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351. Studies On Risk Factors Pathophysiology And Teeatment Of Udder Edema In Dairy Goats

by Muhammad Atif | Dr. Muhammad Avais | Dr | Dr. Jawaria ali khan.

Material type: book Book; Format: print ; Literary form: not fiction Publisher: 2014Dissertation note: Abstract Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 1895,T] (1).

352. Clinico-Biochemical Study On Xylazine Ketamine And Isoflurane Anesthesia In Rabbits Undergoing Ovariohysterectomy

by Muhammad Kashif maan | Prof. Dr. Muhammad Arif khan | Dr. Muhammad | Dr. Shehla gul bokhari.

Material type: book Book; Format: print ; Literary form: not fiction Publisher: 2014Dissertation note: Abstract Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 1902,T] (1).

353. Prevalence And Intensity Of Haenonchosis In Small Ruminants In Lodhran Its Trearment And Effect On Hemogram and Serum Biochemistry

by Hafiz Muhammad Qasun | Dr.Muhammad Avais | Prof. Dr | Prof. Dr Aneela zameer durrani.

Material type: book Book; Format: print ; Literary form: not fiction Publisher: 2014Dissertation note: Abstract Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 1903,T] (1).

354. A Study Onthe Correlation Of Serum Electrolytes And Teace Elements In Diarrheic Small Ruminants

by Sobia Mumtaz | Dr. Jawaria Ali khan | Dr. Muhammad Avais | Dr.Ishtiaq.

Material type: book Book; Format: print ; Literary form: not fiction Publisher: 2014Dissertation note: Abstract Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 1904,T] (1).

355. Effect Of Different Sedatives And Anesthetics On Haemoglycemic Trends In Surgically Treated Dogs

by Wajid ali khan | Dr. Uzma fareed durrani | Dr. Aqeel javeed | Dr. Sadf aslam.

Material type: book Book; Format: print Publisher: 2014Dissertation note: Abstract Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 1914,T] (1).

356. Therapeutic Trials Against Salmonella Enterica Prevailing In Diarrheic Lambs And Kids

by Muhammad Kashif iqbal | Dr. Muhammad Ijaz | Prof. Dr. Muhammad Sarwar khan.

Material type: book Book; Format: print ; Literary form: not fiction Publisher: 2014Dissertation note: Abstract Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 1918,T] (1).

357. Comparison Of Medetomidine And Xylazine As Preanesthetic With Ketamine And Propofol For Performing Neuering In Male Dogs

by Muhammad Bilal | Prof. Dr. Muhammad arif khan | Dr.Sadaf aslam | Prof . Dr. Muhammad.

Material type: book Book; Format: print ; Literary form: not fiction Publisher: 2014Dissertation note: Abstract Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 1951,T] (1).

358. Comparative Efficacy Of Metronidazole In Combination Colistin Sulphate And Probiotics Against Closteidium

by Sidra | Prof. Aneela zameer durani | Dr.Muhammad Avais.

Material type: book Book; Format: print ; Literary form: not fiction Publisher: 2014Dissertation note: Abstract Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 1952,T] (1).

359. Prevalence Severity And Treatment Of Balantidiasis In Commercial Dairy Herds

by Fazal karim | Dr. Muhammad avais | Dr. Haroon | Dr. Syed saleem ahmad.

Material type: book Book; Format: print ; Literary form: not fiction Publisher: 2014Dissertation note: Abstract Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 1996,T] (1).

360. Comparative Efficacy Of Different Brands Of Albendazole And Levamisole Against Nematodes In Sheep

by Amir iftikhar malik | Dr. Jawaria ali khan | Dr. Muhammad ijaz | Dr. Raheela.

Material type: book Book; Format: print ; Literary form: not fiction Publisher: 2014Dissertation note: Abstract Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 2036,T] (1).

361. Frozen Tectonic Corneal Grafting For Repair Of Perforating Corneal Ulcers In Dogs

by Abid Hussain | Dr. Asim khalid mehmood | Dr. Zia ullah | Prof. Dr. Aneela zameer durrani.

Material type: book Book; Format: print ; Literary form: not fiction Publisher: 2014Dissertation note: Abstract Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 2069,T] (1).

362. Effects Of Chemoimmunotherapy On Recovery Of Brucellosis In Buffaloes

by Muhammad Hasisem -ur- Rehman | Dr. Muhammad Avais | Prof. Dr. Muhammad Sarwar Khan.

Material type: book Book; Format: print ; Literary form: not fiction Publisher: 2014Dissertation note: Abstract Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 2115,T] (1).

363. Prevalence And Chemotherapy Of Fusobactemium Necrophorum In Dairy Cattle

by Haq Nawaz | Prof. Dr. Muhammad Sarwar Khan | Dr | Prof. Dr. Aneela Zameer Durrani.

Material type: book Book; Format: print ; Literary form: not fiction Publisher: 2014Dissertation note: Abstract Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 2146,T] (1).

364. Comparative Efficacy Of Flank And Midline Approach For Nephrotomy In Dogs

by Aamir Noor | Prof.Dr. Muhammad Arif | Dr. Jawaria Ali Khan | Dr. Sadaf Aslam.

Material type: book Book; Format: print ; Literary form: not fiction Publisher: 2014Dissertation note: Abstract Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 2152,T] (1).

365. Avian Fracture Healing Using Intramedullary K- Wire And Hydroxy Apatite Bone Cenent

by Tanzeem ul Hassan | Dr. Asim Khalid Mehmood | Dr. Muhammad | Dr. Uzma Farid Durrani.

Material type: book Book; Format: print ; Literary form: not fiction Publisher: 2014Dissertation note: Abstract Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 2172,T] (1).

366. A Clinico - Hematological Study On Hepatic Regeneration After Variable Degrees Of Resections In Rabbits

by Muhammad Babar Saleem (2005-VA-72) | Prof. Dr. Muhammad Arif Khan | Dr. Hafsa Zaneb | Ms. Ayesha Safdar | Faculty of Veterinary Sciences.

Material type: book Book; Format: print Publisher: 2014Dissertation note: Liver is the largest visceral organ in the body and has a paramount importance. Its multi-functional abilities make it absolutely necessary for survival. It performs numerous functions in a living organism and plays its role in various physiological and biochemical regulatory processes in the body. It is also the only organ that has the capability to undergo the phenomenon of regeneration in case of cellular injury induced by chemicals or surgery. According to Craige (1948) Liver is the largest gland of the body. It is an extension of the gastro-intestinal track and connects with GIT to the common bile duct.It has two surfaces. The anterior or dorsal surface is convex while the posterior surface is concave and lies over the stomach. Liver is thickened in its dorsal portion and tappers to a thin ventral margin. The liver is incompletely divided into a right and a left liver lobe, each of which have anterior and posterior lobules. The right posterior lobule lies closely to the dorsal body wall and it accommodates right kidney in a depression called renal fossa. The gall bladder is a thin walled pouch located in a deep depression on the ventral surface of right anterior lobule. The quadrate lobe extends from the right lobe and is usually notched on its medial margin. The caudate lobe is small and well separated. The portal fissure is a large depression filled by the portal vein and it also contains some branches of hepatic artery. The liver is held in place by four ligaments namely falciform ligament, round ligament, coronary ligament and left triangular ligament. According to Borley & Achan (2005) Liver plays a key role in several regulatory processes in an organism. It is involved in various metabolic pathways comprising variable interactions with proteins, carbohydrates and fats. Liver is the main site for gluconeogenesis, converts galactose and fructose into simple sugars (glucose) and stores complex carbohydrates (glycogen).It aids in the production of different types of proteins and has a role in the formation of urea. Numerous types of fats like phospholipids, cholesterol and lipoproteins are synthesized in the liver. Liver also uses different carbohydrates and proteins to form certain fats. Liver serves as a vault for the storage of several vitamins (A, B2 and D) and iron. It helps in the complex process of coagulation by aiding in the synthesis of several important coagulation factors including prothrombin, protein C, and factors VII, IX and X.Several hormones including oestrogen, aldosterone and cortisol are metabolized in the liver. It is involved in the metabolism of a number of drugs and also has a key role in the production and excretion of bile. In fetal life, haematopoiesis is one of the key functions which is performed by liver. Liver resectioning is a technique employed for correction of numerous ailments or for the purpose of experimental study. Diseases such as tumorous growths on the liver, hepatic necrosis, cyst formation, hepatic abscess, hepatic lobe torsion and numerous others require the removal of the affected part of the liver(Martin et al. 2003; Pignon et al. 2013). The remaining liver usually recovers by regeneration through hyperplasia and hypertrophy of healthy cells of the un-affected part of the liver (Palmes and Spiegel, 2004). For experimental reasons, where different aspects of liver regeneration process are to be studied, liver resectioning technique is employed (Mao et al. 2014; Fausto et al. 2012). Numerous studies have been done to see the regeneration rate of liver in different species. In rats it has been noticed that liver can regenerate to its original size after two-third hepatectomy in only five to seven days (Mao et al. 2014).Another author states the recovery to occur in less than two weeks in rodents (Gilgenkrantz and Hortet, 2011). In humans it has been shown that resectioning up to 50 percent has resulted in complete regeneration of liver mass in only a period of two weeks (Häussinger, 2011). Rabbits being small laboratory animals with comparative ease of handling have been used extensively for research purposes. Regeneration has been studied in rabbits post chemical insult on liver or through portal branch ligations (Palmes and Spiegel, 2004). As opposed to general perception, Carpenter (2003) states that the rabbits fall under the category of rodents, they in actuality are lagomorphs. Two families composed of twelve genera and eighty-one species fall under the umbrella of order lagomorpha. They are cosmopolitan in their distribution. The main difference between rodents and lagomorphs is the presence of two pairs of upper incisors in the former group, whereas the later have only one pair of upper incisors. Despite having a great degree of similarity which these two groups share together, they are not thought to be closely associated. The animals of both the categories evolved into nine creatures separately and their similar dental patterns resulted from parallel evolution. All legomorphs consume foliage and practice caprophagy. All lagomorphs are blessed with acute tactile and olfactory senses with a considerable long-haired fluffy body coat. Lagomorphs have big side-to-side set eyes giving them a broader circular vision. Testes are in the scrotum in front of the penis. Baculum is absent in males. Females bear two to five pairs of mammary glands. Deficiency has been observed in terms of study of liver regeneration when liver resectioning is performed. The present study aims to focus on this aspect of research on soft tissue, which would enhance our understanding of liver regeneration and its rate in this specie. Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 2182,T] (1).

367. The Effects Of Xylazin-Butorphenol And Detomidine-Butorphenol On Clinico-Biochemical Parameters During Castration in Dog

by Nadir Hussain (2006-VA-07) | Prof. Dr. Muhammad Arif Khan | Dr. Shehla Gul Bukhari | Prof. Dr. Muhammad Sarwar Khan | Faculty of Veterinary Sciences.

Material type: book Book; Format: print Publisher: 2014Dissertation note: Anesthesia is a reversible process and derived from Greek word “anaisthaesia” meaning “insensibility” and used to desensitize the whole or any part of the body. Anesthesia is classified by method of administration i.e. intramuscular, inhalational and intravenous. Injectable anesthesia includes Propofol, Diazepam, Acepromazine, Medetomidine, Xylazine and Ketamine. Anesthetic agent can be used alone or in combinations (Gonzalez et al. 2003). The purpose of Anesthesia is to produce a convenient, safe, effective, and economical means of facilitating surgical procedures while minimizing stress, pain and discomfort and adverse side effects. There are many routes of administration of anesthesia; in intravenous route, the onset of action is immediate. Peak effect is rapidly obtained, duration of action is short, and effects are more intense/ profound than other routes.Many combinations of anesthesia are in use in dogs for different surgery xylazine (0.4 mg/kg IV) combination with butorpjanol (0.2 mg/kg IV), xylazine (0.4 mg/kg IV) combination with oxymorphone (0.05mg/kg IV) , xylazine (0.4 mg/kb IV) combine with morphine (0.25mg/kg) , Medetomidine (5 to 15 ug/kg combine with butophanol (0.2 mg/kg IV), Medetomidine (5 to 15 ug/kg IV) combine with oxymorphone (o.05 mg/kg) Xylazine (0.4mg/kg) combine with Ketamine (5 to 10 mg/kg IV) acepromazine (0.05 to 0.2mg/kg IV or SQ) in combination with morphine (0.4 to 0.8mg/kg IV) and diazepam or midazolam(0.2 mg/kg IV) with hydromorphone or oxymorphone( 0.1 to 0.2 mg/kg IV) use in dog and cat (Greene 1999). Detomidine is a selective α2-adrenoceptor agonist with useful sedative, analgesic and muscle relaxation properties and is widely used as a tranquilizing or pre-anaesthetic medication in veterinary medicine But it induces cardiovascular side-effects such as hypertension, hypotension, bradycardia and dysrhythmia.detomidine. It produces prolonged and intense analgesia. Nature of the analgesic effect appears to be wide, producing a reduced response to be a secondary result of the central nervous system experimental stimulation and exhibiting a clinical effect in the horse with colic. Detomidine can be used as a safe and effective pre anaesthetic resulting in smooth induction and recovery (EL-Kammar et al. 2014). Xylazine Hcl has been widely used as a preanesthetic drug and for immobilizing dogs for diagnostic procedures (Short 1987).Xylazine is the shortest acting alpha2-adrenergic agonist..A problem with alpha2-adrenergic agonists is that they may respond suddenly to stimulation, especially to touch. The combination of opioid drugs with the alpha2-adrenergic agonists appears to reduce such sudden reactions and a synergistic effect regarding sedation and antinociception has been suggested. Additionally, all alpha2-adrenergic agonists have a dose-dependent effect on cardiovascular function. By adding an opioid drug, dose requirements of alpha2-adrenergic agonists may be reduced and cardiopulmonary function improved. The addition of opioids does not further impair cardiovascular function.The combination of xylazine and butorphanol at the doses generally used in clinical practice produces minimal and transient haemodynamic effects and no significant respiratory depression. There is no ‘blinded’ randomized crossover study regarding the xylazine sparing effects of butorphanol on sedation of horses. There are limited reports on the respiratory effects of butorphanol alone or in combination with the α2-agonist xylazine in horses, but the effects of the combination on pulmonary gas exchange have not been clarified (Ringer et al. 2012). Butorphanol is an opioid agonist-antagonist with good analgesic effects. Butorphanol is used in veterinary medicine as pain reliever and cough suppressant. It induces only mild sedation and has minimum adverse effects to the cardiovascular system. It may cause mild lowering of the heart rate and arterial pressure or slight respiratory depression. It exerts a depressive action on the respiratory system. It should not use in patient with liver disease because it cannot be eliminated and may accumulated to toxic level (Raušer and Lexmaulova, 2002).It is believed to be more effective against visceral rather than somatic pain. The antagonist property towards μ-receptors results in a ceiling analgesic effect with increasing doses. However in dogs doses between 0•2 and 0•8 mg/kg have been reported to provide visceral analgesia in vivo .Butorphanol is a dose-related respiratory depressant and causes small decreases in arterial blood pressure and heart rate (Vettorato and Bacco 2011). Castration is indicated for reproductive neutering, modification of behavior patterns, testicular neoplasia, severe testicular or scrotal trauma or injury, refractory orchitis, benign prostatic hyperplasia, perianal gland adenoma, perineal hernia, and scrotal urethrostomy in dogs. There is no specific anesthetic method for castration. Routinely castration surgery can be performed under general anesthesia or local anesthesia (Kim et al. 2004). Unlike other laboratory animals that are commonly used forresearch purpose, non-human primates and dogs are also used for research work. Their use in the biological researchrequires special considerations, regarding their care and housing, and more specifically their handling and restraining. Since non-human primates and dogs present special hazards to handlers, particularlybecause of the danger of bites and zoonotic infections (Fortman et al. 2001). Deaths due to anesthesia are lesser in dogs (1 in 601) than rabbits (1 in 72) that are the third most commonly anaesthetized pet animal in the United Kingdom (Brodbelt et al. 2005). Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 2185,T] (1).

368. A Clinical Study On The Sonographic Characterization Of Acute And Chronic Hepatitis In Pet Dogs In Lahore

by Imran hussain (2012-VA-591) | Dr. Shehla Gull Bokhari | Dr. Muhammad Avais | Dr. Sadaf Imran.

Material type: book Book; Format: print Publisher: 2014Dissertation note: Dogs are amicably kept as a pet all over the world. Diversity in cultural trends in Pakistan is paving way towards increasing awareness of the society with regards to a promising humananimal bond. Hence, the tendency of people in metropolitan cities, such as Lahore, in keeping dogs and cats as pets, has increased dramatically over the years. Not only do people keep pets, rather also seek expert professional care in treatment of their animals. Liver is a major organ of body located in the cranial abdomen below diaphragm. It produces major plasma proteins, clotting factors and metabolizes carbohydrates, proteins and lipid molecules. Besides, it also detoxifies many toxic metabolites into soluble and extractable products. It also acts as storage for iron, glycogen and some other compounds. It also plays role in eliminating and excretion of worn-out blood cells in the form of bile. Due to its major functions it is much prone to damage and its mutual sickness is reported (Adam, 2003). Hemostatic anomalies in liver diseases are mostly found in dogs and increased prothrombin time (PT) and activated partial thromboplastin time (APTT). In hepatic disease 93% dogs had one of the abnormal results of PT and APTT (Badylak et al. 1983). Conditions as well as low or incomplete blood supply or shock damage, blockage of bile, long-lasting liver sickness, portovascular variances, toxin produce inside the bacteria wall, and resistant dysfunction altogether add toward hepatic defenselessness to infectivity also change the role of the reticuloendothelial structure (Center et al.2006). In the United Kingdom (UK), chronic hepatitis (CH) twelve percent was found during postmortem of the dog (Watson et al. 2010). Acute hepatitis (AH) and CH can cause toward lethal liver dysfunction that can lead to inadequate otherwise weakened liver restoration. Restoration take place through double ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------Introduction 2 resources, specifically reproduction of developed hepatocytes and in the case of held back hepatocytic replication, by production of the native stem cell precursor cell population in liver diseases (Roskams et al. 2004; Santoni-Rugiu et al. 2005; Katoonizadeh et al. 2006). Liver play major role in the majority of metabolism, so liver infections can affect the purpose of further tissues. Most common effect stands going on the brain and excretory system (Wettstein et al. 2003; Hilgard and Gerken, 2004). Hyperfibrinolysis can be seen in cases of later hepatic liver infection and cirrhosis because of reduced thrombin-activatable fibrinolysis inhibitor (TAFI) (Van Thiel et al. 2001; Colucci et al. 2003). The major reasons of sickness and death in dogs are cirrhosis and long-lasting liver problem (Klein et al. 2010). The liver size is measured by a simple method through the ultrasonography. The measurements were taken in both planes transverse and longitudinal scanned. There was good relation in both measurements. Through this study it was concluded that liver size has no relationship in breed or size of the dog. This study also showed that liver size easily measure through ultrasonography (Barr, 2008). Infectious canine hepatitis (ICH) is a universal viral disease caused by canine adenovirus-1 (CAd V-1) (Decaro et al. 2007). Young dogs under the age of 2 years have more mortality rate (Akerstedt et al., 2010; Thompson et al. 2010). ICH has three clinical forms that are Mild, acute and per acute (Stalker and Hayes, 2007). Canine adenovirus-1 has resemblance for vascular endothelium, mesothelium and hepatic parenchyma and the main pathological characters of ICH are edema, hemorrhages and focal necrosis (Chouinard et al. 1998). There is variation in the incubation period of hepatitis. The incubation period of infectious canine hepatitis is 4-7 days. Infectious canine hepatitis can increase temperature, despair, loss of starvation, sneezing, edema, excretory problem. But in severe cases animal has pale mucous membrane increase liver size and vomiting. Severe cases ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------Introduction 3 will develop bleeding disorders, which can cause hematomas to form in the mouth (Sanchez- Cordon et al., 2002; Greene, 2006). Clinical diagnosis may be based on the clinical and pathological findings, which may include moderate to severe leukopenia, neutropenia, lymphopenia and thrombocytopenia. Serum alanine aminotransferase and alkaline phosphatase activities may be increased. Coagulation parameters, PT and PTT are variably affected. Proteinuria (albuminuria) as a reflection of the renal damage caused by the virus can usually be detected (Sellon, 2005; Greene, 2006). Clinical signs in pets vary from ill to asymptomatic. These may include anorexia, vomiting, weakness, depression and poor hair coat. Production of albumin in the body takes place only in liver, so liver problems cause low albumin production in body. It leads to hypoalbuminemia (Bunch, 2003). During chronic liver disease liver enzymes value may be normal or decrease. For example in cirrhosis the hepatocytes start to die and cannot make liver enzyme. The liver has capacity up to 30 times the usual level for the processing of bilirubin. At two to three times normal total bilirubin levels Jaundice can be noted. At 0.6 to 1.0 mg/dl icteric serum and bilirubinuria can be identified (Richter, 2004). In chronic hepatitis the liver enzymes ALT/AST with change ALP/GGT rises. With progressing disease bilirubin rises and albumin levels will drop. Chronic hepatitis causes the serum bile acids abnormal level. In this study dogs with chronic hepatitis all cases assessed had atypical bile acid concentrations. Acquired shunting or advanced liver insufficiency leads to increased blood ammonia concentrations (Strombeck, 1988). In study it was confirmed that coagulation anomalies are more common in dogs in case of chronic hepatitis and cirrhosis that indicated significantly lesser platelet counts (Prins et al.2010). In a study radiograph and ultrasonography was performed that reveal increase the liver size parenchymal heterogeneity hyperechoic parenchyma. Renal parenchyma looked normal in ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------Introduction 4 both radiograph and ultrasonography (Langlois et al. 2013). Sonographic finding in acute hepatitis liver size was increased and parenchymal echogenicity was decrease. Liver margin were rounded due to hepatomegaly (Resende et al.2011; Hughes et al. 1995; Barr F. 1992; Lamb et al. 1995). Sonographic finding in chronic hepatitis seen that increased hepatic parenchyma echogenicity and liver size decreased. Gall bladder size was increased and irregular contour also seen. In chronic hepatitis portal liver margin less distinct and reduced distal visualization (Stowater et al. 1990; Diaz Espineira et al 1999; Hill et al. 2000; Partington et al.1995; Yeager 1991; Johnson 1987). Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 2187,T] (1).

369. Manual of Small Animal Surgical Therapeutics

by Betts, C. W.

Edition: 1st ed.Material type: book Book Publisher: USA: Churchill; 1986Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 336.70897 Betts 29271 1st 1986 CMS] (1).

370. Disease Mechanisms in Small Animal Surgery

by Bojrab, M. Joseph | Daniel D. Smeak | Mark S. Bloomberg.

Edition: 2nd ed.Material type: book Book Publisher: USA: Lippincott Williams & Wilkins; 1993Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 636.0897 Joseph 14248 2nd 1993 CMS] (1).

371. The Complete Textbook of Veterinary Nursing

by Victoria Aspinall.

Edition: 1st ed.Material type: book Book Publisher: Spain: Butterworth-Heinemann; 2006Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 636.089073 Aspinall 19019 1st 2006 CMS] (1).

372. Fundamentals of Veterinary Ophthalmology

by Douglas Slatter.

Edition: 3rd ed.Material type: book Book Publisher: USA: Saunders; 2001Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 636.08977 Douglas 20496 3rd 2001 CMS] (1).

373. Textbook of Small Animal Surgery : 3rd ed / Vol.1

by Douglas Slatter.

Edition: 3rdMaterial type: book Book Publisher: USA: Saunders; 2003Availability: Items available for loan: Pattoki Library [Call number: 636.0897 Slatter 22458 3rd.Vol.1 2003 CMS] (6), UVAS Library [Call number: 636.0897 Slatter 22470 3rd.Vol.1 2003 CMS] (14). Checked out (1).

374. Textbook of Small Animal Surgery : 3rd ed / Vol.2

by Douglas Slatter.

Edition: 3rdMaterial type: book Book Publisher: USA: Saunders; 2003Availability: Items available for loan: Pattoki Library [Call number: 636.0897 Slatter 22473 3rd.Vol.2 2003 CMS] (4), UVAS Library [Call number: 636.0897 Slatter 22471 3rd.Vol.2 2003 CMS] (18). In transit (1).

375. Common Nosocomial Bacterial Isolation And Identification From Veterinary Hospitals

by Muhammad Umar Zafar Khan (2008-VA-255) | Prof. Dr. Aneela Zameer Durrani | Prof.Dr.Muhammad Sarwar Khan | Dr. Hassan Bin Aslam.

Material type: book Book; Literary form: not fiction Publisher: 2015Dissertation note: CD not available. Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 2217-T] (1).

376. Safety Level And Efficacy Of Controlled Release Urea On Performance And Health Status Of Nili Ravi Buffalo

by Muhammad Mobin (2007-VA-156) | Prof. Dr. Aneela Zameer Durrani | Dr. Jawairia Ali Khan | Dr. Nisar Ahmad.

Material type: book Book; Literary form: not fiction Publisher: 2014Dissertation note: Livestock is one of the major sectors of Pakistan’s agrarian based economy. During 2013-14, it contributed almost 55.4% to the agricultural value added and 11.9% to national GDP. In the livestock sector, gross value addition increased from Rs.735 billion to Rs.756 billion; revealing an increase of 2.9% as compared to the previous year. Livestock is considered the best tool for poverty alleviation, as most of the livestock are owned by poor people who live in the rural areas. Pakistan is 4th largest Milk producing country in the World. Its Cattle Population is 33 Million while Buffalo Population is about 30 Million (Economic Survey of Pakistan, 2013-14). Despite large population, per animal production is very low.The low productivity of these animals is because of poor quality feed stuff. Their productivity can be enhanced by feeding them balanced ration. Growing human population urges the intense need to explore the present livestock resources to fulfill the animal protein requirements. It is impossible unless optimal fodder and forage production is ensured. In Pakistan, low quality fodders coupled with the reduction in the fodder area are the main constraints, which adversely affect the animal production. In future, it is expected that ruminants will be more dependent on forages because readily expanding human population will have direct competition with livestock for edible grains. Among the problems facing the livestock in the tropics is the low protein tropical grasses and the high cost of alternate sources of protein such as the Soybean and other oil cake. A portion of nitrogen in feeds for ruminants may be provided in the form of simple nitrogen compounds (or0non-protein0nitrogen0NPN) 0that are degraded in the0rumen to release ammonia (NH3), which is used by rumen microorganisms to produce amino acids. The amount of NPN that can be provided is limited. The product which is the urea, when it releases NH3 faster than it can be converted into microbial protein excess NH3is absorbed through the rumen wall, causing toxication. Protein is often0the0major0limiting0nutrient for ruminants. Protein-rich leguminous forages and vegetable protein supplements are usually expensive or not available.The manufacture0of0urea and0ammonia for use as0fertilizer has been greatly0expanded in0many countries, 0but these compounds0could0not be0used more0widely in feeds for0ruminants. The ability0of0the0micro-organisms0in0the0rumen0of0cattle0and0sheep0to0utilize0urea0sources0to form0true protein0that0can0be converted0to meat0and0milk0by the0animals, represents0an important0contribution0to0man's0food0supply.0Maximizing0microbial0protein0synthesis0and flow0to0the0duodenum0by0reducing the0recycling of0microbial N in the rumen offers a potential0to improve0the production0efficiency0of ruminants.In general, the efficiency of utilization of dietary N by cattle is relatively low under normal production conditions (Castillo et al, 2001) with a global average N-efficiency in cattle estimated at 7.7 % (Van der Hoek, 1998). Urea is used rather inefficiently for production of protein products (Broderick et al, 2009) and due to its wide use in ruminant feeds, may0be0partially0responsible for0the poor N efficiency0in cattle. Low efficiency of utilization of dietary urea has been attributed to the rapid0hydrolysis0to0ammonia (NH3) in0the0rumen0by microbial0enzymes which occurs at a higher rate than its utilization byrumen bacteria, leading to ruminal accumulation and absorption0of0ammonia andsubsequent excretion of0urea in the urine (Golombeski0et0al., 2006; Highstreet0et0al,2010).Furthermore if used above threshold level, the main problem with urea usage is that it can cause toxicity and even death of the animals. Farmers hesitate to use urea as a source of protein, resulting which his animals remain underfed and never achieve the peak production. Urea0poisoning0is0one0of0the0more0commonly0suspected0toxicities0of0cattle. Urea0is0used as0a source0of non-protein0nitrogen0in feed0supplements.In ruminants,0nitrogen0from0urea is released0in the0rumen as0ammonia0and0can0be0used0by0rumen0micro0flora0to0synthesize protein. This0protein0thenbecomesavailable0to0the0animal0through0the0normal0processes of digestion0and0absorption. However,if0 more0ureaisconsumed0than the rumen organisms can0metabolize, the0ammonia0is0absorbed0from0the0rumen0into0the0blood.Ruminal pHbecame alkaline due to the hydrolysis of urea to0ammonia (Buffalo Bulletin,2002). The ammoniaisthen0converted0back0to urea in0the liver and is0the0excreted by0the0kidneys. This0pathwaycan easily be0overwhelmed,0when excess0ammonia0and urea0circulate0in the blood,0causing0poisoning. Poisoningcanoccur0rapidly0from a few0minutes0to four0hours after0consumption. Suspect0urea0poisoning0if cattle are found0dead close to0the0supplement (H. Parkes et al. 2003).Slow release urea has been shown to affect ruminal fermentation characteristics.Most notably, slow release urea is intended to0reduce0the release rate0of NH3 within the0rumen. Most reports on controlled release urea have shown a reduction in ruminal NH3 concentration when measured (Cherdthonget al, 2011; Huntington etal, 2006b; Taylor- Edwards0et0al, 2009d). This is the reason why slow release urea presents a lower risk for ammonia toxicity than feed grade urea. Ruminal NH3 concentration is often related to ruminal pH, as the protonation of NH3 toNH4+ when ammonia from urea ionizes, can result in an increase in ruminalpH. Consequently, there are reports of higher ruminal pH for animals fed urea than those fed slow release urea (Cherdthongetal, 2011; Taylor-Edwards et al, 2009b) Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 2216-T] (1).

377. Dollar's Veterinary Surgery : General, Operative and Regional

by O'Connor, J. J. (Editor).

Edition: 4th Edition.Material type: book Book; Format: print ; Literary form: not fiction Publisher: UK: Bailliere, Tindall and Cox; 1965Availability: Items available for loan: Pattoki Library [Call number: 636.0897 Connor 1115 4th 1965 CMS] (5), UVAS Library [Call number: 636.0897 Connor 14739 4th 1965 CMS] (23).

378. Veterinary Medicine : A Textbook of the Diseases of Cattle, Sheep, Pigs, Goats and Horses

by D. C. Blood | Radostits, O. M.

Edition: 7th ed.Material type: book Book Publisher: UK: Bailliere Tindall; 1989Availability: Items available for loan: Pattoki Library [Call number: 636.0896 Radostits 18695 9th 2003 CMS] (2), UVAS Library [Call number: 636.0896 Blood 13073 7th 1989 CMS] (18).

379. A Textbook of Preventive Veterinary Medicine / 5th ed

by Amalendu Chakrabarti.

Edition: 5thMaterial type: book Book Publisher: India: Kalyani Publishers; 2012Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 636.08944405 Chakrabarti 30797 5th 2012 CMS] (5).

380. Textbook of Clinical Veterinary Medicine / 4th ed

by Chakrabarti, Amalendu.

Edition: 4th ed.Material type: book Book Publisher: New Delhi: Kalyani Publishers; 2014Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 636.0896 Chakrabarti 26081 4th 2014 CMS] (6).

381. Study Of Molecular Diagnosis, Associated Risk Factors And Treatment Of Anaplasmosis In Bovines

by Muhammah Hassan Haider (2008-VA-252) | Dr. Jawaria Ali Khan | Dr. Muhammad Avais | Dr. Ali Ahmad Sheikh.

Material type: book Book; Literary form: not fiction Publisher: 2015Dissertation note: According to the economic survey of Pakistan 2013-14, livestock sector contributed about 55.9 and 11.8% to the agriculture and national GDP, respectively.Total cattle population in the year 2013-14 is 39.7 million. Total milk and meat production contributed by cattle is 18,027000 tons and 18,87000 tons respectively (Anonymous 2013-14) . In Pakistan, the chiefhindrance in performance and health of animals are parasitic diseases including tick born. Ticks have been easily grown and reproduce in the optimal climate of tropical weather in Pakistan. In Pakistan, there are huge number of species and genera of tick fauna (Durrani and Shakoori, 2009). Tick-borne diseases include babesiosis, theileriosis, anaplasmosis, lymedisease . Among these tick-borne diseases anaplasmosis is one of the vital diseases which is responsible for the substantial economic losses in term of high morbidity, mortality and production losses that are decreased in milk, meat and other important livestock productions. Throughout the world, the “tick-borne diseases” are extensivelyspread in sub-tropic and tropicareasand Pakistan also includes in these areas(Khan et al. 2004). Moreover, anaplsamosis is non-contagious disease but also known to be infectious, transmission of which occur through mechanical means that includes the flies or tick bites. As well as different equipment that are using during tattooing or castration, in dehorning and needles also causes transmission (Aubry & Geale. 2011). Anaplasma marginale (A. marginale) is the major cause of Bovine anaplasmosis and this speciesbelongs to the genus Anaplasma (“Rickettsiales, Anaplasmataceae”). The most important 20 ticks species which cause transmission are Argaspersicus, Boophiludecoloratus, B. microplus, B. annulatus, Dermacentoroccidentalis, D. andersoni, D. variabilis, D.albipictus, Hyalommaexcavatum, Ixodesricinus, Ornithodoroslahorensis, Rhipicephalussimus, R. saniguineus, and R. bursa(Marchette & Stiller. 1982), on the other hand, Boophilusmicroplus found as a major contributor in cause of anaplasmosis (Tick Fever Research Centre, 1996). The family anaplasmatacease was classified in 1957 of the order Rickettsiale. In the genera Anaplasma, Aegyptianella, Haemobartonella and Eperythrozoon, this family was rationalized (Ristic&Kreier. 1984), and projected a combination based on analysis of genes sequences for protein on surface and ribosomal RNA (16S)(Dumler et al. 2001; Walker & Dumler. 1996). Anaplasma is a rickettsial, obligate intracellular bacteria found in red blood cells. Disease is characterized by fever, anemia and jaundice. Infection is transmitted by ticks or mechanically by biting insects or contaminated hypodermic needles or surgical instruments (Tylor et al. 2007).The most significant parasite is Anaplasma speciesthat is transmitted by at least twenty different species of ticks. But among those all mostly Bmicroplus causes Anaplasmosis (Rajput et al.2005). A. marginale is etiological agent of bovine anaplasmosis (Bram, 1957; Dumler et al., 2001; Kocan et al., 2000). A. marginale persistently infect both cattle and ticks and help as infection reservoirs(Kocan et al. 2003). Bovine erythrocyte membrane bound parasitophorous vacuoles is the site for replication of this obligate intracellular organisms. Dogs, humans, wild and domesticated ruminants are the species effected by A. marginale. This anaplasma genus is an obligate intracellular parasite of vertebrate hosts. In cattle, theA. marginal, A. phagocytophilum, A. central, and A. bovisare major pathogenic species producing diseases (Inokuma et al. 2007). Researchers suggestedthat in cattle, some unidentified Ehrlichia or Anaplasma species are present (Awadia et al. 2006). For this pathogen, which cause the persistent infection, the reservoirs are generally present in different host like tick or mammalian (Kocan et al. 2004). The wide range of different ruminant can be affected by Anaplasmabecause the species of anaplasma are not considered as strictly specific for any particular host specific(Kuttler. 1984). The A. marginalecan only be developed inside the RBCs of bovine (Richey et al. 1981). After invading the erythrocyte the tick multiplies and form almost eight initial bodies, they then get enlarge in the outer membrane and give it an appearance of a large dot. The organism gets mature in the outer membrane of RBC and force the infected RBC to get rupture due to infection. By rupturing the outer membrane where it previously multiplied come into the blood stream to infect the other RBCs. On the progression of progresses, more number of erythrocytes is infected by this organism and afterward destruction of erythrocytes occur (Stewart et al. 1981). Upon the clinical signs and symptoms are appear when the 15 percent of the RBCsare affected by the parasite(Radostits et al. 2006). The symptoms of the disease are pyrexia, anemia, icterus, hematuria, anorexia, muscular tremors, dyspnea, depression, lethargy, constipation and yellow colour of mucous membrane (Bram et al. 1983), low milk production, miscarriage and sometime mortality (Alderink and Dietrich. 1981). The mature RBCs are the site for multiplication after the invading by A.marginale. In the acute case of Anaplasmosis the higher number of RBCs are affected by the parasite for example more the 109 red blood cells per ml and after that the disease is categorized by death, abortion, loss of weight and anemia, and the survival cattle that are infected act as reservoirs for transmission of the disease in the herd level(De Echaide et al. 1998).The haematological profile can be used as useful diagnostic tool in anaplasma infection(Van Wyk et al. 2013).There is significant decrease in packed cell volume (PCV), Hemoglobin (Hb) and erythrocytes count.Serum biochemical analysis showed increased total protein,bilirubin and alanine aminotransferase enzyme (Sharma et al. 2013). A diagnosis ofcattle anaplasmosis may be made tentatively based on geographical location, seasonal variation and presenting clinical signs or necropsy finding in infected animals (Kocan et al. 2010). A.marginale,can affect throughout the life of cattle but disease severity is dependent on the age of the cattle. The clinical disease is less occurs in the calves and disease is very rare under the age of 6 month. The mild type of the disease can occur in the animal, which are between the ages of six month to one year. The acute type of the disease occurs in the animals between the ages ofone to twoyears but this disease is never fatal for the animal between these age groups.Whereas if the acute type of the disease occur in the adult animal that are more than two year aged can face the serious consequences and this disease can cause the death of the cattle with higher percentage (29 to 49%) of mortality (Kocan et al. 2003; Richey. 1991). Beside the animal age at the infection time, onceA. marginale infect animals, the animals become carrier for the infection throughout of animal life, with or without the clinical signs of the infection (Richey et al. 1991). The animal with the strong immune system are recovered from the acute type of anaplasmosis (Palmer et al. 1989). The regular cycle of ten to fourteen days are present in the carrier animals and in this cycle there are more or less number of RBCs are infected with the pathogen(Kocan et al. 2003;Kieser et al. 1990; Viseshakul et al. 2000). For the proper diagnosis of the disease and quality control in livestock, the most important aspect is the preciseor correct detection of pathogen that is spread by the tick.In 1990, with the beginning of the diagnosis with the techniques on the molecular bases the researcher produced more accurate and sensitive techniquesfor pathogenic species determination and these techniques are still used till to date (Ahantarig et al. 2008). The Giemsa staining method is used for the diagnosis of anaplasmosis in bovinesthat can be achievedby finding ofA.marginalein smear of blood from animals that are affected clinically. For the carrier animals or pre symptomatic animals thistechnique is not reliable. In these types of conditions, the serological tests are used for general diagnosis of infection by detection of antibodies. This is confirmed by molecular detection methods. A.marginaleappears as “dark staining blue purple bodies” measuring about 0.3 to 1 µm in length. A. centrale inclusion bodies are well differentiated by their location. Serological diagnosis can be done for the identification of infected cattle, DNA based test can be used for the molecular diagnosis(Stuen et al. 2011). The conventional parasitological technique like Giemsa staining always remained gold standard for diagnosis of Bovine anaplasmosis. Light microscopy of thin blood smears stained with giemsa stain may facilitate demonstration of A. marginale organisms in the erythrocytes (Kocan et al. 2004) .As giemsa staining method is not applicable for the detection of subclinical infection. Therefore PCR can also be used as a diagnostic tool for the detection of A.marginale in this technique primer pairs are used which resulted in the amplification of only their target DNA i.e. A.marginale(Munderloh et al. 2004). In the United states, for the treatment of anaplasmosis, the specific approved compound is the tetracyclines that include chlortetracycline or oxytetracycline(Kuttler. 1980). Oxytetracycline, Chlortetracycline and Tetracycline can be used to treat anaplasma infection in cattle .Among these Oxytetracycline is the most used drug at the dose rate of 10mg/kg body weight. While single dose of imidocarb dipropionte can be used at the dose rate 3mg/kg body weight (De Waal 2000).Imidocarb dipropionate with the dose of 3 milligram/kilogram body weight repidly treat A. marginale(anaplsmosis), on the other hand, same drug with double dose (6 milligram/kilogram body weight) and each dose has gape of two weeks,fail to cure A. marginalecarrier heifers(McHardy & Simpson. 1974). The animals recovered completely with imidocarb dipropionate (Akhter et al. 2010).The E elephantina and Aloemarlothiileaf extracts demonstrated good activity against rickettsia. These 2 plants along with Usanguineaand Rtridentata in certain concoctions are believed to be effective against anaplasmosis (Naidoo 2004). Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 2228-T] (1).

382. Antimicrobial Therapy in Veterinary Medicine / 5th ed

by Giguere, Steeve | Prescott, John F | Dowling, Patricia M.

Edition: 5th ed.Material type: book Book; Literary form: not fiction Publisher: Malaysia: Wiley-Blackwell; 2013Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 636.0895329 Steeve 31375 5th 2013 CMS] (2).

383. Comparative Efficacy Of Different Nsaids Against Bovine Ephemeral Fever

by Ghazanfar Ali Chishti (2007-VA-51) | Prof. Dr. Aneela Zameer Durani | Prof. Dr. Muhammad Sarwar Khan | Dr. Shehla Gul Bukhari.

Material type: book Book; Literary form: not fiction Publisher: 2015Dissertation note: Dairy sector has significant role in Pakistan economy with a share of 46.8% in agriculture and 10.8% to Pakistan GDP. Pakistan ranks 4th among largest milk producing countries in the world (Anonymous 2012-13).In last decade, dairy sector in Pakistan has seen tremendous growth and corporate investment. More than 40000 exotic cross bred high producing cattles have been imported. Earlier this sector used to rely primarily on local low producing cattles and small scale subsistence farming, now different commercial dairy farms having high producers exotic cattles are also becoming major contributor in this sector. Trend is changing, different issues concerned with sector are rising. Sensitivity level of commercial dairy farmer is far high as compared to small scale traditional farmers, they can not accept or tolerate any factor affecting economy of their dairy business due to heavy investment. One such issue rose to headlines in July-August 2014, Pakistan dairy industry was struck badly with an outbreak of viral disease called Bovine Ephemeral Fever (BEF). It caused colossal damages to dairy industry in terms of decreased milk production, mortalities and treatment costs. This was not an out rightly a new disease in Pakistan its episodes have been seen in past in local cattles and buffalo (Asi et al. 1999) and locally it was termed as “will” (Prof Khushe personal communication). But it never got such a hype and attention in past as local animals were already low producers and their production was never affected at substantial level. Local animals were generally weak having low Body Condition Score, a character which does not support the intensity of this disease, Ectoparasite resistance is another factor considered to be a source of protection for local animals. Introduction 2 During initial phase of outbreak, it was considered as a common local epidemic Hemorrhagic Septicemia (HS) and Foot and Mouth Disease (FMD) and few signs also confused it with Milk Fever. But once outbreak progressed, it became clearer that it in neither HS and nor FMD it is something different. After going through literature it was clinically suspected as BEF and later was confirmed through Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR) by University Diagnostic Laboratory (UDL), UVAS, Lahore. BEF is a viral disease caused by genus Ephemerovirus and family Rhabdoviridae. (Uren et al. 1992).It is a noncontagious, vector borne disease of water buffaloes and cattles proposed to be communicated by midges (Culicoides biting) and mosquitoes.(Walker et al. 2012). Ephemeral fever, stiff sickness, three-day-sickness, bovine influenza and bovine epizootic fever have been used to name this viral disease in the different nations at different eras (Chiu 1986; Chiu and Lu 1986; Lin and Inoue 1969; St.George1981). BEF happens seasonally in temperate, tropical and subtropical regions of Asia, Africa, Middle-East and Australia and this is a disabling disease with significant economic effect due to reduction of milk production, loss of health status in beef herds, abortion and infertility. Characteristic clinical signs comprise of a sudden onset of fever as high as 41 °C, an abrupt and austere drop in milk production, lethargy, inappetence, salivation, depression, nasal discharge, stiffness, dyspnea and ruminal stasis (Walker et al. 2012). Primarily, pathogenesis of BEF is based on vascular inflammation (Young and Spradbrow, 1980) so this provides the rationale for its treatment through anti-inflammatory drugs. Different NSAIDs have been used in previous studies phenylbutazone, flunixin meglumine and ketoprofen (Uren and Murphy, 1985; St George et al. 1984) but no study has been found using most common field NSAID of Pakistan, meloxicam. So, here a comparative study was carried out between three NSAIDs meloxicam, ketoprofen and phenylbutazone on naturally infected BEF animal. Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 2243-T] (1).

384. Incidence And Hematological Study Of Trichomoniasis In Domestic And Wild Pigeons In And Around Lahore

by Akhtar Abbas (2008-VA-91) | Dr. Muhammad Hassan Saleem | Dr. Jawaria Ali Khan | Prof. Dr. Kamran Ashraf.

Material type: book Book; Literary form: not fiction Publisher: 2015Dissertation note: Poultry industry is the most effective and economical source of animal protein. Because of increasing future demands, poultry industry is unable to narrow down the animal protein supply and demand gap. Poultry producers are looking forward for using the alternate source of chicken meat, which in the future will come from pigeon and quail meat. It will be very help full for increasing gross domestic production (GDP) through livestock sector (Basit et al. 2006). Pigeons have been domesticated to live close with human beings. Pigeons originate from the rock dove in Europe, have been partially domesticated and carried to all parts of the world. Pigeons have been divided into three groups. 1) Poultry pigeons 2) Carrier and racing pigeons 3) Fancy and feral pigeon Pigeons are easily bred to produce a variety of plumage or to provide squabs for the table (Basit et al. 2006). It is very well known that internal parasites cause great loss to the host, by different ways. These parasites live at the expense of host depriving them from the nutrients essential for their growth. Moreover they cause mechanical harm by producing inflammation and tissue damaged. Protozoa inhabiting the digestive tract of birds are responsible for considerable economic losses. Heavy infestation of the parasites affect the health of birds with loss in the body weight, retarded growth, unthriftiness, damage to the gut epithelium, fertility disturbances, emaciation and death especially in young birds (Urquhart, 1996). Introduction 2 Common name of Trichomonas gallinae is canker, frounce and roup. Predilection site of this parasite is esophagus, crop and proventiculus. It belongs to the family Trichomondidae and class Zoomastigophorasida (Taylor et al. 2007). Body of T. gallinae is elongated, ellipsoidal os pyriform. Its size is 5-19 × 2-9 μm. It has four anterior flagella that arise from blephroplast, having undulating membrane that does not reach the posterior end of body and free posterior flagellum is absent. Its axostyle is narrow and protrudes 2-8 μm from the body and its anterior portion is flattened into a spatulate captulum. Its parabasal body is hook shaped and parabasal filament is present (Taylor et al. 2007). The host of T. gallinae is pigeon, turkey, chicken and raptors (hawks, falcons and eagle). As the method of reproduction is concerned it reproduced by longitudinal binary fission. There is no sexual stages and cyst are present in its life cycle. Lesion present in the turkey and chicken are most commonly in the area of crop, oesophagus, pharynx and no lesion are found in mouth (Taylor et al. 2007). Size of trophozoites of T. gallinae is about 7-11 μm. Its shape is varied from oval to pyriform. It has four flagella and a fifth recurrent one, which did not become free at the posterior pole. Size of nucleus is about 2.5–3 μm, oval in shape and situated closely below the basal bodies of the flagella. Its axostyle consisted of a row of microtubules that is running from the region of the apical basal bodies to the posterior end of the cell (Mehlhorn et al. 2009). Infected pigeons show wild signs of depression, lose weight, stand huddled with ruffled feathers and may fall over when forced to move. There is an accumulation of greenish fluid present in the mouth and crop containing large number of trichomonads in it. Yellow, necrotic lesions are present in the esophagus and crop (Taylor et al. 2007). Introduction 3 Trichomonas gallinae is a causative agent of trichomoniais in birds. It affects mostly to the young birds and causes death in them, especially in pigeons within 10 days. This Protozoa is present in the gastrointestinal tract of birds and causes greater financial losses. Clinical sign of diseased birds are dull, depress and having yellow color diarrhea. Morbidity rate of this disease is high in birds. If infected birds are not treated, it causes high mortality in diseased birds, due to this reason this problem become very important. Trichomonas gallinae presents in upper digestive system and respiratory system. So it affects both digestive system and respiratory system. It is mainly found in pigeons, but turkey, chicken, hawks, mourning doves, golden eagles, falcons and bustards may also be infested with this protozoa (Saleem et al. 2008). Small, whitish to yellowish caseous nodules are found in the esophagus, pharynx and crop. Their size increased and may remain circumscribed and separate, or may become thick, caseous, necrotic mass present in lumen. The circumscribed disk shape lesion are known as yellow buttons. Size of nodule is 1 cm or more and found in liver, lungs and other organs (Taylor et al. 2007). Infection spread to turkey and chicken by drinking contaminated water. The pigeon and other wild birds are also source of infection, which also use the water source. T. gallinae enters in the water through mouth and not from feces of the wild birds. Source of infection is direct contamination because this organism is very sensitive to drying and no cyst are found (Taylor et al. 2007). There are more chances of trichomoniasis in young one than in adult pigeons. During feeding carrier pigeons transmit this disease to their young ones. The pathological lesions associated with trichomoniasis is inflammation, ulceration, and necrosis in nature. These lesion are more predominant in the oral cavity, esophagus, crop and proventiculus (Kennedy et al. 2001). Introduction 4 This disease is present worldwide. A clonal strain of previously described organism has been recently developed as the cause of widespread disease of birds in Europe and causes a grate economic losses (Ganas et al. 2014). In Britain, this infectious disease was first described in 2005. This disease causes significant mortality in birds which results in decreased population of green finches and passenines (Robinson et al. 2010). T. gallinae affects upper digestive system of birds and results in pathological changes in structure of different parts of digestive system. It causes slight inflammation of mucosa to large caseous lesions of esophages. These lesion sometime block the lumen of esophagus. Due to this secondary infection of parasites, bacteria and virus takes place in diseased birds. Different strains of parasites move toward other organs such as liver, air sacs, lung, and brain. They causes necrosis of these organ, which leads to the death of birds (De Carli et al. 2002). Prevalence of T. gallinae infection is different in different age of birds. Prevalence increased with the age of nestling (Krone et al. 2005). A higher prevalence of Trichomoniasis has been recorded in pigeons in Pakistan season wise prevalence has been recorded to be 43%, being non significantly higher in April (56%) than in March (30%). Trichomoniasis positive cases show a significant decrease in hemoglobin concentration, number of monocyte, packed cell volume, body weight than healthy birds (Saleem et al. 2008). T.gallinae is a parasite of different species of birds ranging columbiformes, diurnal raptors and captive gallinaceous birds. It causes stomatitis, esophagitis and ingluvitis (Bunbury et al. 2007). This disease is recently emerged in British passerines. This parasite has caused high mortality in finch and their population is decreased and this disease is also spread to continental Europe (Chi JF 2013). Introduction 5 The sequence of T.gallinarum is different from Tetratrichomonas gallinarum that is another trichomonad of birds, but it is genetically similar to Trichomonas Caninistomae that affect dog and cat and causes oral infection. Pigeons are prey of dog, so there is possibility that T. gallinae may have infected (carnivorous) mammals in the past (Gasper et al. 2007). This disease causes large economic loss of avain livestock and also cause problems for wild species of birds. In UK T. gallinae has caused the death of greenfinches (Lawson et al.2006). Trichomoniasis was first reported in 2005 in Britain. It was discovered in finches. It caused large scale mortality in finches with population decline (Robinson et al. 2010; Lawson et al. 2011). In 2007 this disease is reported in finches in the Canadian Maritime provinces, southern Fennoscandia and northern Germany (Lawson et al. 2011). This disease caused high morbidity and mortality in finch population in Britian. It is estimated that about 1.5 million greenfinches which represent the 35% of national population have been died with this disease (Lawson et al. 2011). In this disease multiple foci of caseous necrosis is seen in oral, esophagus and crop mucosae. There is heavy infiltration of inflammatory cells especially heterophill in these areas. There is multiple foci of necrotic inflammation is seen on liver. Due to excessive infiltration of heterophils in there is thickening of mucosa of easophagus. Necrotic material is also seen in mucosa and submucosa of easophagus. There is necrosis on the tip of villi of intestine and necrotic materials is seen in the mucosa of intestine (Al Sadi et al. 2011). Trichomoniasis occurred more frequently in young than adult pigeons. High prevelance of trichomoniasis have seen in male than female pigeons (Al Sadi et al. 2011). Nestling birds are more susceptible to this disease than other birds. In Tucson, Arizon study was conduct and this study show that T. gallinae was present in oral cavity of 85% nestling coopers hawks compared to Introduction 6 only 1% of breeding age hawks. This disease is more prevalent in young pigeons. T. gallinae is sensitive to environmental pH. Trichomonas gallinae develop well when pH is between 6.5 and 7.5 (optimum 7.2), but cannot survive in more acidic pH. In fledgling and breeding Coopers Hawks pH of their oral cavity is acidic, so they are less susceptible to trichomoniasis and this is very important in differential prevelance among age group of birds (Urban et al. 2014). Trichomonas gallinae changes the blood picture of infected birds. It causes decreased values of Hb, PCV and monocytes in infected pigeons than the healthy pigeons, while TLC, heterophils, lymphocytes and eosinophils are increased in disease pigeons than the healthy pigeons (Seddiek et al. 2014). Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 2241-T] (1).

385. Effects Of Aflatoxin M1 (Afm1) On Sheep And Efficacy Of Mycotoxin Binders

by Muhammad Akhtar (2008-VA-122) | Dr. Jawaria Ali Khan | Dr. Muhammad Hassan Saleem | Dr. Muhammad Ovais Omer.

Material type: book Book; Literary form: not fiction Publisher: 2015Dissertation note: Livestock production is an important part of national economy and it plays a significant role in providing the high quality food for human beings. Dairy industry of Pakistan contributes up to 46.8% in the agriculture and about 10.8% of the GDP in the form of milk, milk products, meat, hides, skin and bone meal (Ghaffar et al. 2007). Molds are fungi consisting of filaments that are present in the feed of animals. Molds can cause many infections in dairy cattle, especially during period of stress when their immune system is depressed. They cause a special disorder that is termed as Mycosis. Specific mycotoxins are produced by these fungi and when these animals eat such type of feed then they also engulf such dangerous mycotoxins. Mycotoxins are produced by a wide range of various molds and can be classified as secondary metabolites meaning that their function is not essential to the mold’s existence (Whitlow and Hagler 2005). In the European countries, sheep milk is mainly produced in the Spain, and it is about 403000 tons per year. The main purpose of this milk is to produce cheese. Manchego cheese is considered as the best quality cheese in the world. This is the only technique by which we can produce the high quality of cheese (Rubio et al. 2009). These Aflatoxins are the fungal main dangerous constituents that can contaminate the feed of animals very easily. If AFB1 contaminated ration is consumed by animals then metabolism takes place in these toxins and excrete AFM1 in milk which further reduces milk production. More long-lasting aflatoxin poisoning produces very dissimilar signs that may not be clinically superficial and decreased rate of production in young animals. Severe aflatoxicosis causes hepatitis, hemorrhage, and death. Decreased growth rate is the most delicate clinical symbol of chronic aflatoxicosis, and it may be the only readily obvious abnormality. Natural toxins considerably show the greater danger to human and animal health. One large group of natural toxins that are universally Introduction 2 documented as poisons of food and feed are the mycotoxins. The toxins occur naturally in various animal feeds, including corn and cottonseed. To control AFM1 in milk, it is essential to decrease the feed contamination by AFB1 (Prandini et al. 2009). The livestock is playing major role in enhancing agricultural productivity and it has also major contribution to decrease the rate of poverty in the rural areas of Pakistan. Most farmers have domesticated sheep in their home which are their major sources of income (Mahmood et al. 2009). Aflatoxins adulterated rations prompted important reduction in daily feed consumption and the means of body weight, body weight increment and feed transformation rates were radically affected during the exposure stage to aflatoxins. Furthermore, serum ingredients and ruminal measurements showed lessened liver function and digestive turbulences in sheep fed aflatoxin (Jouany and Diaz 2005) Aflatoxins are included in that group of toxins which are considered as highly toxic toxins. Aspergillus parasiticus, Aspergillus flavus and Aspergillus nomius are those types of fungi which can produce very strong type of toxins. Aflatoxin B1 (AFB1) is considered as the most dangerous type of aflatoxin and it is very strong hepato-toxin (damaging the liver as a whole). It can also cause cancer, can produce teratogens, and may also cause mutation in the both animals and in human beings. AFB1 being very toxic, can be activated by the special metabolism of liver and through cytochrome P450. The cancer causing ability of AFBI is ten times more than the AFM1. The conversion of AFB1 to AFM1 in the milk producing animals is in the range of half percent to about six percent. In milk producing animals the level of aflatoxin M1 is greatly altered by the contamination rate of aflatoxin B1 (Bognanno et al. 2006). It is observed that the excretion pattern of aflatoxin M1 in the milk of sheep is lower than the excretion pattern of aflatoxin M1 in the milk of cows. Due to presence of aflatoxin B1 in the feed of animals and hence appearance of aflatoxin M1 in the milk of animals shows that Introduction 3 milk of such animals becomes more toxic and more un-hygienic. The young ones having milk as their main feed ingredient may have much more chances of getting various infections. (Var and Kabak 2009). To check the level of aflatoxin M1 in the milk of sheep, various experimental studies have been performed in the whole world (Battacone et al. 2005). In Pakistan, there are many favorable environmental conditions in which various types of fungi can easily prompted (Iqbal et al. 2011). The contamination level of aflatoxin M1 in the milk of dairy animals and in the dairy products has been found by (Hussain et al. 2008). Aflatoxins can be produced from fungal metabolites. Aflatoxin M1 is produced as the complete metabolism of aflatoxin B1 has taken place. Aflatoxin B1, when converted into aflatoxin M1 is appeared in the milk of that animals and the same aflatoxin M1 can also be appeared in the dairy products which can contaminate the feed of human too. Transformation of aflatoxin B1 into the aflatoxin M1 is around one to two percent. This transformation is highly dependent upon the feed of animals, transformation from one affected animal to other healthy animal, transformation from the milking of affected animal to the milking of healthy animal and from one day to another day also. It is also noted that as the level of aflatoxin B1 in the feed of animal is decreased down then the level of M1 in the milk of animals is also dropped down significantly but it takes about 72 hours for this dropped down (Nilchian and Rahimi 2012). AFM1 had a resistant to thermal inactivation used during food processing procedure such as pasteurization and autoclaving. Storage of various dairy products was not effective in the reduction of this toxin (Ozdemir 2007). Aflatoxin M1 level in the milk of animals can also be found in 12 to 24 hours after the ingestion of aflatoxin B1. After this, its level can be raised within the few days. The estimation of conversion rate of aflatoxin B1 in the contaminated feed of animals into aflatoxin M1 in the milk that animal is elaborated as 1 to 3 percent in a specific range (Ozdemir 2007). Introduction 4 Aflatoxin B 1 being very much dangerous mycotoxin, it is very much important to know about such methods by which the level of aflatoxin B1 in the feed of animals can be controlled. For this purpose we should first come to know the basic source of feed contamination of animals, and after this we should adapt such easy method to determine the level of aflatoxin B1 in the animal’s feed and such methods should be very cost effective. The best accepted and recognized method to determine aflatoxin M1 level in the milk of infected animals is HPLC high-performance liquid chromatography and TLC thin-layer chromatography (Thirumala-Devi et al. 2002). Aflatoxin M1 can be found in the milk of infected animals and can also be found in the products that are prepared from that contaminated milk. This contamination is the main problem arising now a days in the whole world (Fallah et al. 2009). Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 2237-T] (1).

386. Quick Reference to Veterinary Medicine

by Fenner, William R.

Edition: 2nd ed.Material type: book Book Publisher: USA: Lippincott Williams & Wilkins; 1991Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 636.0896075 William 14029 2nd 1991 Medicine] (1).

387. The Veterinary Clinics of North America: Small Animal Practice

by Jhonston D. S.

Edition: 1st ed.Material type: book Book Publisher: USA: W.B.Sounders company; 1991Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 636.083297 Jhonston 15860 Vol.21 1991 CMS] (1).

388. Wright's Veterinary Anaesthesia and Analgesia / 7th ed

by Wright, John G | Hall, Leslie W.

Edition: 7th ed.Material type: book Book Publisher: UK: Bailliere Tindall; 1971Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 636.089796 Wright 10434 7th 1971 CMS] (11).

389. Anesthesia : 2nd ed / Vol.1

by Miller, Ronald D.

Edition: 2nd ed.Material type: book Book; Literary form: not fiction Publisher: USA: Churchill Livingstone; 1986Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 617.96 Miller 13021 Vol 1. 2nd 1986 CMS] (1).

390. Veterinary Trauma and Critical Care

by Zaslow, Ira M.

Edition: 1st edMaterial type: book Book Publisher: USA: Lea & Febiger; 1984Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 636.08971 Zaslow 12842 1st 1984 CMS] (1).

391. Seroprevalence And Risk Factors Of Brucellosis In Ruminents In District Skardu Of Gilgit

by Sajid Hussain (2008-VA-77) | Dr. Muhammad Avais | Dr. Iahtasham Khan | Dr. Jawaria Ali Khan | Dr. Shehla Gul Bukhari.

Material type: book Book; Literary form: not fiction Publisher: 2015Dissertation note: Brucellosis is among the vital zoonotic and transmissible bacterial diseases of most of the animal’s worldwide (Shafee et al. 2011). Various types of brucella species are the causative agents of bovine brucellosis. In bovines, brucellosis is mainly triggered by Brucella abortus, less repeatedly by Brucella melitensis and sometimes by Brucellosis suis. As it is a zoonotic disease so, the public health is near thoughtful risk. According to (Pappas et al. 2006), it is considered to be the collective zoonosis worldwide, moreover 5, 00,000 cases of brucellosis are reported annually in both animals and humans. It is a common problem of under developed countries with poor health programs. This disease has been eradicated from USA, Canada, Japan, and New Zealand however; it is still an uncontrolled hazard in highly endemic regions of Africa, Latin America, Middle East and Asia (Refai, 2002). According to Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO), World Health Organization (WHO) and Office International of Epizootics (OIE), brucellosis is considered the most wide spread zoonosis in the world (Schelling et al. 2003). The infection transfers via contact with the body secretions, aborted fetus, contaminated milk feeding, licking of aborted fetuses and also venereal disease. In animals, reproduction, fertility, reduced survival of newborn, decreased milk production and noticed able mortality of the adult are the main effects of brucellosis. (Al-Sous et al. 2004). It is characterized by abortion during 3rd trimester of pregnancy, weak calves, still births infertility, placentitis, epididymitis, orchitis and the excretion of organisms in milk and uterine secretions. According to public opinion brucellosis is work-related disease it has more effects on INTRODUCTION Page 2 Veterinarians, slaughter house and farm workers likely butchers and shepherds (Yagupsky and Baron 2005). Brucellosis occurs in cattle, Sheep, goats, swines, camels, dogs and it may also affect the other ruminants and marine mammals. The other names of brucellosis are Enzootic abortion, Contagious abortion, Bangs disease, Undulant, Malta and Mediterranean fever. It also causes significant losses in those animals which are sexually matured (Forbes and Tessaro 1996). The main causative agent of bovine brucellosis is Brucella abortus (Ali et al. 2014). The animals and persons, who are directly or indirectly in contact with infected animals, its products and by-products, may acquire infection easily. The main source of human infection is the raw milk of the infected animal as it excretes brucella in milk (Shimol et al. 2012). The Serological, Bacteriological and Molecular Methods are used for the diagnosis of brucellosis in the farm animals and humans. Bacteriological method is considered to be the most standard method among all of the above mentioned methods (Sathyanarayanan et al. 2011). However, due to non-availability of ‘BSL-3 laboratory’ for culturing and isolation, time taking nature and because of the safety concerns of the laboratory workers, it is not widely applicable. According to Alton et al. (1998), in Pakistan, at animal and herd level, the molecular tools, like ‘Polymerase Chain Reaction’ (PCR), are not economical for screening due to limited resources. ‘Milk Ring Test’, a serological test, is economical and mostly used for the diagnosis of brucellosis however according to Huber and Nicoletti et al. (1986), its specificity and sensitivity is doubtful even now. In most of the countries, for the control and eradication of the disease the serological diagnosis is widely used. Although, different techniques are used to detect the brucella antibodies but, different antibody isotopes were detected by each one of the technique to INTRODUCTION Page 3 determine seropositive animal to brucellosis (Nielsen et al. 2001). The serological test is more sensitive as compare to the culture techniques but its specificity was quite low (Al-Attas et al. 2000). Diverse studies have been conducted worldwide to evaluate different brucella diagnostic techniques. ELISA was found more sensitive and specific as compared to other serological techniques and the findings confirmed that standard tests, like Rose Bengal Plate test (RBPT) and Serum Agglutination Test (SAT) only detect antibodies to the LPS (lipopolysaccharides) antigen of Brucella abortus so, it has low specificity (Al-Attas et al. 2000). The advanced in specificity and sensitivity levels of the ‘Serological Diagnosis’ as compared to the other conventional technique are due to the introduction of the indirect immuno-enzymatic technique (Mousing et al. 1997). The indirect ELISA uses cytoplasmic proteins to measure the immunoglobulins of classes M, G, and A. The clinical situation can thus be interpreted better further it also overcomes some of the short comings of serum agglutination test. A comparison shows that ELISA is more specific and sensitive than SAT (serum agglutination test) Almuneef and Memish (2003). According to certain studies conducted worldwide and also in Pakistan, it has been proved that ELISA tests are more accurate and reliable than other tests like Serum Agglutination Test (SAT) and Milk Ring Test (MRT), showing high seropositive samples. Shafee et al. 2011 confirmed by using i-ELISA for the prevalence of brucellosis in Quetta city and the result was found to be 3 and 8.5 percent overall prevalence in cattle using MRT and indirect ELISA respectively. The Gilgit Baltistan is at developing stages in the livestock sector, small farmers owning 95% of the Gilgit Baltistan’s livestock and are landless, providing an opportunity for improving INTRODUCTION Page 4 the quality of their livestock. The areas selected for the study were the villages (Shagaribala, Shagari kalan, Kathpanah, Chunda, Kachura, Hussain abad and Sadpara) of Skardu district, which are very important from livestock point of view. There is a dire need of screening these animals for the zoonotic point of view. It is the first time that effort for the diagnosis of brucellosis in Gilgit Baltistan by using the serological test like Rose Bengal Plate Aggulutination Test (RBPT) and Indirect Enzyme Linked Immunosorbent Assay (ELISA) has been made. Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 2246-T] (1).

392. A Study On The Correlation Of Serum Electrolytes And Trace Elements Along With Associated Risk Factors In Diarrheic Buffalo And Cattle Calves

by Fazal Abbas (2006-VA-182) | Dr. Muhammad Ijaz | Dr. Jawaria Ali Khan | Prof. Dr. AzharMaqbool.

Material type: book Book; Literary form: not fiction Publisher: 2014Dissertation note: Pakistan being an agriculture country has 70% of its population that is totally dependent on agriculture and livestock sector which plays an important role in the economy of the country. Livestock has contribution of about 55.4 percent to the agricultural value added and 11.9 percent to the National GDP. Pakistan has population of about 64.9 millions of goat, 38.3 millions of cattle, 33.7 millions of buffaloes and 28.8 millionsheep population according to the economic survey estimate. Mutton production is about 643 million tons and beef production is about 1,829 tons out of total 3,379 million tons of meat production. Livestock produces approximately 49,512 million tons of milk out of which buffalo produces 62.0% while cattle produces 35% and sheep-goat produces 1.69% (Economic Survey, 2012-2013). Pakistan is the 3rd largest milk producing country in the world (Afzal, 2010). Diarrhea can be defined as an increased in volume and quantity of fecal excretion. The diarrhea may contain mucous, blood, poor odor and variation in color then the normal feces.On the basis of time period, diarrhea has different types likeacute, constant and chronic. Time Period of acute diarrhea is not more than 14 days while in case of persistent/constant form, it continued for more than 14 days and in chronic case the diarrhea remain for a time period of 28 days(Bazeley, 2003) Diarrhea is a leading factor towards the death of calves. Neonatal calf diarrhea is among the very important diseases of the calves worldwide. It is animportant contribution to the major economic losses in cattle industry. The cause of calve diarrhea may be infectious or non-infectious (Elhassan et al. 2011). Bad hygiene, overpopulation, overfeeding, hot/cold temperature, feeding the calves artificially and the colostrum’s deprivation are all predisposing factor in the complex etiology of the disease (Hemashenpagam et al. 2009). Infectious agent and the co-infection of different multiple pathogens are common in calves having diarrhea. Rotavirus, Cryptosporidium, corona virus and enterotoxigenicE. coli collectively are associated with 75-95% of the infections in calf diarrhea around the world. Clinically, Neonatal calf diarrhea is characterized by profuse acute watery diarrhea, progressive dehydration, acidosis and death within a few days. The degree of dehydration is estimated by the physical examination of calf and has been introduced as a reliable method (Radostits et al. 2009). Experimentally the intestinal potassium and sodium combination can be bothered by different causes and various types of factors. However, electrolytes that are built up in the gastrointestinal tract have a function to reduce the water assimilation. Due to this, the organism losses water and the electrolyte commonly (Smith, 2009) To evaluate the serum electrolytes as well as the acid-base imbalance, there is a need of laboratory tests which cannot be measured regularly in field condition.To check the degree of dehydration is a uniform protocol and is anticipated by body condition score of calves (Naylor 1989). The electrolytes deficiency in neonatal diarrheic calves might be the cause of death in some cases. Althoughit is understood that serum concentrations of potassium (K) and sodium (Na) are very much necessary with reference to the fluids composition used for treatment purpose (Rucker et al. 2008). Trace elements have also important part inthe reproduction, growth and productivity of the householdanimals. The imbalance and Difference in ratio of minerals leads towards both production and economic losses throughout the world. The important symptoms of trace element deficiencies that can be clinically shown in animals are anemia, diarrhea, loss of hair, pigmentation loss, growth disorders in bones, difficulty during walking, a flaky deposit in skin, bending, hyperkeratosis, Para keratosis, lack of appetite, decrease in reproductivity and fertility, young animal growth disorders, Tetany, reduction in protein synthesis, immunity compromised calves, abortion related to non-infectious factors and pica. However, reduction in the concentration of trace elements like cobalt, copper, iron, iodine, manganese, selenium or zinc leads to lower reproduction rates and lactation. Untreated changes in the serum concentrations of Ca, Mg and some trace elements may be the root of cause of some death or post diarrhea complications such growth retardation (Tajik and Nazifi, 2012). The serum values of calcium (Ca) and magnesium (Mg) that is abnormal persists for a significantly long duration after the treatment of neonatal diarrheic calves. The normal serum concentration of Ca in cow has been reported as 2.43-3.1 mmol/L while the mean serum Ca in diarrheic calves reported was 1.297mmol/L. The normal serum concentration of Mg in cow has been reported as 0.74-0.95 mmol/L while the mean serum Mg was reported to be 0.8145mmol/L (Kaneko et al. 2008). There are many advantages of using the hypertonic saline solution (7.5% NaCl; 4ml/kg BW) in diarrheic buffaloes and cattle to resuscitate them. Infusion of Hypertonic saline solution resulted in significant increase in sodium and chloride level in serum. The important feature for the successful and complete resuscitation of hypovolemia along with endotoxaemia in diarrheic buffalo calves is the total amount of sodium. The infusion of Hypertonic saline solution is quite safer and it does cause hypernatremia but not for a prolonged period. So, hypertonic saline solution has advantage of resuscitating the calves from acidemia and hypovolemia. It was also helpful in the improvement of oxygenation and cardiovascular performance (Zafar et al. 2012). The neonatal calf diarrhea can be cured by using the electrolyte therapy like ringer lactate, non-steroidal anti-inflammatory medicines and antibiotics in case of infectious diarrhea and through better farm management depending upon the root of cause (Radostits et al. 2009). There is a hypothesis that treatment of diarrheic calves with NSAIDs attenuates the behavior of sickness as well as gastrointestinal discomfort and encourages the calves to maintain an appetite supports the calves for better performance (Ghanem et al. 2012) Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 2220-T] (1).

393. Epidemiological Studies And Chemotherapy Of Postparturient Haemoglobinuria In Buffaloes

by Muhammad Ijaz Ul Haq (2008-VA-83) | Dr. Jawaria Ali Khan | Dr. Muhammad Avais | Prof. Dr. Mian Abdul Sattar.

Material type: book Book; Literary form: not fiction Publisher: 2015Dissertation note: The district Gujranwala lies at northern part of the Punjab in Pakistan. It is situated between two main cities, in North is Gujrat and in South, there are Sheikhupura and Lahore. The majority of the population lives in the rural areas and mainly earns their livelihood through agriculture. The source of irrigation is perennial and non-perennial canals supplemented by tube wells. This area is heavily populated with buffaloes rather than cattle. Buffalo is playing a foremost role in the national economy by producing milk, meat and draught power. Out of total milk produced in the country, buffalo contributes about 68 %. Due to high fat contents of buffalo milk, it is the ideal species in Pakistan (Bilal et al. 2006). Buffaloes suffer from many fatal diseases throughout the year causing irretrievable economic losses in the GDP. Among these fatal diseases, Postparturient haemoglobinuria is a frightening problem for the economy of Pakistan and as well as for the whole world. Postparturient haemoglobinuria is a periodic condition seen worldwide that most frequently affects high-yielding dairy animals at the onset of lactation. It is characterized by development of per acute intravascular hemolysis and anemia with potentially lethal results. Beef and non-lactating cattle are hardly ever affected. The exact cause is unidentified, but phosphorus reduction or hypophosphatemia is known to be a major predisposing factor. Decrease in the Phosphorus level of RBCs is known to raise osmotic tenderness of the RBCs, probably predisposing to intravascular hemolysis. A parallel condition reported in New Zealand was linked with copper depletion, potentially building RBCs were more prone to oxidative trauma. Other potential causes were hemolytic or oxidative plant toxins (Michael A. Moses and Aiello 2014). In buffalo rearing countries mainly in India, Pakistan and Egypt, Postparturient haemoglobinuria was a major problem as described by (Pirzada and Hussain 1998). Acute hypo phosphataemia was linked with high producing buffaloes and characterized by intravascular hemolysis (Kurundkar et al. 1981). Postparturient haemoglobinuria was a disease of high yielding buffaloes in district Attock, Rawalpindi, Jhelum and Faisalabad where soil was deficient in mineral contents. The disease was distinguished by icteric and inflexible constipation in pregnant animal (Hussain et al. 1991). Postparturient haemoglobinuria was mainly disease of buffaloes and found in almost all the districts of Pakistan (Pirzada and Hussain 1998). In buffaloes, Postparturient haemoglobinuria occurred mostly after 3rd week of parturition during 3rd to 5th lactation having a period of 5 to 6 days of illness (Nagpal et al. 1968). The occurrence of hypophosphatemia was highest in buffaloes in progressive pregnancy or in 3rd to 6th lactation (Gautam et al. 1972). Multiparous females were mostly affected by Hypo phosphataemia and a range of etiological factors were reported to be related with the disease in unusual parts of the world (Singari et al. 1991). Dietary phosphorus shortage and rations containing cruciferous plants were supposed causes of rigorous hypo phosphataemia and had been associated with hemolytic anemia in cows and buffaloes (Heuer and Bode 1998). Mucous membranes turned pale or might become icteric with the development of anemia and breathing became rapid and shallow with tachycardia (Spears 2003). During third to sixth lactation of adult dairy buffaloes, this disease was more frequently seen, showing weakness and recumbency (Macwilliams et al. 1982). The occurrence of the disease in the total cattle population was very stumpy with a case fatality rate ranging from 10% to 50% (Madsen and Nielsen 1939). Sporadically, farms with a predominantly elevated incidence might be encountered but typically only one or two cases were clinically evident at one time (Freudenberg 1955). In Australia, about 70% cases were reported within 30 days of calving (Mulijns and Ramsay 1959). Bulls, ante partum cows, heifers less than two years old and beef cows were rarely affected. A disease called as "red water" in Ontario, was allied with numerous predisposing factors which integrated recent parturition, intense milk production, dietetic phosphorus absence, utilization of turnips, rape, kale, green alfalfa and sugar beet pulp (Macwilliams et al. 1982). Postparturient haemoglobinuria was one of the foremost and economically important diseases of dairy animals in Pakistan, India and elsewhere in the world (Macwilliams et al. 1982; Chugh et al. 1996; Pirzada and Hussain 1998). Diagnosis was done on the basis of clinical signs, urinalysis and hematological reports of the examined animals (Madsen and Nielsen 1939). In a survey conducted during 1996 in Punjab (Pakistan), mortality rate due to Postparturient haemoglobinuria in buffaloes and cattle was 5% which translated into estimated annual losses of Rs. 490.2 and 153.1 million, respectively (Farooq et al. 2007). Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 2210-T] (1).

394. The Veterinary Clinics of North America: Small Animal Practice

by Vassallo, John.

Edition: 1st ed.Material type: book Book Publisher: USA: W.B.Sounders company; 2000Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 636.083297 Vassallo 15508 1st 2000 CMS] (1).

395. Pathophysiology of Disease : An introduction to Clinical Medicine

by Mcphee,Stephen J.

Edition: 4th ed.Material type: book Book Publisher: USA: Mcgraw Hills; Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 616.07 McPhee 15770 4th 2003 Pathology] (1).

396. The Practice of Veterinary Medicine / 6th ed

by D. H. Udall.

Edition: 6th edMaterial type: book Book Publisher: USA: The Author; 1954Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 636.089 Udall 4903 6th 1954 CMS] (2).

397. The Veterinary Clinics of North America: Small Animal Practice

by Cheryl L. Chrisman.

Edition: 1st ed.Material type: book Book Publisher: USA: W.B.Saunders company; 1980Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 636.083297 Chrisman 18580 Vol.10 1980 CMS] (1).

398. Bronchial Asthma

by D. Behera.

Edition: 2nd ed.Material type: book Book Publisher: India: Jaypee Brothers Medical Publishers (P) Ltd; 2005Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 616.238 Behera 19364 2nd 2005 CMS] (1).

399. Patterns of Animal Disease

by Halpin, Brendan.

Edition: 1stMaterial type: book Book Publisher: USA: Bailliere Tindall; 1975Availability: Items available for loan: Pattoki Library [Call number: 636.08944 Halpin 13494 1st 1975 CMS] (1), UVAS Library [Call number: 636.08944 Halpin 13042 1st 1975 CMS] (1).

400. Veterinary Dentistry : Principles and Practice

by Wiggs, Robert B | Lobprise, Heidi B.

Edition: 1st ed.Material type: book Book Publisher: USA: Wiley-Blackwell; 1997Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 636.08976 Wiggs 20728 1st 1997 CMS] (3).



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