Prevelance Of Intesrinal Parasitosis Among Children At Day Care Centers Of Lahors In Reation To Socio- Economic Srarus
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Publisher: 2011 Dissertation note: Some intestinal parasitosis pathogen have potential is well known, many of them not shows symptoms, due to the body immunity and climatic element (Vinayak et al. 1990). While other shows like B. hominis and C. parvum. Persistent and acute diarrhea has been linked with the Giardia duodenalis and Entamoeba histolytica. Entamoeba / dispar, a protozoa having alike character with E. histolytica which is a not involve in causing diseases but proved symbiotic association in gut, not harms the other.
Children up to age of 3 years commonly found with anemia and iron deficiency due to malnutrition caused by high prevalence of parasitosis. (Kapur et al., 2001)
Cryptosporidium parvum within age of 5 years children gave highest prevalence rates in a community, among different parasites (Palmer & Biffin 1990). Cryptosporidium spp have been causative agent of persistent and acute diarrhea in many research works (Lima et al. 1992).
In developing countries intestinal parasitosis infection is a major health issue by promote health standards and controlling the carriers or vector, most countries have successfully reduced the rates of infestation. However, in developing countries geographic, socio-economic factors and natural calamity increase the health problems. Countries, which are geographically located in hot and humid areas along with poverty, unavailability of clean water, malnutrition, and high population density provide maximum chances for the development and high intestinal parasitic risk. Because of lack of sufficient research and attention of infectious and parasitic diseases in developing countries is the main problem hurdle to eliminating the risk of parasitic infestation.( Sayyari et al.,2005)
Pakistan estimated the intestinal parasitosis as the important public health problem. In developing countries intestinal parasitosis infection is a major health issue by promote health standards and controlling the carriers or vector, most countries have successfully reduced the rates of infestation. However, in developing countries geographic, socio-economic factors and natural calamity increase the health problems. Intestinal parasitosis is most familiar in children due to lack of hygienic condition. Physiologist and medical specialists are recommended that parasitosis infections delay children's growth, malnutrition, lost the opportunities of education and development. The under study carried out to record the prevalence of intestinal parasitosis within children at day care centers of Lahore and also to relate environmental factors with socio-economic status.
The basic purpose for collection of stool specimens were to examined the parasitic eggs, cysts, and larvae, by different methods like fresh smears method and Scotch tape method. Trophozoites of amoeba were examined in fresh smears. Oxyure eggs were seen in Scotch tape slides. The parasitic size was measured by ocular micrometry method. Formaline ether concentrate method was being done for finding cysts (Machado,1999 ; Lotphy 1990). Socio- economic and environmental factors were also is studied.
Of 174 children 56 children studies positive for parasitosis, 96 were males and 78 females. One or more intestinal parasites were identified in 40 (22.9% children) the most pravelent parasite were E. vermicularis 9.19% G. lamblia 6.89% E.histolytica 5.17% A.lumbricoides 2.87% H.nana 1.14% T. saginata1.72% T.trichiura 4.59% and E.coli 0.57% showed a low infection respectively
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Prevalence And Control Of Gastrointestinal Nematodes Of Goats In District Swat, Khyber Pakhtunkhwa
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Publisher: 2012 Dissertation note: Goat rearing is a traditional activity in peri-urban areas and villages and plays an important role in the nutrition, social and economic needs of the population. Gastrointestinal nematodes are common in various production systems and these infections are the single most significant constraint to small ruminant productivity.
The present study was carried out at Saidu Sharif, District Swat to generate data about the gastrointestinal (GIT) nematodes prevalent in the area. To record the prevalence of various nematodes of goats, a total of 150 faecal samples were examined. A total of 61/150 (40.67 %) of samples were found positive. Different species were identified and included Nematodirus spathiger (28.66 %), Haemonchus contortus (14.66 %), Trichostrongylus spp (4 %), Strongyloides papillosus (6 %) and Trichuris ovis (11.33 %). Highest prevalence of GIT nematodes were found in young and immature animals (48 %) with mean EPG 282 and 211 respectively. Adult had lower infection rate (26 %) with mean EPG of 142. Sex related prevalence indicated that male had higher prevalence (46.66 %) than female (34.66 %) and greater intensity of infection in males as compare to females. Higher infection rate with GIT nematodes was recorded in pregnant goat (42 %) as compared to non pregnant (33.92 %). House hold animals showed high infection rate i.e. 45.33 % with mean EPG of 254 as compared to commercially raised animals which had infection rate 36 % with mean EPG of 169. The Study
showed significant difference of egg per gram count between breeds. Beetal goats had high infection rate (100 %) and intensity as compared with other breeds.
Higher egg shedding was recorded in animals around parturition as compared to dry goats. Liter size also effected the EPG and higher counts were recorded in goats with duplets and triplets.
Albasym (Albendazole) was evaluated at two dose levels i.e. 1 ml/ 20 kg body weight and 1.25 ml/20 kg body weight. The efficacy at normal dose and higher dose at day 7th was 98.81 % and 100 % respectively, at day 14th 95.24 % and 99.53 % and at day 28th 80.95 % and 93.90 % respectively. No significant difference at normal dose and higher dose was observed while significant difference with control group was recorded.
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Evaluation Of Adulticidal And Larvicidal Efficacy Of Zadirachta Indica (Neem) And Lantana Camara (Punch Phul) Extracts
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Publisher: 2012 Dissertation note: Pakistan is one of sub-tropical countries and its climatic conditions favor parasitic diseases along with disease vectors including mosquitoes. Mosquitoes of genus Aedes are causing Dengue fever. It has become one of infectious vector born disease of world. Annually it is striking around 100 million people with dengue fever and about 5 Lac people with Dengue Hemorrhagic Fever (DHF), resulting in 5 % deaths per year. Current study was conducted to evaluate efficacies of plant extracts against dengue fever mosquitoes of Aedes genus. Study target was to search some safer alternates than that of chemical pesticides. Also exhibiting characteristics like less toxic to environment, do not induce resistance in mosquitoes, do not harm non-targeted organisms, would not be toxic to human beings and will have biodegradation ability. Study has evaluated indigenous plants extracts as potent larvicidal and adulticidal materials.
Mosquitoes were collected from different areas of Lahore and they were identified upto genus level only Aedes genus was identified upto species level, then Aedes aegypti was reared in laboratory to have F 1 generation, to have mosquitoes and larvae for testing the activity of plant extracts. Plant materials were collected from different areas of Lahore. Methanolic extracts of seeds and leaves of Azadirachta indica and lantana camara respectively, were extracted accordingly. Stock solutions were prepared from these extracts and then out of this serial dilutions were made. Experiment was performed in four groups A, B, C & D for both adults and larvae. Each group was representing total of 25 larvae/adult out of which one was kept untreated
as negative control, one with deltamethrin as positive control while two were provided with test concentrations.
LC50 and LC90 was determined by Probit analysis, using SPSS version 13.0 SPSS inc. 2004. lethal concentrations of A. indica mosquitocidal assay were LC50=30.44 mg/l and LC90=62.36 mg/l after 24 hrs and LC50=-9.87mg/l and LC90=59.102 mg/l after 48 hrs at ?= 0.05. X 2 value was significant for 24 h while for 48 h it was not significant. Maximum mortality observed after 24 and 48 hrs is 99% at 70 ppm. DMR test shows after 24 hrs., all treatment means are significantlt different from each other, from control and from mean of insecticide's mortality, control is significantly lower while insecticide treated group has significantly higher than rest.
after 48 hrs. treatments were significantly different from each other while treatment mortality at 70 PPM is significantly higher than insecticide treated group and rest.
Lethal concentrations for L. camara adulticidal assay were LC50=60.40 mg/l and LC90=113.61 mg/l after 24 hrs and LC50=48.20 mg/l and LC90=79.31 mg/l after 48 hrs at ?= 0.05. X 2 value was not significant at 24 h and is significant at 48 h. DMR test after 24 hrs. treatment, control and insecticide treated were significantly different from each while insecticide treated group has significantly higher than rest. After 48 hrs 4 and 5 treatment groups were found significantly higher than rest
Larvicidal assay of A. indica has shown LC50 =52.36 mg/ l and LC90=105.42 mg/ l after 24 h and LC50 =80.70 mg/l and LC90=145.73 mg/ l after 48 h at ?= 0.05. X2 values for both 24h and 48h were not significant. DMR test after 24 hrs. insecticide treated was significantly lower than all above treatment groups. Treatment group 7 has significantly higher mortality than all other. After 48 hrs. there was not any significant difference.
Lethal concentrations for L. camara LC50 =100.76 mg/100 ml and LC90=198.22 mg/100 ml at24 h and LC50 =61.27 mg/100 ml and LC90= 122.45mg/100 ml after 48 h at ?= 0.05. X2 value for both 24h and 48h was not significant. DMR test after 24 hrs. shows insecticide treated group i.e. 8 is significantly lower than all treatment groups except 1 which is at lowest treatment. After 48 4, 5 and 6 had came to same activity level no significant difference was found and were higher than all others.
Hence it is concluded that crude plant extracts can act as potential Adulticide / Mosquitocide and Larvicides, though these are required in higher concentrations than that of synthetic insecticides and purified botanical products, but they have advantage of posssessing less resistance presentation and safe for aquatic life. It is also concluded that chemical insecticide used i.e. Deltamethrin has higher efficacy as adulticidal with drastic effects on environment and other beneficial insects. But it was found least effective as larvicidal compared to crude plants extracts. It is suggested that plant extracts can prove a better, safer and cheaper alternate these should consider as a better alternate to control most lethal disease of present time i.e. Dengue fever by eradicating its vector i.e. Aedes aegypti mosquito.
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Isolation Of Local Strain Of Toxoplasma Gondii Through In-Vivo Cultivation In Mice
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Publisher: 2013 Dissertation note: Toxoplasma gondii is an obligate apicomplexan, intracellular, parasite that infects all warm-blooded vertebrates, including mammals and birds. Human beings can be infected by ingestion of oocysts from cat faeces or through the consumption of meat containing Toxoplasma gondii cysts. Thus, food animals can be the source of transmission of Toxoplasmosis in human population especially among people who consume undercooked meat in the forms of barbecues, beef steaks, kebabs, burgers and shawarmas. Oocysts of T. gondii from cat faeces were identified by using direct microscopy and flotation technique. The positive oocysts were confirmed by micrometry having diameter of 9-13 ìm. The oocysts were then sporulated in aerated condition. After sporulation oocyst were inoculated in Swiss albino mice for in-vivo culturing. After 56-70 days brain tissue was collected from infected mice and subjected to DNA extraction and PCR amplification. Similarly DNA was also extracted from sporulated oocyst for copro-PCR. Out of 200 faecal samples only three were found positive for Toxoplasma gondii through direct microscopic examination and flotation technique. From positive faecal sample and brain tissue DNA was extracted by QIAGEN mini stool kit and QIAGEN DNA mini kit. After DNA extraction the samples were examined through PCR by using specific Toxoplasma gondii B1 gene primer having 529 bp size. Two hundred faecal samples were examined for T. gondii using direct microscopy, flotation technique, bioassay and polymerase chain reaction. Out of 200 samples 3 (1.5%) were found infected through direct microscopy and flotation technique. Toxoplasmosis was more prevalent in adult cats (1.65%) as compared to young ones. Prevalence was also found high in females (2.08%) as compared to males. Similarly healthy cats have higher prevalence rate (1.30%) as compared to diseased ones. A further confirmation was done through polymerase chain reaction and brain tissue cyst Bioassay give 1 positive amplification while Copro-PCR gives 2 positive amplifications. Therefore it can be concluded that the copro-PCR is can be used for the confirmation of Toxoplasma oocysts from cat faeces and tissue cysts from bioassay in mice. Therefore, we propose that the copro-PCR can be used as the new gold standard for determining potential cat infectivity and tissue cysts from bioassayed mice or contaminated meat samples of livestock.
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Prevalence And Treatment Of Ovine Fascioliasis In And Around Rawalakot A.J.K
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Publisher: 2014 Dissertation note: Fascioliasis is a wide spread parasitic disease of ruminants causing great economic losses in terms of decreased milk and meat yield and predisposing to many bacterial infections. Looking the importance and utilization of the small ruminants in our country and the substantial losses because of the Fascioliasis this study was designed to study the prevalence and treatment of Fascioliasis in and around Rawalakot Azad Kashmir.
For this purpose a total of 300 Ovine faecal samples were collected from different areas of Rawalakot. Faeces were collected from sheep of various age, breed and sex. Faeces of each sheep were examined by direct smear, sedimentation and flotation techniques. Positive animals were selected for therapeutic trials.
Out of 300 faecal samples 101 were found positive for Fascioliasis. Overall prevalence was 33.6%. Sex wise prevalence was also studied and it was found that out of 75 male sheep 23 were found positive while out of 225 female 78 was positive for Fascioliasis. Prevalence of Fascioliasis was 30.6% in male and 34.6% in female. The prevalence was also studied age wise and three groups were made. Sheep in first group were less than 1 year of age, out of 25 sheep 4 were found positive and prevalence was 16%. Sheep in second group were between 1-2 years of age, out of 156 sheep 39 of this age group were found positive having a prevalence of 25%. The sheep included in third group were greater than 2 year of age, out of total 119 sheep in this group 58 were found positive for Fascioliasis with prevalence of 48.7%.
For therapeutic trials 80 positive sheep were divided in to 4 groups A, B, C and D. Group A and B were further divided in to three sub groups A1, A2, A3 and B1, B2, B3. 10 animals were placed in each sub group and group C and group D. Animals in groups A and B were treated with herbal extracts. Fumaria parviflora was given to group A animals and Caselpinia crista to group B animals @ 60, 70, 80 mg /kg body weight. Animals in group C were treated with Oxyclozanide @ 10 mg/kg body weight, while animals in group D were kept as infected untreated control. The efficacy of single dose of Oxyclozanide was found 100 percent on 18 day post treatment where as the efficacy of single dose of Fumaria parviflora at 60, 70, and 80 mg/kg body weight was 51.6%, 54.6%, 59.4% on 18th day post treatment, While its efficacy at same dose level after second dose was 79.6%, 82.8%, 86.9% on 21st day post treatment and 83.8% 87.5%, 91.8% respectively on 28th day. The efficacy of single dose of Caselpinia crista at 60, 70, and 80 mg/kg body weight was 31%, 41.42%, 58.7% on 18th day post treatment, while its efficacy at same dose level after second dose was 47.36%, 58.85%, 82.55% on 21st day and 51.3%, 63.2%, 87.3% respectively on 28th day.
At the end of research data on prevalence was analyzed by chi square test P < 0.05 was considered as significant whereas data on therapeutic trials was analyzed by using ANOVA in this case p < 0.01 was considered as significant.
From this study it was concluded that Fascioliasis is significantly prevalent in sheep in and around Rawalakot. While Oxyclozanide is most effective drug against Ovine Fascioliasis. The outcome of this study will help the veterinarians and farmers in the field.
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Anthelmintic Resistance In Gastrointestinal Nematodes Of Cattle At District Dera Ghazi Khan Punjab
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Publisher: 2016 Dissertation note: Anthelmintic resistance in nematode parasites of grazing livestock is now common throughout much of the world and poses a significant threat to the productivity and/or profitability of farming operations in many countries. In many cases, the presence of resistance does not jeopardise effective worm control, which can be maintained simply by switching to use of an alternative class of anthelmintic to which resistance has not yet developed. It is an inevitable conclusion that consideration of anthelmintic resistance and its management should be an integral component of anthelmintic use regardless of country or host species. Resistance to anthelmintic drugs by gastrointestinal nematodes infecting ruminants has been demonstrated throughout the world. 6.2 Hypothesis Anthelmintic resistance is prevalent in gastrointestinal nematodes of cattle in 3 different union councils, Darkhast Jamal Khan south, Darkhast Jamal Khan north and Darkhast Jamal Khan Nawan of district Dera Ghazi Khan (D.G.Khan), Punjab.
The present study was conducted at 3 union councils, Darkhast Jamal Khan south, Darkhast Jamal Khan north and Darkhast Jamal Khan Nawan of the district Dera Ghazi Khan
A total of 100 fecal samples were collected from the cattle by convenience sampling method to check the anthelmintic resistance against gastrointestinal nematodes in the cattle. The inclusion criteria of the animals for the present study was,
(I) All selected animals were 1-3 years of age
(II) Animals not dewormed during 60 days prior to the study
For diagnosing the presence of gastrointestinal nematodes resistant to oxfendazole and levamisole, the Faecal Egg Count Reduction Test (FECRT), recommended by the World Association for the Advancement of Veterinary Parasitology was used. On day 0, a sample of feces was collected directly from the rectum of each animal (using a labelled plastic bag). Faeces were transported in a plastic cooler (4◦C) to the parasitology lab, University of Veterinary and Animal Sciences, Lahore. Faecal egg count (FEC) was determined using the McMaster technique. On day one, animals were distributed according to their parasite loads (balanced) into three experimental groups: firstly a control group having 20 animals maintained without treatment, secondly a treatment group with oxfendazole having 10 animals in which EPG was 150 or above, maintained with treatment and thirdly another treatment group with levamisole having 10 animals in which EPG was 150 or above, maintained with treatment. Fourteen days after treatment, another faecal sample was obtained from each animal to calculate the Faecal Egg Count Reduction as mentioned previously.
6.4 Statistical Analysis Appropriate statistical test (like Chi2 and ANOVA) was applied using statistical software like SPSS version 21. Anthelmintic resistances was calculated using formula by (Coles et al. 1992) and RESO© software (CSIRO,1990, Animal Health Division) as mentioned below,
Percentage reduction (%) = (1 –T/C) × 100
where T is the arithmetic mean of EPG of the treated group, and C is the arithmetic mean of EPG of the control group after treatment (at day 14).
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Study On Prevalence Of Intestinal Nematodes In Buffalo And Comparative Efficacy Of Herbal And Conventional Drugs Against Intestinal Nematodiosis In Buffalo Calves
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Publisher: 2016 Dissertation note: Parasites are a major cause of disease and production losses in livestock, frequently causing major economic loss and impacting on animal health. In livestock roundworms are deliberated the important economically upsetting internal parasites. Although buffalo can be diseased with tapeworms and flat worms, their effect on animal performance is minimal compared to the round worms. Buffalo feed on dry concentrate are less infected with parasite as compared to those who fed on pastures. The timing and frequency of anthelmintic treatments under such climatic conditions will vary greatly from place to place. Humid climates are permanently favorable for the development of infective larvae. With the frequently use of one or more dewormer animal produces anthelmintic resistance also its cost a lot for large herds. Herbal medicine is better option for control of intestinal worms. Herbal drugs are cheap, easy available and easy in administration.
The present study was designed to
1. Check the prevalence of intestinal nematodes in the buffalo population.
2. To determine the efficacy of herbal drugs against intestinal Nematodes in buffalo calves
3. To evaluate the comparison of effectiveness between herbal and commercial drugs to control the intestinal Nematodiosis in buffalo calves.
One hundred buffalo’s faecal samples were examined to check intestinal nematodes prevalence. All buffaloes belonging to various breeds were examined. 56 (93.33%) were Mix breed, 13 (72.22%) Nili Ravi breed and 18 (81.82%) of Kundi breed were positive for intestinal nematodiosis. 47
Among the examined (87 %) buffaloes were found positive for nematodiosis. Ten buffaloes found positive (10 %) were less than 12 months, 25 buffaloes were between 1-2 year, 39% buffaloes were between 2 - 4 year and 13 buffaloes were above 4 years old were found positive for intestinal nematodiosis.
Among these buffaloes, 65 were male and 35 females. Out of male buffaloes 55 were found positive. While among 35 females 32 were positive for intestinal nematodes.
A total of 30 infected buffalo calves, of various ages (8-12 months), both sexes average body weight of 100 kg and naturally infected with intestinal nematodiosis were used for anthelmintic trials. These were randomly divided into 3 groups i.e. A, B, and C each having 10 calves. Group A and B were treated with herbal medicine. Group A was treated with dried powder Nigella Sativa (Kalonji) seeds at dose level of 250 mg/kg body weight. Group B was treated with Citrullus colocynthis (Kor Tumbha) fruit dried powder at dose level of 250 mg/kg body weight, group C was treated with Albandazole at dose level of 7.5 mg / kg body weight. The sample were taken on 0 day, 7th day, 14th, 21st and 28th day and EPG was determined by modified McMaster technique.
Statistical analysis was done using the statistical package for social science, (SPSS) version 20 (Chicago IL, USA). Data was presented as (mean+ S.D), the group descriptive measures were compared by CR Design (Anova) and applying differences were considered significant at P < 0.05. Post hoc test using Duncan multiple range test, to check the pair wise differences and alpha M. There was highly significant difference between commercial and herbal drugs. There was small significant difference between herbal drugs Nigella sativa and Citrullus 48
colocynthis, both were highly effective against intestinal nematodiosis but less effective than Albandazole.
It is observed Nigella sativa dose showed a significant reduction in EPG .p value is p > .2284 at o day and at 7th day P>0.0146 ,at 14th day p> .0029 . There was also a significant decrease in EPG by Citrullus colocynthis but when compared these herbal drugs with commercial drugs the efficacy of herbal drug is 100 % at 21st day.
Both herbal drugs Nigella sativa and Citrullus colocynthis used in trial were found highly effective against intestinal nematodiosis in buffalo calves but less effective than synthetic drug Albandazole hence, these herbal drugs cannot be recommended to be used as routine deworming of animals at farm level.
Keeping in view effectiveness of these herbal drugs in early age and having no side effects, it is recommended to be administered as feed additive to enhance immune-potentiation, effective anthelmintic and liver tonic.
There is dire need to carry out more research with increased dose rate of these herbal drugs and also use in combination with other herbal as well as synthetic drugs to evaluate its synergistic effect so farmer can be benefited of its maximum potential.
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