by ANOVA. Statistical analysis showed that there was significant (p<0.05) difference between the efficacy of payrental pamoate and fenbendazole after treatment of infected dogs at day 7th and 14th. This analysis showed that payrantal pamoate is significantly superior in its efficacy than fenbedazole. The purpose of the study for prevalence and estimation of comparative efficacy of two drugs against Trichiuriasis in dogs was accomplished. Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 1490,T] (1).

304. Therapeutic Studies Of Cryprosporiduim In Sheep In And Around Lahore, City

by Bushra Saleem | Dr. Jawaria Ali Khan | Prof. Dr. Muhammad Sarwar Khan.

Material type: book Book; Format: print ; Literary form: not fiction Publisher: 2012Dissertation note: Keeping in view the importance of sheep in global agricultural economy valued by humans for its multiple uses. The present study was conducted on cryptosporidiosis, and to evaluate the comparative efficacy of paromomycin and Kalvanji therapy in lambs in and around Lahore Pakistan. In this plan of research work 400 lambs, less than 1 month of age suspected for cryptosporidium infection on the basis of clinical signs were included. The fecal sample were collected from sheep presented at medicine outdoor hospital of University of Veterinary and animal sciences, various veterinary hospitals in and around Lahore and was processed in medicine laboratory UVAS ,Lahore for observing the oocyst of cryptosporidium by using Ziehl-neelsen technique. The prevalence was found to be 24.25%., The 40 sheep were divided into four groups=designated as A, B, C & D. Each group was comprised of 10 sheep. In group A the infected sheep was treated with paromomycin@ 100 mg/kg orally for 5 days, Group B infected sheep was treated with Kalvanji@1/2 tea spoon for 5 days. Group C infected sheep kept for positive control, whereas healthy sheep group D were kept in negative control. After the 5 days treatment The effect of drugs were checked, by reduction of oocyst, at 0, 7 and 14 day. Oocysts of cryptosporidium were counted by using Mc Master Technique. The therapeutic results of this study concluded that paromomycin was much effective for cryptosporidiosis. we also done hematological studies on 40 sheep(n=30 sheep with cryptosporidiosis and n=10 healthy sheep) was included to see the effect of drugs on various blood parameters i.e PCV,TLC, The 5 ml blood were collected from each lamb directly from jugular vein, and were shifted into a sterilized plastic bottle coated with EDTA@1mg/ml were further analyzed through hematological analyzer . In disease condition the TLC and PCV was increased. The results showed the decrease number of TLC and PCV. One way ANOVA was used to analyze the data. The outcome of this study would helped to control cryptosporidiosis in lambs and reduce their substantial losses rendered by cryptosporidium. It was concluded that paromomycin is much effective drug against cryptosporidiosis, as compared to Kalvanji oil. Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 1491,T] (1).

305. Prevalence And Therapeutic Trials On Ticks And Mites In Sheep In And Around Lahore City

by Hafsa Maqsood Sana | Dr. Jawaria Ali Khan | Dr. Ayesha | Dr. Syed Saleem Ahmed.

Material type: book Book; Format: print ; Literary form: not fiction Publisher: 2012Dissertation note: Sheep and goats sustain an expensive profitable and environmental position in Asian agriculture (Devendra 1996). Majority of the livestock owners earn their income through sale of additional animals and their by-products. There are several factors affecting the production potential of livestock. Among these, parasitic infestations are prevalent, affecting different livestock species all over the world. Parasitic infestation especially ecto-parasites are the major veterinary problems in most of the developing and under developed countries of the world. The physical condition and production in animals is severely affected by tick and mite infestation. It is one of the most common problem of sheep characterized by anemia, poor physical condition, decreased milk quality and poor meat production.. The present study was conducted on ticks and mites to study their prevalence, their effect on various blood parameters and to evaluate the efficacy of Ivermectin and Azadirchta indica (neem oil) on sheep in and around Lahore, Pakistan. In this study 300 sheep suspected for tick and mite infestation on the basis of clinical signs were collected from outdoor hospital of University of Veterinary and Animal Sciences Lahore, Outreach hospital Sitar wala and Civil Veterinary Hospital Thokar Niaz Biag. The tick sample were collected with the help of foreceps and mites sample through skin scraping. Out of this 300, 198 samples were collected from outdoor hospital UVAS Lahore, from which 84 were positive with prevalence of 42.42% for tick and mite infestation, and 62 samples were collected from outreach hospital Sitarwala from which 24 were positive giving prevalence of 38.70% and 40 samples were collected from CVH Thokar Niaz Biag, out of which 17 samples were positive with prevalence of 42.5%. All the collected samples were processed at medicine laboratory, UVAS, Lhr. Whereas in the third part therapeutic trials on 20 sheep (n=15 tick and mite infested and n=5 healthy sheep) was done and divided into four groups A, B, C&D. Each group was comprised of 5 sheep .In group A, the infested sheep were treated with two doses of ivermectin 0.2mg/kgS/C 7 days apart, on 7th day its efficacy was 40%and on 14th day it gave 100% efficacy. In group B the infested sheep were treated with neem oil (Azadirachta indica) @1 table spoon, its efficacy was 20% on 7th day and on 14th its gave 40% efficacy, in group C infested sheep were kept as positive control, whereas healthy sheep were included in group D. In the second part of present project haematological studies on 10 sheep (n=5 tick and mite infested sheep, n=5 healthy sheep) were performed to see the effect of tick and mite infestation on various blood parameters (Hb, PCV,TLC) and it was fsound that Hb and PCV values were decreased whereas TLC was increased in infested sheep. The therapeutic trials of this study concluded that the Ivermectin was most effective drug against ticks and mites in sheep. Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 1492,T] (1).

306. Comparative Evaluation Of Conventional Method And Staple Suture Technique For Intestinal Aanastomosis In Dogs

by Hafiz Kashif Shahzad | Prof. Dr. Muhammad Arif Khan | Dr. Aneela | Dr. Shehla Gul Bokhari.

Material type: book Book; Format: print Publisher: 2013Dissertation note: Intestinal resection and anastomosis is frequently essential during abdominal surgeries. Indications for intestinal resection are malignancy, inflammation, stricture formation, injuries and ischemia. Several surgical situations necessitate the resection of intestinal segments and the formation of consistent anastomoses. Conventionally, a large diversity of suture materials has been used to make hand-sewn anastomoses. Surgical stapler was made for the first time at the beginning of 20th century but its use remained limited in gastrointestinal surgery. Currently, stapled anastomoses is an essential part of the majority of the gastrointestinal surgeries. The simple-interrupted, single-layer, approximating technique, in which absorbable monofilament suture material is used, is presently believed to be the technique of choice for end-to-end bowel anastomosis. This procedure is mostly used in gastrointestinal surgeries with comparatively lesser complications. Intestinal anastomosis with skin staples was started by military surgeons for the soldiers suffering from bowel trauma caused by gunfire. In this technique, stainless steel skin staples were used to create a seromuscular intestinal anastomoses. There are several types of staplers available in markets, e.g. circular ligators, clip appliers, endoscopic staplers etc. The circular stapler is a disposable anastomotic instrument that places a round, double staggered row of titanium staples connecting intervening tissues. It can generate an end-to-end, end-to-side, or side-to-side anastomosis. This round stapler is available with a variety of staple line diameters to be used according to need. In current years, there has been a large shift from hand-sewn method towards the use of intestinal stapler in gastrointestinal surgery. They present a possible reduction in operational timing and are easy to learn and use than for hand-sewn method. So, staplers are very popular in the trainee. This research project was tested on 12 mongrel dogs divided randomly into two different groups (A and B). Each group comprised of 6 dogs. Conventional hand-sewn method of end-to-end anastomosis was applied on group A and stapled anastomosis was made in the dogs of group B. Two surgical techniques were applied for end to end anastomosis of jejunum. In group-A conventional hand-sewn anastomosis technique was applied. In this method a piece of jejunum was removed and then anatomosed with simple interrupted, single-layer, approximating technique. The absorbable, monofilament suture material was applied manually. This is currently considered the method of choice for end-to-end intestinal anastomosis in small animal surgery. This technique is well described and has been used throughout the canine gastrointestinal tract with a relatively low complication rate. In group-B a circular mechanical stapler was used to construct anastomosis. In this method a piece of jejunum was removed and end-to-end anatomosis was made using a mechanical stapler. Comparison of both techniques was made on the basis of clinical parameters (temperature, pulse, respiration, vomiting, diarrhea and blood in feces), radiographic evaluation, exploratory laparotomy, change in lumen diameter and duration of surgical procedure. There is a significant difference in change in diameter within each group before and after surgery but there is no significant difference in change in diameter or stenosis formation between these two groups. There is a significant difference in the duration of operation; stapled group significantly requires an average of 10 minutes less than conventional hand-sewn method. Conclusively it was inferred that there is no significant difference in change in diameter between stapled group and hand sewn group but the anastomosis construction time is shorter in stapled group. Stapled anastomosis is safe and faster technique than hand-sewn method. The prevalence of low complication rate makes it all the more ideal for application in routine practices. Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 1533,T] (1).

307. Studies On Epidemiological Risk Factors, Treatment Patterns And Effects Of Vaccination Against Peste Petits

by Mahboob Ali | Dr.Muhammad Avais | Dr.Asim Aslam | Dr.Jawaria Ali Khan.

Material type: book Book; Format: print ; Literary form: drama Publisher: 2013Dissertation note: Abstract Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 1549,T] (1).

308. Prevalence And Comparative Efficacy Of Various Drugs In Iodine Deficienct Pregnant Goats

by Waseem Yaqub | Prof. Dr.Muhammad Sarwar Khan | Dr.Muhammad Ijaz.

Material type: book Book; Format: print ; Literary form: drama Publisher: 2013Dissertation note: Abstract Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 1558,T] (1).

309. Prevalence And Chemotherapy Of Coccidioosis In Small Ruminants In Dera Ghazi Khan

by Ghazanfar Rashid | Dr. Muhammad Avais | Dr. Muhammad Ijaz | Prof. Dr.

Material type: book Book; Format: print ; Literary form: drama Publisher: 2013Dissertation note: Coccidiosis is one of the most economically important parasitic diseases of small ruminants and infection may cause subclinical production losses to sheep and goat industry.Coccidiosiscause a serious threat to livestock productivity, due topoor feed utilization, stunted growth, poor weight gain, associated morbidity, mortality, and cost of treatment and control measures. The disease is worldwide in distribution and is caused by many species of Eimeria which invade cells of intestinal epithelium. To treat and control coccidiosis in sheep and goats, numerous drugs were found to be effective including Amprolium, Toltrazuril, Decoquinate, Diclazuril and Sulphadimidine. The present study was conducted to determine the prevalence of coccidiosis in Dera Ghazi Khan, for this 752 fecal samples (376 from sheep and 376 from goats) were collected and examined through direct smear method and salt flotation method. Overall prevalence of coccidialinfection was 48.67%, with prevalence of 52.92% for sheep and 44.41% for goats. The prevalence of coccidiosis in sheep was significantly higher (P<0.05) compared to goats. Eleven Eimeria species were identified 6 from sheepand 5 from goats. In sheep the common Eimeria species wereE. ovinoidalis(56.78%), E. ahsata(47.23%), E. parva(35.67%), E. intricate (30.15%), E. faurei(26.63%) andE. pallid (19.09%). In goats the prevalent species wereE. ninakohlyakimovae(68.86%), E. alijevi(59.88%), E. arloingi(53.29%), E. caprina(46.70%) andE. hirci(22.15%). Eimeria infection was significantly high (P<0.05) in female (54.57%; 310/568) compared to male (30.43%; 56/184).The prevalence of coccidiosis was significantly higher (P<0.05) in ?6 month as compared to above 1 year age.A significant difference was found in three feeding systems (i-e) in stall feeding, grazing and both (grazing + stall) feeding system.Coccidiosis was significantly high (P<0.05) in animals with poor and week body condition compared to medium, good and fat animals. A strong association (P<0.05) was observed between fecal score and prevalence of Eimeria infection. Peak prevalence was observed in month of August (68.08% and 60.63%) while low in October (38.29% and 30.85%) in sheep and goats, respectively. In present study threeaniticoccidial drugs were used and the percent efficacy of Furazolidon, Sulphadimidine and Amproliun was 96.34, 95.40 and 98.08 percent, respectively at day 7. Whereas 98.58, 98.03 and 99.55 percent,respectively at day 21.It was concluded from the results that there was no significant difference (P>0.05) among the percentage efficacy of Furazolidone, Sulphadimidine and Amproliun used in these trials. Hematological analysis was performed using Automated Hematological Analyzer. Hematological analysis showed a significant reduction (P<0.05) in total erythrocyte count (TEC) and hemoglobin (HB) content due tococcidiosis. Results show a significantincrease (P<0.05) in TLC, MCV and PCV of infected animals as compared to control negative. Mean lymphocytes, Monocytes, MCHC and MCH counts were also decreased in infected animals. Hematological values of treated animals become normal at day 21stafter treatment. Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 1565,T] (1).

310. Prevalence And Chemotherapy Of Bovine Coccidiosis In River Region

by Muhammad Shoaib Jahanzaib | Dr. Muhammad Avais | Prof. Dr. Muhammad Sarwar Khan.

Material type: book Book; Format: print ; Literary form: drama Publisher: 2013Dissertation note: Bovine coccidiosis-is an infectious-disease affecting cattle and buffaloes resulting in great economic losses to the beef and dairy sector all over the world. Coccidiosis is an intestinal disease and usually associated with poor growth, bloody diarrhea and sometimes death of young animals. As bovine coccidiosis is commonly found in cattle and buffaloes, therefore it severely affects the production of milk and beef in Pakistan. 500 fecal samples-were collected (250 from-cattle and 250 from buffaloes) randomly to investigate the prevalence of coccidiosis in River Ravi Region Lahore. Overall prevalence of coccidiosis was recorded 57.2 % and 58.8 % in cattle and buffaloes, respectively. Slightly high prevalence was found in female animals. Highest prevalence (66.66% and 70.31%) was observed in animals below 6 months of age, while lowest (44.87% and 48.91%) prevalence was found in animals above 1 year of age in cattle and buffaloes, respectively. The study further revealed that highest prevalence occurs in August, followed by September and October while lowest prevalence was observed in July. The infection rate was a little high in crossbred (59.26 %) and Sahiwal cattle (57.89 %) as compare to imported breeds. Seven Eimeria species were identified from fecal-samples of cattle while Six species were identified from buffaloes, where E.bovis and E.zurnii were found most prevalent among them. Coccidiosis was prevalent significantly higher (P < 0.05)-in animals housed in confined-and dirt yard (72.13 % in cattle, 74.13 % in buffaloes) as compare to animals housed on paved (58.49 % in cattle, 61.22 % in buffaloes) and those having outdoor access. Coccidiosis was most prevalent in stall fed (71.64% and 73.68 %) as compare to grazing (28.58% and 31.91%) cattle and buffaloes. Highest (73.07 % and 72 %) prevalence was found in animals with Poor body condition (score-1), while animals with body condition score 3 (Good) were found with lowest prevalence (37.5% and 47.76%). Highest (82.35 % and 84.21 %) prevalence was found in diarrheic while lowest (36.19 % and 42.85%) prevalence was observed in animals with normal fecal score (1) both in cattle and buffaloes, respectively. Efficacy of different chemotherapeutic agents against coccidiosis in buffalo calves was also determined in current study. Non-significant difference-(P > 0.05)-was observed-in percentage efficacy of all three anticoccidial drugs at day 28 onward, i.e. 100 % for Amprolium (Amprovil), 99 % for Furazolidone (Furasym) and 99 % for Trimethoprim+Sulphadiazine (Trisym). All the three drugs showed satisfactory results against coccidiosis in buffalo calves and no toxic effects were found during and after treatment. The current study also determined the effects of coccidiosis on various blood parameters of buffalo calves. A significant reduction in Total Erythrocytic Count (TEC), Hemoglobin concentration, PCV, MCH, MCHC and statistically significant increase-(P < 0.05) in TLC, DLC (except Lymphocytes) and MCV was observed in infected animals. Also a statistically significant difference-(P<0.05)-was observed in mean hematological-values of infected not-treated and treated animals at day 28, where treated groups showed an improvement to the normal values. Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 1566,T] (1).

311. Therapeutic Trials Of Trypanosomiasis In Equines Of Gujranwala And Sialkot District.

by Syed Manuchahar Ali | Dr. Muhammad IJaz | Prof. Dr. Muhammd Sarwar Khan.

Material type: book Book; Format: print ; Literary form: not fiction Publisher: 2013Dissertation note: Trypanosomiasis is an infectious malady of equines characterized by weight loss, anemia, progressive paresis, enlarged lymph nodes, petechiae of serous membranes, conjunctivitis, edema of the legs and lower part of the body, urticaria, and alopecia. Considering the significance and utilization of equines in our country and the substantial losses rendered by trypanosomiasis, the present study was designed to study prevalence and chemotherapy of trypanosomiasis in equines of Gujranwala and Sialkot districts. For this purpose, 300 equines (horses=100; mules=100; donkeys=100) were examined for Trypanosoma infection. The blood was collected by ear-tip puncture and from Jugular venipuncture. Then thin blood smear slide was prepared and dried up in air and stained with Geimsa's staining method and examined under microscope. T. evansi was identified by their morphological characteristics as described by Smyth, (1996). Overall prevalence of T. evansi in equines was estimated as 13%. Individually there were 16%, 13% and 12% prevalence of T. evansi found in horses, mules and donkeys respectively. The effect of trypanosomiasis on various blood parameters (Hb, ESR, TEC, TLC, DLC, and PCV) was determined in 30 equines (horses=10; mules=10; donkeys=10). The remarkable decrease in Hb, TEC, PCV, and lymphocytes were observed. The value of ESR increased, while there were no remarkable changes in TLC, monocytes, basophils, neutrophils, and eosinophils. For chemotherapy, 36 equines (horses=12; mules=12; donkeys=12) positive for trypanosomiasis, were divided into three groups (A, B, and C). Each group was further subdivided into three subgroups, comprising of 4 animals in each subgroup. The animals of group A (horses=4; mules=4; donkeys=4) were treated with diaminazine aceturate (Fatrybanil®, Fatro, Pakistan) @ 3.5 mg/kg BW I/M, and the efficacy of drug was found 83.3% in equines against trypanosomiasis. The group B (horses=4; mules=4; donkeys=4) was treated with isometamedium chloride (Trypamidium Sumarin®, Merial, Pakistan) @ 0.25 mg/kg BW I/M alone, and was observed 91.6% effective. While the group C (horses=4; mules=4; donkeys=4) was treated with Auk (Calotropis procera) @ 0.3mg/kg BW, 8 doses at alternate days (local treatment), which was found 41.6% effective. The efficacy of drugs was measured on the basis of disappearance of clinical signs and recovery rate of the animals, and blood smear examination at day 2, 4, 6 and 10 of post-medication. Finally, the data on prevalence of trypanosomiasis was estimated by Pearson's chi-square test for significance whereas data on haematology was analyzed by Student's T-test using statistical software package STATA 9.1 (College Station T×77845, USA), P < 0.05 was considered significant. Considering the significance and utilization of equine in our country and the substantial losses rendered by trypanosomiasis, the present project was designed to check prevalence and chemotherapy of trypanosomiasis in equines of Gujranwala and Sialkot districts. The results of this study will help farmers and veterinary practitioners in field. Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 1579,T] (1).

312. In-Vetro And In-Vivo Anti-Theilerial Activity Of Medicianal Plants

by Mukhtar Ahmad | Prof. Dr. Muhammad Ashraf | Prof. Dr. Muhammad Sarwar Khan.

Material type: book Book; Format: print ; Literary form: drama Publisher: 2013Dissertation note: In vitro study was carried out in order to estimate the anti-theileria effect of Calotropis procera and Peganum harmala. Water and chloroform extracts of each plant were used in-vitro study along with standard drug Buparvaqoune (Butalex®). For this four concentrations i.e.4, 8, 12 and 16mg/ tested solutions of each extracts of each plant were applied on cultured lymphocytes exposed to theileria parasite infection. ELISA reader findings showed that the mean OD were found less in treated theileria infected lymphocytes cell culture as compared to untreated culture wells mean OD values. The highest cell reduction (94.36%) with C. procera chloroform extract treatment was observed at a concentration of 16 mg/ml solution. Lowest concentration (1mg/ml solution) of C. procera chloroform extract reduced non-significant (P>0.05) lymphocytes cell proliferation (40.97%) as compare to control negative group. P. harmala water extract was effective against the theileria parasite as significantly lower (P<0.05) mean OD value (1.802 ±0.341) was measured at a concentration of 4mg/ml solution and maximum inhibitory effect (92.20) was seen at a concentration of 16 mg/ml solution. ELISA reader findings showed that P. harmala chloroform extract treatment failed to inhibit lymphocytes cells propagation even at highest concentration. The highest inhibitory effect (85.33%) against theileria infected lymphocytes propagation was seen at a concentration of 16 mg/ml solution. Plant extract was evaluated in respect of feed intake in rabbits. It showed that when administered extracts of C. procera in rabbits at dose of 3 mg and 5 mg/kg body weight, did not affect on feed intake in rabbits. However the chloroform and water extracts of both plant i.e. C. procera and P. harmala when were administered in rabbits parentally at dose 10 of mg/kg body. It showed that the feed intake of rabbits was non-significantly reduced as compared to other treatments groups. Hematological parameters such as WBC X103 count, RBC X 106 count and Hb g/dl values were measured at various days. Findings showed that significantly lesser RBC X 106 count was in group A3 and D3 than control at day 30 of experiment. A non-significant difference (P>0.05) was seen in RBC X 106 count and Hb g/dl measurements in all treatments groups. Kidney and liver functions were evaluated by measuring biochemical parameters, uric acid, creatinine and ALT at 0 days, 9 days and 30 days. Findings showed that serum creatinine and urea enzyme levels were significantly higher (P<0.05) in group A3 as compare to control group at day 30 of experiment. Serum level of urea was also significantly higher (P<0.05) in group B3 and D3 at day 30 of experiment. A non-significant difference (P>0.05) was seen in ALT in all treatment groups at day 30 than control. Post-mortem was performed at day 30 of experiment. Gross lesions consisting of hemorrhages, congestion, and lung emphysema were seen in rabbits treated with high dose i.e. 10 mg/kg of both extract of C. procera. Rabbits treated with P. harmala chloroform extract at dose 10 mg/kg showed moderate gross lesions. Histopathology of organs such as lungs, kidney, liver and heart was performed. Toxicity lesions were seen in rabbits treated with high dose i.e. 10 mg/kg of both extract of C. procera. Rabbits treated with P. harmala chloroform extract at dose 10 mg/kg showed histopathological lesions in lungs, liver and kidney. Theileria infection was studied in vivo by developing through theileria infected Hayalomma ticks in crossbred calves (n=30) through. At day 15 of infection maximum increase in mean rectal temperature (105.24 ± 0.46F) was observed, twenty four calves had pyrexia (104.1- 105.6 F) and six claves were showing pyrexia > 105.6 F. A significant increase (P<0.05) in pre-scapular lymph node enlargement score of challenged calves was seen by day 7 of infection and maximum lymph node score (grossly enlarged size) was noticed in twenty calves (Table 4.14 , Plate 4.16) with peak mean score (2.73±0.44) on day 13 of infection. The piroplasm peak score (3.80±0.83) was observed in challenged calves at 22 day of infection and remained significantly higher (p<0.05) (2.60±0.54) in untreated calves until the 36 day of infection (Fig.4.29 and Table 4.16). A significant increase (P<0.05) in mean schizonts was observed in pre-scapular lymph node biopsy smear from day 7 of infection to onwards. Blood samples of challenged calves (n =30) were confirmed theileria positive through PCR test. The amplification of Theileria species were amplified at 1098 bp (Plate 4.20 and Theileria annulata was amplified at 721 bp (Plate 4.21). In order to estimate the pattern of disease severity, severity score was measured by summation of mean score of piroplasms, schizonts, lymph node swelling and rectal temperature. From day 7, mild response (3-5 score) was seen in infected calves (n=10). With increase in the severity of disease a significant decrease (P<0.05) was observed in mean values of the Hb g/dL amount, WBC and RBC count, Hct (%) concentration and lymphocytes percentage from day15 of infection onward to 36 day of infection. A non-significant decrease (P>0.05) in the mean values of MCH pg was seen throughout the experiment. A significant decrease (P<0.05) in mean values of MCHC g/dL along with significant increase (P<0.05) in the mean measurement of MCV fL (64.14±3.53) values was seen at day 36 of infection as compare to day 0 values, indicating macrocytic hypochromic anemia in challenged calves. These findings showed a significant increase (P<0.05) in excretory products (uric acid and creatinine) from day 15 of infection and onward as compared to day 0 values, indicating damaged kidney in infected calves. Biochemical analysis showed the significant increase (P<0.05) in liver enzymes (ALT, AST) from day 15 infection and onward. Anti-Theileria activities of drugs were estimated by evaluating clinical manifestation of the disease and parasitological findings. Beside this treatment effect on hematological and biochemical reactions of liver and kidney functions was determined. A significant difference (P<0.05) in rectal temperature of calves groups (B and E) was observed than control positive (group F) at day 21 of post-treatment. On other hand calves treated with treatments A, C and D had a non-significant difference (P>0.05) in rectal temperature compared with untreated calves (group F). It was found that calves (n=5) dosed with C. procera chloroform extract (group A) had rectal temperature in normal range by the day 7 of post-treatment. Similarly calves (n=5) treated with Butalex were found with normal rectal temperature from the day 7 of pos-treatment. On other hand, at day 21 of treatment 40%, 20%, 40% and 80% calves were found with pyrexia in treatments groups B, C, D and F, respectively (Table 4. 46). By the day 14 of treatment, calves of treatment groups B and E showed no parasitemia (piroplams ?1). Disease severity was estimated on accumulative score of rectal temperature, lymph node swelling and parasitological findings (piroplasms and schizonts score). It was found a significant decrease (P<0.05) occurred in the disease severity of score of disease in calves of groups B and E as compare to A, C and F at day 3 of post-treatment. At day 21 of treatment all treated calves were recovered from anemia. Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 1580,T] (1).

313. Prevalence And Therapeutic Studies On Diabetes Mellitus In Cats In & Around Lahore

by Asma Rashid | Dr. Jawaria Ali Khan | Dr. Muhammad Ijaz | Dr. Shehla Gul.

Material type: book Book; Format: print ; Literary form: drama Publisher: 2013Dissertation note: Abstract Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 1592,T] (1).

314. A Study On Ticks And Hemoprotozoan Infections In Camels (Camelus Dromedarious) In District Dera Ismail

by Naimat Ullah | Dr. Aneela Zameer Durrani | Dr. Muhammad | Dr. Muhammad Ijaz.

Material type: book Book; Format: print ; Nature of contents: biography; Literary form: Publisher: 2013Dissertation note: Background Pakistan is gifted with a large population of small ruminant including 58.3 and 27.4 million heads of goats and sheep respectively 2010.According to Livestock Census 2006, there were about 92164 sheep and 221912 goats' populations in Bannu district. Sheeps and goats are playing a leading role in the national economy by producing wool, skin, meat, milk and farm yard manure. Fasciolosis, parasitic gastrioenteritis, hydatidosis, coccidiosis, ectoparasitism, theleriosis and babesiosis are the major parasitic problems of small ruminants .There was an urgent need to carry out research on applied aspect leading control of parasites. Study Objectives: The main objectives of the present study were; (i) To have an overview on the overall prevalence of ectoparasites and endoparasites in small ruminants throughout the district by means of fecal tests. (ii) To observe the affect of ecto and endoparasites on blood profile of the infected individuals. Hypothesis: It was hypothesized that ¢ Parasitic diseases are highly prevalent in sheep and goat in District Bannu.. ¢ External and internal parasites have significant effect on blood parameters. Methodology and Results During this study period 500 sheep and 500 goats were examined for endo and ectoparasites while using various fecal tests such as using direct microscopic examination, simple test tube flotation method and sedimentation method for endoparasites. Out of 500 goats and 500 sheep, 47 goats and 63 sheep were found positive for ectoparasites and percentage ratio was 9.4% in goats and 12.6% in sheep. Mostly, three types of ectoparasites were observed in both of cases i.e. goats and sheep (ticks, lice and mites). The total no. of positive cases found for ectoparasites in goats were 244 (ticks 10.2%, lice 30.4% and mites 8.2% in district Bannu). This result indicates a significant load of ectoparasites in this area of the country. Out of 149 positive cases of ecto-parasites in sheep; tick infection was 7.8% (39/500), lice 15.2% (76/500) and mite infection was 6.8% (34/500). Fecal samples of all 1000 animals were analyzed for the presence of endoparasites, out of which 90.6% goats and 87.4% sheep were found positive for endoparasites. Overall goats were more likely to be positive for Haemonchus Spp. and almost 50.2% (251/500) animals were found positive. The prevalence of other endo-parasites like Trichurus 5.6% (28/500), Strongyloid 4% (20/500), Coccidia 8.6% (43/500), Fasciola 12% (60/500) and Trichostrongyloide were 10.2% (51/500) while in case of sheep Haemonchus Spp. positivity was 33.2% (166/500). The prevalence of other Endo-parasites like Trichurus 6.8% (34/500), Strongyloid 2.4% (12/500), Coccidia 6.8% (34/500), Fasciola 10.6% (53/500) and Trichostrongyloide were 13.6% (68/500). The hematological profile of infected animals indicates high TLC and low hemoglobin level. Conclusion It is concluded that high prevalence was due to poor management and lack of knowledge about feeding, vaccination, hygienic conditions and lack of proper deworming programme. To overcome the problem it was necessary to educate the farmers about deworming programme and proper use of insecticides. Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 1593,T] (1).

315. Identification Of Ticks And Tick-Borne Hemo-Parasitic Diseases Along With Therapeutic Trial Of Tick Infestation

by Sadaqat Ali | Dr. Muhammad Ijaz | Dr. Aneela Zameer Durrani | Prof. Dr. Azhar.

Material type: book Book; Format: print ; Literary form: not fiction Publisher: 2013Dissertation note: Abstract Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 1601,T] (1).

316. Prevalence And Molecular Diagnosis Of Staphylococcus Aureus Subclinical Mastitis Innili Ravi Buffaloes At Livestock Experiment Station Bahadurnagar, Okara.

by Muhammad Altaf | Prof. Dr. Muhammad Sarwar Khan | Dr. Muhammad Avais | Prof. Dr.

Material type: book Book; Format: print Publisher: 2013Dissertation note: Abstract Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 1484,T] (1).

317. Epidemiology Of Endo And Ecto Parasites Of Small Ruminants And Its Effect On Their Hematology Profile In District Bannu

by Niomat Ullah Khan | Prof. Dr. Muhammd Sarwar Khan | Prof. Dr. Muhammad Athar Khan.

Material type: book Book; Format: print ; Literary form: not fiction Publisher: 2013Dissertation note: Abstract Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 1607,T] (1).

318. Comparative Efficacy Of Finney Pyloroplasty And Jaboulay Pyloroplasty As Method Of Treatment For Pyloric

by Mumtaz Ali Khan | Prof. Dr. Muhammad Arif Khan | Dr. Muhammad | Dr. Shehla Gul Bukhari.

Material type: book Book; Format: print ; Literary form: not fiction Publisher: 2013Dissertation note: Abstract Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 1608,T] (1).

319. Prevalence And Chemotherapy Of Anaplasmosis In Clinically Affected Small Ruminants Of Distric Lahore.

by Akhtar Ali | Dr. Muhammad Ijaz | Dr. Aneela Zameer Durrani | Prof. Dr. Azhar.

Material type: book Book; Format: print Publisher: 2013Dissertation note: Abstract Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 1610,T] (1).

320. Srudy Of Mycotoxicosis In Cattle And Buffalo In District Sheikhupura, Punjab.

by Salman Arshad | Dr. Aneela Zameer Durrani | Dr. Muhammad Hassan Saleem | Ms. Sehrish.

Material type: book Book; Format: print ; Literary form: drama Publisher: 2013Dissertation note: Abstract Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 1618,T] (1).

321. Comparative Efficacy Of Herbal Preparations Of Leaves Of Neem (Azadirachta Indica) And Guava (Psidium Guajava) and Anticoccidial Drug on Coccidiosis in Pigeons (Columba livia)

by Abdul Qudoos | Dr. Syed Saleem Ahmad | Prof. Dr. Muhammad Sarwar Khan.

Material type: book Book; Format: print ; Literary form: drama Publisher: 2013Dissertation note: The background of this study is that world health organization (WHO) reports that neurological disorders affect one billion people worldwide, including 50 million affected by epilepsy. Epilepsy is a common neurological disorder characterized by recurrent, periodic, spontaneous and unprovoked seizures. Childhood absence epilepsy (CAE) is an autosomal dominant disorder and a heterogeneous familial condition in which family members express absence seizures initially, and then show multiple phenotypes of myoclonic epilepsy including partial or absence seizures and generalized tonic conic seizures. Molecular genetics techniques have identified various CAE associated mutations in many genes i.e. ion channels (CACNA1H, CACNA1G, CACNA1N), sodium channel genes (SCN2A, SCN1A, and SCN1B) and some GABA receptor genes (GABRG2 and GABRD). CACNA1H ion channels are the principal intermediaries of fast neurotransmission in the CNS and have been frequently reported to play a significant role in a number of seizures. CACNA1H gene encodes the alpha (?) subunit and is usually located in post synaptic. Various parameters are used in the present study was aimed to investigate coding regions of CACNA1H gene for analyzing the mutations involved in epilepsy. Blood samples of unrelated true representative of CAE were collected from psychiatry departments of different hospitals of Lahore. DNA were extracted with the standard protocol and amplifications of the CACNA1H regions were done with specially designed primers. Later on, analysis of the results is done by sequencing of target fragments is carried out. Sequences are analyzed through BioEdit software and then aligned with the help of clustalW2 software. It has been identified by the recent study on the absence epileptic patients of Pakistan that the gene CACNA1h has SNPs in the exon 9 and 10 at the position (2025G>A) and (4867 G>T) respectively which eventually alters the protein, making it hyperactive as the mutations are in the sensor regions of the protein, thus giving a 'gain in function' property to the ion channel. In the conclusion, we must say that further study, with much larger sample number, is required to revise the effects of this polymorphism and accurately identifying the associated factors. There is a need to explore the other gene mutations causing epilepsy in local population of Punjab and Pakistan that will ultimately help to develop genetic counseling strategies, gene therapies and prenatal diagnostic procedures for the population of Pakistan. Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 1622,T] (1).

322. A Study On Variable Degrees Of Angles In Z-Plasty Technique To Evaluate Extent Of Relaxation Of Contracted Skin

by Muhammad Asif | Prof. Dr. Muhammad Arif Khan | Dr. Muhammad | Dr. Shehla Gul Bukhari.

Material type: book Book; Format: print ; Literary form: not fiction Publisher: 2013Dissertation note: Abstract Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 1648,T] (1).

323. Identification Of Ticks And Tick Bornehemoparasitic Diseases In Equines Of District Lahore.

by Khadija Javed | Dr. Muhammad Ijaz | Dr. Aneela Zameer Durrani | Prof. Dr. Azhar.

Material type: book Book; Format: print ; Literary form: not fiction Publisher: 2013Dissertation note: Abstract Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 1651,T] (1).

324. Prevalence And Molecular Genetic Characterization Of Different Isolates Of Hydatid Cyst In Ruminants In Okara

by Ali Abbas | Dr. Muhammad Avais | Prof. Dr. Muhammad Sarwar Khan.

Material type: book Book; Format: print ; Literary form: not fiction Publisher: 2013Dissertation note: Cystic hydatid disease has a worldwide distribution. Echinococcusis cause great economic loses in Pakistan and lead to the loss of worth 276.20$ per 100 sheep and goats, as well as 165.72$ per 100 infected buffaloes, cattle and camels. It has zoonotic importance and also have well-recognized zoonosis in Pakistan and numerous cases have been reported in the medical literature. Cystic hydatid disease is caused by Echinococcus granulosus, (E. granulosus), tapeworms. Adult tapeworms of this specie are small in size. Their measurement revealed that they reach upto 2-11 mm in length and contain protoscolex, the cephalic end for attchment and 2-5 proglottids segments. Two rows of keratinized hooks and four number of suckers are present on scolex. The last gravid proglottids segments bear the large number of fertilized eggs, which are shed after every 7-14 days. Eggs are oval in shape, having clearly distinct oncophore and 30-36 micrometer in diameter. There are several different strains of E. granulosus, which are genetically distinct. These strains vary phenotypically and therefore, this feature can be used for the control of this parasite. 10 genotypes of E. granulosus are identified up till now. Therefore, in this study we used PCR technique for prevalence determination and molecular characterization of specific strain of E. granulosus. The primers specific for E. granulosus were used in this study. The E.g.ss1for (5¡Ç-GTA TTT TGT AAA GTT GTT CTA-3¡Ç) worked as forward primer, while E.g.ss1rev (5¡Ç-CTA AAT CAC ATC ATC TTA CAA T-3¡Ç) worked as reverse primer. For this purpose, total 200 numbers of cyst samples (100 from each district) were collected from liver and lungs of cattle, buffaloes, goats and sheep slaughtered at different private and public abattoirs in Okara and Jhang. An antimortem examination was performed on each animal LIV and data regarding each animal entered in data capturing form before slaughter. Whole cyst sample was collected without rupturing and preserved in ice packs. Then these isolates were transferred to laboratory and stored at -20 ¢ªC for further processing. For the genetic analysis of E. granuous (Hydatid cyst) DNA was extracted from germinal layer and cystic fluid by using DNA extraction reagent (TRIREAGENT¢ç, Molecular Research Center, Ohio, USA) according to the manufacturer.s instructions. PCR was carried out by using primers specific for G1 strain of E. granulosus. The whole three steps (Denaturation, Anealing, Amplification) of PCR was carried out in PCR thermo cycler under conditions specific for E. granulosus. The final PCR product was electrophoresed in a 1% agarose gel containing 0.5 ug/ml of ethedium bromide. Electrophoresis was completed by applying 90 volts for 40 min. After required time, gel was placed in UV trans-illuminator to visualize the band shown by specific genotype of E. granulosus. Specific bands at 254 bp confirmed the G1 strain of E. granulosus. Results indicated the prevalence of 37% in Okara and 65% in Jhang district of Punjab. While in cattle (58.00%), buffalo (76.00%), sheep (36.00%) and goats (34.00%) prevalence was observed. As well as, (44.7%) prevalence of E. granulosus was calculated in liver and (54.8%) was observed in lungs in both districts. So, this study predicted the prevalence of hydatid cystic disease in ruminants in Okara and Jhang. PCR technique was used for the diagnosis of hydatid cyst in animals. This molecular characterization technique enables us to know the specific strain of E. granulous existing in these two districts. Finally the data gathered from this study help to understand the disease structure and to develop future plan. Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 1681,T] (1).

325. Comparative Study Of Different Closure Methods And Suture Materials For The Closure Of Jejunal Enterotomy In Dogs

by Farooq Ahmad Ch | Prof. Dr. Muahmmad Arif Khan | Dr. Aneela | Dr. Shehla Gul Bukhari.

Material type: book Book; Format: print ; Literary form: not fiction Publisher: 2013Dissertation note: Abstract Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 1682,T] (1).

326. Comparision of the Efficacy of Different Anti-Fungal in Ear Canal Infections of Dogs in Lahore and Its Suburbs, Pakistan.

by Sehrish Khan | Dr. Aneela Zameer Durrani | Dr. Asim IKhalid Mehmood.

Material type: book Book; Format: print Publisher: 2013Dissertation note: The present project was designed to study the presence and importance of M. pachyderma infection in otitis externa in domestic dogs and to compare the efficacy of clotrimazole and nystatin, in district Lahore, Pakistan as no such previous reference is available. Random samples were collected for a period of three months, from the Government and private pet clinics. The targeted population was pet dogs of different age, sex and breeds. Samples were collected from all the dogs suffering from otitis externa brought to the clinics. The positive animals for M. pachyderma were divided into two groups, i.e. A and B, and treated with clotrimazole and nystatin respectively. A total of 200 cases of otitis externa were recorded and a prevalence of 23% of otitis externa with M. pachyderma infection were found positive. In the present study, a non-significant difference (P>0.05) was observed between pendulous ear and erected ear dogs and no sex predilection was observed (P>0.05). However, a higher prevelance (86.90%) was recorded in dogs more than one years of age group. In the present investigation, clotrimazole showed higher efficacy (P < 0.05) with the significant reduction of yeast population and clinical signs of otitis. Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 1693,T] (1).

327. Sero-Prevalence And Zoonotic Potential Of Toxoplasma Godnii In Camels In Cholistan Desert Area Of Bahawalpur.

by Hafiz Zia-ur-Rehman | Dr. Muhammad Avais | Dr | Dr. Jawaria Ali Khan.

Material type: book Book; Format: print ; Literary form: drama Publisher: 2013Dissertation note: Toxoplasmosis is a parasitic zoonosis with worldwide distribution caused by Toxoplasma gondii and is demonstrated in domestic livestock, wild life, other animals and humans. Keeping in view the zoonotic importance of the disease, the current study was conducted to find out the epidemiological status of toxoplasmosis in camels and human population in Cholistan desert area of Bahawalpur and to determine the possibility of transmission of toxoplasmosis from camels to their owners. Serum samples from camels (n=226) and humans (n=113 camel owners and n=113 people having no contact with camels) were collected and analyzed by using Latex Agglutination Test (LAT) to determine the prevalence of Toxoplasma gondii in camels and humans. Overall 9.73% camels were seropositive for anti-toxoplasma antibodies. In the month of April camels had the high prevalence of 11.5% (9 out of 78). . The highest prevalence (12%) was determined in the camels having age of 11 years or above. The prevalence of toxoplasmosis was high in the third trimester of pregnancy (27.2%). Although, the difference in prevalence of T. gondii infection was significantly different (P<0.05) at pregnancy of she camel. Overall 27 (12%) humans were seropositive for anti-toxoplasma antibodies. The highest prevalence of toxoplasmosis (15.25%) was detected in the people in 30-40 years or above age group. The highest sero-positivity was observed in camel owners (15.92%) and the lowest sero-positivity (7.96%) was observed in the people having no contact with camels. However, the difference in prevalence of T. gondii infection was significantly different (P<0.05) at the contact of humans with the camels. Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 1695,T] (1).

328. Clinicao-Bacteriological Characterzation Of Mastitis In Cholistani Camel Breeds In Rahim-Yar-Khan, Pakistan.

by Noor-ul-Ain Sarwar | Dr. Aneela Zameer Durrain | Dr. Aftab | Dr. Muhammad Awais.

Material type: book Book; Format: print ; Literary form: not fiction Publisher: 2013Dissertation note: Abstract Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 1696,T] (1).

329. Comparative Efficacy Of Different Therapeutic Agents Against Pre In Goats

by Zunaira Akhter | Dr.Aneela Zameer Durrani | prof. Dr. Muhammad Sarwer Khan.

Material type: book Book; Format: print ; Literary form: not fiction Publisher: 2013Dissertation note: Abstract Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 1703,T] (1).

330. Comparative Efficacy Of Prolene And A Novel Prolene-Vicryl Composite Mesh For Ventral Hernia Repair In Dogs

by Hira Anjum | Dr. Shehla Gul Bokhari | Muhammad | Muhammad Arif Khan.

Material type: book Book; Format: print ; Literary form: drama Publisher: 2013Dissertation note: Prolene (Polypropylene) is a gold standard for repairing ventral or incisional hernias but exhibits increased inflammatory responses as a non-absorbable foreign material and causing post-operative complications. Prolene composite mesh has a reduced polypropylene concentration in addition to an equal proportion of absorbable material. Hence they provide more tissue in-growth and less inflammatory response and minimal adhesion formation. The present project was designed to compare the two mesh implants viz., the simple non-absorbable poly-propylene (prolene) mesh and the prolene-vicryl composite mesh which is comprised of an outer latticework of the non-absorbable polypropylene, in addition to absorbable polyglactin 910 (vicryl) on the inner side. Both mesh implants are readily available in Pakistan; the non-absorbable polypropylene mesh is available in Pakistan with the Trade name of Prolene® (Ethicon, Johnson & Johnson, USA), while the prolene-vicryl composite mesh is available with the Trade name of Vypro® (Ethicon, Johnson & Johnson, USA). Both meshes were compared on the basis of post-surgical complications (Pain evaluation, wound healing, hematoma, seroma and abscess formation), inflammatory responses mesh shrinkage and adhesion formation after application of hernioplasty implant. The experimental study was conducted on 12 (twelve) healthy mongrel dogs to compare prolene and prolene-vicryl composite mesh for ventral or incisional hernia repair in dogs. The dogs were randomly selected as either male or female, aged between one to two years (mean age 1.5 years). The body weight of the experimental animals was in the range between 16-20 kg (mean weight 18 kg). The dogs were housed in kennels at Pet Centre of University of Veterinary and Animal Sciences, Lahore for a period of 3 months (including adaptation and post-operative period). The dogs were divided into three groups (A, B & C) comprising of 4 dogs in each group; and they were numbered from # 1-4 in Group A, #5-8 dogs in Group B, and #9-12 dogs in Group C, for proper identification and for ease of research. The respective meshes were used for ventral or incisional hernia repair in group A and group B dogs, while group C dogs served as control group. The groups were surgically treated as follows: Group A (Prolene mesh) Group B (Prolene-vicryl composite mesh) Group C (Control group) During experimental trials, it was seen that polypropylene mesh resulted in a persistent inflammatory response, prominent foreign body reaction, rare vascularization, more fibroblast more granulating tissue, increased thickness of connective tissue, and extensive collagen fiber. In comparison, the polypropylene-vicryl composite mesh resulted in better vascularization, rare inflammatory response, moderate collagen fiber formation, smooth incorporation of collagen fibers into the mesh, low foreign body reaction, less fibroblast proliferation and lesser granulating tissue. Based upon all the findings it was concluded that the Prolene-Vicryl composite mesh is safer and more effective in terms of post-operative complications and outcomes. Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 1727,T] (1).

331. Comparative Efficacy Of Limited Contactdynamic Compression Plate (Lc-Dc) And Dynamic Compression Plate

by Farah Ijaz | Dr. Shehla Gul Bukhari | Prof. Dr. Muhammad Arif Khan.

Material type: book Book; Format: print ; Literary form: not fiction Publisher: 2013Dissertation note: Abstract Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 1753,T] (1).

332. Study Of Canine Parvovirus In Dogs And Its Chemotherapy

by Saeed Ahmad | Prof. Dr. Mohammad Sarwar Khan | Dr. Asim Khalid Mahmood | Prof. Dr. Nasim.

Material type: book Book; Format: print ; Literary form: drama Publisher: 2013Dissertation note: There were one hundred cases of dogs showing the clinical signs of canine parvovirus infection like bloody diarrhea, vomiting and emaciationwhich were selected randomly. All the cases were confirmed by HA and HI test. Disease occurrence was found to be 55%. There were 55 samples found to be positive and 45 samples were found to be negative for canine parvovirus. The incidences of the disease in German shepherd was highest (38%) followed by other breeds Labrador, Rottweiler, Pointer, Cross, Russian and Local breeds which were 8%, 7%, 6%, 5%, 4% and 3% respectively. Similarly, disease occurrence in non-vaccinated dogs was higher thanvaccinated.The disease was more prevalent in non-vaccinated dogs as compared to the vaccinated dogs. So, vaccination provides sufficient immunity against canine parvovirus. Male dogs were more affected by canine parvovirus than female dogs. Occurrence of the disease in the age of 1-3 months was the highest. Pups were more affected than the older dogs. Occurrence of canine parvovirus in the male and female were found to 60% and 43.5% respectively. Disease occurrence of canine parvovirus in September, October and November was found to be 55%, 52.5% and 56% respectively. Blood samples were collected at day 0(before the treatment) and on the day 5 (after the treatment) and analysis was done in UDL, Lahore. Four different kinds of treatment protocols were compared on the basis of hematological improvement, days of hospitalization and the cost of treatment. Of the four groups hyperimune serum when used with normal saline was found to be more effective. It was found that improvement in the leucocytes, neutrophil, lymphocyte, monocytes and platelets with P <0.05. SAFI syrup with supportive therapy was the second effective treatment with P >0.05. Supportive treatment alone was not effective for hematological recovery P > 0.05. It had also increased the cost of treatment, and duration of treatment for canine parvovirus infection. So, hyper immune serum and normal saline is the effective treatment for canine parvovirus infection. Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 1757,T] (1).

333. Burden Of Endoparasites In Ruminants In Live Aimal Markets Of Lahore

by Faiza Afzal | Dr. Jawaria Ali Khan | Dr. Aneela Zameer Durani | Prof. Dr.

Material type: book Book; Format: print Publisher: 2013Dissertation note: Endoparsites cause severe economic losses by affecting and may cause many diseases to animal. Due to anthelmintic resistance and poor managemental practices endoparsitic disease are more common now a days. In Pakistan parasitic infestation is quite prevalent and the loss about 26.5 million rupees annually to the livestock industry. Although no exact figure of economic losses is available but it is fact that millions of rupees are being lost due to reduced milk yield, rejection of meat and edible offal, depreciation of hides, delay age of maturity and death particularly in calves and high production cost due to use of drugs, they also decrease feed intake efficiency. Present study was conducted to check the burden of endoparasites in different live animal Markets of Lahore, For this purpose 800 samples of large ruminants (cattle, buffalo) and small ruminants (sheep, goat) were collected and transported to lab for further qualitative fecal examination through macroscopic and microscopic examination. In six live animal markets overall prevalence of endoparasites found 21.37%. Out of 800 samples 171 were found positive. Prevalence of large and small ruminants was found almost similar i.e: 21.5%, 21.25% respectively. However much parasitic burden was observed 43.1% in cattle to that of 28.1% in buffalo.Prevalence in sheep was high as compared to goat whereas kacchi breed of sheep and Desi breed of goat showed higherprevalence that as 14.5%, 16% respectively.Prevalence in Nilli ravi was 28.0% in non-exotic cattle it was 31% however in exotic jersey breed prevalence of endoparasites was 11%. Endoparasites found more prevalent in Nilli Ravi. In ruminants prevalence found high in male animals as compared to female animals. Overall prevalence in ruminants was 21.0% while in male and female animals prevalence was 21.8%, and 20% respectively. prevalence found more in less than 1 year aged animal than above this age i.e, in less than 1 year of age was 22.4% prevalence while above 1 year aged animals it was 20.0% (P<0.05 ). In large and small ruminants nematodes were more prevalent followed by trematode, cestode, protozoa, and mixed infection. Among nematodes haemonchus were found more prevalent gastrointestinal parasites. Out of 171 positive samples 46 were of haemonchus (5.75%) followed by ostertagia 18 (2.25), trichostrongyloids 17(2.12), cooperia 8(1.0%), bunostomum 6(0.75%), trchuris 11(1.37%), oesophagostomumm 5(0.5%), in large ruminants. Small ruminants also found chabertia ovine 1(0.0125%) and strongyloid papillosus 1(0.0125%) infestation. During this study overall prevalence of Nematode, trematode, cestode, protozoa, and mixed infection found 15.0%, 3.5%, 1.875%, 0.625%, and 0.25% respectively. Mixed infection only found in live animal market 1 at Multan road. In live animal Market 2 at Sagyan Bridge only nematode and trematode were present. In live animal Market 3 at shahpur kanjran no mixed infection was found. And protozoa were only found in large ruminants. In live animal Market no protozoa and mixed infection was found. In live animal Market 4, 5, 6 no protozoa and cestode found. The data obtained was analyzed through chi -square test (SPSS) and probability level of <0.05 was considered as significant different. As results show ( p< 0.05) data was considered as significantly different. Fascioliasis, parasitic gastro-enteritis, coccidiosis, theleriosis, and babesiosis are major parasitic problem in ruminants in order to priority. There is urgent need to carry out research on applied aspects leading towards control of parasites. This parasitic research has been focused on a limited part of country. This should extend in broader area keeping in view various agro-ecological zones of country. Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 1758,T] (1).

334. Assessing The Efficacy Of Aqueous Garlic Extract Against Cyanide Toxicity In Mice Using Righting Reflex Recovery

by Sajid Ali | Dr. Muhammad Avais | Dr. Aneela Zameer Durrani | Prof. Dr.

Material type: book Book; Format: print ; Literary form: not fiction Publisher: 2013Dissertation note: The KCN intake has been linked to central nervous system (CNS) syndromes and thyroid in animals as well as humans. It is very potent toxin even at very narrow dose ranges. Prolonged KCN exposure has also been associated with reduced growth rate in animals, disturbance in thyroid metabolism, lesions in liver, kidneys, lungs and also CNS pathology. Male mice weighting about 20-40 grams were purchased from Veterinary Research Institute, Lahore, National Institute of Health, Islamabad, Animal house, University of Veterinary and Animal Sciences, Lahore and divided into 30 treatment groups. After acclimatization of mice, carefully, the mice were grouped as follows: Control group A group of 6 mice were treated with potassium cyanide (KCN) intra-peritoneally at 5.5mg/kg that induced a knock down state with recovery period of approximately 1 hour. Prior to each experiment, three or more mice were treated with KCN at this dose to verify that the recovery time was close to 1 hour. Potassium Cyanide (KCN) + Aqueous Garlic Extract (AGE) at 250 mg/kg: Group 1 (5-min pre-KCN) A group of 6 mice was given AGE intraperitoneally (i.p) at 250 mg/kg. After 5 minutes of AGE injection, an i.p. injection of KCN at 5.5 mg/kg was given and righting reflex recovery time was recorded. Potassium Cyanide (KCN) + Aqueous Garlic Extract (AGE) at 250 mg/kg: Group 2 (5-min post-KCN) A group of 6 mice was administered with KCN intraperitoneally (i.p) at 5.5 mg/kg. After 5 minutes of KCN injection, each mouse was treated with AGE at 250 mg/kg i.p. and righting reflex recovery time was noted. Potassium Cyanide (KCN) + Aqueous Garlic Extract (AGE) at 500 mg/kg: Group 3 (5-min pre-KCN) A group of 6 mice was given AGE intraperitoneally (i.p) at 500 mg/kg BW. After 5 minutes of AGE injection, an i.p. injection of KCN at 5.5 mg/kg was given and righting reflex recovery time was recorded. Potassium Cyanide (KCN) + Aqueous Garlic Extract (AGE) at 500 mg/kg: Group 4 (5-min post-KCN) A group of 6 mice was administered with KCN intraperitoneally (i.p) at 5.5 mg/kg. After 5 minutes of KCN injection, each mouse was treated with AGE at 500 mg/kg i.p. and righting reflex recovery time was recorded. Potassium Cyanide (KCN) + Aqueous Garlic Extract (AGE) at 750 mg/kg: Group 5 (5-min pre-KCN) A group of 6 mice was treated with AGE intraperitoneally (i.p) at 750 mg/kg. After 5 minutes of AGE injection, an i.p. injection of KCN at 5.5 mg/kg was given and righting reflex recovery time was recorded. Potassium Cyanide (KCN) + Aqueous Garlic Extract (AGE) at 750 mg/kg: Group 6 (5-min post-KCN) A group of 6 mice was administered with KCN intraperitoneally (i.p) at 5.5 mg/kg. After 5 minutes of KCN injection, each mouse was treated with AGE at 750 mg/kg i.p. and righting reflex recovery time was recorded. Potassium Cyanide (KCN) + Aqueous Garlic Extract (AGE) at 250 mg/kg: Group 7 (30-min post-KCN) One more group of 6 mice was given AGE at 250 mg/kg orally. After 30 minutes of AGE administration, an intraperitoneal (i.p) injection of KCN at 5.5 mg/kg was given and righting refelx recovery time was noted. Potassium Cyanide (KCN) + Aqueous Garlic Extract (AGE) at 500 mg/kg: Group 8 (30-min post-KCN) A group 6 mice was given AGE at 500 mg/kg orally. After 30 minutes of AGE administration, an intraperitoneal (i.p) injection of KCN at 5.5 mg/kg was given and righting reflex recovery time was noted. Potassium Cyanide (KCN) + Aqueous Garlic Extract (AGE) at 750 mg/kg: Group 9 (30-min post-KCN) One more group of 6 mice was given AGE at 750 mg/kg orally. After 30 minutes of AGE administration, an intraperitoneal (i.p) injection of KCN at 5.5 mg/kg was given and righting reflex recovery time was recorded. Garlic Extract Group: (Group 10-15) Three groups 10 - 12 each with 6 mice were injected intraperitoneally (i.p) with AGE at 250, 500 and 750 mg/kg respectively and righting reflex recovery time of each mouse in respective dose group was noted to observe any effects of AGE on righting reflex recovery time. Three groups 13 - 15 each with 6 mice were treated with AGE orally at 250, 500 and 750 mg/kg respectively and righting reflex recovery time of each mouse in respective dose group was noted to observe any effects of AGE on righting reflex recovery time. Potassium Cyanide (KCN) + Sodium Nitrite (SN): Group 16 (5-min pre-KCN) A group of 6 mice was given SN at 20 mg/kg intraperitoneally (i.p). After 5 minutes of SN injection, an i.p. injection of KCN at 5.5 mg/kg was given and righting reflex recovery time was recorded. Potassium Cyanide (KCN) + Sodium Nitrite (SN): Group 17 (5-min post-KCN) Another group of 6 mice was administered with KCN intraperitoneally (i.p) at 5.5 mg/kg. After 5 minutes of KCN injection, each mouse was treated with SN at 20 mg/kg i.p. and righting reflex recovery time was noted. Potassium Cyanide (KCN) + Sodium Thiosulphate (ST): Group 18 (5-min pre-KCN) A group of 6 mice was given ST at 600 mg/kg intraperitoneally (i.p). After 5 minutes of ST injection, an i.p. injection of KCN at 5.5 mg/kg was given and righting reflex recovery time was recorded. Potassium Cyanide (KCN) + Sodium Thiosulphate (ST): Group 19 (5-min post-KCN) A group of 6 mice was administered with KCN intraperitoneally (i.p) at 5.5 mg/kg. After 5 minutes of KCN injection, each mouse was treated with ST at 600 mg/kg i.p. and righting reflex recovery time was recorded. Potassium Cyanide (KCN) + Sodium Nitrite (SN) & Sodium Thiosulphate (ST): Group 20 (5-min pre-KCN) A group of 6 mice was given SN and ST at 20 mg/kg and 600 mg/kg intraperitoneally (i.p) respectively. After 5 minutes SN and ST injection, an i.p. injection of KCN at 5.5 mg/kg was given and righting reflex recovery time was recorded. Potassium Cyanide (KCN) + Sodium Nitrite (SN) & Sodium Thiosulphate (ST): Group 21 (5-min post-KCN) A group of 6 mice was administered with KCN intraperitoneally (i.p) at 5.5 mg/kg. After 5 minutes of KCN injection, each mouse was treated with SN and ST at 20 mg/kg and 600 mg/kg i.p. respectively and righting reflex recovery time was noted. Potassium Cyanide (KCN) + Aqueous Garlic Extract (AGE) & Sodium Nitrite (SN): Group 22 (5-min pre-KCN) A group of 6 mice was given AGE at 750 mg/kg and SN at 20mg/kg intraperitoneally (i.p). After 5 minutes of AGE and ST injection, an i.p. injection of KCN at 5.5 mg/kg was given and righting reflex recovery time was noted. Potassium Cyanide (KCN) + Aqueous Garlic Extract (AGE) & Sodium Nitrite (SN): Group 23 (5-min post-KCN) A group of 6 mice was administered with KCN intraperitoneally (i.p) at 5.5 mg/kg. After 5 minutes of KCN injection, each mouse was treated with AGE at 750 mg/kg and SN at 20 mg/kg i.p. and righting reflex recovery time was recorded. Potassium Cyanide (KCN) + Aqueous Garlic Extract (AGE) & Sodium Thiosulphate (ST): Group 24 (5-min pre-KCN) A group of 6 mice was given AGE at 750 mg/kg and ST at 600mg/kg intraperitoneally (i.p). After 5 minutes of AGE and ST injection, an i.p. injection of KCN at 5.5 mg/kg was given and righting reflex recovery time was recorded. Potassium Cyanide (KCN) + Aqueous Garlic Extract (AGE) & Sodium Thiosulphate (ST): Group 25 (5-min post-KCN) A group of 6 mice was administered with KCN intraperitoneally (i.p) at 5.5 mg/kg. After 5 minutes of KCN injection, each mouse will be treated with AGE at 750 mg/kg and ST at 600 mg/kg i.p. and righting reflex recovery time was noted. Sodium Nitrite (SN) alone (Group 26) 6 mice in this group were treated with SN at 20 mg/kg intraperitoneally (i.p) and any effects on righting reflex recovery time were noted. Sodium Thiosulphate (ST) alone (Group 27) A group of 6 mice in group 27 were treated with ST at 600 mg/kg intraperitoneally (i.p) and any effects on righting reflex recovery time were noted. Aqueous Garlic Extract (AGE) + Sodium Nitrite (SN) (Group 28) The mice in group 28 were treated with AGE + SN at 750 mg/kg and 20 mg/kg intraperitoneally (i.p) respectively and righting reflex recovery time was noted. Aqueous Garlic Extract (AGE) + Sodium Thiosulphate (ST) (Group 29) A group of 6 mice in this group were treated with AGE at 750 mg/kg and ST at 600 mg/kg intraperitoneally (i.p) and righting reflex recovery time was recorded. Sodium Nitrite (SN) + Sodium Thiosulphate (ST) (Group 30) A group of 6 mice in group 30 were treated with SN and ST at 20 mg/kg and 600 mg/kg intraperitoneally (i.p) respectively and righting reflex recovery time was recorded. The efficacy of the antidote estimated was based upon the reduction in righting reflex recovery time. The righting reflex recovery time that was close to 1 hour was determined against KCN regimen. AGE was tested as potential antidote against sub-lethal KCN toxicity at dose regimens 250, 500 and 750 mg/kg intraperitoneally as well as orally at dose regimens 250, 500 and 750 mg/kg 5 minutes before and 5 minutes after KCN administration. SN and ST were tested at 20, and 600 mg/kg respectively as antidotes against sub-lethal KCN toxicity, 5 minutes before and 5 minutes after KCN administration. These were also tested in comparison and a dose with minimum recovery time was noted. A comparison was made between the efficacy of AGE and SN or ST or SN + ST as potential antidote against sub-lethal KCN toxicity. After 48 hours 3 mice from each group was sacrificed for postmortem examination. For this purpose the righting reflex recovery time and survival data was collected for each mouse challenged with KCN. A group of 3 mice was tested with each increasing dose of KCN to create dose response curves for both righting reflex recovery times and percent survival. Increasing doses of KCN increased the recovery time of the righting reflex. The dose 5.5 mg/kg of KCN showed the righting reflex recocery time mean 64.66 ± .333 min and was selected for trials. AGE (750 mg/kg) showed the most significant results as compared to ST and SN alone as well as in combination. Second most effective drug was ST as it showed better results than SN. Treatment results were more pronounced in 5 min pre-KCN groups as compared to 5 min post-KCN groups. From this study it was concluded that the aqueous AGE is an effective antidote against sub-lethal KCN toxicity as the recovery times indicated that its effects are more pronounced than SN and ST, secondly, as it is easily available and very much cheaper in Pakistan and due to easy unavailability of SN and ST, it is effective antidote that could be used in the field against sub-lethal KCN toxicity with comparatively better results both orally and intraperitoneally. Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 1776,T] (1).

335. Levels Of Maternal Antibodies Against Pasteurella Multocida In New Born Buffalo Calves

by Muhammad Bilal | Dr. Aneela Zameer Durrani | Dr. Muhammad | Dr. Muhammad Ijaz.

Material type: book Book; Format: print Publisher: 2013Dissertation note: Buffalo is called black gold. The buffalo is raised for meat and milk purpose in Pakistan.The buffalo calves are at risk of many infectious diseases. One of the most important diseases is Hemorrhagic septicemia (HS). Hemorrhagic septicemia is caused by Pasturellamultocida important strains in Asia are B:2 and B:2.5. Buffalo calves are more suspected to the Hemorrhagic septicemia than adults one. In Pakistan the high prevalence of 49% is in the rainy season (Farooqet al. 2007) Clinically the signs of Hemorrhagic septicemia includes profuse salivation,pyrexia, respiratory distress, swelling in throat, discharge through nostrils, protrusion of tongue, edema in the brisket area as well as in forelegs. Hemorrhagic septicemia can be diagnosed on the bases of clinical signs and laboratory conformation by Gram staining and. Serum agglutination test, Counter immune-electrophoresis and ELISA techniques are also used.Enrofloxacine was found to be effective treatment in case Hemorrhagic septicemia. Best protection measure vaccination by alum precipitated vaccine (Boudewijn et al. 2008). During the present study blood samples were collected from the calves at different intervals of times. Serum was separated from that blood and was analyzed by using Indirect Haemagglutination(IHA) Test to observe the antibodies titer in the blood.The data was analyzed to calculate geometric mean titer (GMT) of the antibodies. Immunity status is much important in the defense of disease especially in the newly born claves which are more at risk of infections.The result of present study showed geometric mean titer 16 in colostrum of vaccinated dams and their newly born claves showed 0, 3. 4, 7 and 3 at 0 hour, 72 hour, 7, 15 and 30 days of their age. Colostrum of non-vaccinated dams showed GMT 8 and their newly born claves showed 0, 1. 3, 3 and 1 at 0 hour, 72 hour, 7, 15 and 30 days of their age.The maternal antibodies which are produce in the body of mother are transferred to their calves.The calves given birth by the vaccinated dams receive much higher level of antibodies from their mother than the calves born from non-vaccinated dams. This antibodies production in non-vaccinated dams is because of the carrier status of hemorrhagic septicemia.The non-vaccinated dams which are not expose to the any type of HS infection or not expose to the vaccines, they do not produce antibodies against Pasturellamultocidaand also not transfer to their young babies after birth. The present study showed that claves of vaccinated dams are much protected in their early period of life against hemorrhagic septicemia. Buffalo calves need quick and intense care at early age and they need quick vaccinations. The high maternal antibodies level against Pasturellamultocidain vaccinated dams then in non-vaccinated dams antibodies levels in newly born buffalo calves remain effective for longer period. This study suggested for the vaccination of dams not only for the protection of themselves but also for the protection of their newly born claves at the crucial period of their young age. Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 1807,T] (1).

336. A Study On Medetomidine And Alpha-2 Adrenoceptor Agent Alone And In Combination With Other Anesthetics On Different Animals

by Hamid Akbar | Prof. Dr. Mohammad Arif Khan | Prof. Dr. Mohammad Sarwar Khan.

Material type: book Book; Format: print ; Literary form: not fiction Publisher: 2013Dissertation note: Medetomidine HCl (alpha-2 adrenergic agonist) is a highly potent sedative and analgesic drug being used extensively in veterinary practice. It produces reliable degree of sedation, muscle relaxation and analgesia in different animal species. Hypothesis: On the basis of existing knowledge about medetomidine HCl it is hypothesized that medetomidine anesthesia alone as well as in combination with other anesthetics can overcome the prevailing hazards of different anesthetics. Goals: The goals of study were to investigate clinical suitability of "Medetomidine HCl" an alpha-2 adrenoceptor agonist drug alone and in combination with other drugs in different animals. A detailed clinico-biochemical study was carried out to explore the various aspects of this novel sedative and analgesic drug in different animal species. Analgesia was evaluated by checking presence and absence of various clinical reflexes and by performing certain surgical procedures under experimental conditions. Different experiments were designed in different animals to investigate the sedative and analgesic properties of medetomidine HCl. In dogs a clinico biochemical study was designed to see effect of this drug on clinical and hematological parameters at different doses alone and in combination with gas anesthesia. In equines the combination of this drug with other routinely used sedative and analgesic drugs was evaluated. In another study in bovine calves the epidural effect of this magic drug was evaluated. In cats this drug was evaluated in combination with Ketamine during major surgical intervention. Methodology: The parameters used to evaluate analgesia revealed that Medetomidine has greater potential to lessen the pain during minor and major surgical interventions in different animals. However, its epidural use also produced good analgesia of perineal region and at higher doses used epidurally its results can be compared with lignocain which is an ideal local anesthetic agent. Medetomidine produces general sedative effects after absorption from epidural space into general circulation. It was proved that in equines the drug can be used in combination Propofol, Ketamine and chloral hydrate for ideal sedative and analgesic effects and it compensated the side effects offered by these drugs when used alone. In addition it has an edge over other sedative drugs on account of its undetrimental effect on various physiological parameters of the animals. Detailed Clinical and hematologic studies have proved that Medetomidine "a novel sedative and analgesic" is the drug of choice for restraining, examination, minor and major surgical manipulations in equine, bovine, feline and canine species and it produces minimum untoward effects. This study will definitely open the new horizons to choose good anesthetic agents alone or in the form of cocktail to minimize the hazards of conventional drugs to save the economics of country. Medetomidine was used in four different animal species (equine, bovine, canine and feline). In canine the drug proved to be an effective sedative and analgesic drug aone and in combination with volatile anesthetic giving anesthetic sparing effects and exerted minimum effects on clinical and hematological parameters. In felines medetomidine effectively replaced an older and commonly used drug xylazine for combination anesthesia for surgical interventions. In bovine the drug was used as epidural anesthetic and proved to give ideal local effects. In equine medetomidine HCl was used effectively in combination with other anesthetics and enhanced sedation, analgesia, induction, recumbancy and recovery paramerts. A prolonged and stable recumbancy period enables the surgeons to carry out major surgical interventions smoothly and without hazards. In past many drugs have been trailed in veterinary practice as sedative, analgesic and anesthetics like clonidine, xylazine and atipamazole but medetomidine HCl has replaced these drugs in terms of safety, efficacy and effectiveness. In review of results of present studies it is recommended that medetomidine HCl can be used effectively for anesthesia in animals. In present study medetomidine HCl was trailed as anesthetic drug in different animals in variable experimental conditions and has proved to be an ideal sedative and analgesic. It can be used to handle different surgical conditions like suturing, removal of a tumour and cyst, to drain abcess, eye enucleation, roaring operation, cropping, tail docking, tenectomies, neurectomies, tracheostomy, dehorning and correction of prolapse. The drug can also be implied effectively alone or as preanesthetic in different major surgical interventions like evisceration, enterotomies, intestinal anastomosis, castration, penile amputation, spleenectomy ovariohysterectomy and cessarian section. In different experimental trails medetomidine HCl has shown its anesthetic efficacy alone and in combination with other drugs. It variably minimises the side effects and risk and dose rate of other anesthetic drugs used in combination. In addition the combination of medetomidine HCl prolonged the duration of surgical anesthesia and provided ideal analgesic effect. Anticipated difficulties were time frame for the conduct of trials and financial constraints faced which may have hampered clarification of some findings owing to the low number of animals in different groups this difficulty may be faced by future researchers especially in third world countries. Further studies and research could include effects of alpha-2 drugs for treating colic in equines and the evaluation of this drug in orthopedic surgery. And for Future research can be planned on muscle metabolic changes during and after anaesthesia in horses. With these techniques valuable information may be gained that would otherwise be overlooked. The present investigation was mainly undertaken to study the anesthetic role of medetomidine HCl in different animal species in order to deepen the understanding of physiologic and biochemical parameters during and after anaesthesia must be fully clearified. At the end there were some unanswered questions which can be effectively addressed if other aspects of this drug are studied. Some other aspects of medetomidine anesthesia need to be explored further in the future studies. Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 1822,T] (1).

337. Epidemiological Intelligence On Distribution & Dynamics Of Main Transboundary Diseases Of Ruminants In The Central Districts Of Punjab

by Muhammad Akram | Prof. Dr. Muhammad Athar Khan | Prof. Dr. Muhammad Sarwar Khan.

Material type: book Book; Format: print Publisher: 2007Dissertation note: Abstract Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 1844,T] (1).

338. Clinico Bacteriological Investigation Of Mastitis Dairy Goats

by Muhammad Rizwan | Prof Dr Aneela Zameer Durrani | Dr Muhammad Ijaz | Dr Sehrish | Faculty of Veterinary Sciences.

Material type: book Book; Format: print ; Literary form: drama Publisher: 2014Dissertation note: Abstract Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 1862,T] (1).

339. Investigation Of Antibiotics Residues In Bovine (Unprocessed) Milk By High Performance Liquid Chromatoghraphy

by Muhammad Husnain | Prof Dr Annela Zammer Durrani | Dr Jawaria Ali Khan | Prof Dr Kamran | Veterinary Sciences.

Material type: book Book; Format: print ; Literary form: drama Publisher: 2014Dissertation note: Abstract Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 1863,T] (1).

340. Prevalence And Chemotherapy Of Enterotoxigenic E. Coli In Diarrheic Lambs And Kids Of Lahore

by Kashif hussain | Dr. muhammad Ijaz | Prof.Dr. muhammad sarwar khan.

Material type: book Book; Format: print ; Literary form: drama Publisher: 2014Dissertation note: Abstract Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 1869,T] (1).

341. Comparative Potency Testing Of Oil Based Foot And Mouth Disease Caccines In Azakheli Buffaloes

by Asghar khan | Prof. Dr Aneela zameer durrani | Dr, Syed Sleem ahmad | Prof Dr Khushi.

Material type: book Book; Format: print ; Literary form: not fiction Publisher: 2014Dissertation note: Abstract Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 1870,T] (1).

342. Comparative Efficacy Of Triclabendazole Ocyclozanide And Nitroxynil Against Trematodes In Bovines Of District Okara

by Abdul wahaab | Dr, Syed saleem ahmad & Col.Dr Rehmatullah | Dr Nisar ahmad | Dr.Muhammad ijaz.

Material type: book Book; Format: print ; Literary form: drama Publisher: 2014Dissertation note: Abstract Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 1871,T] (1).

343. Infection Rate And Chemotherapy Of Coccidiosis In Equines

by Munifa Zehra | Prof Dr Muhammad Sawar Khan | Dr Muhammad Ijaz | Veterinary Sciences.

Material type: book Book; Format: print ; Literary form: drama Publisher: 2014Dissertation note: Abstract Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 1876,T] (1).

344. Epidemiological Survey And Therapeutical Trials Of Clinical Ketosis In Bovines In Lahore

by Maria Yousaf | Dr Jawaria Ali Khan | Prof Dr Aneela Zamer Duranni | FVS.

Material type: book Book; Format: print Publisher: 2014Dissertation note: Abstract Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 1878,T] (1).

345. Prevalence And Chemotherapy Of Enterotoxaemia (Clostridium Perfringens) In Diarrheic Sheep And Goats

by Babar maqbool | Dr.Muhammad Ijaz | Prof. Dr.Muhammad Sarwar khan.

Material type: book Book; Format: print ; Literary form: drama Publisher: 2014Dissertation note: Abstract Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 1879,T] (1).

346. Effectiveness Of Chemotherapeutic Agents In Recovery And Elimination Of Carrier State Of Burkholderia Mallei

by Aslam zab | Dr. Syed Saleem ahmad | Dr. Jawaria ali khan | Dr. Sadaf aslam.

Material type: book Book; Format: print ; Literary form: drama Publisher: 2014Dissertation note: Abstract Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 1882,T] (1).

347. Prevalence And Chemotherapy Of Prevalence and Chemotherapy of Balantidium Coli in Sheep And Goats in And Around Lahore

by Mustafa jamil | Dr. Muhammad Ijaz | Prof. Dr. Aneela Zameer Durrani | Prof. Dr. Azhar.

Material type: book Book; Format: print ; Literary form: drama Publisher: 2014Dissertation note: Abstract Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 1885,T] (1).

348. Comparative Efficacy Of Selenium Vitamin E And Ocium Sanctum (Tulsi) Leaves On Sub Clinical Mastitis In Cattle

by Syed waqas hameed | Dr. Syed saleem ahmad | Dr. Muhammad avais | Prof. Dr. Azhar.

Material type: book Book; Format: print ; Literary form: drama Publisher: 2014Dissertation note: Abstract Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 1888,T] (1).

349. Comparative Efficacy Of Neem (Azadirachta Indica) Levamisole And Combination Of Levamisole Oxyclozanide

by Muhammad Ali Raza | Dr.Syed saleem ahmad | Prof. Dr. Muhammad sarwar khan.

Material type: book Book; Format: print ; Literary form: not fiction Publisher: 2014Dissertation note: Abstract Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 1889,T] (1).

350. Comparative Efficacy Of Staples Tissue Adhesive (Glue) And Conventional Suture For The Apposition Of Linear Skin Incision

by Faramarz roshani | Prof. Dr. Muhammad Arif khan | Dr | Dr. Ayesha safdar.

Material type: book Book; Format: print Publisher: 2014Dissertation note: Abstract Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 1894,T] (1).



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