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1. Clinico Bacteriological Investigation Of Mastitis Dairy Goats

by Muhammad Rizwan | Prof Dr Aneela Zameer Durrani | Dr Muhammad Ijaz | Dr Sehrish | Faculty of Veterinary Sciences.

Material type: book Book; Format: print ; Literary form: drama Publisher: 2014Dissertation note: Abstract Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 1862,T] (1).

2. Comparative Potency Testing Of Oil Based Foot And Mouth Disease Caccines In Azakheli Buffaloes

by Asghar khan | Prof. Dr Aneela zameer durrani | Dr, Syed Sleem ahmad | Prof Dr Khushi.

Material type: book Book; Format: print ; Literary form: not fiction Publisher: 2014Dissertation note: Abstract Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 1870,T] (1).

3. Prevalence And Chemotherapy Of Prevalence and Chemotherapy of Balantidium Coli in Sheep And Goats in And Around Lahore

by Mustafa jamil | Dr. Muhammad Ijaz | Prof. Dr. Aneela Zameer Durrani | Prof. Dr. Azhar.

Material type: book Book; Format: print ; Literary form: drama Publisher: 2014Dissertation note: Abstract Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 1885,T] (1).

4. Prevalence And Intensity Of Haenonchosis In Small Ruminants In Lodhran Its Trearment And Effect On Hemogram and Serum Biochemistry

by Hafiz Muhammad Qasun | Dr.Muhammad Avais | Prof. Dr | Prof. Dr Aneela zameer durrani.

Material type: book Book; Format: print ; Literary form: not fiction Publisher: 2014Dissertation note: Abstract Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 1903,T] (1).

5. Frozen Tectonic Corneal Grafting For Repair Of Perforating Corneal Ulcers In Dogs

by Abid Hussain | Dr. Asim khalid mehmood | Dr. Zia ullah | Prof. Dr. Aneela zameer durrani.

Material type: book Book; Format: print ; Literary form: not fiction Publisher: 2014Dissertation note: Abstract Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 2069,T] (1).

6. Prevalence And Chemotherapy Of Fusobactemium Necrophorum In Dairy Cattle

by Haq Nawaz | Prof. Dr. Muhammad Sarwar Khan | Dr | Prof. Dr. Aneela Zameer Durrani.

Material type: book Book; Format: print ; Literary form: not fiction Publisher: 2014Dissertation note: Abstract Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 2146,T] (1).

7. Common Nosocomial Bacterial Isolation And Identification From Veterinary Hospitals

by Muhammad Umar Zafar Khan (2008-VA-255) | Prof. Dr. Aneela Zameer Durrani | Prof.Dr.Muhammad Sarwar Khan | Dr. Hassan Bin Aslam.

Material type: book Book; Literary form: not fiction Publisher: 2015Dissertation note: CD not available. Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 2217-T] (1).

8. Safety Level And Efficacy Of Controlled Release Urea On Performance And Health Status Of Nili Ravi Buffalo

by Muhammad Mobin (2007-VA-156) | Prof. Dr. Aneela Zameer Durrani | Dr. Jawairia Ali Khan | Dr. Nisar Ahmad.

Material type: book Book; Literary form: not fiction Publisher: 2014Dissertation note: Livestock is one of the major sectors of Pakistan’s agrarian based economy. During 2013-14, it contributed almost 55.4% to the agricultural value added and 11.9% to national GDP. In the livestock sector, gross value addition increased from Rs.735 billion to Rs.756 billion; revealing an increase of 2.9% as compared to the previous year. Livestock is considered the best tool for poverty alleviation, as most of the livestock are owned by poor people who live in the rural areas. Pakistan is 4th largest Milk producing country in the World. Its Cattle Population is 33 Million while Buffalo Population is about 30 Million (Economic Survey of Pakistan, 2013-14). Despite large population, per animal production is very low.The low productivity of these animals is because of poor quality feed stuff. Their productivity can be enhanced by feeding them balanced ration. Growing human population urges the intense need to explore the present livestock resources to fulfill the animal protein requirements. It is impossible unless optimal fodder and forage production is ensured. In Pakistan, low quality fodders coupled with the reduction in the fodder area are the main constraints, which adversely affect the animal production. In future, it is expected that ruminants will be more dependent on forages because readily expanding human population will have direct competition with livestock for edible grains. Among the problems facing the livestock in the tropics is the low protein tropical grasses and the high cost of alternate sources of protein such as the Soybean and other oil cake. A portion of nitrogen in feeds for ruminants may be provided in the form of simple nitrogen compounds (or0non-protein0nitrogen0NPN) 0that are degraded in the0rumen to release ammonia (NH3), which is used by rumen microorganisms to produce amino acids. The amount of NPN that can be provided is limited. The product which is the urea, when it releases NH3 faster than it can be converted into microbial protein excess NH3is absorbed through the rumen wall, causing toxication. Protein is often0the0major0limiting0nutrient for ruminants. Protein-rich leguminous forages and vegetable protein supplements are usually expensive or not available.The manufacture0of0urea and0ammonia for use as0fertilizer has been greatly0expanded in0many countries, 0but these compounds0could0not be0used more0widely in feeds for0ruminants. The ability0of0the0micro-organisms0in0the0rumen0of0cattle0and0sheep0to0utilize0urea0sources0to form0true protein0that0can0be converted0to meat0and0milk0by the0animals, represents0an important0contribution0to0man's0food0supply.0Maximizing0microbial0protein0synthesis0and flow0to0the0duodenum0by0reducing the0recycling of0microbial N in the rumen offers a potential0to improve0the production0efficiency0of ruminants.In general, the efficiency of utilization of dietary N by cattle is relatively low under normal production conditions (Castillo et al, 2001) with a global average N-efficiency in cattle estimated at 7.7 % (Van der Hoek, 1998). Urea is used rather inefficiently for production of protein products (Broderick et al, 2009) and due to its wide use in ruminant feeds, may0be0partially0responsible for0the poor N efficiency0in cattle. Low efficiency of utilization of dietary urea has been attributed to the rapid0hydrolysis0to0ammonia (NH3) in0the0rumen0by microbial0enzymes which occurs at a higher rate than its utilization byrumen bacteria, leading to ruminal accumulation and absorption0of0ammonia andsubsequent excretion of0urea in the urine (Golombeski0et0al., 2006; Highstreet0et0al,2010).Furthermore if used above threshold level, the main problem with urea usage is that it can cause toxicity and even death of the animals. Farmers hesitate to use urea as a source of protein, resulting which his animals remain underfed and never achieve the peak production. Urea0poisoning0is0one0of0the0more0commonly0suspected0toxicities0of0cattle. Urea0is0used as0a source0of non-protein0nitrogen0in feed0supplements.In ruminants,0nitrogen0from0urea is released0in the0rumen as0ammonia0and0can0be0used0by0rumen0micro0flora0to0synthesize protein. This0protein0thenbecomesavailable0to0the0animal0through0the0normal0processes of digestion0and0absorption. However,if0 more0ureaisconsumed0than the rumen organisms can0metabolize, the0ammonia0is0absorbed0from0the0rumen0into0the0blood.Ruminal pHbecame alkaline due to the hydrolysis of urea to0ammonia (Buffalo Bulletin,2002). The ammoniaisthen0converted0back0to urea in0the liver and is0the0excreted by0the0kidneys. This0pathwaycan easily be0overwhelmed,0when excess0ammonia0and urea0circulate0in the blood,0causing0poisoning. Poisoningcanoccur0rapidly0from a few0minutes0to four0hours after0consumption. Suspect0urea0poisoning0if cattle are found0dead close to0the0supplement (H. Parkes et al. 2003).Slow release urea has been shown to affect ruminal fermentation characteristics.Most notably, slow release urea is intended to0reduce0the release rate0of NH3 within the0rumen. Most reports on controlled release urea have shown a reduction in ruminal NH3 concentration when measured (Cherdthonget al, 2011; Huntington etal, 2006b; Taylor- Edwards0et0al, 2009d). This is the reason why slow release urea presents a lower risk for ammonia toxicity than feed grade urea. Ruminal NH3 concentration is often related to ruminal pH, as the protonation of NH3 toNH4+ when ammonia from urea ionizes, can result in an increase in ruminalpH. Consequently, there are reports of higher ruminal pH for animals fed urea than those fed slow release urea (Cherdthongetal, 2011; Taylor-Edwards et al, 2009b) Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 2216-T] (1).

9. Prevalence, Associated Risk Factors And Treatment Of Cryptosporidium Parvum In Foals

by Choudhry Usman Rasheed Butter (2008-VA-253) | Dr. Muhammad Avais | Prof. Dr. Aneela Zameer Durrani | Dr. Shakera Sadiq Gill.

Material type: book Book; Format: print ; Literary form: not fiction Publisher: 2015Dissertation note: Cryptosporidium parvum is an emerging waterborne zoonotic disease prevalent throughout the world. There are different strains of cryptosporidium but most important is C.parvum.It is intestinal protozoon belongs to coccidian family that causes damage to intestinal epithelium that leads to villous atrophy so decrease absorption sites from intestine. It is not host specific it can equally infect humans, calves and foals. It is cross transmissible among mammals. In horses, cryptosporidiosis is most commonly seen in foals (most frequently 1–4 weeks of age) and is associated with diarrhea and weight loss. Immuno-compromised foals (including foals with severe combined immunodeficiency syndrome) are particularly at risk. The present study was conducted in different studs farms in and around Lahore keeping in view the importance of C.parvum in foals because it is gaining attention as a most important cause of diarrhea in foals so that effective therapeutic measures should be adopted to control infection. There are 323 samples are collected among different stud farms and veterinary hospitals and analyzed by using fecal floatation method and modified Ziehl-neelsen technique. Infection rate of C. parvum in foals in this study recorded was (12.30%) from different stud farms and veterinary hospitals. Infection rate (27%) is higher in foals of age group range between 1day to 3 months while the least infection rate (2.46%) was observed in 9-12 months age group. Infection rate is reciprocal to age as the age increase infection rate decrease. Infection rate is independent of sex. There is no relationship between sex and infection rate. Diarrhea is an important risk factor related to infection rate. In diarrheic foals infection rate is (22.5%) while in case of non-diarrheic foal’s infection rate is (6.5%) which showed that infection rate in diarrheic foals is three time more as Summary 36 Compared to non-diarrheic foals. A significantly higher infection rate was observed in those foals having contact with other animals like rodents, ruminants and dogs. Infection rate (15%) was observed in those foals having contact with other animals and infection rate (6.5%) observed in foals having no contact with other animals. Purpose seems to very important in this study. Game horses have more infection rate which was (15.45%) as compared to draught horses (4.4%). Game horses have three times more infection as compared to draught horses because game horses remain in close confinement and foals have more prone to infection. Management is an important factor infection rate was more in those stud farms having poor management as compared to those have good management. Infection rate is poorly manage farms was (20.97%) and (5.5%) in properly manage farms. The results of the comparative efficacy of nitazoxanide, furazolidone and garlic showed that the Nitazoxanide was the most effective of the three in treating cryptosporidium infection under field conditions. Efficacy of Nitazoxanide in treating C.parvum in foals was (88%) during the study followed by furazolidone which have comparative efficacy of (77%) than garlic with the efficacy of (70%). In conclusion from above discussion reveals that C. parvum is prevalent in stud farms in and around Lahore. Associated risk for C. parvum in foals are age less than 6 months, immune-deficiency, contact with other animals like ruminants and poor management. Infection rate is more in game horses as compared to draught horses because game horses are manage in close confinement so the chances of infection are more. Treatment of C.parvum has long course and effective drug for the treatment of cryptosporidiosis in foals is Nitaoxanide than furazolidone. Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 2300-T] (1).

10. Effect Of Different Treatment Trials On The Carrier Status Of Streptococcus Equi In Horses Recently Recovered From Strangles

by Muhammad Afzal (2007-VA-108) | Dr. Muhammad Hassan Saleem | Prof. Dr. Aneela Zameer Durrani | Dr. Hassaan Bin Aslam.

Material type: book Book; Format: print ; Literary form: not fiction Publisher: 2015Dissertation note: Strangles is characterized by upper respiratory tract infection, dysponea, anorexia, regional suppurative lymphadenitis causing high morbidity and low mortality in horses as well as in mules and it is an infectious problem of equine. Considering the significance and utilization of equines in our country and the substantial losses rendered by Strangles, the present project was designed to study epidemiology, diagnosis and chemotherapy of strangles in Lahore, Okara and Sargodha districts of the Punjab province in Pakistan. Streptococcus equi subspecies equi is highly prevalent in animals recently recovered from strangles and antibiotics along with immune stimulants and non steroidal anti-inflammatory drug became helpful in the elimination of carrier status of animals for S. equi. Samples were collected from animals recently recovered from Strangles. Samples were collected with the help of sterile cotton swabs dipped in normal saline from nasopharynx & oropharynx followed by culturing of samples on blood agar plates which were incubated anaerobically for a time period of 24-48 hours respectively and S. equi were isolated on the basis of colonies characteristics and growth pattern. Streptococcus equi was confirmed with the help of Gram staining and biochemical tests Catalase reaction, Methylene blue reduction test and Sugar fermentation test. In vitro antibiotic sensitivity test were also performed to select three antibiotics showing best efficacy against S. equi. Carrier animals were subjected to treatment with the help of antibiotic along with combination of immune stimulants and non steroidal anti-inflammatory drug. Carrier status was considered eliminated with disappearance of S. equi from nasopharynx. Blood samples were collected from carrier as well as from healthy animals to check out hematological parameters such as TLC (total leukocytes count), TEC (total erythrocytes count) and MHC (mean hemoglobin concentration) etc. Out of Summary 47 hundred samples collected from Sargodha, Lahore and Okara districts of Punjab the prevalence of S. equi in horses and mules was 15%. Highest prevalence in equines was found at Remount Depot Mona, was recorded which is 18.3% followed by Okara 13.33%. No case was found to be positive for Strangles out of ten samples collected at UVAS, Lahore. In-vitro antibiotic sensitivity test was performed on above isolates and it was found that ceftiofur Na was found to be most effective drug followed by norfloxacine and ampicillin. In vivo treatment trials showed that Group C animals treated with ceftiofur Na, norfloxacine, and ampicillin along with Vit E & Selenium supplemented by Phenyl butazone were found to be negative for post treatment carrier status. This study had aided in diagnosis as well as in treatment of strangles and was also provided us with the understanding of hematological parameters. Statistical analysis:  Data on prevalence of S. equi in carrier animals were analyzed by Chi square test.  While comparison of different treatments trials was done by Z test.  Hematological parameters were analyzed by mean ± SED using SPSS software 16.0. Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 2299-T] (1).

11. Prevalance, Diagnosis and Economic Losses Due to Bovine Cysticercosis in Punjab

by Muhammad saeed (2009-VA-254) | Prof. Dr. Aneela Zameer Durrani | Prof. Dr. Muhammad Arif Khan | Prof. Dr. Azhar Maqbool.

Material type: book Book; Literary form: not fiction Publisher: 2014Dissertation note: Theses submitted with blank cd. Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 1379-T] (1).

12. Comparison Of Two Imported Live Attenuated PPR Vaccines In Local Sheep In Pakistan

by Saliha Saba | Prof. Dr. Aneela Zameer Durrani | Dr. Hassan Salem | Dr. Imran Altaf.

Material type: book Book; Literary form: not fiction Publisher: 2015Dissertation note: Peste des petits ruminants (PPR) also famous as goat plaque is of viral origin and is extremely contagious disease of sheep and goat (Dhar et al. 2002; Asim et al. 2009). PPR can cause high mortality about 50 – 80 % in non-immunized sheep and goat population. Due to its similarity with other diseases, Peste des petits ruminants (PPR) is being devalued but at the same time it is said to be one of the major constraints to successful small ruminant farming in tropics (Sen et al. 2010). PPR virus is paramyxovirus, enveloped and belongs to the genus morbillivirus. These viruses comprise of 16Kb long, single stranded RNA showing negative polarity (Barrett et al. 2005). The various vaccines like homologous and recombinant vaccines have been manufactured for the management of Peste des petits ruminants (PPR), as no accurate treatment is available for its control. For the immunity of animals against this disease, the tissue culture based, attenuated rinderpest vaccine (TCRV) had been accustomed over a extensive period because of the antigenic association among RPV and PPRV (Diallo et al. 1989).With the help of fresh freeze-drying methods and stabilizing agents the thermostability of the present PPR homologous vaccine has been enhanced significantly (Worrwall et al. 2001). In Pakistan, PPR vaccine was manufactured with the help of PPRV Nigerian 75/I (PPR 75/1 LK 6 Vero 75) for the sheep and goat immunization (Asim et al. 2009). India had manufactured numerous live attenuated vaccines like the PPRV Sungri/96 that has been regularized for use (Hegde et al. 2008). ). The Peste des Petits Ruminants (PPRV-Sungri/96 ) vaccine is being manufactured on small and large scale for prevention of Peste des Petits Ruminants (PPR) outbreaks in India (Singh et al. 2004). Summary 41 The current study was designed to study the immunogenicity of two imported live attenuated PPR vaccines in local sheep. A total of sixty (60) animals were selected and further separated into two groups, viz. Group-A and Group-B, having thirty (30) animals each. Group-A was further sub-divided into A1 comprising 10 sheep to which Raksha PPR vaccine (Sungri 96) was administered, A2 comprising of 10 sheep to which PPR vaccine (Nigeria 75/1) was administered and A3 comprising of 10 non-vaccinated sheep which served as control. Group B was separated into two sub-groups i.e B1 and B2 having fifteen (15) animals each. The Group-B1 was sub-divided into B1a having 05 sheep to which Raksha PPR vaccine (Sungri 96) was only administered, B1b having 05 sheep to which along with Raksha PPR vaccine (Sungri 96), Vitamin AD3E was administered and B1c having 05 unvaccinated sheep which served as control. Similarly the Group-B2 was sub-divided into B2a having 05 sheep to which PPR vaccine (Nigeria 75/1) was only administered, B2b having 05 sheep to which along with PPR vaccine (Nigeria 75/1), Vitamin AD3E was administered and B2c having 05 non-vaccinated sheep and served as control group respectively. The serum samples were collected and mean antibody titer was calculated by complement fixation test (CFT) at zero day, 7th day, 14th day, 28th day and 48th day post-vaccination. The live attenuated, Raksha PPR (Sungri 96) vaccine induced the mean antibody titers of 0 ±0.00, 4.7±0.48, 4.7±0.48, 4.9±0.31 and 4.9±0.31 which was significantly higher than the mean antibody titers shown by the PPR (Nigeria 75/1) vaccinated animals i.e. 0±0.00, 3.3±0.51, 3.4±0.51, 4±1.15 and 4.1±1.19 at zero, 7th, 14th, 28th, 48th day post-vaccination respectively. Similarly the mean antibody titers shown by the PPR (Nigeria 75/1) vaccinated animals were 0 ±0.00, 10.4± 3.86, 11.2±4.13, 20±11.31 and 21.6±11.80 at zero, 7th,14th, 28th and 48th day post vaccination respectively. Result of present study demonstrated Summary 42 that the mean antibody titer values of animals vaccinated with Raksha PPR (Sungri 96) was significantly higher than animals vaccinated with PPR (Nigeria 75/1) at zero, 7th,14th, 28th and 48th day post vaccination respectively. The study also concluded that the mean antibody titer of animals receiving vaccination along with vitamin supplementation was significantly higher than animals receiving only vaccination. While performing the statistical analysis of data, it was revealed that the results were significant (p<0.05). The present study summarized and concluded that the mean antibody titer values of Raksha PPR (Sungri 96) was significantly higher than PPR vaccine (Nigeria 75/1). As both India and Pakistan are two neighbouring countries, so PPR among them also falls in trans-boundary disease category. It signifies that both being part of Asia subcontinent and PPRV strain of lineage IV prevails in both regions. Keeping these factors under consideration proper vaccination strategy should be followed for the immunization of animals. In past, Nigeria 75/1 strain of PPRV vaccine had been used in Pakistan but the results were not reliable in terms of desired immune response and protection. Although titer was shown by this vaccine but protection is not reliable for proper health care of small ruminants. There was an immense need to come up with the authentic research on PPRV vaccine Raksha PPR (Sungri 96) in Pakistan which is already being used in India with desirable results. The results of present research project were mostly similar with the findings of other scientists. The results of this study were analyzed through Independent t-test for independent samples. Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 2385-T] (1).

13. Seroprevalence And Molecular Detection Of Brucellosis In Animals In Mirpur, Azad Kashmir Pakistan

by Hadia Mubeen (2008-VA-291) | Dr. Muhammad Hassan Saleem | Dr. Iahtasham Khan | Prof. Dr. Aneela Zameer Durrani | Dr. Hassan Bin Aslam.

Material type: book Book; Literary form: not fiction Publisher: 2015Dissertation note: Brucellosis is declared as one of the most widespread zoonoses in the world by the world's reknowned organizations. It is defined as a contagious systemic bacterial disease primarily of ruminants. The disease is manifested by late term abortions, weak calves, still births, infertility and also associated placentitis, epididymitis and orchitis, with excretion of the organisms in uterine discharges and milk. With the intensification of the import of animals and the establishment of big farms in the last few years, the incidence of brucellosis increased sharply in many countries, both in man and animals. In this study 360 serum samples were examined from four groups of animals in district Mirpur Azad Kashmir. Blood samples of 3ml from buffaloes, cattle, sheep and goat (n=30) each were taken from three sub-divisions of Mirpur separately. The serum samples were screened by RBPT which is a screening test for brucellosis, and it was observed that 8.6% animals were seropositive by RBPT. The serum samples of cattle were 17.8%, buffalo were 8.9%, goat were 2.2%, and sheep were 5.6% positive respectively. The serum samples positive by RBPT and some randomly taken samples were further confirmed by the use of most specific and sensitive serological test known as i-ELISA. 6.87% animals were confirmed as seropositive by i-ELISA including cattle (17.5%), buffalo (10%), sheep (0%) and goat (0%). All RBPT positive samples were further subjected to RT-PCR. Among these 31 samples 24 were positive for Brucella genus and only 7 samples were negative. Samples were further tested for confirmation of Brucella species. All 24 samples were having Brucella abortus. The data were analyzed by using the Statistical package for the social sciences (SPSS) program version 22. Data were analyzed using Chi-square test and Z-test statistics. Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 2378-T] (1).

14. Experimental Treatment Of Bovine Brucellosis Using Phyto-Chemo-Immuno Theraputic Agents

by Muhammad Kaleem (2013-VA-860) | Prof. Dr. Aneela Zameer Durrani | Dr. Ihtisham Khan | Dr. Muhammad Hassan Saleem | Prof. Dr. Khushi Muhammad.

Material type: book Book; Literary form: not fiction Publisher: 2015Dissertation note: Bovine brucellosis is very important zoonotic disease in respect of outbreak that resulted in reproductive loses through storm of abortions in herds and infertility in bulls. Currently, no phyto treatment for complete recovery from brucellosis is available. Phyto Chemo-immune therapeutic agents are effective for recovery from bovine brucellosis (Hypothesis) Group A was comprise five adult cows (n=5) positive for brucellosis. Animals in this group were given 3 shots of Oxytetracycline LA at 20mg/kg BW (IM) repeated every 48 hrs. Streptomycin @ 13mg/kg BW IM was given for six consecutive days. Furthermore, flunixin meglumine @ 2mg/kg BW IM for 3 days in combination with antibiotic. Selevit injection containing selenium and vitamin E was administered (IM) for consecutive five days. At next day all the animals in this group were vaccinated with a combined vaccine of RB51 and FMD (Oil based) at a dose of 3mL/animal through deep IM route. In group B, all the animals were given Saafi (Herbal Product) orally consecutively for six days. Furthermore, flunixin meglumin @ 2 mg/kg BW IM was administered for three days. All these treatments were given simultaneously. Then injection Selevit containing selenium and vitamin E were administered (IM) for consecutive five days. After treatment all animals were vaccinated with RB51 + FMD (oil based) 3mL/ animals deep intramuscularly. In group C, flunixin meglumin @ 2 mg/kg BW IM was administered for three days. After NSAID, Selevit injection containing vit. E and selenium was administered (IM) for five days regularly. After treatment, animals were vaccinated with RB51 + FMD (oil based) 3 mL/ animals (IM). In D group five negative adult animals were included in this group and vaccinated subcutaneously with RB51 and FMD (Oil based) at a dose of 3 mL/animal. Summary 40 Data regarding this study was analyzed with ANOVA and completely randomized design was used to compare the mean between different groups using statistical package for social science (SPSS) version 20. P < 0.05 was considered significant. The results showed OD values after 1st, 3rd and 6th month were significantly different in all groups. The mean values depicted that OD values was significantly higher (2.886±0.099) in vaccinated (positive) animal’s vs the other three groups. There was no significant difference in OD values of herbal treated, antibiotic treated and health control animals. The lowest OD values was found in healthy control animals, though significantly similar with herbal treated, antibiotic treated. The mean OD value at 3rd month after treatment is significantly higher (1.794±0.090) in herbal treated and vaccinated positive groups but the OD value of healthy group was lowest (1.794±0.090) after 3rd month of treatment. After 6th month of treatment the OD value of positive vaccinated group was found significantly highest (1.146±0.194). On the other hand lowest value (0.595±0.079) was found in healthy control group. All the groups have found non-significant difference in all group. Regarding Real time PCR the value range from 0-40 Ct values. In the present study the Ct values of the control positive was found to be 13 which indicate control positive. The antibiotic treated group had a Ct value found in this range 35.61 to 38.13. The herbal treated group were all positive and the values were 31.34 to 37.42 Ct. The vaccinated immune booster group. The Ct values in the group was found to be 30.83 to 34.21. The birth weight and placenta dropping time was normal in antibiotic treated animals. There were no significant results found in all groups. Summary 41 This study concluded that herbal regimen is effective in vitro against brucellosis but in vivo it is yet not to be evaluated. The antibiotics can be effective to treat the Brucellosis with this protocol. This was help to control bovine brucellosis, and extensive economic losses. Comparative efficacy of four commonly-immune therapeutic agents were help in choosing the most effective therapy/method for the recovery of bovine brucellosis. Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 2388-T] (1).

15. Sero-Diagnosis And Associated Exposure Factors Of Brucelosis Among Trade Animals And Abbatoir Workers

by Madiha Ashraf (2008-VA-43) | Dr. Muhammad Avais | Prof. Dr. Aneela Zameer Durrani | Dr. Ali Ahmed Sheikh.

Material type: book Book; Literary form: not fiction Publisher: 2015Dissertation note: Brucellosis mainly infects food animals such as cattle, buffaloes. Brucella abortus is the principal cause of brucellosis in cattle and is shed from the infected animal at or around the time of calving or abortion. Brucellosis is zoonotic disease transmitted to humans both through Brucella abortus and melletensis. The present study was conducted on 200 animals privately owned and publically owned abattoir. An epidemiological questionnaire focusing on trade animals as well as husbandry and sanitary practices that could be associated with the risk of Brucellosis infection was completed. Serum samples were collected and analyzed using Rose Bengal Plate Test. The serum samples positive for Brucellosis through RBPT further subjected to enzyme linked Immunosorbent assay. The samples of cattle collected from publically owned abattoir are subjected to the RBPT and the result was 18% and privately owned abattoir have an RBPT result of 10% and samples of the buffaloes are subjected to the test of RBPT as an screening test which was respectively 20% and 8%. The samples are further subjected to the iELISA and the results was shown that through ELISA the result was respectively 12% and 4%. While results for the cattle declared the prevelance of brucella infection through indirect ELISA was 8% and 2% at public and private abattoir respectively. The abattoir workers had a high risk to the exposure to the transmission of the disease as it is world widely more zoonotic the workers found positive for the brucellosis at public abattoir through RBPT shown no positive results. While in private abattoir through RBPT there is 6.66% animals were positive. However we concluded the results through indirect ELISA the results found were 66.66% and 15.62% for the butchers and meat sellers respectively at public abattoir.so the butchers are prone to the infection of the brucella antibodies.in comparison with the private abattoir 33.33% was detected in the abattoir cleaner. Through indirect ELISA. Summary 50 The data originating from this study was tested thorough Chi square test while Odd ratio was calculated for risk factors. Statistical analysis was done using “SPSS version 20” and probability level <0.05 was considered significantly different. Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 2387-T] (1).

16. Prevalence Of Fasciolosis In Sheep And Goats Under Range Management Conditions In Azad Jammu And Kashmir

by Imtiaz Ahmad (2009-VA-535) | Prof. Dr. Aneela Zameer Durrani | Prof. Dr. Muhammad S. Anjum | Prof. Dr. Kamran Ashraf.

Material type: book Book; Literary form: not fiction Publisher: 2015Dissertation note: Fasciolosis is the disease of sheep, goats, cattle and other ruminants. Human and equines are unusual hosts in which instead of liver the flukes may found in lungs or under the skin. Transmission depends on an intermediate host lymnae snail. Animal ingest metacercaria, the worm migrates to the liver where it causes extensive damage and mature worm lives in bile duct. The disease occurs as an acute, sub-acute or chronic infection. Chronic Fasciolosis characterized by anemia, hypoalbuminaemia, emaciation, submandibular edema and loss of condition. Clinical disease is well known but sub clinical infections are often unnoticed, leading to marked economic losses, reduced milk yield, weight loss, reduced fertility and immunity, consequently leading to significant economic losses. Fasciolosis has recently been recognized as an emerging zoonotic disease. Infections in human may be asymptomatic but sometimes nonspecific pain in abdomen, anorexia, dyspepsia and vomiting may occur. Pain in right hypochondrium, epigastrium and jaundice occurs in chronic phase. Sometimes ectopic migration of worm causes abscesses in many organs. The present study investigates the prevalence of Fasciolosis in sheep and goats at different geographic locations on the basis of altitudes in Azad Jammu and Kashmir. 4662 (sheep n=2242; goat n=2420) fresh fecal samples from sheep and goats were collected from three village/towns each of Mirpur, Poonch and Muzaffarabad Divisions. Stool samples were collected from 566 pastoral families of AJK to determine the zoonotic potential of the disease. Prevalence of the disease was calculated on the basis of centrifugal floatation and sedimentation techniques. The intensity of infection was calculated using the McMaster egg counting technique. The risk factors of the disease studied included altitude, season, sex, age, and effect of deworming and flock size on the rate of prevalence. An overall prevalence was recorded as Summary 111 17.88%. Prevalence of Fasciolosis in sheep revealed 26.49% and that of goats 9.91%. The data was analyzed using Chi-square test which revealed a significant difference (P<0.05) in the prevalence of the disease in sheep and goats. The overall prevalence rate in both species was recorded as15.09% at altitude <3000 feet, 25.00% at 3000-6000 and 15.74% at >6000. The highest prevalence was recorded at an altitude 3000-6000 feet. Chi- square values showed significant difference (P<0.05) among three different altitudes. The altitude of 3000-6000ft showed a significantly higher (P<0.05) prevalence of Fasciolosis in sheep and goats. The overall prevalence showed 13.93% rates in spring and 21.77% in autumn. Chi-square values showed a significant difference (P<0.05) in the prevalence of the disease, higher in autumn than Spring. Sex wise prevalence showed 16.67% in male and 18.59% in female animals. The data showed no significant difference (P>0.05) in Chi-square analysis. The prevalence of the disease in the age group below 1 year was 04.40%, 1-4 years revealed 17.73% disease and 36.18% in >4 year. The data showed significantly different (P<0.05) rates in all age groups. Highest prevalence was recorded in sheep and goats above 4 year of age and lowest in those below 1 year. The prevalence in animals with no recent history of deworming was recorded 23.22%. The data showed 15.37% disease in small flocks of sheep and goats <30 as compared to 18.72% in large flocks >30. Chi-square showed a significantly higher (P<0.05) prevalence of the disease in large flocks. Generalized Linear Model (GLM) was used to evaluate the contribution of risk factors (epidemiological factors) to the variations in the prevalence of Fasciolosis in sheep and goats. All the epidemiological factors i.e. altitude, species, season, gender, age group, deworming and flock size were processed. The deworming appeared to be the most significant factor in the model contributing maximum variations in disease with highest Odds followed by age groups, Summary 112 species, season, altitude, flock size and gender. The risk factors for the Fasciolosis in sheep and goats were found, lack of practice of deworming, age group >4 year, species sheep, season Autumn, altitude 3000-6000 and flock size >30. The 75% of the disease prevalence was due to above mentioned risk factors. The deworming, specie goat, age group <1 year, season Spring, altitude <3000, and flock size less than 30 were appeared to be the protective factors in the Generalized Linear Model. The intensity of infection was analyzed through Factorial analysis for difference in species, altitude and season. The difference in eggs per gram of feces was found significantly different (P<0.05) in sheep and goats. The effect of season on egg per gram (EPG) of feces showed a higher mean values in sheep (191.49) and goats (219.72) in Autumn as compared to 158.04 and 180.61 in Spring. In both seasons the mean for goats was found higher than sheep. The effect was found significant (P<0.05), higher during Autumn. Factorial analysis of the data showed significant interaction (P<0.05) between species and altitude. The data showed mean values for sheep 174.04, 191.87 and 168.33 at altitude <3000, 3000-6000 and >6000 feet respectively. The mean values for goats were 232.22, 194.95 and 170.59. The data revealed higher mean for goats as compared to sheep on all three altitudes. Goats revealed significantly higher (P<0.05) number of EPG. POST HOC Tukeys test showed a non-significant difference in intensity of disease between <3000 and 3000-6000 feet, rest of the differences were significant (P<0.05). The overall prevalence in pastoral communities of AJK was 0.88%. The samples were collected from male and female of 4 age groups <10 year, 11-20, 21-40 and >40. The prevalence in male was 0.76 and in female was 0.98%. The data showed that age groups below 20 year were Summary 113 the susceptible groups in both sexes. The highest prevalence (2.25%) was found in female age group 11-20 year. Age groups above 20 year did not revealed any positive sample. 227 adult liver flukes were collected from livers of infected animals of different animal species (sheep, goats. cattle and buffaloes) and geographic locations for morphometric and molecular identification of the species of Fasciola. Flukes were identified on the basis of measurements of body length, body width, diameter of suckers, distance between oral and ventral sucker and distance between ventral sucker and posterior end of the body. The measurements of F. hepatica showed a body length range 13-34mm with an average length of 21.51mm whereas, F. gigantica ranged from 28-52mm with an average of 42.27mm. The average body lengths of F. hepatica below 3000ft was 21.9, at 3000-6000ft was 21.07 and above 6000 ft was 22.00mm and that of F. gigantica was 42.05 and 42.44mm at 3000 and 3000-6000 feet. The measurements of F. hepatica revealed an average body width of 10.05mm, average diameter of oral and ventral suckers of 0.74 and 1.28mm respectively and average distance between the two suckers of 1.34mm. The readings for F. gigantica were 9.46, 0.89, 1.55 and 1.72mm respectively. Average distance between ventral sucker and posterior end of the fluke in case of F. hepatica was 18.35mm at all three altitudes and host species of animals and it was 38.26mm in case of F. gigantica. The overall mean worm load was 13.56 worms per liver of animal with a range 5-26. The mean worm load of F. hepatica was 10.9 and that of F. gigantica 13.11. Mixed infections were noted at altitudes below 6000 ft. Infestation with F. gigantica was not found at altitudes above 6000ft and F. hepatica was encountered at all three altitudes. 51.98% of the recovered flukes were F. gigantica which showed the equal chances of infection with either species of Fasciola in AJK. The results revealed that F. hepatica was the fluke affecting animal population at altitude above 6000 ft and F. gigantica was the major fluke below Summary 114 3000 ft. At altitudes between 3000-6000ft, 36.20% of flukes were F. hepatica while its prevalence was reduced to 17.30% below 3000 ft. Once the species of the liver flukes were identified morphologically they were subjected to molecular conformation through amplification of the genomic DNA of the two species through PCR using two sets of species specific primers. In the PCR based on primer set 1, a product of 391 bp was generated from the genomic DNA of Fasciola hepatica whereas no product was generated from the DNA of Fasciola gigantica. PCR based on primer set 2 amplified a 235-bp product from the DNA of Fasciola gigantica. The molecular identification in the present study showed that morphometric identification of the two species is valid and standard population of both species were found present at different geographic locations and species of the animals of the state of Azad Jammu and Kashmir except F. gigantica not found above 6000 feet altitude. The ethno veterinary practices for Fasciolosis were documented through Participatory Rural Appraisal. A total of 173 respondents/key informants were interviewed during the study period in the study area. The majority of the traditional healers (n=33) elders of pastoral families (n=53) and sheep/goats owners (n=56) were above the age of 40 year. Veterinary officers (n=6) and assistants (n=25) were interviewed as a part of verification process. 31.69% of the respondents were found using allopathic anthelmintic along with ethno veterinary medicines. 53.52% of the respondents were using ethno veterinary medicines because of non-availability or cost effectiveness of allopathic anthelmintic. 95.18% of the respondents were using plants or part of the plant as traditional anthelmintic in their sheep or goats.18 plant families were identified during the survey which include Acanthaceae, Asclepiadaceae, Asteraceae, Berberidaceae, Boraginaceae, Cannabinaceae, Chenopodaceae, Euphorbiaceae, Fabaceae, Summary 115 Gentianaceae, Juglandaceae, Liliaceae, Malvaceae, Oxalidaceae, Punicaceae, Rhamnaceae, Scrophulariaceae, Solanaceae. The species of medicinal plants identified during the study were Berberis lyceum, Nicotiana tabacum, Asparagus officinale, Calotropis procera, Aloe vera, Mallotus philippensis, Adhato davesica, Artemisia scoparia, Xanthium strumarium, Chenopodium ambrosoides, Artimisia maritime, Verbascum Thapsus, Acacia Arabica, Cordlia myxa, Cannabis sativa, Rhamnus purpurea, Juglansregia, Oxalis corniculata, Punica granantum, Artimisa fragrans, Swertia petiolata and Abutilon indicum. Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 2430-T] (1).

17. Comparative Potency Of Two Different Trivalent Vaccines Against Foot And Mouth Disease In Cattle Around The Area Of Ravi Campus Pattoki

by Muhammad Fahimullah Khan (2009-VA-137) | Prof. Dr. Aneela Zameer Durrani | Dr. Muhammad Ijaz | Dr. Jawad Nazir.

Material type: book Book; Literary form: not fiction Publisher: 2016Dissertation note: Foot and Mouth Disease is a highly contagious viral disease of all cloven footed animals. The best control strategy of this disease is effective and in time vaccination. A successful vaccination campaign depends on the serotype identification and specific vaccination against the prevalent serotype of the virus. The present study was designed to evaluate comparative potency of two anti-FMDV vaccines (UVAS-FMD, Deccivac Intervet) used in cattle around areas of Lahore Pakistan. Blood samples were taken from vaccinated animals on day 0, 30, 60 and 90 post priming. Antibody titer was evaluated with different route of administration and various adjuvant based vaccines. Four animal groups were made each containing 5 animals; in group 1 UVAS vaccine was used by Sub/ Cut route (gel based) at priming dose, followed by Intra Muscular (oil) on 30th day. In group 2 UVAS vaccine was given I/M (oil) as priming dose and booster (oil) I/M. In group 3 Deccivac (oil) vaccine was used I/M for priming and boosting. In group 4 Deccivac (oil) vaccine was used as Sub/ Cut for priming and boosting. The results revealed non-significant difference (p>0.05) among the four different groups administered with FMDV vaccines when evaluated at day 30 and significant difference (p<0.05) at day 60 and 90 post vaccination. Analysis of variance showed significant difference (p<0.05) in antibodies between groups and with in groups at day 60 and 90. Gel based vaccine gave quick antibody response which later maintained with oil based booster dose. The difference in antibody titers obtained in the present study was found non-significant (P>0.05) between the antibody titers of FMD trivalent vaccine of UVAS and Deccivac at 90th day of inoculation. There was significant difference (p<0.05) between the adjuvants of vaccine. Animals inoculated with priming dose of gel based vaccine followed by oil based boosting showed significantly high anti FMD antibody titer than animals inoculated with oil for both priming and boosting. There was significant Summary 54 difference (p<0.05) between the groups vaccinated with various routes of administration. The animals inoculated with priming dose through s/c followed by boosting dose i/m showed significantly high anti FMD antibody titer at 90th day of inoculation compared with those inoculated intramuscularly for both priming and boosting. The animals inoculated with oil based vaccine for both priming and boosting through S/c showed marked significant decreased in anti FMD antibody titer. The route of administration revealed significant difference (p<0.05) in antibody response within groups and between groups at day 30, 60 and 90. In all three readings the mean for sub/cut priming and IM boosting were found significantly high (p<0.05) as compared to other routes. In conclusion it is recommend from the study that FMD vaccination with sub/cut priming and booster dose with IM route. Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 2499-T] (1).

18. Sero-Epidemiology Of Johne’s Disease Along With Its Effect On Serum Biochemical Profile In Cattle In District D.I. Khan, Khyber Pakhtunkhwa

by Nasrullah (2009-VA-90) | Prof. Dr. Aneela Zameer Durrani | Dr. Waseem Yaqub | Dr. Mamoona Chaudhry.

Material type: book Book; Literary form: not fiction Publisher: 2016Dissertation note: Johne’s disease (JD) or Paratuberculosis caused by Mycobacterium avium subsp. Paratuberculosis (MAP) is characterized by an incubation period of several years. It is a chronic non-treatable disease of animals causing enteritis which ultimately leads to economic losses to dairy and meat industries worldwide. To estimate sero-epidemiology of the JD through ELISA is inexpensive, efficient, single step and sensitive for the detection of antibodies in cattle and buffaloes. So, keeping in view the economic and public health significance of the disease, the present study was designed with the objective to estimate the sero prevalence of JD using indirect ELISA and to quantify the effect of JD on the level of serum proteins in cattle of D. I. Khan district, Khyber Pakhtunkhwa Province. Johne’s disease is prevalent in cattle of D I Khan that affects serum proteins level in dairy animals. For the study animals were well restrained and about 5 ml blood was collected in Non- EDTA coated vacutainer from the jugular vein of each animal using 5 ml disposable syringe, after collection and proper labeling samples were transferred in Ice packed cooler to Microbiology laboratory, Govt. College of Veterinary Sciences D.I Khan. Serum was collected at the top of the vacutainer with the help of disposable pipette and was stored in eppendorf tubes in deep freezer until transported to University of Veterinary and Animal Sciences, Lahore for further analysis. Data was captured on questionnaires about the clinical signs and symptoms, management practices and possible risk factors associated with Johne’s disease, was obtained from the owners. Summary 40 The collected serum samples were analyzed by Indirect ELISA using commercial ELISA kit (Mycobacterium Paratuberculosis Antibody Test Kit, IDEXX, USA) according to manufacturer instructions. The ELISA positive samples were processed further for the estimation of serum protein analysis using Biuret method (Doumas et al. 1981;Spencer and Price. 1977).The serum albumin was determined by Photometric colorimetric test (Bromocresole green (BCG) method (Spencer and Price. 1977).The globulin will be estimated by subtracting serum albumin from serum total proteins (Javed et al. 2010). Data regarding sero-prevalence by indirect ELISA were analyzed through Pearson's Chisquare Test, while data regarding the effect on serum protein was analyzed by simple t-test using statistical package for social sciences (SPSS) version 20. P < .05 was considered significant. The present study demonstrated (12.7%) prevalence of MAP in cattle population of D.I Khan. There were no significant effect of MAP on serum biochemical profile. The results of all variables studied as under breed, gender, age, vaccinated status and management system. The most frequent level was observed in females 13.7% as compared to males 0% (0/4). Among different age groups, higher sero-prevalence 33.3% were present at age group above 6 years while sero-prevalence of 7.1% in 2-3 years and 0% were recorded in age group 4-6 years. Statistically a significant different were present between these groups. Moreover, there was no relationship of vaccination status with disease because the prevalence recorded 16.6% and vaccinated cases positive were recorded 0% but there was no significance difference among two groups of animals. Breed wise risk factor statistically significant because the MAP cases were highly prevalent in non-descript cattle 25% as compared to crossbred 5.8% and Sahiwal 0% cattle breed. BCS category I had highest prevalence 66.6% while in BCS category II prevalence Summary 41 was 23.8% and in BCS category III the prevalence was 0% recorded. Statistically the BCS of the disease animals was significantly associated. Highest prevalence 100% were recorded above 60 days of diarrhea duration while 0% were recorded less than 60 days of diarrhea duration. Statistically the sero-prevalence of diarrhea duration was highly significant. Management wise sero-prevalence of Johne’s disease on the type of housing was higher in open 19.2% as compared to confined 6.8% showing non-significant difference statistically. Sanitation wise seroprevalence were higher in poor 19.2% as compared to good sanitation 6.8% showing also nonsignificant difference statistically. Sero-prevalence of disease was less in well water 0% as compared to tap water 25% showing there were a significant difference between the seroprevalence of Johne’s disease under different water conditions. The results of total protein analysis was statistically non-significant. Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 2526-T] (1).

19. Detection of Antibodies For Mycobacterium Avium Sub-Specie Paratuberculosis in Sheep Population Along With Its Associated Risk Factors in District Rahim Yar Khan

by Muhammad Arif Rizwan (2014-VA-228) | Dr. Waseem Yaqub | Prof. Dr. Aneela Zameer Durrani | Dr. Arfan Ahmad.

Material type: book Book; Literary form: not fiction Publisher: 2016Dissertation note: Johne’s disease (JD), caused by Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis, is a chronic enteric disease of ruminants. The disease manifest itself in sense of trade restrictions production losses. Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis(MAP) is manifested by an incubation period of several years. During subclinical stage of infection, paratuberculosis pass out in feces through which the disease get approaches to other animals in herd. It is also shed in the milk of infected animal, cannot be killed even on pasteurization and in human beings cause a disease (Crohn's disease). Johne’s disease is somewhat difficult to detect in animals having sub clinical infection. Moreover, the animals in the early stages of infection is often has an immune response that is detectable by ELISA which is not elicited by the animal in time. ELISA is affordable, efficient, one-step and in sheep and goats is very sensitive for the detection of antibodies. So, keeping in mind the economic and public health importance of this disease, present study was formulated with the purpose to detect the MAP in sheep in district in Rahim Yar Khan. 5 ml blood samples, total 100 (n=100 sheep) blood sample out of which 50 animals were selected on the basis of clinical signs (shooting diarrhea, decrease in milk production and weight loss in spite of good appetite) and 50 animals were selected from the surrounding exhibiting no clinical signs but on suspicion of being carrier from local animal markets, different slaughtering site of animals and in periphery of District, RahimYar Khan. The data regarding all the animals was collected on a predesigned questionnaire. Serum was separated by centrifugation and was stored in deep freezer having temperature (-400 C) until analyzed by indirect ELISA through commercial ELISA, Mycobacterium Paratuberculosis Antibody Test Kit (IDEXX Paratuberculosis Screening) and results was recorded through ELISA reader. The ELISA positive serum samples was processed further for the estimation of serum protein analysis. Sero-detection of antibodies for Mycobacterium avium sub-specie paratuberculosis (MAP) was estimated based on indirect ELISA results. In present study the overall prevalence in sheep for mycobacterium avium sub specie paratuberculosis in district Rahim Yar Khan in different marketed and slaughtering animals irrespective of breed age and sex. When the serum samples of the suspected sheep were subjected to the serum biochemistry for analysis of total proteins in the body of sheep, it was overall decrease in the serum proteins of the sheep (p<0.05) which were infected with MAP while using the paired t-test statistics. On the other hand, it was found 92% malnutrition, 77% poor sanitation, 85% combine housing, 87% open grazing and 29% tick infestation they may act as a source of infection for spreading of paratuberculosis. Sheep than goats is high in the prevalence of the MAP. There is no doubt that Johne’s disease infected herds may suffer severely. However, as a whole, the economic loss to the sheep industry is of questionable significance. Johne's disease is zoonotic potential threat that it represents as a problem. The sheep industry is in an exceptional position, given its low incidence or occurrence of paratuberculosis to set in motion a strategy to confine or control the spread of malady. The national control of MAP will be a huge undertaking because of subtle nature of this disease and relatively poor performance of tests that are currently available. It is necessary to develop specific best management practices in the sheep industry, taking into account the biology and ecology of the disease. The implementation of the program against Johne's disease is an important proactive step.However, MAP has struck the sheep industry for many years and will probably continue to remain a major challenge for the foreseeable future. Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 2519-T] (1).

20. Evaluation Of Risk Factors And Molecular Diagnosis Of Dermatophytosis In Dogs

by Muhammad Haseeb Saeed (2008-VA-241) | Prof. Dr. Aneela Zameer Durrani | Dr. Hassan Saleem | Prof. Dr. Azhar Maqbool.

Material type: book Book; Literary form: not fiction Publisher: 2016Dissertation note: Dogs are most kept and beloved pets in Pakistani society. Dermatophytosis is among the common disease of the pets. Many predisposing factors are involved in development of clinical cases of dermatophytosis including climatic conditions, housing condition of dogs and physical attributes such as coat hair size. Dermatophytosis is not only of concern as being infection of pets but also of its zoonotic importance hence it is very crucial to diagnose dermatophytic infection well in time. Dermatophytosis is caused by Dermatophytes,Microsporum, Trichophyton and Epidermophyton, the fungal species. It is difficult to diagnose the Dermatophytosis from other skin infections by routine tests in most of the cases especially subclinical. Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR) is advanced and the most reliable technique to detect genome of Dermatophytes even in minute quantities specifically and can efficiently detect the presence of any Dermatophyte specie on the skin of dog. The current study was planned to develop and validate a diagnostic assay which could be able to detect and distinguish tree important dermatophytes species including Microsporum, Trichophyton and Epidermophytonby a uniplex PCR reaction. Analysis of involvement of certain predisposing factors in dermatophytosis was second goal to be worked on in this study. Samples of suspected pet dogs (n=50) were collected by scraping the skin at affected areas over skin. DNA was extracted from the skin scraping samples by organic Phenol Chloroform Isoamyle Alcohol method. Primers, specific to the 18-S ribosomal RNA region of genomes of the Dermatophytes, were designed after alignment of available sequences of Microsporum,Trichophyton and Epidermophyton at NCBI. Annealing temperature and recipe of PCR reaction was optimized by gradient PCR in BIO-Rad thermal cycler. Amplification reaction of all samples collected was carried out as per optimized reaction conditions, afterwards. Amplified products obtained were subjected to genotyping by agarose gel electrophoresis for size based separation of the amplified products. The specific amplified bands of desired genomic region of dermatophytes were seen in UV light transilluminator. The data of results of predisposing factors involved in dermatophytosis wasanalysedby using Pearson’s chi squared test with the help of Statistical Package for the Social Science (SPSS) Program. Genome specific product sizes of Microsporum and Trichophyton i.e. 366 bp and 351 bp in respective positive samples were observed. Out of 50 suspected samples 46 samples were positive for dermatophytosis out of which 38 samples (82.6%) were positive for Microsporum, 6 samples (13%) for Trichophyton and 2 samples (4.4%) were positive for both Microsporumand Trichophyton. This study will help to validate a diagnostic technique for Dermatophytosis with greater efficacy and reliability. Moreover, this investigation may become basis for the future research activities in this field in Pakistan. Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 2528-T] (1).

21. Study On The Repair Of Long Oblique Mid-Shaft Femoral Fracture In Domestic Fowl, Using Full Cerclage Wires With Or Without Intra-Medullary Pin

by Muhammad Waqas (2008-VA-224) | Prof. Dr. Muhammad Arif Khan | Dr. Hammad Bin Rashid | Prof. Dr. Aneela Zameer Durrani.

Material type: book Book; Literary form: not fiction Publisher: 2016Dissertation note: Fracture is a challenging problem in domestic as well as wild birds. Caged birds are prone to stress and self-injury. Wing and leg fractures in birds are most common problems. The fracture of bones is common in avian species as a result of impact injuries due to collision with branches, electric lines or other obstacles, either natural or anthropogenic. The basic principles of fracture fixation are the same in birds and mammals. Fractures treated with biomechanically sound fixation and proper attention to soft tissues will be most likely to heal with a functional outcome. However, osteomyelitis, bone sequestration, and joint ankylosis still continue to be major factors in inhibiting healing and bone functionality. This research project was designed with the aim to test the effectiveness and accuracy of three sets of bone splintage devices in healing long oblique mid-shaft femoral fractures in birds, with minimal side effects and stress to the patient. The Study was conducted on 12 adult, domestic fowls of either sex. The birds were received as clinical cases presented with long oblique femoral fracture at Pet Centre, University of Veterinary & Animal Sciences Lahore. They were individually marked with coloured plastic rings for the sake of identification. They were divided into three groups i.e. Group A , Group B and Group C comprising four birds each, which were designated as I, II, III, and IV respectively. In the birds of Group A long oblique femoral fracture was reduced and immobilized with intramedullary pinning, with pin size between 2.5mm to 3.0mm. While in Group B, similar fracture was treated with 2 – 3 full cerclage wiring. And in the final Group C both of the above techniques were applied simultaneously i.e. IM pin with 2 – 3 cerclage wires. The birds were maintained in separate cages post-operatively until the completion of the study. Subsequent comparative parameters were studied which included physical examination of wound, lameness grading, radiological scoring for callus formation, fracture line union, SUMMARY 74 fracture alignment as well as callus remodelling. The collected data regarding study parameters was illustrated by descriptive statistics and non-parametric analysis of variance (Kruskal Walis Test) using IBM SPSS Statistics version 20. Conclusion: Therefore, as advocated by the results of this study, intramedullary pinning (preferably threaded) with at least 2 – 3 full cerclage wiring was a better choice for the correction of a long oblique mid-shaft femoral fracture in domestic fowl. The combination of both these techniques together give a strong backbone for bone healing to take place with minimum amount of stress to the bone fragments. Both these techniques were easy, required little soft tissue manipulation, were cost-effective, required less equipment and could easily be applied by an average practitioner. Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 2653-T] (1).

22. Study Of Hematological Alterations And Chemotherapeutic Trials Of Camels Naturally Infected With Trypanosomiasis In Cholistan, Bahawalpur

by Zubair Bashir (2014-VA-782) | Prof. Dr. Aneela Zameer Durrani | Dr. Khalid Mehmood | Dr. Muhammad Avais | Dr. Haroon Akbar.

Material type: book Book; Literary form: not fiction Publisher: 2016Dissertation note: Trypanosoma evansi (T. evansi) is a flagellated protozoan that is mechanically spread through biting flies like Stomoxys, Tabanus and Lyperosia.T. evansi was first isolated in 1880 from diseased equines and camels of Indian sub-continent. It is the parasite of likewise intravascular as well as extra vascular fluids causing “surra” in the subtropical and tropical regions all over the world, including Africa, Asia, and America. It affects a wide range of mammals. It is mostly observed in camelids and equines but camel is the principal host. Trypanosomiasis in Pakistan is prevalent as a major threat to the camels causing heavy financial losses like causing anemia, weight loss, high fever, anorexia, dullness, depression, pale mucous membranes, facial paralysis, and thin hump dropped to one side, abortion in females and even death of camels.Considering the significance and utilization of camels in our country and the substantial losses rendered by trypanosomiasis, the present study was designed to study incidence, hematological alterations and chemotherapy of trypanosomiasis in camels of Bahawalpur district. For this purpose, 100 camels were examined for Trypanosoma infection. The blood was collected by ear-tip puncture and from Jugular venipuncture. Then thin blood smear slide was prepared and dried up in air and stained with Geimsa's staining method and examined under microscope. Trypanosomes were identified by their morphological characteristics (Chandler and Read, 1961), as described by standard texts like Taylor et al. (2007). Overall incidence of T. evansi in camels was estimated as 20%. The effect of trypanosomiasis on various blood parameters (Hb, ESR, TEC, TLC, DLC, and PCV) was determined in 30 camels including 15 apparently healthy and 15 trypanosome infected camels to compare normal blood parameters. The remarkable decrease in Hb, TEC, PCV, platelets and lymphocytes were observed while remarkable increase inESR and TLC was observed.Severe leukocytosis, neutrophilia, monocytosis, eosinophilia and basophilia were also observed in diseased camels. For chemotherapy, 12 camel’s positive for trypanosomiasis, were divided into three groups (A, B and C). The animals of group A were treated with Imidocarb dipropionate @ 1.2 mg Kg-1 BW I/M, and efficacy of drug was found 50% in camels against trypanosomiasis. The group B was treated with Buparvaquone @ 3 mg/kg BW 1/M and was observed 25% effective. While the group C was treated with Isometamedium chloride(Trypamidium Samorin®, Merial, Pakistan) @ 0.75mg/kg BW I/M, which was found 100% effective. The efficacy of drugs was measured on the basis of disappearance of clinical signs and recovery rate of the animals, and blood smear examination at day 2, 4 and 07 of post-medication. Finally, the data on hematology were analyzed by Student's T-test using statistical software package SPSS v22 (statistical package for social science), P < 0.05 was considered significant. Considering the significance and utilization of camel in our country and the substantial losses rendered by trypanosomiasis, the present project was designed to record clinical cases and chemotherapy of trypanosomiasis in camels of Bahawalpur districts. The results of this study will help farmers and veterinary practitioners in field. Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 2668-T] (1).

23. Prevalence And Chemotherapy Of Dry Cow Mastitis

by Abdul Sattar Saqib (2014-VA-766) | Dr. Muhammad Avais | Prof. Dr. Aneela Zameer Durrani | Prof. Dr. Masood Rabbani.

Material type: book Book; Literary form: not fiction Publisher: 2016Dissertation note: The study was undertaken to determine the prevalence and chemotherapy of dry cow mastitis. Mastitis is responsible for a wide range of health problems and economic losses in cows and is characterized by decrease in milk production, Swelling of the udder, hotness of the udder and anorexia. All lactating animals generally have a period of 6-10 weeks preceding to calving (usually annually) as a dry or resting period, a non-lactating phase. About to calving the cow remains at risk to new intra-mammary infections, especially shortly after the ‘drying off’ or termination of milking. During the dry period the prophylactic benefit of 82% reduction in the rate of intra-mammary infection is the result of the dry cow treatment with antibiotics and higher rate of eliminating infections than treating in lactation. For this purpose, 250 Pregnant dry cows were examined for subclinical mastitis. The milk samples were collected from Pattoki and adjacent areas and California mastitis test (CMT) was performed and positive samples were furtherly processed for somatic cell count at medicine Laboratory of University of Veterinary and Animal Sciences, Lahore. For Chemotherapy, 24 animals positive for dry cow mastitis were equally divided into 4 groups viz A, B, C and D. Each group comprising of 6 animals. The animals of group A were treated with intramammary antibiotic Cloxacilline+ Ampicillin (Masticlox ,ICI). Animals in group B were treated by injecting 2 shorts (72 hours interval) of long acting Amoxicilline (amoxy 150 L.A Floris veterinaire produkten B.V Vught the Netherland) intra muscularly. Animals in group C were treated with Cephradine (Velosef, GSK) 1g/quarter through intramammary route once. Cows in group D were served as positive control. Animals in all groups were kept under close observation for clinical mastitis until parturition. After calving, cows in each group were tested for mastitis at days 7, 14 and 21 (post calving) using CMT and Summary 53 SCC. Effectiveness of a particular treatment was determined on the basis of CMT score and SCC. The collected samples from Pattoki and adjacent areas were processed at the Medicine laboratory at UVAS, Lahore aseptically for CMT and CMT positive samples were processed by Somatic cell count (SCC). Overall prevalence determined which was 39.60% (99/250samples) by CMT and SCC.The efficacy of different antibiotics used in chemotherapy of dry cow mastitis was checked. The efficacy of Amoxicilline (Amoxy 150 L.A), Ampicillin+ Cloxacilline (Masticlox) and Cephradine (Velocef 1g) was recorded at day 7,14 and 21days post calving. Group A was treated with Ampicillin +Cloxacilline (Masticlox) its efficacy was 83.33% and group B was treated with Amoxicilline (Amoxy 150 L.A) and its efficacy was 66.66% effective while the efficacy of Cephradine (Velocef 1g) was 33.33% in group C. From this study it was concluded that CMT is more reliable test than other tests for the diagnosis of Mastitis in cows. Secondly subclinical mastitis which is an important problem of cows is significantly prevalent in dry cows in Pattoki and adjacent areas. Cloxacilline+ Ampicillin and Amoxicillin is the most effective drug while Cephradine is relatively less effective against mastitis in dry cows. Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 2669-T] (1).

24. Comparative Efficacy Of Albendazole, Pyrantel Pamoate, Ajwain And Kamala Against Toxocara Vitulorum Infestation In Bovine Calves

by Muhammad Zahid IQbal (2007-VA-72) | Prof. Dr. Aneela Zameer Durrani | Dr. Muhammad Hassan Saleem | Dr. Arshad Javid.

Material type: book Book; Literary form: not fiction Publisher: 2016Dissertation note: Toxocara vitulorum is a round worm of cattle and buffalo that is common in tropical and subtropical area.Toxocara vitulorum from infected cattle and buffalo transmitted to calves via colostrum and placenta while its transmission was very less though feed and water. Toxocara vitulorum infestation was very high in calves and it caused mortalities in calve ages between 1 to 3 months, while infestation was less in high age groups.Mortality in cattle and buffalo calves reached up to 50% andcause poor growth, colic, constipation, diarrhea, anorexia and ketosis in calves. These worms could cause intestinal strangulation, holes and blockage in intestines of calves. Resent study was designed to check the prevalence and therapeutic trial of Toxocara vitulorum in cow and buffalo calves. These results were very helpful for the treatment of the Toxocara vitulorum that was a major endo-parasite in the cows and buffalo calves. Fecal samples from 300 cows and buffalo were examined under the compound microscope for ova. Positive cow and buffalo calves were divided in five groups and different treatments were given to each group. Egg per Gram (EPG) counted at day 7and 14th post-treatment. Overall prevalence Toxocara vitulorum was 49% in cow calves and 59% in buffalo calves. Prevalence was higher in 1-3 month age group calves (78% in cow calves & 91% in buffalo calves) while prevalence was higher in female calves (52% in cow and 61% in buffalo calves) as compare to male calves (44% in cow and 55% in buffalo calves). Prevalence was higher in the summer stress months. The efficacy of the Albendazole was lowest in both cows and buffalo calves. The efficacy of Albendazole in cow was 25% and 31% at day 7th and 14th, respectively while in buffalo calves the efficacy of Albendazole was 24% and 31% at 7th and 14th days of post treatment, respectively. The efficacy of Pyrantel pamoate was 98% and 100 % in cow calves at day 7th and 14th, respectively while in buffalo calves the efficacy of Pyrantel pamoate was 81% and 100% at day 7th and 14th, respectively. The efficacy of Ajwain in cow calves was 59% and 69% at day 7th and 14th, respectively while in buffalo calves it was 58% and 69% at day 7th and 14th, respectively. The efficacy of Kamala in cow calves was 33% and 39% at day 7th and 14th day of post-treatment, respectively and buffalo calves the efficacy was 34% and 42% at day 7th and 14th of post-treatment. It is concluded from the present study that both in cow and buffalo calves, Toxocara vitulorum is most prevalent parasitic infestation. This parasite is more prevalent in female calves, 1-6 months of age and during hot and humid season in both cows and buffaloes. Pyrantel pamoate is proved to be better than Ajwain but Albendazole and Kamala was not justified good dewormer against Toxocariasis in bovine calves. . Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 2656-T] (1).

25. Comparative Efficacy Of Ozone And Gentamicin Sulphate On Uterine Infections In Crossbred Dairy Cows

by Muhammad Usman Raza (2014-VA-914) | Prof. Dr. Aneela Zameer Durrani | Mr. Ghazzanffar Ali Chishti | Dr. Muti ur Rehman.

Material type: book Book; Literary form: not fiction Publisher: 2016Dissertation note: Efficient fertility of lactating dairy cows has always been the doorstep to economically profitable dairy farming. It is mostly agreed that uterine diseases in the cow after parturition have a negative effect on overall reproductive performance. Ozone which is assumed as a very potent oxidant, is one among these alternative techniques. The advantage of using ozone rather than antibiotics is in lowering the incidence of bacterial resistance in consumers of foodstuffs of animal origin, and other advantage is that ozone has no withdrawal period for milk, meat and other products. Ozone breaks through the microorganism (bacteria and germs) cell membrane, and also destroys viruses by diffusing through the protein coat in the nucleic acid core, resulting in damage of the viral nucleic acid. The study was conducted on 50 animals which were randomly divided in two groups. Both groups were having 25, 25 animals. Group A received Ozone while group B received gentamicin sulphate intra uterine. Uterine lavage was taken twice, once before applying treatment and second after 8 hours of applying treatment. Samples were cultured for bacteriology to detect E.coli, F. necrophorum, A. pyogenes and St. pyogenes. Number of positive cases in Group A was 12, 9, 10 and 7 for E. coli, F. necrophorum, A. pyogenes and St. pyogenes respectively. Number of positive cases in Group B was 10, 8, 11 and 8 for E. coli, F. necrophorum, A. pyogenes and St. pyogenes respectively. After applying certain biochemical tests for each bacteria, bacteria was confirmed. Difference of the colony forming units of before and after applying treatments for each bacterium in both groups was calculated. This difference was compared with difference of the colony forming units for same bacteria of other group by using Independent 2 samples T-test with the help of Statistical Packages for Social Sciences (SPSS Inc.) for the windows Version 13.3 (Chicago IL, USA). Results were interpreted on the basis of level of significance. Differences among the groups were considered significant at P < 0.05. E. coli, F.necrophorum and St. pyogenes were highly significant as the P value for group differences was less than 0.05. Group differences among S.pyogenes showed no significance as the P>0.05. The results showed that ozone is better in efficacy as compared to gentamicin sulphate on uterine infections in cows. Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 2685-T] (1).

26. Development And Evaluation Of Vaccines Prepared From Staphylococcus Aureus Isolates Of Camel Mastitis

by Amjad Islam Aqib (2013-VA-947) | Dr. Muhammad Ijaz | Dr. Riaz Hussain | Prof. Dr. Aneela Zameer Durrani | Prof. Dr. Aftab Ahmad Anjum.

Material type: book Book; Literary form: not fiction Publisher: 2016Dissertation note: Development And Evaluation Of Vaccines Prepared From Staphylococcus Aureus Isolates Of Camel Mastitis Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 2750-T] (1).

27. Epidemiology Of Major Bacterial And Parasitic Causes Of Foal Diarrhea

by Ikramul Haq (2010-VA-60) | Prof. Dr. Aneela Zameer Durrani | Prof. Dr. Muhammad Sarwar Khan | Dr. Muhammad Hassan Mushtaq.

Material type: book Book; Literary form: not fiction Publisher: 2017Dissertation note: Present study was carried out in District Lahore and District Sargodha, Punjab province of Pakistan, from January, 2016 to December, 2016. The study was conducted to study the prevalence of Diarrhea in foals and to identify the major viral, bacterial and parasitic causes of diarrhea in foals in these districts. The foals that passed lose feces a least 4 to 5 times a day were considered diarrheic. The results showed that the prevalence of diarrhea was 72.8% in the foals. District wise prevalence showed that the prevalence of diarrhea in foals were 73.7% in district Sargodha and were 72% in District Lahore. According to the results the prevalence of diarrhea in male foals was 74% and in female foal were 72%. The diarrhea was more prevalent in donkeys at is 76.6% as compaired to horses which was 74.5%. The viral (rotavirus), bacterial (Salmonella, Clostridium perfirengens and E. coli) and parasitic causes of diarrhea were identified by appropriate technique. The viral causes were diagnosed using ELISA technique. The bacteria were isolated by culturing and were confirmed by polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR). The parasitic causes studied using microscopic examination. To identify the cause of diarrhea 400 samples (200 from each district) were collected and processed for viral, bacterial and parasitic detection. The results showed that 91.1% of the samples were positive for one or more infectious agents. District wise results showed that the prevalence of more or more than infectious agents were higher in district Lahore (95.5%) as compared to district Sargodha which was 87.5%. The isolation of one or more than one infectious agents were higher in males it is 92.7% while were low in females which was 90.5%. The results showed that the prevalence of one or more than one infectious agents were higher in horses (92.4%) in comparision with donkey which was 87.8%. Experiment No. I: Investigation of Parasitic causes of Foal Diarrhea Fecal samples were preserved in 10% formalin and transported to the laboratory for diagnosis of parasites. The fecal samples from foals suffering from diarrhea were processed by using following parasitological examination. 4. Direct microscopic examination The sample negative with direct microscopic examination was examined using simple floatation examination. 5. Simple floatation examination The sample negative with Simple floatation examination was examined by using sedimentation floatation technique. 6. Sedimentation floatation Technique The sample negative by using Sedimentation technique was recorded as negative for parasites. The results show that 340 (85%) out of 400 samples were positive for one or more than one endo-parasites. The prevalence of endo-parasites was higher in district Sargodha it is 87.5% as compared to district Lahore, which was 82.5% (Table No.7). Gastrodiscus Spp were the higher prevalent endo-parasite and 308 (77%) (Table No. 10) of the samples were positive for Gastrodiscus Spp while the lowest prevalent endo-parasite was Anoplocephala spp with (3) 0.75% prevalence (Table No. 12). other helmenth such as Dictyocaulus Spp. (22.5%), Oxyuris Spp. (15.75%), Strongyloides Spp. (15.75%), Ascaris equorum (4.75), Tridontophorus Spp. (2%), Trichomena spp. (1.5%) Strongylus spp. (1.5%), and Paranoplocephala Spp. (5%) Experiment No. II: Molecular Diagnosis of Bacteria Causes of Foal Diarrhea The samples were culture for Salmonella, E.coli and Clostridium perfirengins on respective selective media and DNA was extracted from the culture. DNA was amplified by PCR and the bacteria were confirm using PCR. To diagnose Lasonia the DNA was extracted directly from fecal sample and were processed for lawsonia. The result show that 55% of the samples were positive for one or more than one type of bacteria. Maximum prevalence were observe of E. coli 48.75% and none of the sample were positive for lawsonia. The other isolated bacteria were Salmonella 18.24% and Clostridium perfiengens 18%. Experiment No. III: Investigation of Viral causes of Foal Diarrhea Foal suffering from diarrhea were screened and analyzed for presence of rotavirus by using commercially available ELISA kit The result of detection of rotavirus shows that rotavirus was detected in (70) 17.5% of the sample processed for the diagnosis of rotavirus. Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 2800-T] (1).

28. Epidemiology, Molecular Detection, Zoonotic Potential, Heamatology And Chemotherapy Of Cryptosporidiosis In Small Ruminants In Southern Khyber Pakhtunkhwa, Pakistan

by Naimat Ullah Khan (2011-VA-516) | Dr. Muhammad Hassan Saleem | Prof. Dr. Aneela Zameer Durrani | Dr. Nisar Ahmad.

Material type: book Book; Literary form: not fiction Publisher: 2017Dissertation note: Cryptosporidiosis is one of the most important parasitic enteric protozoan infection affecting all vertebrates. The current study was designed to determine the percent prevalence of cryptosporidiosis in small ruminants and humans along with associated risk factors. An overall highest percent prevalence of cryptosporidiosis recorded in all four categories of small ruminants were 27.22%, 20.56%, 18.33% and 12.22% in lambs, kids, Sheep and goats respectively. In the current study, 21.55%, 18.33% and15% prevalence of the Cryptosporidium infection was recorded in sheep in District Kohat, Bannu and Lakki Marwat respectively. In the present study, the highest month wise percent prevalence in sheep, was observed in the month of August (36.66%) followed by April (26.66%), June (26.66%), May, July and September (23.33%), February (10.66%), March (10%), November (10%) while the lowest percent prevalence was observed in the month of December and January (6.66%). In sheep, season wise percent prevalence was also studied where highest prevalence was recorded in summer and autumn season (23.33%), followed by spring (20%) while the lowest percent prevalence was found in the winter season (10%). In sheep, age wise percent prevalence was also studied where highest percent prevalence was found at the age of 1 year (22.38%) followed by 1-2 years (18.03%) while the lowest at the age of 2-3 years (13.46%). In sheep, sex wise percent prevalence was also documented where highest percent prevalence was recorded in female (18.80%) followed by male (17.02%) where lowest percent prevalence was recorded. In goats, the percent prevalence of the Cryptosporidium infection was also studied in three selected areas where recorded 6.66%, 11.66% and 18.3% prevalence in District Bannu, Lakki Marwat and Kohat respectively. Similarly, in goats, overall highest month wise percent Summary 154 prevalence was recorded in the month of August (30%), followed by July (23.33%), June (20%), May (16.66%), March and September (13.33%), April and November (10%), January, February and October (3.33%) while the lowest percent prevalence was recorded in December (0%). In the current study, the season wise prevalence was also studied in goats where highest percent prevalence was recorded in the summer season (20.83%), followed by spring (13.33%), autumn (11.66%) while the lowest prevalence was observed in winter season (3.33%). The highest age wise percent prevalence was recorded at the age of 1 year (18.58%) followed by 1-2 years (10.20%) while the lowest at the age of 2-3 years or above (5.95%). According to the sex wise percent prevalence, the highest percent prevalence was recorded in male (12.30%) while the lowest in females (12.17%). The overall highest percent prevalence of the Cryptosporidium infection was also recorded in lambs in three areas where 33.33%, 25% and 23.33% prevalence was recorded in Kohat, Lakki Marwat and Bannu respectively. The highest month wise percent prevalence was recorded in the month of August (46.6%), followed by other months of the year such as July (40%), April, May and June (30%), September and October (26.66%), November and January (20%) while the lowest in the month of February and December (16.66%) in lambs. The Season wise percent prevalence was recorded in lambs where highest percent prevalence was recorded in summer season (36.66 %), followed by spring and autumn (26.66%) while the lowest in winter season (18.33%). According to the age wise percent prevalence in lambs, the highest prevalence was recorded at the age of 1-15 days (38.09%) followed by 16-30 days (29.41%) while the lowest at the age of 31-60 days or above (15.15%). In lambs, the highest sex wise percent prevalence was recorded in females (31.18%) while the lowest percent prevalence was observed in males (22.98%). Summary 155 In kids, overall highest percent prevalence was 20.55% recorded in three selected districts where the highest prevalence was recorded in District Kohat (23.33%), followed by District Bannu (20%) while the lowest in District Lakki Marwat (18.33%). In kids the month wise percent prevalence was also studied where the highest percent prevalence was recorded in May and August (33.33%), followed by June, July and September (26.66%), March, April and October (20%), November and December (13.33%) while the lowest percent prevalence was recorded in the month of the January (6.66%). The Season wise percent prevalence was also recorded in kids, where the highest percent prevalence was observed in the summer season (30%), followed by autumn (23.33%), spring (20%) while the lowest prevalence was recorded in winter season (10%). The highest age wise percent prevalence in kids was also recorded at the age of ≤1-15 days (33.92%), followed by 16-30 days (15.38%) while the lowest at the age of ≥31-60 days or above (13.55%). Sex wise percent prevalence was also determined in goat kids where, the highest percent prevalence was recorded in female (20.98%) followed by male kids (19.19%). To conduct molecular study, 360 fecal samples of sheep were analyzed for presence of the Cryptosporidium oocysts through simple microscopic method first then confirmed by PCR. DNA was extracted with the help of DNA extraction kit (Made in USA, GFC vivantis). The targeted gene of parasite was 18s rRNA which result in amplification of a segment of genomic DNA at 435 bp. The following primers sequence was used for Forward primer: (5-AAGCTCGTAGTTGGATTTCTG- and reverse primers (5-TAAGGTGCTGAAGGAGTAAGG-3. An overall molecular percent prevalence of the Cryptosporidium infection was 24.99% in sheep in three selected zones of southern KPK. The highest molecular percent prevalence was 31.66%, 25% and 18.33% in District Kohat, Bannu and Lakki Marwat respectively. Summary 156 The highest season wise molecular percent prevalence was also recorded where the highest percent prevalence was recorded in the summer (33.33%), followed by autumn (30%), spring (26.66%) while the lowest in the winter season (13.33%). Molecular percent prevalence was higher in females (27.08%) than male (25.53%). On the basis of environmental factors, overall the highest percent prevalence was recorded in the month of August where highest ambient temperature, relative humidity and heavy rain fall was recorded. To find out Zoonotic aspect of the Cryptosporidium infection, the overall highest percent prevalence was recorded in children (16.66%), followed by adults (5.55%). The highest percent prevalence was recorded in diarrhoeic children where direct contact with small ruminants was observed while the lowest prevalence was recorded in those children where no direct or indirect contact was observed. To conduct the therapeutic trials, a total of 50 goats were selected of the same weight and age that were naturally infected by Cryptosporidium under field conditions. All the goats were placed under same feeding and management conditions and randomly divided into five groups such as A, B, C, D and E. All animals in groups A, B, C and D were treated with Azithromycin (10mg/kg b.wt), Metronidazole (50mg/Kg b.wt), Allium sativum (50mg/Kg b.wt) and Paromomycin (100mg/kg b.wt) respectively while Group-E was placed as a positive control group. The highest percent efficacy in reduction of OPG was shown by different drugs such as Paromomycine (91.77%) followed by Metronidazole (78.20%), Allium sativum (77.00%) while the lowest percent efficacy was shown by Azithromycin (59.29%). On the basis of hematological study, lower lymphocytes count was (48.39%) recorded in non-infected animals while higher (54.33%) count was recorded in infected animals. Similarly higher eosinophil count was (6.73%) recorded in infected group while lower (50 %) counts were recorded in non- Summary 157 infected group. Hb level was higher in infected group than healthy animals. PCV level was higher (42.94%) in infected animals while low (34.62%) in healthy animals. Biochemical analysis of the serum showed, higher quantity of total protein, albumin, ALP, Sodium, Potassium, Chloride, Zinc, Copper, Urea and Creatinine was recorded in infected goats while lower quantity was observed in healthy goats. Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 2880-T] (1).

29. Comparative Efficacy Of Mycotoxin Binders And Effects Of Aflatoxin B1 On Health Status Of Lactating Beetal Goats

by Haq Aman Ullah (2005-VA-180) | Prof. Dr. Aneela Zameer Durrani | Dr. Muhammad Ijaz | Dr. Aqeel Javeed.

Material type: book Book; Literary form: not fiction Publisher: 2017Dissertation note: Aflatoxins are the secondary metabolites produced by moulds particularly by certain strains of Aspergillus flavus and Aspergillus parasiticus. The most toxic is the aflatoxin B1 (AFB1) and is considered as Hepatocarcinogenic. In present study aflatoxin B1 contamination status of different concentrate feeds (cotton seed cake, wanda, wheat bran and homemade concentrate mixture) of dairy goats was investigated in district Lahore of Pakistan. Twenty goat farms were randomly selected and 40 feed samples (two from each farm) were collected. The samples were analysed for the estimation of AFB1 using reverse phase High Performance Liquid Chromatography (HPLC) in Quality Operations Laboratory, UVAS, Lahore. AFB1 was detected in 33 feed samples out of 40 thus with a percent contamination rate of 83%. The quantity of aflatoxin B1 ranged from 0-225.736 ppb (μg/kg). The maximum level of AFB1 was detected in cotton seed cake (mean level 137.059 ± 22.293 ppb) and minimum level was detected in wheat bran (mean level 5.676 ± 1.047 ppb). Amongst the positive concentrate feed samples, 28 samples (85% of the positive) were having the concentration of AFB1 higher than the permissible level recommended by European Communities which is 5 ppb for concentrates. Thus the milk from goats consuming AFB1 contaminated concentrate feed can be a potential hazard for public health. This part of the study fulfills the first objective of the research project, which is to determine the aflatoxin B1 contamination status of concentrate feeds of dairy goats in District Lahore. Beetal is the best dairy goats’ breed of Pakistan. In second part of the study, lactating beetal goats were used. In this experiment, effects of dietary AFB1 on health status of lactating beetal goats and its transfer from feed into milk as metabolite aflatoxin M1 (AFM1) were investigated. Thirty two lactating beetal goats of 3-4yr old, 6-8 wks. lactation period and weighing 40.91 ± 0.285 Kg, were selected from Small Ruminant Farm, Pattoki, University of veterinary and Animal 97 Sciences Lahore, and were randomly divided into four groups A, B, C and D, each having 8 animals. Group A was kept as negative control, while groups B, C and D were fed with aflatoxin B1 through naturally contaminated cotton seed cake. The cotton seed cake was having high level of AFB1 which was 150 μg/kg. After 7 days of adaptation period, each animal of groups B, C and D was individually fed with 30μg, 40μg and 50μg of aflatoxin B1 per day respectively through naturally contaminated cotton seed cake for a 10 days period., thus each animal of groups B, C, and D was fed with 200 g, 266.66 g, and 333.33 g of cotton seed cake per day respectively, to provide the required amount of AFB1 to each experimental animal. Milk samples were collected 24hr before the first AFB1 feeding and on 3rd, 7th and 10th day post aflatoxin B1 feeding. The samples were tested for AFM1 through HPLC, somatic cell count (SCC) and total viable count (TVC). Blood samples were analyzed for aspartate aminotransferase (AST), alanine aminotransferase (ALT) and alkaline phosphatase (ALP) levels before and after aflatoxin B1 administration. AFM1 was detected in all milk samples of the Groups B, C and D, with concentration beyond permissible level which is 0.05ppb (European communities).The amount of AFM1 excreted in milk was positively correlated with the amount of aflatoxin B1 ingested. The AFB1 was excreted in the milk as AFM1 at 1.35-1.59%. The mean SCC of groups A, B, C and D was 1.44×106 ± 1.75×105, 4.13×106 ± 4.09×105, 3.63×106 ± 4.60×105, 1.38×106 ± 1.56×105 cells/ml respectively. TVC obtained was 2.4×104 ± 1.9×103, 4.3×104 ± 1.6×103, 4.8×104 ± 3.3×103, 3.6×104 ± 3.3×103 cfu/ml of milk for group A, B, C and D respectively. The mean ALP levels were 62 ± 7, 223 ± 22, 147 ± 14, 175 ± 16 U/L for group A, B, C and D respectively. Mean levels of AST of group A, B, C and D were 79 ± 2.214, 110 ± 5.386, 104 ± 2.015, 126 ± 9.456 respectively. Mean levels of ALT of group A, B, C and D were 14 ± 0.326, 20 ± 1.118, 21 ± 1.106, 28 ± 1.250 U/L respectively. The ingestion of AFB1 even at low dose of 30μg in goats resulted in excretion 98 of AFM1 in milk beyond the permissible level. SCC, TVC, AST and ALT levels increased with ingestion of dietary AFB1. This part of the study fulfills the 2nd objective of the research project which is to investigate the effects of dietary aflatoxin B1 on health status of lactating beetal goats and its transfer from feed into milk as AFB1. In the third part of the study, the efficacy of two different mycotoxin binders Toxfin® and Elitox® was determined, in terms of reduction in milk AFM1 excretion, improvement in milk quality and liver health. Groups A and B were kept negative and positive controls respectively. Experimental animals, cotton seed cake and number of groups remained the same as used in part 2 of the experiment. After initial 10 days of the experiment, each animal of groups B, C and D was daily fed with 266.66 g of cotton seed cake to provide 40 μg of AFB1 per day to each animal, for next 7 days. In the meantime, group C was fed with mycotoxin binder Toxfin® (Kemin industries, Inc. USA), at a dose rate of 3 g per Kg of cotton seed cake, while group D was fed with mycotoxin binder Elitox® (Impextraco Belgium ) at a dose rate of 1 g per Kg of cotton seed cake. Toxfin® and Elitox® both significantly decreased the excretion of AFM1 in goats’ milk, detected through high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). Toxfin® and Elitox® reduced the excretion of AFM1 in milk by 56 % and 48 % respectively, thus the detoxifying ability of Toxfin® in feed was significantly higher than Elitox®. The SCC and TVC remained statistically unchanged after the administration of mycotoxin binders. The enzyme activities of alanine aminotransferase (ALT) and aspartate aminotransferase (AST) were not significantly affected by the mycotoxin binders. The alkaline phosphatase (ALP) level significantly increased in animals receiving either Toxfin® or Elitox®. The mycotoxin binders used in this study were not able to significantly improve milk quality and liver’s health in AFB1 treated goats, during the experimental period. This part of the study fulfills the 3rd objective of the research project, which was to determine the comparative efficacy of two different mycotoxin binders in lactating goats fed with mold contaminated diet. Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 2860-T] (1).



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