Evaluation Of Different Preparations Of Allium Sativum (Garlic) Against Coccidiosis In Broilers Dr. Muhammad Lateef
Material type: Book ; Literary form:
Publisher: 2014 Dissertation note: Poultry industry is playing a pivotal role for the prosperity of Pakistan and is growing day
by day. However, this sector is still facing many problems like coccidiosis which are hindering
its progress (Saima et al. 2010). Coccidiosis with the protozoan parasite Eimeria as the
infectious agent causes enormous economic losses, particularly in poultry farms (Dkhil et al.
2011). Eimeria are common parasites in the digestive tract of the hosts causing diarrhea and fluid
loss. Infections begin with oral uptake of Eimerian oocysts which release sporozoites in the
intestine. These in turn invade enterocytes in which they multiply, and finally, oocysts are
released again with the faeces (Renaux et al. 2001). Medicinal plants as natural feed additives
are recently used in poultry diet to enhance the performance and immune response of chicken
(Tanweer et al. 2012). Coccidiosis of chickens is an enteric parasitic disease caused by multiple
species of the protozoan parasite genus Eimeria (Apicomplexa: Eucoccidia: Eimeriidae) and is
one of the commonest and economically most important diseases of poultry world-wide (Shirley
et al. 2005). It causes production losses, and high morbidity (due to acute, bloody enteritis) and
mortality rates. While the control of coccidiosis has relied mainly on the preventive use of anticoccidial
drugs together with the induction of species-specific natural immunity in chicken
flocks (Shirley et al. 2005), this widely used approach is costly and has led to serious problems
with drug resistance in Eimeria populations (Williams, 2006). Levine discovered that
sulphanilamide would cure coccidiosis in chickens, various anticoccidial feed additives have
been developed and added (Levine 1939). Efforts have always been made to add coccidiostats on
regular basis in chicken’s diet. Consistent use of coccidiostats has not only narrowed the gap
between cost of production and returns, it could be a potential threat to human being as a result
of their residual effects. The increasing resistance of avian coccidiosis to anti-coccidial drugs
currently used by poultry industry together with the requirement for drug and antibiotic free
production systems has meant that it is now important to look for new ways to control the
disease. So, research initiated for possible use of herbal (natural) products against avian
coccidiosis. Herbal products in past have been effectively used for the control and treatment of
several ailments in poultry and human beings. Allium sativum a medicinal plant could be an
effective substitute for coccidiostats because of its chemical nature and antimicrobial activities.
Allium sativum (garlic) have been widely used for their broad range of pharmacological
activities, including antiparasitic activities. Avian coccidiosis is one of the most costly and widespread
parasitic diseases in the poultry industry, and has been mainly controlled by the use of
different chemotherapeutic agents. Due to the emergence of drug-resistant strains, alternative
control strategies are needed (Elbanna, 2012). Hence, further investigations are required to
understand the exact mechanism underlying the effects of these feed additives, which are still in
use in broiler nutrition as performance enhancers and as agents for controlling coccidiosis.
Garlic (Allium sativum ) has been known as an herbal remedy to prevent and treat a variety
of heart diseases and metabolic diseases, such as atherosclerosis, thrombosis, hypertension,
dementia, cancer, and diabetes (Elbanna, 2012). Garlic has rich organosulfur compounds and
precursors (allicin, diallyl sulfide, and diallyl trisulfide). The enzyme allinase that is responsible
for converting alliin (S-allyl cysteine sulfoxide) to allicin is inactive. When garlic is chopped or
crushed, the allinase enzyme present in garlic is activated and acts on alliin (present in whole
garlic) to produce allicin (Tanweer et al. 2012). Many studies indicate that allicin is the
potentially active component of garlic. These compounds provide garlic its characteristic odor
flavor as well as most of its biological properties and have been identified as having the
hypocholesterolemic effect in human and animal products (Silagy and Neil, 1994; Konjufca et
al., 1997; Chowdhury et al., 2002).
Species of Eimeria in poultry are usually identified by the size and morphology of
different stages of the life cycle of the parasite and the nature and location of lesions in the
intestines. Differentiation of species in mixed infections, however, can be difficult because some
species have similar characteristics (Long and Reid, 1982).
Different workers have investigated the prevalence of eimeriosis in different classes of
poultry birds and in different areas of Pakistan (Dar and Anwar, 1981; Anjum, 1990; Ayaz et al.,
2003). Each Eimeria species has a particular predilection site in the chicken digestive tract; for
example, E. tenella attacks the cecum. However, the most common and pathogenic species that
affects the poultry industry in Pakistan is E. tenella, which results in high mortality (Ayaz et al.,
2003; Abbas et al., 2008).
The increasing resistance of avian coccidiosis to anti-coccidial drugs currently used by
poultry industry together with the requirement for drug and a production systems which should
be antibiotic free, it’s now very much necessary to go for the new and advanced methods to
prevent this disease. Therefore, scientists started to work on medicinal use of herbal products to
control this eimeriosis. In past for treatment of various human and poultry ailments the natural
herbal products have been effectively used several times. Because of the anticoccidial nature and
antibacterial effect, garlic could be served as a valuable alternative for coccidiostats as a
medicinal plant. Previously it has been used for multipurpose like as an antibiotic, for antiinflammatory
effects, for anti- eimerial response and as an anti-ulcer agent. Keeping in view the
importance of poultry industry in Pakistan, the present project has been designed to “Evaluate
different preparations of Allium sativum (Garlic) against coccidiosis in broilers”.
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Conventional And Molecular Characterization Of Theileria Species Prevalent In Cattle
Material type: Book ; Literary form:
Publisher: 2015 Dissertation note: Theileriosis is the destructive disease caused by the protozoan in cattle. It is major cause of huge losses in production of cattle. It is a wide spread protozoan syndrome of cattle playing foremost role in production losses. Early and exact diagnosis of theileriosis can be helpful in reducing production losses.
Early and exact diagnosis of theileriosis can be helpful in the control of disease.( Hypothesis )
Incidence of different Theileria species was recorded. Blood samples was collected in sterilized vacutainers. The samples were examined by preparing fresh blood smears followed by Giemsa staining and observing under microscope. Identification on preliminary basis was done by morphological characters of Theileria. In order to find the harmful effect of the theileriosis, blood hematology and biochemistry values were also be determined in both healthy and infected cattle.
The samples from theileriosis positive animals were used for nucleic acid extraction. The extracted nucleic acid was amplified using Species specific primers.Agarose gel electrophoresis was used to visualize the amplified DNA. Amplicons of nucleic acid was treated with different restriction enzymes and pattern was visualized to find differences among different species of Theileria.
Suitable statistical tool was used to analyze the data collected. Chi was applied on data by using statistical software SPSS version 20.0. This research will help to confirm for the conventional and molecular diagnosis of theileriosis in dairy animals. Also genetic variation in Theileria species will be determined.
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Prevalence Of Intestinal Parasites From Fingernails Of Primary School Going Children Of District Lahore
Material type: Book ; Literary form:
Publisher: 2016 Dissertation note: Intestinal parasitic infections are extensively spread globally and most affected population is children. In primary schools environments children are confirmed as a most susceptible for acquiring Intestinal parasites(IP) through nails.
Intestinal parasites were more prevalent in fingernails of children of primary schools in District Lahore.
A total of 300 nail samples were collected from the fingernails of the school children of different age and sex. The nails were swabbed into a clean sterile container containing normal saline. Finger nail clippings were collected from both hands of each subject using sterile nail clippers and were placed in labeled containers containing normal saline. Samples were examined by direct microscopy using Lugol’s iodine and Eosin preparations. Sediments from the nail clippings were examined after digestion with 10% Potassium hydroxide and centrifugation at 2500rpm for 5minutes.The parasites were isolated from the fingernails of the primary school children of both sexes and prevalence was recorded.
The collected data was analyzed using SPSS version 20. The prevalence of parasites was presented as descriptive statistics, while the relationship between several variables (age, gender,educational level) and presence of parasites was determined by the chi-square test. The level of significance used was P<0.05.
This study will help to create awareness among society especially school children about parasites and parasitic infections. It will also help to improve health level of school children, education and environment of schools and will develop the habit of keeping hygiene and handwashing
practice in children as a result of which a healthy study competition will be developed among school children.
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Exploring Anthelmintic Resistance In Ovine Haemonchosis Through Faecal Egg Dna At Livestock Research And Development Station, Paharpur, D .I. Khan
Material type: Book ; Literary form:
Publisher: 2016 Dissertation note: Gastrointestinal nematodes are recognized as a major constraint of small ruminant production system at small and large-scale farming in developing countries, leading to significant economic losses. The most important of these is Haemonchus contortus. Anthelmintic resistance now poses problems to sheep farmers throughout the world. This study has been designed to check anthelmintic resistance against haemonchosis of sheep by an in vivo method. The current study was carried out at Parasitology laboratory (Toxovacc lab), Department of Parasitology, University of Veterinary and Animal Sciences, Lahore. 100 faecal samples were collected from sheep at Livestock Research and Development Station, Paharpur, D.I. Khan. Animals were drenched with anthelmintic (Albashell containing Albendazole 2.5%, administered @10 mg/kg of body weight) orally after 1st sampling, at 0 day. The faecal samples were examined microscopically, micrometery was exploited and EPG analysis was performed by using McMaster technique. After 14 days, the second sampling was done. The fecal samples were brought and stored at 4°C in Parasitology laboratory (Toxovacc lab). Pre-trial & Post trial EPG were compared and positive samples were taken (tag#1057 Damani sheep male, tag#13 Balkhi sheep male, tag#1096 Damani female, tag#06 Balkhi female, tag#20 Balkhi) for egg isolation (Module, 2004) for egg DNA extraction through classical method of Phenol-Chloroform-Iso-Amyl Alcohol extraction. DNA samples were subjected to polymerase chain reactions (PCR) targeting β tubulin gene for detection of benzimidazole resistance at genetic level. Fecal egg count reduction percentage of 74.57% at day 14 post treatment clearly shows the presence of benzimidazole drug resistance in parasites infecting Balkhi and Damani sheep at Livestock Research and Development Station, Paharpur, D.I. Khan.
In conclusion, PCR-Sequencing technique finds its value in the detection of benzimedazole resistance at molecular level in eggs of Haemonchus contortus of sheep and this technique also helps the understanding of the development of drug resistance in the parasite.
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Control Of Nematode Infections In Bovines In Different Parity At Calving And Its Effect On Milk Production
Material type: Book ; Literary form:
Publisher: 2016 Dissertation note: Gastrointestinal nematodes are responsible for wide range of health problems, economic losses in bovines and are characterized by reduced milk production, decreased working efficiency and even death. This study was done to evaluate the effect of different anthelmintics on nematode control in different parity cattle at calving and their effect on milk yield. In this study, we screened cattle of 1st and 2nd parity for nematodes. Animals were randomly selected in each group. In first parity animals, we found 23 positive cattle which were divided into 3 different groups while in second parity animals, we found 20 positive cattle which were divided into 3 groups. We used Albendazole (Velbazine) @ 10mg/kg body weight and levamisole (Nilverm) @ 7.5mg/kg bodyweight for treatment. In this study both drugs were found effective in controlling nematodes infections in cattle. Percentage reduction of epg by albendazole was 48.20%, 85.34%, 93.90% and 51.54%, 81.43%, 91.74% on day 7, 14 and 21 in 1st and 2nd parity animals respectively. Percentage reduction of epg by levamisole was 44.45%, 76.92%, 88.03% and 46.60%, 73.78%, 85.43% on day 7, 14 and 21 in 1st and 2nd parity animals respectively. The increase in milk production in current study was 0.39 liter per day and 0.92 liter per day in 1st and 2nd parity cattle respectively. Albendazole increased the milk fat by 0.07 %, while levamisole decreased 0.02 % in 1st parity cattle. In 2nd parity cattle, there was sufficient increase of 0.1% of milk fat by albendazole while levamisole has decreased 0.05 %.
We conclude from our studies that anthelmintic treatment of recently calved cattle have significant effect on milk production due to the nematode control. Milk production increased significantly in 2nd parity friesian crossed cattle following anthelmintic treatment as compared to
1st parity animals. Levamisole has negative effect on fat concentration in friesian crossed cattle while albendazole treated cattle has positive effect. Albendazole has been found more efficient in reducing EPG of helminths in both parity animals as compared to levamisole treated animals. It is recommended that cattle should be checked for GIT parasites by faecal examination on regular basis so that cattle should be dewormed when needed.
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