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1. Prevalence And Treatment Of Ovine Fascioliasis In And Around Rawalakot A.J.K

by Anisa Mushtaq | Dr. Nisar Ahmad | Dr. Aneela | Dr. Haroon Akbar.

Material type: book Book; Format: print ; Literary form: not fiction Publisher: 2014Dissertation note: Fascioliasis is a wide spread parasitic disease of ruminants causing great economic losses in terms of decreased milk and meat yield and predisposing to many bacterial infections. Looking the importance and utilization of the small ruminants in our country and the substantial losses because of the Fascioliasis this study was designed to study the prevalence and treatment of Fascioliasis in and around Rawalakot Azad Kashmir. For this purpose a total of 300 Ovine faecal samples were collected from different areas of Rawalakot. Faeces were collected from sheep of various age, breed and sex. Faeces of each sheep were examined by direct smear, sedimentation and flotation techniques. Positive animals were selected for therapeutic trials. Out of 300 faecal samples 101 were found positive for Fascioliasis. Overall prevalence was 33.6%. Sex wise prevalence was also studied and it was found that out of 75 male sheep 23 were found positive while out of 225 female 78 was positive for Fascioliasis. Prevalence of Fascioliasis was 30.6% in male and 34.6% in female. The prevalence was also studied age wise and three groups were made. Sheep in first group were less than 1 year of age, out of 25 sheep 4 were found positive and prevalence was 16%. Sheep in second group were between 1-2 years of age, out of 156 sheep 39 of this age group were found positive having a prevalence of 25%. The sheep included in third group were greater than 2 year of age, out of total 119 sheep in this group 58 were found positive for Fascioliasis with prevalence of 48.7%. For therapeutic trials 80 positive sheep were divided in to 4 groups A, B, C and D. Group A and B were further divided in to three sub groups A1, A2, A3 and B1, B2, B3. 10 animals were placed in each sub group and group C and group D. Animals in groups A and B were treated with herbal extracts. Fumaria parviflora was given to group A animals and Caselpinia crista to group B animals @ 60, 70, 80 mg /kg body weight. Animals in group C were treated with Oxyclozanide @ 10 mg/kg body weight, while animals in group D were kept as infected untreated control. The efficacy of single dose of Oxyclozanide was found 100 percent on 18 day post treatment where as the efficacy of single dose of Fumaria parviflora at 60, 70, and 80 mg/kg body weight was 51.6%, 54.6%, 59.4% on 18th day post treatment, While its efficacy at same dose level after second dose was 79.6%, 82.8%, 86.9% on 21st day post treatment and 83.8% 87.5%, 91.8% respectively on 28th day. The efficacy of single dose of Caselpinia crista at 60, 70, and 80 mg/kg body weight was 31%, 41.42%, 58.7% on 18th day post treatment, while its efficacy at same dose level after second dose was 47.36%, 58.85%, 82.55% on 21st day and 51.3%, 63.2%, 87.3% respectively on 28th day. At the end of research data on prevalence was analyzed by chi square test P < 0.05 was considered as significant whereas data on therapeutic trials was analyzed by using ANOVA in this case p < 0.01 was considered as significant. From this study it was concluded that Fascioliasis is significantly prevalent in sheep in and around Rawalakot. While Oxyclozanide is most effective drug against Ovine Fascioliasis. The outcome of this study will help the veterinarians and farmers in the field. Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 1789,T] (1).

2. Prevalence Of Mange Mites And Herbal Treatment In Sheep

by Asif Fiaz | Dr. Nisar Ahmad | Dr. Haroon Akbar.

Material type: book Book; Format: print ; Literary form: drama Publisher: 2014Dissertation note: Abstract Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 1886,T] (1).

3. Optimization Of Loop Mediated Isothermal Amplification Lamp Technique For The Molecular Diagnosis Of Surra In Domestic Animals

by Muhammad Saleem iqbal | Dr. Haroon akbar | Dr. Muhammad lateef | Prof. Dr. Asim.

Material type: book Book; Format: print ; Literary form: not fiction Publisher: 2014Dissertation note: Abstract Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 2039,T] (1).

4. Phylogenetic Analysis Of Plasmodium Species In Sparrows And Domestic Chicken

by Ghanwa ahmad | Dr. Haroon Akbar | Dr. Muhammad lateef | Prof Dr. Aftab.

Material type: book Book; Format: print Publisher: 2014Dissertation note: Abstract Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 2075,T] (1).

5. Prevalence Of Soil Borne Species Of Toxocara And Ancylostoma In Different Public Parks Of Dera Ghazi Khan

by Muhammad Abubakar | Dr. Nisar Ahmad | Dr. Haroon Akbar | Dr. Jawaria Ali.

Material type: book Book; Format: print Publisher: 2014Dissertation note: Abstract Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 2155,T] (1).

6. Molecular Diagnosis Of Feline Babesiosis

by Muhammad Younus Khan | Dr. Haroon Akbar | Dr. Muhammad | Dr. Muhammad Lateef.

Material type: book Book; Format: print ; Literary form: not fiction Publisher: 2014Dissertation note: Abstract Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 2168,T] (1).

7. Evaluation Of Different Preparations Of Allium Sativum (Garlic) Against Coccidiosis In Broilers Dr. Muhammad Lateef

by Muhammad Waqas | Dr. Muhammad Ijaz | Dr. Haroon Akbar | Faculty of Veterinary Sciences.

Material type: book Book; Literary form: not fiction Publisher: 2014Dissertation note: Poultry industry is playing a pivotal role for the prosperity of Pakistan and is growing day by day. However, this sector is still facing many problems like coccidiosis which are hindering its progress (Saima et al. 2010). Coccidiosis with the protozoan parasite Eimeria as the infectious agent causes enormous economic losses, particularly in poultry farms (Dkhil et al. 2011). Eimeria are common parasites in the digestive tract of the hosts causing diarrhea and fluid loss. Infections begin with oral uptake of Eimerian oocysts which release sporozoites in the intestine. These in turn invade enterocytes in which they multiply, and finally, oocysts are released again with the faeces (Renaux et al. 2001). Medicinal plants as natural feed additives are recently used in poultry diet to enhance the performance and immune response of chicken (Tanweer et al. 2012). Coccidiosis of chickens is an enteric parasitic disease caused by multiple species of the protozoan parasite genus Eimeria (Apicomplexa: Eucoccidia: Eimeriidae) and is one of the commonest and economically most important diseases of poultry world-wide (Shirley et al. 2005). It causes production losses, and high morbidity (due to acute, bloody enteritis) and mortality rates. While the control of coccidiosis has relied mainly on the preventive use of anticoccidial drugs together with the induction of species-specific natural immunity in chicken flocks (Shirley et al. 2005), this widely used approach is costly and has led to serious problems with drug resistance in Eimeria populations (Williams, 2006). Levine discovered that sulphanilamide would cure coccidiosis in chickens, various anticoccidial feed additives have been developed and added (Levine 1939). Efforts have always been made to add coccidiostats on regular basis in chicken’s diet. Consistent use of coccidiostats has not only narrowed the gap between cost of production and returns, it could be a potential threat to human being as a result Introduction 2 of their residual effects. The increasing resistance of avian coccidiosis to anti-coccidial drugs currently used by poultry industry together with the requirement for drug and antibiotic free production systems has meant that it is now important to look for new ways to control the disease. So, research initiated for possible use of herbal (natural) products against avian coccidiosis. Herbal products in past have been effectively used for the control and treatment of several ailments in poultry and human beings. Allium sativum a medicinal plant could be an effective substitute for coccidiostats because of its chemical nature and antimicrobial activities. Allium sativum (garlic) have been widely used for their broad range of pharmacological activities, including antiparasitic activities. Avian coccidiosis is one of the most costly and widespread parasitic diseases in the poultry industry, and has been mainly controlled by the use of different chemotherapeutic agents. Due to the emergence of drug-resistant strains, alternative control strategies are needed (Elbanna, 2012). Hence, further investigations are required to understand the exact mechanism underlying the effects of these feed additives, which are still in use in broiler nutrition as performance enhancers and as agents for controlling coccidiosis. Garlic (Allium sativum ) has been known as an herbal remedy to prevent and treat a variety of heart diseases and metabolic diseases, such as atherosclerosis, thrombosis, hypertension, dementia, cancer, and diabetes (Elbanna, 2012). Garlic has rich organosulfur compounds and precursors (allicin, diallyl sulfide, and diallyl trisulfide). The enzyme allinase that is responsible for converting alliin (S-allyl cysteine sulfoxide) to allicin is inactive. When garlic is chopped or crushed, the allinase enzyme present in garlic is activated and acts on alliin (present in whole garlic) to produce allicin (Tanweer et al. 2012). Many studies indicate that allicin is the potentially active component of garlic. These compounds provide garlic its characteristic odor flavor as well as most of its biological properties and have been identified as having the Introduction 3 hypocholesterolemic effect in human and animal products (Silagy and Neil, 1994; Konjufca et al., 1997; Chowdhury et al., 2002). Species of Eimeria in poultry are usually identified by the size and morphology of different stages of the life cycle of the parasite and the nature and location of lesions in the intestines. Differentiation of species in mixed infections, however, can be difficult because some species have similar characteristics (Long and Reid, 1982). Different workers have investigated the prevalence of eimeriosis in different classes of poultry birds and in different areas of Pakistan (Dar and Anwar, 1981; Anjum, 1990; Ayaz et al., 2003). Each Eimeria species has a particular predilection site in the chicken digestive tract; for example, E. tenella attacks the cecum. However, the most common and pathogenic species that affects the poultry industry in Pakistan is E. tenella, which results in high mortality (Ayaz et al., 2003; Abbas et al., 2008). The increasing resistance of avian coccidiosis to anti-coccidial drugs currently used by poultry industry together with the requirement for drug and a production systems which should be antibiotic free, it’s now very much necessary to go for the new and advanced methods to prevent this disease. Therefore, scientists started to work on medicinal use of herbal products to control this eimeriosis. In past for treatment of various human and poultry ailments the natural herbal products have been effectively used several times. Because of the anticoccidial nature and antibacterial effect, garlic could be served as a valuable alternative for coccidiostats as a medicinal plant. Previously it has been used for multipurpose like as an antibiotic, for antiinflammatory effects, for anti- eimerial response and as an anti-ulcer agent. Keeping in view the importance of poultry industry in Pakistan, the present project has been designed to “Evaluate different preparations of Allium sativum (Garlic) against coccidiosis in broilers”. Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 2189,T] (1).

8. Characterization Of Recombinant Surface Antigen-1 (Rsag-1) Of Toxoplasma Gondii Through Western Blotting Using Mouse Anti-Serum

by Mati Ullah Khan (2008-VA-107) | Dr. Haroon Akbar | Prof. Dr. Khalid Saeed | Dr. Uzma Farid Durrani.

Material type: book Book; Literary form: not fiction Publisher: 2015Dissertation note: Toxoplasmosis is caused by Toxoplasma gondii, which is an obligate intracellular apicomplexan protozoan parasite. The infection is highly prevalent worldwide, and is important both from veterinary and human health concern. In the past recombinant surface antigen-1(rSAG-1) has been shown to be a good candidate for the development of immuno-diagnostic kits as well as Vaccine. Through immuno-blotting, Surface antigen-1 has been identified by sera collected from Toxoplasma gondii infected cats, dogs and humans. Looking at the importance of this health threatening issue, the current study was designed to characterize rSAG-1 through western blotting for development of local diagnostic kit through western blotting using mouse anti-serum. The rSAG-1 was previously expressed under the project of Grand Challenges Canada at Molecular Parasitology laboratory, Department of Parasitology, University of Veterinary and Animal Sciences, Lahore. Recombinant SAG-1 was quantified by using commercial kit based on BCA assay. The 15 μg of rSAG-1 was inoculated subcutaneously (S/C) 3 times with each 2 weeks interval in mice to raise hyper-immune serum. Blood was collected from mice two weeks after the each injection through lateral Retro-Orbital Bleeding (Sharma et al. 2014). Serum was collected by centrifugation. The rSAG-1 was electrophoresed on 12% polyacrylamide gel through SDS-PAGE technique and the protein was transferred to nitrocellulose membrane for western blotting. Anti-serum raised against rSAG-1 was cross-reacted with the rSAG-1 already immobilized on the nitrocellulose membrane. Anti-mice immunoglobulin G conjugated with Alkaline Phosphatase (AP) was used as secondary antibodies for the development of immuno-blot. Immuno-blot revealed a band of 35 KDa. Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 2397-T] (1).

9. Evaluation Of Anthelmintic Resistance In Gastrointestinal Tract Nematodes Of Goats In Malakand Agency, Khyber Pakhtunkhwa

by Abdul Qadeer (2013-VA-859) | Dr. Muhammad Lateef | Dr. Haroon Akbar | Dr. Asim Khalid Mahmood.

Material type: book Book; Literary form: not fiction Publisher: 2015Dissertation note: Endoparasites are among the major obstacles posed to the development of small ruminants industry of Pakistan. A number of endoparasites are prevalent in Khyber Pakhtun Khwa province and district Malakand. Anthelmintic resistance(AR) is a very important emerging issue in the control of parasites. The current project was designed to study the point-prevalence of various gastro-intestinal parasites of goats in Kot Manzaray BaBa of Malakand Agency and to determine the presence of AR in the parasites prevalent there. Keeping in view the importance of small ruminants in our country and due to the routine use of dewormer, the present project has been designed to achieve our objective. For this purpose Eight Teddy goat farms were selected from different localities of Kot Manzari Baba District Malakand for studies on AR using faecal egg count reduction test and egg hatch test to further confirm the results of the FECRT. Information regarding flock management and worm control practices was collected through a well-structured questionnaire. The questionnaire was filled out by 20 (each) goat farmers, quacks (traditional healers), qualified veterinarians and veterinary assistants through interviews and/or group discussions. Results revealed that majority of the goat flocks were found to have nematode populations resistant to oxfendazole and levamisole. None of the goats were found to have nematode populations resistant to ivermectin accept the Haemonchus contortus which showed a little bit indication of resistance in the study. Majority of the goat flocks were found to have nematode populations susceptible to ivermectin. The frequency of resistance was comparable among Haemonchus contortus, Trichostrongylus colubriformis and Teladorsagia circumcincta. Veterinary assistants look after for maximum number of flocks for their healthcare. Awareness level of the healthcare personnel about the parasitic diseases was the highest among veterinary Summary 75 officers and vice versa. People treat their animal on the basis of sign and symptoms and used modern anthelmintics and not on the basis of faecal examination. Among the anthelmintics, levamisole was found to be used most frequently followed by oxfendazole and ivermectin. Interestingly, in the field the veterinary assistants were the highest users of traditional dewormer in contrast to their training in modern medicine. Low dosing/under-dosing had a main contributory role in the development and a tendency for the development of AR against all the anthelmintics included in the present study. In a year high treatment frequency had a associated contributory role in the development and tendency for the development of resistance against all the anthelmintics included in the present study. Combined or Mixed livestock farming, especially sheep and goats together, was contributive towards development of resistance against all the anthelmintics classes included in this study. None or partial rotation of pasture was also discovered to take part in the development of resistance against all the anthelmintics included in the study. CONCLUSIONS • There is a serious threat of either developed or a tendency for development of anthelmintic resistance against levamisole, oxfendazole and ivermectin in nematode populations of Teddy gaots in the study area. • The factors that assist to the development of anthelmintic resistance in nematode populations of Teddy goat flocks recorded in the present study can be divided in to operational, inherited, and medicinal, which need to be addressed together as a part of a potent worm control program. • The level of alertness, awareness and technical know-how is unsatisfactorily poor among all the farmers concerned in small ruminant farming. Therefore, there is no dewormer schedule for Summary 76 worm control practices in place at present, which describes a severe fear on the future of sheep and goats production on the one hand and permits an immediate attention on the problem of anthelmintic resistance on the other. • A combined approach based on the application of plants extract with modern anthelmintics appear to be promising for the management of anthelmintic resistance in small ruminants. Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 2396-T] (1).

10. Indigenous Elisa Kit For Toxoplasma Gondii: Optimization Of Antibody Detection Elisa Of Sag 1 Protein As An Antigen In Mouse Model

by Madiha Sana (2013-VA-957) | Dr. Muhammad Imran Rashid | Dr. Haroon Akbar | Dr. Wasim Shehzad.

Material type: book Book; Literary form: not fiction Publisher: 2015Dissertation note: Toxoplasma is an apicomplexan intracellular parasite which is the cause of toxoplasmosis in man and animals. It occurs by the ingestion of oocyst from feces of cats or by eating raw meat in which cysts are present. It is the one of the major cause of encephalitis and abortion in immuno-compromised animals and humans. As it is difficult to screen out infected live animals from field, it is important to vaccine animals as well as humans for toxoplasma to prevent its transmission from animals to humans and from humans to their off springs. Cloning of surface antigen genes plays an important role in development of vaccine and for serology of T. gondii. Enzyme linked immuno-sorbant assay proves to be a significant tool to estimate the humoral response elicited against expressed recombinant protein in mice. The recombinant protein of SAG1 was collected from Molecular Parasitology Laboratory, University of Veterinary and Animal Sciences, Lahore. In the previous studies, SAG1 sequence was cloned in the expression plasmid and successfully expressed in prokaryotic expression system. In the current study, rSAG1 was quantified by using BCA protein assay through BioWORLD protein quantification kit. In another experiment, the Swiss mice were immunized with 15 μg rSAG1 protein 3 times with 2 weeks intervals. Two groups of mice were formed with five mice in each group. Sera were collected after 2 weeks of each inoculation. For performing ELISA, four different experiments were performed with different concentrations i.e. 5μg/ml, 250μg/ml and 500μg/ml with two different dilutions; 1/50 and 1/20. The O.D. values of concentrations 5μg/ml and 250 μg/ml with two dilution series of 1/20 and1/50 were not observed significant while the antigen coating concentration of 500 μg/ml with 1/50 dilution showed 1:160 titre and with 1/20 dilution showed 1: 1280 titre after the 3rd shot. The O.D values with 500 CHAPTER 6 SUMMARY SUMMARY 36 μg/ml concentration with 1/20 dilution after the 3rd shot were observed significant in the inoculated group as compared to the O.D values of un-inoculated negative group. It is suggested to carry out ELISA with purified rSAG-1 protein and to optimize ELISA to test toxoplasma infected mice. Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 2433-T] (1).

11. Exploring Anthelmintic Resistance In Ovine Haemonchosis Through Faecal Egg Dna At Livestock Research And Development Station, Paharpur, D .I. Khan

by Ghulam Hassan (2007-VA-144) | Dr. Haroon Akbar | Dr. Muhammad Imran Rashid | Dr. Muhammad Ijaz.

Material type: book Book; Literary form: not fiction Publisher: 2016Dissertation note: Gastrointestinal nematodes are recognized as a major constraint of small ruminant production system at small and large-scale farming in developing countries, leading to significant economic losses. The most important of these is Haemonchus contortus. Anthelmintic resistance now poses problems to sheep farmers throughout the world. This study has been designed to check anthelmintic resistance against haemonchosis of sheep by an in vivo method. The current study was carried out at Parasitology laboratory (Toxovacc lab), Department of Parasitology, University of Veterinary and Animal Sciences, Lahore. 100 faecal samples were collected from sheep at Livestock Research and Development Station, Paharpur, D.I. Khan. Animals were drenched with anthelmintic (Albashell containing Albendazole 2.5%, administered @10 mg/kg of body weight) orally after 1st sampling, at 0 day. The faecal samples were examined microscopically, micrometery was exploited and EPG analysis was performed by using McMaster technique. After 14 days, the second sampling was done. The fecal samples were brought and stored at 4°C in Parasitology laboratory (Toxovacc lab). Pre-trial & Post trial EPG were compared and positive samples were taken (tag#1057 Damani sheep male, tag#13 Balkhi sheep male, tag#1096 Damani female, tag#06 Balkhi female, tag#20 Balkhi) for egg isolation (Module, 2004) for egg DNA extraction through classical method of Phenol-Chloroform-Iso-Amyl Alcohol extraction. DNA samples were subjected to polymerase chain reactions (PCR) targeting β tubulin gene for detection of benzimidazole resistance at genetic level. Fecal egg count reduction percentage of 74.57% at day 14 post treatment clearly shows the presence of benzimidazole drug resistance in parasites infecting Balkhi and Damani sheep at Livestock Research and Development Station, Paharpur, D.I. Khan. Summary 64 In conclusion, PCR-Sequencing technique finds its value in the detection of benzimedazole resistance at molecular level in eggs of Haemonchus contortus of sheep and this technique also helps the understanding of the development of drug resistance in the parasite. Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 2513-T] (1).

12. Anthelmintic Resistance In Gastrointestinal Nematodes Of Cattle At District Dera Ghazi Khan Punjab

by Ahsaan Ullah (2014-VA-210) | Dr. Nisar Ahmed | Dr. Haroon Akbar | Prof. Dr. Aneela Zameer Durrani.

Material type: book Book; Literary form: not fiction Publisher: 2016Dissertation note: Anthelmintic resistance in nematode parasites of grazing livestock is now common throughout much of the world and poses a significant threat to the productivity and/or profitability of farming operations in many countries. In many cases, the presence of resistance does not jeopardise effective worm control, which can be maintained simply by switching to use of an alternative class of anthelmintic to which resistance has not yet developed. It is an inevitable conclusion that consideration of anthelmintic resistance and its management should be an integral component of anthelmintic use regardless of country or host species. Resistance to anthelmintic drugs by gastrointestinal nematodes infecting ruminants has been demonstrated throughout the world. 6.2 Hypothesis Anthelmintic resistance is prevalent in gastrointestinal nematodes of cattle in 3 different union councils, Darkhast Jamal Khan south, Darkhast Jamal Khan north and Darkhast Jamal Khan Nawan of district Dera Ghazi Khan (D.G.Khan), Punjab. 6.3 Parameters/Methodology The present study was conducted at 3 union councils, Darkhast Jamal Khan south, Darkhast Jamal Khan north and Darkhast Jamal Khan Nawan of the district Dera Ghazi Khan A total of 100 fecal samples were collected from the cattle by convenience sampling method to check the anthelmintic resistance against gastrointestinal nematodes in the cattle. The inclusion criteria of the animals for the present study was, (I) All selected animals were 1-3 years of age CHAPTER 6 SUMMARY Summary 29 (II) Animals not dewormed during 60 days prior to the study For diagnosing the presence of gastrointestinal nematodes resistant to oxfendazole and levamisole, the Faecal Egg Count Reduction Test (FECRT), recommended by the World Association for the Advancement of Veterinary Parasitology was used. On day 0, a sample of feces was collected directly from the rectum of each animal (using a labelled plastic bag). Faeces were transported in a plastic cooler (4◦C) to the parasitology lab, University of Veterinary and Animal Sciences, Lahore. Faecal egg count (FEC) was determined using the McMaster technique. On day one, animals were distributed according to their parasite loads (balanced) into three experimental groups: firstly a control group having 20 animals maintained without treatment, secondly a treatment group with oxfendazole having 10 animals in which EPG was 150 or above, maintained with treatment and thirdly another treatment group with levamisole having 10 animals in which EPG was 150 or above, maintained with treatment. Fourteen days after treatment, another faecal sample was obtained from each animal to calculate the Faecal Egg Count Reduction as mentioned previously. 6.4 Statistical Analysis Appropriate statistical test (like Chi2 and ANOVA) was applied using statistical software like SPSS version 21. Anthelmintic resistances was calculated using formula by (Coles et al. 1992) and RESO© software (CSIRO,1990, Animal Health Division) as mentioned below, Percentage reduction (%) = (1 –T/C) × 100 where T is the arithmetic mean of EPG of the treated group, and C is the arithmetic mean of EPG of the control group after treatment (at day 14). Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 2512-T] (1).

13. Identification Of Isospora Species In Domestic Cats And Its Chemotherapy

by Waseem Hassan (2008-VA-137) | Prof. Dr. Kamran Ashraf | Dr. Haroon Akbar | Dr. Asim Khalid Mahmood.

Material type: book Book; Literary form: not fiction Publisher: 2016Dissertation note: Dogs and cats are kept as pet animals in and around Lahore area. Along with other problems, parasitic problems are common in these animals. Isospora felis and Isospora rivolta are the most commonly seen parasites in cats in many parts of the world. No data existed about its prevalence, possible risk factors and therapeutic control of Isospora infection in cats in Lahore, Pakistan. Hence the present study was aimed to assess the associated risk factors, prevalence and best therapeutic remedy for Isospora infection. A total 100 faecal samples were collected from Tollinton market, pet clinics of Lahore and pet center of University of Veterinary and Animal Science, Lahore. Epidemiological parameters taken into consideration included sex (Male n=61, Female n=39), breed (Persian n=54, Siamese n=18, Himalayan n=16 and local or cross bred n=12), age (kittens n=21, adults n=79), environment (captive n=60, household n=40). Samples were examined by using direct smear technique. Species of Isospora were differentiated on the basis of their size by micrometry and by oocyst shape. Oocysts were counted by Mc-Master counting technique. Oocysts were counted on day of sample collection and day 10 post treatment. Positive samples were subjected to two chemotherapeutic agents; Amprolium and Furazolidone. Chi square test was applied to assess the prevalence and its relation with other risk factors was applied on pre-treatment and post treatment oocysts reduction count. Higher (P < 0.05) prevalence of Isospora was found in cats from captive system (65%) as compared to cats from household (10%) system. Persian breed was found to be more prone (42.59%) to the infections with Isospora species. Age group was not associated as a risk factor. Positive cats were divided into 2 groups for therapeutic trials. Group I (n=16) was treated with Amprolium 150 mg/kg/day for 5 days while group II (n=16) with Furazolidone 20 mg/kg/day for 5 days. Amprolium reduced the oocysts by 100% while Furazolidone causes 87.5% reduction of oocysts. 41 So it can be concluded from the present study that Isospora is highly prevalent in Lahore area and Amprolium is better chemotherapeutic agent for the treatment of coccidiosis in cats than Furazolidone. Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 2541-T] (1).



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