Status Of Awareness Among Zoo Workers About Zoonotic Diseases
Material type: Book ; Literary form:
Publisher: 2014 Dissertation note: A zoo is a place where wild animals are kept for exhibition purposes to the public.It includes: aquaria, sanctuaries, bird gardens and safari/wildlife parks. These are centers for wild animal’sconservation and for public recreation and education (Cuaron2005). Epidemiologists, wildlife biologists, veterinarians and conservationists used these for research purpose.According to an estimate Pakistan is maintainingapproximately 27 zoos, deer parks, etc.(Walker 2014).
Zoonotic diseases are those which are naturally transmitted from animals to human beings and vice versa. The word Zoonosis is derived from the Greek word zoon (animal) and nosos (disease). The diseases which are transferred from human beings to animals are known as Zooanthroponotic (Greek “Zoon” = animal, “anthrópos” = man, “nosos” = disease) diseases e.g. tuberculosis, measles, giardiasis and amoebiasis. On the other hand the diseases which are transmitted from animals to human beings are known as anthropozoonotic diseases e.g. anthrax, AIDS, psittacosis and rabies (Epstein and Price 2009).
Zoonosis can be classified according to their circulation in the ecosystem. These are either classified as synanthropic zoonosis, with an urban (domestic) cycle in which the source of infection are domestic and synanthropic animals (e.g. cat scratch disease, urban rabies and zoonotic ringworm) or exoanthropic zoonosis, with a sylvatic (feral and wild) cycle in natural foci outside human habitats (e.g. wildlife rabies, arbovirus, lyme disease and tularemia). Some zoonotic diseases can circulate in both urban and natural cycles (e.g. chagas disease and yellow fever).
A review study identified that 1415 species of infectious organism are pathogenic to human beings. This includes 217 viruses and prions, 538 bacteria and rickettsia, 307 fungi, 66 protozoa and 287 helminthes. Out of these, 868 (61%) are zoonotic in nature (Taylor et al. 2001). More than 60% of the emerging human infectious diseases are zoonotic in nature and 70% of their reservoirs are wild animals (Cutler et al. 2010).
The reservoirs of several zoonotic diseases are wild animals whose causative agents are viral, rickettsial, chlamydial, bacterial, parasitic and mycotic(Bengis et al. 2004). Zoonotic diseases like tuberculosis, plague and rabies have badly affected the mankind since ancient times and the reservoirs of all of these are wild animals (Stone et al. 2009). Some zoonotic diseases in human beings are self-limiting whose signs range from few days to a long term illness e.g. gastroenteritis caused byGiardia, Cryptosporidium, and Salmonella species.Some zoonotic diseases may cause abortions (Toxoplasmosis) and fatal encephalitis (Japanese encephalitis). Whereas some zoonotic diseases may causes high mortality e.g. Marburg hemorrhagic fever(MacNeil and Rollin 2012). Zoonotic diseases cause death not only in their natural hosts but also in endangered wild animal species near to extinctione.g. Ebola virus cause high mortality in monkeys (Nunn et al. 2008). It is clear from various studies in different zoos that both anthropozoonotic and zooanthroponotic transmission can occur (Adejinmi and Ayinmode 2008).
Zoonotic agents have potential to be used for bioterrorism. The bioterrorism attack is aimed to cause fear, destabilization, stress, illness and death in people, animals and plants. (Lin 2014). Air, water and food may be the warfare biological vehicles for its spread. During World War 1, anthrax was used as a biological warfare in animal populations. Glanders and typhoid were also used for bioterrorism attack in 1910 and 1970, respectively. Several cases of bioterrorism also occurred in the United States due to anthrax in September and October 2001 (Spencer 2007).
A Zoo worker should haveknowledge of the transmission of the disease to avoid its transmission. The common ways of the transmission are direct mode (ingestion, animal bites, inhalation, needle prick injuries and skin contact) and indirect mode (vector borne, fomite, long distanceand airborne transmission). In zoo management, the role of veterinarians is extremely useful. Their job exposes them to several health-related threats during routine operations. e.g. animal bites, needle prick injuries, back injuries, exposure to anesthetic gases and even mortality in certain cases (Hill et al. 1998; Kabuusu et al. 2010).
The personal protective equipment’s are not used during restraining, treatment, necropsy and cleaning the animal enclosures. It may increases the chances of zoonotic diseases to zoo workers and veterinarians. The disposal of wild animal carcasses, organs, unused food, feces and urine by unscientific methodsenhances the process of pathogens transmission(McLaughlin 2002). Laboratory personnel can also be infected with zoonotic diseases due to lack of good laboratory practices in wildlife disease diagnostic laboratories(Rietschel 1998).
Therefore, prevention and control of zoonosis must be an important part of zoo occupational health and safety measures. Preventive measures can be either general or specifically designed for a particular disease. It is possible to prevent many of the zoonotic diseases by following basic hygiene and sanitation procedures.The present study was conducted to determine knowledge, attitude, practice and experience levels about zoonosis among zoo workers of district Lahore(Lahore Zoo, Jallo Wildlife Park and Lahore Safari Zoo).
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Incidence Of Dog Bite Injuries Reported In Tertiary Care Hospitals
Material type: Book ; Literary form:
Publisher: 2014 Dissertation note: Animal bites people should be considered an important public health problem. Moreover, the number of pets, specifically the dog, is increasing. (Palacio J et al., 2003).Animal bites, particularly dog bites, are a major public health problem throughout the world (Morgan and Palmer, 2007). Animal bites and scratches, even when they are minor, can become infected and spread bacteria to other parts of the body.
Dog attacks, by street or domestic dogs, with injuries from very minor to significant and severe to fatal, are not uncommon. According to WHO report, ten million people are bitten by animals (especially Dogs) around the world, considered for prophylaxis and treatment against rabies and almost (55,000) people die from this disease annually (Mohdjunaid et al., Oct 2012).
The incidence of dog bite injuries is high in densely populated towns of Lahore when compared to less populated towns of Lahore.
General information about patients and possible causes was collected on a structured questionnaire. All the dog bite victims that were come to emergency ward during three months period were included in the study. Questionnaire include closed questions about the demographics of the victims, circumstances of bite incidents, body parts injured and the degree of injury, type of dog, history of previous bites, the level of knowledge about rabies, post bite home treatment (washing of bite wound etc.) prior to visited the hospital for medical treatment and post exposure treatment at hospital. The densely populated area (ravi town, data ganj bakhsh, shalimar town, samanabad etc) and less populated area (gulberg, azizbhati town, wagah, Allama iqbal town, & nishtar) was be compared.
6.4 Statistical Design
Cumulative incidence was calculated as described by Leon Gordis (2008). Chi square test was applied on the data by using SPSS (version 19.0).
In this study, cumulative incidence is 4.653 per 1000 popluation, most of the dog bite victims were male 79.9 % as compare to female 20%.5.7% cases visited Mayo Hospital’s emergency department during the study period, 4.5% cases were reported in Services Hospital and 89.9% cases from IPH Lahore. In this the higher percentage was the patients who were illiterate (47%) and very few patients were those who had intermediate and above education (6%). The occupation of the patients who were attended Hospitals, were farmers (31.56%). The 24% patients were those who had bitten once before in previous years. In those 24% patients 19.2 % those who were bitten by dog and 5% were bitten by others (cats, horse, donkeys, etc). Most of the victims were bitten in rural area (65%) and most of the injuries were from stray dogs (65.9%). Most of the victims had provoked bite (74%) and the high frequency were recorded that the cases had type II wound category (deep scratch but no bleeding) 82%. The cases received treatment in different hospitals were RIG (18%), Tetanus toxoid (32%), Antibiotic (78%) and Suturing (7.9%).
Most of the patients were from Ravi town Lahore that is one of the highly densely populated areas of Lahore (38%) and very few cases reported from Nishtar town Lahore (0.5%). The demographic location and the hospitals had no association as the results were insignificant (p-value>0.05). Most of the cases who were bitten by dog and they already bitten by dog in previous years, significant in relation as p-value <0.05. The association between dog status and biting animal was significant, as mostly biting dogs were stray dogs and most of the bite was provoked, there was significant association between biting animal and biting type (p-value<0.05).
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Cross Sectional Study Of Newcastle Disease Virus In Wild Captive Peacocks (Pavo Cristatus) In Zoological Gardens Of District Lahore
Material type: Book ; Literary form:
Publisher: 2015 Dissertation note: Newcastle disease virus (NDV) is RNA virus.It is the member of avian paramyxovirus type 1 (APMV-1).Its genus is Avulavirus genus. The incubation period ranges from 2-15 days. NDV strains are classified into velogenic, mesogenic and lentogenic categories. Newcastle disease is a virus disease of birds characterized by variable combinations of gastroenteritis respiratory distress and nervous signs.
A cross sectional study was conducted for the duration of 3 months in order to identify the prevalence of Newcastle disease in five zoological gardens of Lahore district. Peacocks were restrained by the trained persons and oropharyngealsamples were collected from apparently healthy Peacocks present in the zoological gardens in Lahore. Sampling of 200Peacocks was done by convenience sampling and stored in freezer at -80°C for further analysis.Virus isolation by egg inoculation was performed to isolate virus and confirmationof (NDV) Newcastle disease virus was done by conducting HI test with specific antisera.Samples were inoculated in 10 days embryonated hen’s eggsand allantoic fluid was collected and tested for haemagglutination (HA) activity. Positive samples were confirmed by haemagglutination inhibition (HI) test.
Frequency distribution through age, sex, breed, origin, date and site of collection were examined by standard statistical methods to determine the prevalence by virus isolation method in that specified population. The data was analyzed by using two way contingency tables with Chi-square test for association. Test was performed to check the association of NDV with age, sex, breeds, origin, and specimen type. The significance level was kept at p<0.05. 2 samples were found positive. Overall prevalence in wild captive peacocks was 1% (95 CI=.1-3.6). 200 samples were screened by spot HA test and 198 samples were found negative in four zoological gardens while 2 samples that were positive found in private zoo samples. Significant association was found between positive samples for NDV and zoological gardens.
Prevalence estimates of (NDV) Newcastle disease virus was generated for Peacock population. Associated factors were identified through this study. Results were shared with international community working for the control and eradication of Newcastle disease.
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