Incidence Of Dog Bite Injuries Reported In Tertiary Care Hospitals
Material type: Book ; Literary form:
Publisher: 2014 Dissertation note: Animal bites people should be considered an important public health problem. Moreover, the number of pets, specifically the dog, is increasing. (Palacio J et al., 2003).Animal bites, particularly dog bites, are a major public health problem throughout the world (Morgan and Palmer, 2007). Animal bites and scratches, even when they are minor, can become infected and spread bacteria to other parts of the body.
Dog attacks, by street or domestic dogs, with injuries from very minor to significant and severe to fatal, are not uncommon. According to WHO report, ten million people are bitten by animals (especially Dogs) around the world, considered for prophylaxis and treatment against rabies and almost (55,000) people die from this disease annually (Mohdjunaid et al., Oct 2012).
The incidence of dog bite injuries is high in densely populated towns of Lahore when compared to less populated towns of Lahore.
General information about patients and possible causes was collected on a structured questionnaire. All the dog bite victims that were come to emergency ward during three months period were included in the study. Questionnaire include closed questions about the demographics of the victims, circumstances of bite incidents, body parts injured and the degree of injury, type of dog, history of previous bites, the level of knowledge about rabies, post bite home treatment (washing of bite wound etc.) prior to visited the hospital for medical treatment and post exposure treatment at hospital. The densely populated area (ravi town, data ganj bakhsh, shalimar town, samanabad etc) and less populated area (gulberg, azizbhati town, wagah, Allama iqbal town, & nishtar) was be compared.
6.4 Statistical Design
Cumulative incidence was calculated as described by Leon Gordis (2008). Chi square test was applied on the data by using SPSS (version 19.0).
In this study, cumulative incidence is 4.653 per 1000 popluation, most of the dog bite victims were male 79.9 % as compare to female 20%.5.7% cases visited Mayo Hospital’s emergency department during the study period, 4.5% cases were reported in Services Hospital and 89.9% cases from IPH Lahore. In this the higher percentage was the patients who were illiterate (47%) and very few patients were those who had intermediate and above education (6%). The occupation of the patients who were attended Hospitals, were farmers (31.56%). The 24% patients were those who had bitten once before in previous years. In those 24% patients 19.2 % those who were bitten by dog and 5% were bitten by others (cats, horse, donkeys, etc). Most of the victims were bitten in rural area (65%) and most of the injuries were from stray dogs (65.9%). Most of the victims had provoked bite (74%) and the high frequency were recorded that the cases had type II wound category (deep scratch but no bleeding) 82%. The cases received treatment in different hospitals were RIG (18%), Tetanus toxoid (32%), Antibiotic (78%) and Suturing (7.9%).
Most of the patients were from Ravi town Lahore that is one of the highly densely populated areas of Lahore (38%) and very few cases reported from Nishtar town Lahore (0.5%). The demographic location and the hospitals had no association as the results were insignificant (p-value>0.05). Most of the cases who were bitten by dog and they already bitten by dog in previous years, significant in relation as p-value <0.05. The association between dog status and biting animal was significant, as mostly biting dogs were stray dogs and most of the bite was provoked, there was significant association between biting animal and biting type (p-value<0.05).
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