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1. Study On The Comparative Efficacy Of Phenothiazine, Levamisole And Ivermetin Against Gastro Intestinal Nematodes In Horses

by Ashfaq Ullah Hashmi | Dr . Nisar Ahmad | Dr . Kamran Ashraf | Faculty of Veterinary Sciences.

Material type: book Book; Format: print ; Literary form: not fiction Publisher: 2001Dissertation note: The study was undertaken to find out the comparative efficacy of Phenothiazine, levamisole and Ivermectin against GIT nematodes in horses at Lahore. For the purpose one hundred horses irrespective 'of age, breed and sex were exam for the presence of various species of gastro-intestinal nematodes in horses. The coprological examination showed a positive percentage of 64% while 36 cases (36%) were found to be negative. The positive cases had mixed infestation of large and small strongyIids, Parascaris equorum and Oxyuris equi species. Forty naturally infested horses divided in four groups (A, B, C and D), were selected for the drug trial. The drugs used were Phenothiazine @ 55 mg/kg body weight, levamisole @ 7.5 mg/kg body weight (1 mI/2 kg b.w) Ivermectin @ 0.2 mg/kg body weight to the groups A, B, C and D, while the animals of group D acted as non-medicated control. The mean EPG count was carried out pre-medication and post medication of the said anthelmintics. Based upon EPG count, conducted on 3rd, 7th and 14th day for each anthelmintic; it was revealed that the mean EPG count of group A (Phenothiazine) showed 62.99, 82.67 and 95.27% reduction in ova output while the animals of group D (medicated with levamisole exhibited 53, 82 and 93% reduction in the said equines). The group C (medicated with Ivermectin showed reduction ofEPG as 79.83,95.16 and 100% on 3rd, 7th and 14th day post medication). From the results of this study it is concluded that Ivermectin was the most effective as compared to Phenothiazine and levamisole. Therefore, it is stressed that Ivermectin should be used in equines for the effective control of gastro intestinal nematodes. The drug is quite safe and without any adverse effects on these animals. Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 0682,T] (1).

2. Prevalence Of Toxocariasis In Dogs And Its Treatment With Nigella Sativa Saussurea Lappa And Ivermectin

by Adnan Mushtaq | Dr. Nisar Ahmad | Dr. Kamran Ashraf | Faculty of Veterinary Sciences.

Material type: book Book; Format: print ; Literary form: not fiction Publisher: 2002Dissertation note: Abstract Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 0773,T] (1).

3. Antigenic Relatedness Of Caecal Eimeria Species In Broilers By Sds-Page

by Muhammad Tayyub | Prof. Dr. Kamran Ashraf | Dr. Aftab | Dr. Nisar Ahmad.

Material type: book Book; Format: print Publisher: 2011Dissertation note: Coccidiosis is caused by various species of Eimeria. Avian coccidiosis is divided in two types (intestinal and caecal). Eimeria tenella and E. necatrix cause caecal eimeriosis.E.tenella is the most pathogenic species and its infection is causing huge economic losses to poultry industry world wide. In the present study, 400 caecal samples suspected for coccidiosis were collected from two districts (Kasur and Sheikhupura). Ten samples from twenty farms of each district were collected and examined for coccidiosis and species identication. The prevalence of coccidiosis was higher (65.25%) in both districts. Coccidiosis was found more prevalent in district Kasur (66.5%) as compared to Sheikhupura (63%). Eimeria species were identified by conventional methods like Direct Microscopy, Sedimentation technique, Floatation Technique and Sporulation.. The prevalence percentage of E.tenella and E,necatrix was found 67.5% and 12.25% respectively in 400 suspected caecal samples. E.tenella was more prevalent in district Kasur (67.5%) as compared to district Sheikhupura (63%). E.necatrix was also more prevalent in district Kasur (13%) than district Sheikhupura (11.5%). Protein profiling of all E. tenella strains was performed to check antigenic related ness between different isolates of E.tenella. More tan ninety percent isolates were antigenically identical which showed that E.tenella isolates in both districts were antigenically related. Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 1239,T] (1).

4. Prevalence Of Pediculosis In Government Primary School Children Of Lahore

by Sadia Chaudhry | Prf.Dr. Azhar Maqbool | Dr. Nisar Ahmad | Ghazala Nadeem.

Material type: book Book; Format: print ; Literary form: not fiction Publisher: 2011Dissertation note: Pediculosis capitis is endemic parasite affecting many areas of the world. The objectives of my studies was to record prevalence of head lice in school children in Lahore. A total of 500 primary school children examined for the prevalence of Pediculus capitis, aged 7-11 years and above. The child was declared as infected person if any head lice were detected either in the form of live or dead eggs, or nits. The following characteristics were recorded for each child such as the sex, age, monthly income, family size, , pet ownership, parents' education, number of siblings, frequency of hair washing and presence or absence of social security of the family were recorded for all children Pediculosis capitis was recorded in 387 (77%) children. The prevalence of head lice infestation was significantly more in girls (85%) than in boys (52%). Among school girls, the head lice infestation rates in Low, Middle and High socio-economic groups were 96%, 85% and 71% respectively. Among school boys, the prevalence of head lice rates in Low, Middle and High socio-economic groups were 60%, 50% and 36% respectively. Children of age 9-10 years and those age 11 years exhibited a significantly low prevalence than those of age 7-8 years. Some variables were found to be significantly related to head lice infestation such as sex, pet ownership, age, parent's education level and hair length. This study shows that major factor influencing the occurrence of Pediculosis is socio-economic status among school children of both sexes (male and female) in the Lahore. The results of this study was shows that the prevalence of head lice infestation (pediculosis capitis) is high in Lahore, and is found in all investigated schools regardless of personal hygiene and socio-economic status. Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 1308,T] (1).

5. Prevelance Of Intesrinal Parasitosis Among Children At Day Care Centers Of Lahors In Reation To Socio- Economic Srarus

by Amera Batool | Prf.Dr. Azhar Maqbool | Dr. Aneela | Dr. Nisar Ahmad.

Material type: book Book; Format: print ; Literary form: not fiction Publisher: 2011Dissertation note: Some intestinal parasitosis pathogen have potential is well known, many of them not shows symptoms, due to the body immunity and climatic element (Vinayak et al. 1990). While other shows like B. hominis and C. parvum. Persistent and acute diarrhea has been linked with the Giardia duodenalis and Entamoeba histolytica. Entamoeba / dispar, a protozoa having alike character with E. histolytica which is a not involve in causing diseases but proved symbiotic association in gut, not harms the other. Children up to age of 3 years commonly found with anemia and iron deficiency due to malnutrition caused by high prevalence of parasitosis. (Kapur et al., 2001) Cryptosporidium parvum within age of 5 years children gave highest prevalence rates in a community, among different parasites (Palmer & Biffin 1990). Cryptosporidium spp have been causative agent of persistent and acute diarrhea in many research works (Lima et al. 1992). In developing countries intestinal parasitosis infection is a major health issue by promote health standards and controlling the carriers or vector, most countries have successfully reduced the rates of infestation. However, in developing countries geographic, socio-economic factors and natural calamity increase the health problems. Countries, which are geographically located in hot and humid areas along with poverty, unavailability of clean water, malnutrition, and high population density provide maximum chances for the development and high intestinal parasitic risk. Because of lack of sufficient research and attention of infectious and parasitic diseases in developing countries is the main problem hurdle to eliminating the risk of parasitic infestation.( Sayyari et al.,2005) Pakistan estimated the intestinal parasitosis as the important public health problem. In developing countries intestinal parasitosis infection is a major health issue by promote health standards and controlling the carriers or vector, most countries have successfully reduced the rates of infestation. However, in developing countries geographic, socio-economic factors and natural calamity increase the health problems. Intestinal parasitosis is most familiar in children due to lack of hygienic condition. Physiologist and medical specialists are recommended that parasitosis infections delay children's growth, malnutrition, lost the opportunities of education and development. The under study carried out to record the prevalence of intestinal parasitosis within children at day care centers of Lahore and also to relate environmental factors with socio-economic status. The basic purpose for collection of stool specimens were to examined the parasitic eggs, cysts, and larvae, by different methods like fresh smears method and Scotch tape method. Trophozoites of amoeba were examined in fresh smears. Oxyure eggs were seen in Scotch tape slides. The parasitic size was measured by ocular micrometry method. Formaline ether concentrate method was being done for finding cysts (Machado,1999 ; Lotphy 1990). Socio- economic and environmental factors were also is studied. Of 174 children 56 children studies positive for parasitosis, 96 were males and 78 females. One or more intestinal parasites were identified in 40 (22.9% children) the most pravelent parasite were E. vermicularis 9.19% G. lamblia 6.89% E.histolytica 5.17% A.lumbricoides 2.87% H.nana 1.14% T. saginata1.72% T.trichiura 4.59% and E.coli 0.57% showed a low infection respectively Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 1310,T] (1).

6. Prasitic Contamination Of Vegetables Eaten Raw In Lahore

by Shafa-ul-Haq | Prof. Dr. Azhar Maqbool | Dr. Muhammad | Dr. Nisar Ahmad.

Material type: book Book; Format: print ; Literary form: not fiction Publisher: 2012Dissertation note: Fresh vegetables are important part of human diet. Eating raw vegetable is customary in many parts of the world including Pakistan, but these raw vegetables can be a major source of parasites. A parasitic survey on vegetables collected from major markets in Lahore was conducted for the discovery of human and animal parasites. Ten species of vegetables: beet (Beta vulgaris), cabbage (Brassica denceal), carrot (Davcus carota) chili (Capsicum frutecense), coriander (Corriandum sativum) cucumber (Cucumis sativa), lettuce (Lactuca sativa), Mint (Mentha viridis), radish (Raphanus sativus), tomato (Lycopersicon esculentun) were evaluated in this study. Fifty samples of each vegetable were taken, comprising a total of 500 samples for the study. Hundred gram of each vegetable was washed with a cationic solution of Hyamin detergent containing glass particles for the elution of eggs. Concentration of eggs/cysts was achieved by centrifugal sedimentation technique at 5000 rpm for 5 minutes. Sediment was examined under microscope for the presence of parasite eggs, cysts and larvae. Examination of vegetables revealed twelve genera of parasites. All vegetables were highly contaminated with parasites with an overall prevalence of 31.2%. Of parasites studied, Ascaris eggs found to be the highest (37.1%), followed by Hook worm(10.8%) and Trichostrongyloides sp.(8.9%), while the least common parasite was Toxoplasma gondii (1.9%). Lettuce showed the highest contamination (48%), followed by Cabbage (44%) and Mint (podina) (42%) while chili showed the least contamination (16%). The results would seem to indicate that one of the important routes of parasitic infection is due to consumption of raw and unwashed vegetables. So, enlightenment programs for the public on necessity of food sanitation and personal hygiene should be intensified. Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 1419,T] (1).

7. Evaluation Of Adulticidal And Larvicidal Efficacy Of Zadirachta Indica (Neem) And Lantana Camara (Punch Phul) Extracts

by Asemah Anwar | Prof. Dr. Azhar Maqbool | Dr. Aneela | Dr. Nisar Ahmad.

Material type: book Book; Format: print ; Literary form: drama Publisher: 2012Dissertation note: Pakistan is one of sub-tropical countries and its climatic conditions favor parasitic diseases along with disease vectors including mosquitoes. Mosquitoes of genus Aedes are causing Dengue fever. It has become one of infectious vector born disease of world. Annually it is striking around 100 million people with dengue fever and about 5 Lac people with Dengue Hemorrhagic Fever (DHF), resulting in 5 % deaths per year. Current study was conducted to evaluate efficacies of plant extracts against dengue fever mosquitoes of Aedes genus. Study target was to search some safer alternates than that of chemical pesticides. Also exhibiting characteristics like less toxic to environment, do not induce resistance in mosquitoes, do not harm non-targeted organisms, would not be toxic to human beings and will have biodegradation ability. Study has evaluated indigenous plants extracts as potent larvicidal and adulticidal materials. Mosquitoes were collected from different areas of Lahore and they were identified upto genus level only Aedes genus was identified upto species level, then Aedes aegypti was reared in laboratory to have F 1 generation, to have mosquitoes and larvae for testing the activity of plant extracts. Plant materials were collected from different areas of Lahore. Methanolic extracts of seeds and leaves of Azadirachta indica and lantana camara respectively, were extracted accordingly. Stock solutions were prepared from these extracts and then out of this serial dilutions were made. Experiment was performed in four groups A, B, C & D for both adults and larvae. Each group was representing total of 25 larvae/adult out of which one was kept untreated as negative control, one with deltamethrin as positive control while two were provided with test concentrations. LC50 and LC90 was determined by Probit analysis, using SPSS version 13.0 SPSS inc. 2004. lethal concentrations of A. indica mosquitocidal assay were LC50=30.44 mg/l and LC90=62.36 mg/l after 24 hrs and LC50=-9.87mg/l and LC90=59.102 mg/l after 48 hrs at ?= 0.05. X 2 value was significant for 24 h while for 48 h it was not significant. Maximum mortality observed after 24 and 48 hrs is 99% at 70 ppm. DMR test shows after 24 hrs., all treatment means are significantlt different from each other, from control and from mean of insecticide's mortality, control is significantly lower while insecticide treated group has significantly higher than rest. after 48 hrs. treatments were significantly different from each other while treatment mortality at 70 PPM is significantly higher than insecticide treated group and rest. Lethal concentrations for L. camara adulticidal assay were LC50=60.40 mg/l and LC90=113.61 mg/l after 24 hrs and LC50=48.20 mg/l and LC90=79.31 mg/l after 48 hrs at ?= 0.05. X 2 value was not significant at 24 h and is significant at 48 h. DMR test after 24 hrs. treatment, control and insecticide treated were significantly different from each while insecticide treated group has significantly higher than rest. After 48 hrs 4 and 5 treatment groups were found significantly higher than rest Larvicidal assay of A. indica has shown LC50 =52.36 mg/ l and LC90=105.42 mg/ l after 24 h and LC50 =80.70 mg/l and LC90=145.73 mg/ l after 48 h at ?= 0.05. X2 values for both 24h and 48h were not significant. DMR test after 24 hrs. insecticide treated was significantly lower than all above treatment groups. Treatment group 7 has significantly higher mortality than all other. After 48 hrs. there was not any significant difference. Lethal concentrations for L. camara LC50 =100.76 mg/100 ml and LC90=198.22 mg/100 ml at24 h and LC50 =61.27 mg/100 ml and LC90= 122.45mg/100 ml after 48 h at ?= 0.05. X2 value for both 24h and 48h was not significant. DMR test after 24 hrs. shows insecticide treated group i.e. 8 is significantly lower than all treatment groups except 1 which is at lowest treatment. After 48 4, 5 and 6 had came to same activity level no significant difference was found and were higher than all others. Conclusion: Hence it is concluded that crude plant extracts can act as potential Adulticide / Mosquitocide and Larvicides, though these are required in higher concentrations than that of synthetic insecticides and purified botanical products, but they have advantage of posssessing less resistance presentation and safe for aquatic life. It is also concluded that chemical insecticide used i.e. Deltamethrin has higher efficacy as adulticidal with drastic effects on environment and other beneficial insects. But it was found least effective as larvicidal compared to crude plants extracts. It is suggested that plant extracts can prove a better, safer and cheaper alternate these should consider as a better alternate to control most lethal disease of present time i.e. Dengue fever by eradicating its vector i.e. Aedes aegypti mosquito. Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 1475,T] (1).

8. Prevalence And Chemotherapy Of Various Endoparasites In Pheasants

by Bushra Nazeer | Dr. Nisar Ahmad | Prof. Dr. Anjum | Prof. Dr. Azhar Maqbool.

Material type: book Book; Format: print Publisher: 2013Dissertation note: The study was designed to check the prevalence of nematodes in pheasants. A total of 200 faecal samples (100 from Lahore Zoo & 100 from Jallo Park Lahore) were collected from pheasants. Faeces were examined by using direct smear and centrifuge floatation technique. Forty six out of 200 Pheasants were found to be infected with nematodes. The overall prevalence of nematodes was 23%, while 20% & 26% prevalence was reported for Lahore Zoo & Jallo Park Lahore respectively. The overall species wise prevalence of nematodes reported as, Capillaria, Ascaridia, Coccidia, Trichostrongylus and Heterakis 23.9%, 30.4% 19.6%, 2.2% and 23.95 respectively. Then forty five birds were selected for chemotherapeutic trial by using fenbendazole and tetramisole and checked the efficacy of these drugs against the nematodes. The decrease in mean of EPG in faecal samples was calculated before and after treatment. All the Pheasants in group A were treated with tetramisole and mean EPG was 1000 at day 0 (before treatment). The reduction in mean EPG after treatment was observed 293, 220 and 367 on days 3, 7 and 18 respectively and tetramisole efficacy was 71%, 78% and 63%. The lowest (63%) tetramisole efficacy was calculated after 7 day, likewise highest (78%) on day 7 after treatment. The overall percentage efficacy of tetramisole was calculated 71% during this drug trial. On the other hand in group B the mean EPG was 961 before treatment (on day 0). The mean EPG was calculated 226, 193 and 327 on days 3, 7 and 21 respectively after fenbendazole treatment, indicating the egg load reduction 76%, 80% and 65% respectively. In group B, the highest reduction load (80%) of eggs was calculated on day 7 after medication, on contrary 65% on day 18 (post-treatment). The significant difference (p<0.05) was seen in EPG before and after treatment with anthelmintic in group A and B. The efficacy of fenbendazole was found highly significant (p<0.02) than tetramisole. Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 1600,T] (1).

9. Assessment Of Parasitological Contamination Of Fresh Ad Dry Fruits In Lahore

by Muhammad Anis Khan | Dr. Nisar Ahmad | Dr. Muhammad | Prof. Dr. Azar Maqbool.

Material type: book Book; Format: print Publisher: 2013Dissertation note: Fruits are important part of human diet. Eating unwashed fruits is common in many parts of the world including Pakistan, but these can be a major source of parasites. A parasitic survey on fruits collected from major markets in Lahore was conducted for the discovery of human and animal parasites. Ten species of fruits: Guava, Apple, Sapodilla, Sweetsop, Strawberry and dry fruits: Apricot, Date, Persimmon, Fig and Raisins were evaluated in this study. Fifty samples of each fruit and a total of 500 samples were taken for the study. Hundred gram of each fruit was washed with a cationic solution of Hyamin detergent containing glass particles for the elution of eggs. Concentration of eggs/cysts was achieved by centrifugal sedimentation technique at 5000 rpm for 5 minutes. Sediment was examined under microscope for the presence of parasite eggs, cysts and larvae. Examination of fruits revealed nine genera of parasites. All fruits were highly contaminated with parasites with an overall prevalence of 35.2%. Of parasites studied, Ascaris found to be the highest (36%), followed by Trichuris (14.3%) and Trichostrongyloides sp.(11.9%), while the least common parasite was Fasciola (2.9%). Fruits are the source of parasitic infestation. The most contaminated fresh fruit was strawberry (54%) followed by guava (48%). Whereas the least contaminated fresh fruits was sweetsop (22%). The most contaminated dry fruits was fig (46%) followed by date (38%). whereas the least contaminated dry fruits was (20%). The results indicate that one of the important routes of parasitic infection is due to consumption of unwashed fruits. Conclusions: Strong efforts should be made to prevent contamination of fruits and vegetables during production, transport, processing and handling, much improvement is still needed in our country if hygienic production of fruits and vegetables is to be ensured. This study provides an overview of the hazards associated with eating contaminated fruits. Parasitic infections like Cryptosporidiosis can be acquired by people if orchards or water sources near cow pastures become contaminated from infected cows and people consume the fruit without proper washing. The study needs to be carried out in other areas of Pakistan and more fresh and dry fruits should be included in the study. Information regarding the contamination of the fruits should be published in the national newspapers because awareness of the public is very important for the control of these contaminations. Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 1645,T] (1).

10. Isolation Of Local Strain Of Toxoplasma Gondii Through In-Vivo Cultivation In Mice

by Rahim Gul | Dr. Muhammad Imran Rashid | Dr. Aneela | Dr. Nisar Ahmad.

Material type: book Book; Format: print ; Literary form: not fiction Publisher: 2013Dissertation note: Toxoplasma gondii is an obligate apicomplexan, intracellular, parasite that infects all warm-blooded vertebrates, including mammals and birds. Human beings can be infected by ingestion of oocysts from cat faeces or through the consumption of meat containing Toxoplasma gondii cysts. Thus, food animals can be the source of transmission of Toxoplasmosis in human population especially among people who consume undercooked meat in the forms of barbecues, beef steaks, kebabs, burgers and shawarmas. Oocysts of T. gondii from cat faeces were identified by using direct microscopy and flotation technique. The positive oocysts were confirmed by micrometry having diameter of 9-13 ìm. The oocysts were then sporulated in aerated condition. After sporulation oocyst were inoculated in Swiss albino mice for in-vivo culturing. After 56-70 days brain tissue was collected from infected mice and subjected to DNA extraction and PCR amplification. Similarly DNA was also extracted from sporulated oocyst for copro-PCR. Out of 200 faecal samples only three were found positive for Toxoplasma gondii through direct microscopic examination and flotation technique. From positive faecal sample and brain tissue DNA was extracted by QIAGEN mini stool kit and QIAGEN DNA mini kit. After DNA extraction the samples were examined through PCR by using specific Toxoplasma gondii B1 gene primer having 529 bp size. Two hundred faecal samples were examined for T. gondii using direct microscopy, flotation technique, bioassay and polymerase chain reaction. Out of 200 samples 3 (1.5%) were found infected through direct microscopy and flotation technique. Toxoplasmosis was more prevalent in adult cats (1.65%) as compared to young ones. Prevalence was also found high in females (2.08%) as compared to males. Similarly healthy cats have higher prevalence rate (1.30%) as compared to diseased ones. A further confirmation was done through polymerase chain reaction and brain tissue cyst Bioassay give 1 positive amplification while Copro-PCR gives 2 positive amplifications. Therefore it can be concluded that the copro-PCR is can be used for the confirmation of Toxoplasma oocysts from cat faeces and tissue cysts from bioassay in mice. Therefore, we propose that the copro-PCR can be used as the new gold standard for determining potential cat infectivity and tissue cysts from bioassayed mice or contaminated meat samples of livestock. Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 1778,T] (1).

11. Prevalence And Treatment Of Ovine Fascioliasis In And Around Rawalakot A.J.K

by Anisa Mushtaq | Dr. Nisar Ahmad | Dr. Aneela | Dr. Haroon Akbar.

Material type: book Book; Format: print ; Literary form: not fiction Publisher: 2014Dissertation note: Fascioliasis is a wide spread parasitic disease of ruminants causing great economic losses in terms of decreased milk and meat yield and predisposing to many bacterial infections. Looking the importance and utilization of the small ruminants in our country and the substantial losses because of the Fascioliasis this study was designed to study the prevalence and treatment of Fascioliasis in and around Rawalakot Azad Kashmir. For this purpose a total of 300 Ovine faecal samples were collected from different areas of Rawalakot. Faeces were collected from sheep of various age, breed and sex. Faeces of each sheep were examined by direct smear, sedimentation and flotation techniques. Positive animals were selected for therapeutic trials. Out of 300 faecal samples 101 were found positive for Fascioliasis. Overall prevalence was 33.6%. Sex wise prevalence was also studied and it was found that out of 75 male sheep 23 were found positive while out of 225 female 78 was positive for Fascioliasis. Prevalence of Fascioliasis was 30.6% in male and 34.6% in female. The prevalence was also studied age wise and three groups were made. Sheep in first group were less than 1 year of age, out of 25 sheep 4 were found positive and prevalence was 16%. Sheep in second group were between 1-2 years of age, out of 156 sheep 39 of this age group were found positive having a prevalence of 25%. The sheep included in third group were greater than 2 year of age, out of total 119 sheep in this group 58 were found positive for Fascioliasis with prevalence of 48.7%. For therapeutic trials 80 positive sheep were divided in to 4 groups A, B, C and D. Group A and B were further divided in to three sub groups A1, A2, A3 and B1, B2, B3. 10 animals were placed in each sub group and group C and group D. Animals in groups A and B were treated with herbal extracts. Fumaria parviflora was given to group A animals and Caselpinia crista to group B animals @ 60, 70, 80 mg /kg body weight. Animals in group C were treated with Oxyclozanide @ 10 mg/kg body weight, while animals in group D were kept as infected untreated control. The efficacy of single dose of Oxyclozanide was found 100 percent on 18 day post treatment where as the efficacy of single dose of Fumaria parviflora at 60, 70, and 80 mg/kg body weight was 51.6%, 54.6%, 59.4% on 18th day post treatment, While its efficacy at same dose level after second dose was 79.6%, 82.8%, 86.9% on 21st day post treatment and 83.8% 87.5%, 91.8% respectively on 28th day. The efficacy of single dose of Caselpinia crista at 60, 70, and 80 mg/kg body weight was 31%, 41.42%, 58.7% on 18th day post treatment, while its efficacy at same dose level after second dose was 47.36%, 58.85%, 82.55% on 21st day and 51.3%, 63.2%, 87.3% respectively on 28th day. At the end of research data on prevalence was analyzed by chi square test P < 0.05 was considered as significant whereas data on therapeutic trials was analyzed by using ANOVA in this case p < 0.01 was considered as significant. From this study it was concluded that Fascioliasis is significantly prevalent in sheep in and around Rawalakot. While Oxyclozanide is most effective drug against Ovine Fascioliasis. The outcome of this study will help the veterinarians and farmers in the field. Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 1789,T] (1).

12. Prevalence Of Mange Mites And Herbal Treatment In Sheep

by Asif Fiaz | Dr. Nisar Ahmad | Dr. Haroon Akbar.

Material type: book Book; Format: print ; Literary form: drama Publisher: 2014Dissertation note: Abstract Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 1886,T] (1).

13. Comparative Efficiency Of Coprological Identificatiocn With Sensitive Detection Of Cryptosporidium By PCR In Domestic and Commercial Chickens

by Hafiz fahad nazir | Dr. Nisar ahmad | Prof DR. Azhar maqbool | Prof. DR. Aftab.

Material type: book Book; Format: print ; Literary form: not fiction Publisher: 2014Dissertation note: Abstract Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 2010,T] (1).

14. Detection And Chemotherapy Of Demodex Mite In Dogs In And Around Lahore

by Asim rasool | Dr. Nisar ahmad | Dr. Muhammad Haroon akber | Prof. Dr.

Material type: book Book; Format: print ; Nature of contents: biography; Literary form: Publisher: 2013Dissertation note: Abstract Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 2019,T] (1).

15. Prevalence And Chemotherapy Of Canine Babesiosis

by Faisal Shrif | Dr. Nisar Ahmad | Dr. MUhammad | Prof. Dr. Azhar Maqbool.

Material type: book Book; Format: print Publisher: 2014Dissertation note: Abstract Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 2117,T] (1).

16. Prevalence Of Soil Borne Species Of Toxocara And Ancylostoma In Different Public Parks Of Dera Ghazi Khan

by Muhammad Abubakar | Dr. Nisar Ahmad | Dr. Haroon Akbar | Dr. Jawaria Ali.

Material type: book Book; Format: print Publisher: 2014Dissertation note: Abstract Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 2155,T] (1).

17. Taxonomy And Control Of Flea Infestation In Cats At Lahore

by Umair Tariq (2008-VA-233) | Dr. Nisar Ahmad | Prof. Dr. Azhar Maqbool | Dr. Syed Saleem Ahmad.

Material type: book Book; Literary form: not fiction Publisher: 2015Dissertation note: INTRODUCTION Fleas play an important role in causing clinical skin disorders and diseases transmission in man and pets animals (Rust & Dryden, 1997). Fleas are one of the most important ectoparasites with more than 2,000 species worldwide affecting mammals, birds, and reptiles (Hsu, 2003). In some locations, fleas represent over 50% of all the dermatological cases presented to small animal clinics. Most are limited to hosts with nests as this can provide conditions for the completion of their life cycle (Linardi & de Avelar, 2014). While fleas on pets are generally considered a nuisance that may cause some dermatologic problems, they are also responsible for the transmission of several important diseases in humans and animals (Dryden & Rust, 1994). They have been involved in transmission of cat scratch disease (Bartonella henselae) (Chomel et al., 2006; Comer et al., 2001), Rickettsia typhi (Murine thyphus), Rickettsia felis (Finkelstein et al., 2002; Rolain et al., 2005), and also serve as the intermediate host for the tapeworm Dipylidium caninum (Rust & Dryden, 1997) and several trypanosomatids (Coutinho & Linardi, 2007). The term ‘‘cat flea,’’ which is the approved common name for Ctenocephalides felis felis (C. f felis), can occasionally cause confusion. When it appears in print, it refers to the specific flea genus and species and not to fleas recovered from cats. There are four recognized subspecies of C. felis throughout the world: Ctenocephalides felis damarensis and C. felis strongylus occur primarily in East Africa, C felis orientis occurs in India and Australia, and the widespread C. f felis occurs in all continents except Antarctica and is the only subspecies that occurs in North America (Rust & Dryden, 1997). The cat flea, C. felis, is a clinically important parasite of domestic pets, being responsible for the production of allergic dermatitis, serving as the vector of Introduction 2 various bacterial pathogens, and being the intermediate host for filarid and cestode parasites. Flea allergy dermatitis is the most common dermatologic disease of dogs and a major cause of feline miliary dermatitis (Dryden & Rust, 1994; Rust & Dryden, 1997). Clinical features vary from asymptomatic to severe hypersensitivity reactions with restlessness, alopecia from scratching and biting resulting in a pruritic papular dermatitis. Vacuuming of carpets, furniture cushions, rugs, or other substrata, with a vacuum machine containing a ‘‘beater bar,’’ will remove many of the flea eggs and larvae. In addition, cocooned pupae at the upper levels of the carpet can also be affected. The vibration also stimulates adult fleas to emerge from their cocoons so that they can be collected in the vacuum machine. Therefore frequent vacuuming, during a flea infestation, can reduce the overall flea burden in the home. It should be ensured that vacuum bags are disposed of properly, to prevent recolonization of the home with flea stages previously removed by vacuuming. Because outdoor development of immature flea life stages is limited to shaded areas, altering outdoor environments to eliminate such habitats can effectively reduce flea populations. Because urban wildlife, such as opossums, raccoons, and foxes, are good hosts for cat fleas, pet owners should avoid encouraging visitations by wildlife, which will affect flea and tick control (see later discussion). Treatment of indoor and outdoor environments with insecticides requires knowledge of what to use and where to use it. For this reason, it is suggested that pet owners consult with a licensed pest control specialist for such applications (Angelbeck-Schulze et al., 2014; Perrins & Hendricks, 2007). In line with increasing urbanization over the last few decades, flea species that infest pets have become household pests. Thus, and for reasons of animal and human welfare, the control of fleas is of great importance worldwide. Despite the increase in the number of products available and Introduction 3 their use, flea infestation of cats and dogs is still widespread in Europe and on other continents, whereas resistance of these insects against many chemicals has been detected (El-Gazzar et al., 1986). Cat fleas are the most important ectoparasite of cats and dogs worldwide. During the past ten years, topical and oral applications of insecticides such as fipronil, imidacloprid, lufenuron and, most recently, selamectin have revolutionized cat-flea control. Recent studies show that these therapies eliminate the need to treat indoor and outdoor environments, and their use markedly reduces the severity and prevalence of flea allergic dermatitis. Surveys have yet to reveal the development of insecticide resistance to these chemical compounds. Extending the longevity of these effective host-targeted therapies should be a major goal of the veterinary community (Rust, 2005). Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 2253-T] (1).

18. Molecular Diagnosis Of Trypanosomiasis In Pet Dogs Of Lahore

by Muhammad Asif (2007-VA-460) | Prof. Dr. Kamran Ashraf | Dr. Nisar Ahmad | Dr. Jawad Nazir.

Material type: book Book; Literary form: not fiction Publisher: 2015Dissertation note: Trypanosomaevansiis a protozoa that causes surrain a wide variety of mammals. It is widely reported in adult dogs (Rashid et al. 2008; Defontis et al. 2012). Trypanosoma evansiis utmostcommonlyexisting trypanosome in animals. It is a salivarian pathogen (Hoare. 1972). Stomoxyand Tabanidssppare menifested as mainvectors universally. Oral spreadis also reported in both wild and domestic animals (Adams and Lionnet. 1983). Since 2008, surra became obligatory not only in horses, because it has been considered as a multi-species disease by the OIE (OIE. 2008; Salim et al. 2011). Surra usually follows an acute course of infection in dogs, though it is sporadically prevalent (Ravindran et al. 2008). Outbreaks of canine trypanosomiasis have been reported in India, Iran,Brazil, and South America (Herrera et al. 2004; Morteza et al. 2007; Umezawa et al. 2009). Trypanosomaevansionly has been reported from subcontinent (Ravindran et al. 2008). Causative agent for American trypanosomiasis is Trypanosoma cruzi (T. cruzi) and African trypanosomiasis (surra or sleeping sickness) whose causative agent isTrypanosomaevansi(T.evansi).These are two forms of canine trypanosomiasis.It was originally an enzootic disease mingling in mammals and birds, which served as areservoir. The disease became zoonotic due to interaction between rural populations and natural foci, which are the results of biologicalinequity (Johns et al. 2000). Peracute to acute infections due to trypanosome result in high temperature, hemorrhages in the mucosal and serosal sides. Anemic condition of the patient is produced due to loss of RBCsfrom circulationby the mononuclear phagocytic system which is the cardinal feature of trypanosome infection.In chronic infections, anemia may be resolved due to little parasitic load in blood at capricious degrees. (Urquhart et al. 2002). Some note able signs may compriseedema of throat and head, Blindness due corneal opacity, Temperature and anorexia. Larynx may alter the voice of the dog due edema, which can complicate with rabies. Infected dogs are considered as a risk factor in household spread of the Chagas disease in humans (Cohen and Gurtler.2001). In native animals, dogs have the flankingassociation with humans; they may assumedconsiderable epidemiological importance in the perspective of public health and zoonosis. In humans,T.evansiproduce chronic pathological changes, which includes congestive cardiac insufficiency, finding of which isproblematic and can be unexploited due to multisystemic nature of the infection; it increases the need for epidemiological and experimental support. Moreover, causative agent of trypanosomiasis must beconfirmed by laboratory analysis, which can make availablesignificantprovisionwhen using suitable techniques, suitable reagents, and subsequent good laboratory practices (Eloy & Lucheis. 2009). There has been development of several compounds with value against canine trypanosomiasis, however none of these products have been produced in a large commercial scale or even accessible in the market. The apparent inaccessibility of new trypanocides in the market have continued a great challenge to the treatment of the infection. Diminazine aceturate dose of 3.5 mg/kg in T.congolense infection; 7 mg/kg inT. brucei andT. evansi(Aquinos. 2007) has shown efficacy when used to treat canine trypanosomiasis.However, treatment does not provide satisfactoryresults but only sustained the life of the dog for some reasonable period (Amora. 2004). Dogs were vaccinated with a fixed T.rangeli against canine trypanosomiasis recently (Basso et al. 2007). Experimental infections of the vaccinated dog produced disease of low parasitaemia apparently from vaccine induced immunity. Furthermore, feeding of the vaccinated dogs with the nymph stage of triatomine reduced the rate of infection in the bugs. Since dogs are the reservoir of Chagas disease in man, advances in this area could reduce the rate of infection of kissing bug which will in turn aid in the control of the disease in man (Basso et al. 2007) are necessary to establish the diagnosis.Sensitivity of direct parasitological examination is directly related to parasitic burden, biological material. The diagnosis oftrypanosomiasis is based on combination of comprehensive clinical inspection, appropriate sample collection, sample size, suitable diagnostic tests and suitable conduction of tests and logical interpretation of results. In canine trypanosomiasis where disease prevalence is great, some tests of low diagnostic sensitivity may suffice (OIE. 2008). Parasitological diagnosis could be made by microscopic inspection either of blood, lymph node or CSF of infected dogs (François et al. 2005). Pet dogs have been the companion of human being since ages, and shares the environment and belongings. Trypanosoma is found in dogs causing health problems effecting their routine activities. Rapid and accurate diagnosis of the infection is must to do for better therapeutic approach and early recovery of the animal. PCR is gold standard test for the molecular diagnosis of disease leading to quick diagnosis, early recovery and cost saving. So, regarding to disease importance and dogs domestications which is increasing day by day in and around Lahore area, we have focused this species to determine the Trypanosoma evansistatus in dogs in this area. This whole study is based on two diagnostic techniques i.e. screening through microscopic examination and confirmation of these samples via PCR with details regarding age, sex and breed association with the disease. Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 2259-T] (1).

19. Prevalence Of Gastrointestinal Nematodes In Chickens Raised Under Different Poultry Production System In Muzaffar Garh Area

by Muhammad Jamil Manzoor Daha (2012-VA-823) | Prof. Dr. Kamran Ashraf | Dr. Nisar Ahmad | Mr. Shahid Abbas.

Material type: book Book; Literary form: not fiction Publisher: 2015Dissertation note: Poultry industry is the most effective and economical source of animal protein in shortest possible time, but still it is unable to narrow down the animal protein supply and demand gap because of increasing future demands. Roundworms can cause a reduction in growth rate and damage to the intestinal mucosa, leading to blood loss and secondary infection. Heavily infected chickens may show symptoms of weight loss, droopiness, and diarrhea. Economic losses are usually associated with ascarid, Heterakis, and Capillaria, infections because of treatment cost, as well as the reduction in feed efficiency and weight gain as well as drop in egg production. Fecal samples were collected from poultry birds in different production systems , in and around district Muzaffar Garh and samples were examined by using the direct smear method, flotation technique and simple sedimentation technique. Adult worms load were examined by necropsy of dead birds fortnightly. Post mortem of dead birds during study was examined for presence of nematodes in gastro intestinal tract fortnightly from each enrolled shed in the study. The samples of adult worm found were collected for identification. During the present study four species of nematodes were identified. Ascardia galli was recovered from the small intestine, Heterakis gallinae and Subulura brumpti from the caecae . The most common gastrointestinal nematode was Ascaridia galli followed by Subulura brumpti and Heterakis gallinae. The present study has indicated that good husbandry techniques and regular deworming practices reflect markedly on the incidence and worm – burden of infected chickens Availability: No items available

20. Prevalence Of Gastrointestinal Nematodes In Chickens Raised Under Different Poultry Production System In Muzaffar Garh Area

by Muhammad Jamil Manzoor Daha (2012-VA-823) | Prof. Dr. Kamran Ashraf | Dr. Nisar Ahmad | Mr. Shahid Abbas.

Material type: book Book; Literary form: not fiction Publisher: 2015Dissertation note: Poultry industry is the most effective and economical source of animal protein in shortest possible time, but still it is unable to narrow down the animal protein supply and demand gap because of increasing future demands. Roundworms can cause a reduction in growth rate and damage to the intestinal mucosa, leading to blood loss and secondary infection. Heavily infected chickens may show symptoms of weight loss, droopiness, and diarrhea. Economic losses are usually associated with ascarid, Heterakis, and Capillaria, infections because of treatment cost, as well as the reduction in feed efficiency and weight gain as well as drop in egg production. Fecal samples were collected from poultry birds in different production systems , in and around district Muzaffar Garh and samples were examined by using the direct smear method, flotation technique and simple sedimentation technique. Adult worms load were examined by necropsy of dead birds fortnightly. Post mortem of dead birds during study was examined for presence of nematodes in gastro intestinal tract fortnightly from each enrolled shed in the study. The samples of adult worm found were collected for identification. During the present study four species of nematodes were identified. Ascardia galli was recovered from the small intestine, Heterakis gallinae and Subulura brumpti from the caecae . The most common gastrointestinal nematode was Ascaridia galli followed by Subulura brumpti and Heterakis gallinae. The present study has indicated that good husbandry techniques and regular deworming practices reflect markedly on the incidence and worm – burden of infected chickens Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 2346-T] (1).

21. Control Of Gastrointestinal Nematodes By Anthelmintics In Buffalo Heifers And Its Effect On Weight Gain

by Tanveer Saroia (2008-VA-062) | Prof. Dr. Khalid saeed | Dr. Nisar Ahmad | Dr. Ali Ahmad Sheikh.

Material type: book Book; Literary form: not fiction Publisher: 2015Dissertation note: Parasitic problem is a major constraint of ruminant production and causes great economic losses to dairy industry by retarded growth, low productivity and increased susceptibility of animals to other infections. The parasitic infections cause productivity losses through reduced feed intake and decreased feed efficiency. Even subclinical or chronic infections are responsible for economic losses in large ruminants. Hypothesis of the study was that administration of anthelmintics will improve weight gain in infected buffalo heifers. One hundred faecal samples of buffalo heifers of age 1-2 years were screened and 58 were found positive for gastrointestinal nematodes. The species of nematodes found prevalent in these animals were Trichostrongylus, Oesophogostomum, Haemonchus, Toxocara, Trichuris and Ostertagia. Thirty buffalo heifers with high EPG were selected and divided into 3 equals groups A, B and C. In this study Group A was a positive control group. Group B was administered Ivermactin (Bomectin) pour on at the dose rate of 1ml / 20 kg body weight. Group C was administered Oxfendazole (Systamex) orally at the dose rate of 1ml/ 10 kg body weight. The effect of these anthelmintics on EPG and weight gain were recorded after every 15 days. This study period was of 90 days (3 months) duration. There was increases in the EPG of positive control group and percent increases was 7.10%, 10.65%, 18.10%, 30.17%, 33.72%, 46.15% at days 15, 30, 45, 60, 75and 90. The percentage decrease in EPG for the group B was 98.22%, 97.04%, 91.12%, 77.51%, 60.94%, 46.74% at days 15, 30, 45, 60, 75 and 90 post treatment and the percentage decrease in EPG for the Group C was 95.80%, 92.81%, 88.62%, 71.85%, 58.68%, 26.34% at days 15, 30, 45, 60, 75 and 90 post treatment. Both anthelmintics cause significant reduction in epg medicated animals as compared to non-medicated animals. There was no difference in the two anthelmintics. The average weight gain per day for Group A (Positive Control) is 0.17 kg per day, for Group B (Ivermectin) is 0.44 kg per day and for Group C (Oxfendazol) was 0.4 kg per day. This shows significant difference between treated groups with non-treated group but there was no difference between the treated groups. It is concluded that ivermectin and oxefendazol can be used for the control of gastrointestinal nematodes. It is recommended that animals may be moved to clean facility after treatment so they are not reinfected. Repeated treatment is suggested to maintain the EPG at low level. Suggestions of the present study are 1. Monitoring of animals for gastrointestinal nematodes by modified McMaster Egg Counting technique. 2. Regular deworming 3. Improved management Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 2405-T] (1).

22. Molecular Diagnosis Of Babesiosis In Cattle With Special Reference To Cardinal Signs In District Lahore, Punjab

by Shakeel Hussain (2007-VA-463) | Prof. Dr. Kamran Ashraf | Dr. Nisar Ahmad | Pro. Dr. Tahir Yaqub.

Material type: book Book; Literary form: not fiction Publisher: 2015Dissertation note: Tick infestation and the resulting transmission of serious pathogens in ruminants is one of the most important problems of the livestock industry in developing countries (Aktas et al. 2012).Bovine babesiosis is economically the most important tick-borne disease of cattle worldwide including areas of Australia, Africa, South and Central America. Babesia species are protozoan parasites that parasitize the erythrocytes of domestic animals and humans, causing Anemia in the host affected. Polymerase chain reaction (PCR), which is more sensitive and specific technique, offers an alternative approach for the diagnosis of Babesiosis (Zulfiqar et al. 2012). Geo-climatic condition of Punjab, Pakistan favours the multiplication and survival of ticks which play a major role in the biological transmission of Tick Born Diseases. In earlier reports the prevalence of cattle tick infestation was more than 50% from Punjab (Durrani et al. 2008, Sajid et al. 2009). Keeping in views the importance of the disease, the present study was carried out to determine the prevalence of Babesiosis in cattle of Lahore, District of the Punjab, Pakistan. A total of sixty (60) blood samples was collected randomly from dairy cattle of District Lahore. These samples were transported to the Laboratory of Parasitology, Department, University of Veterinary & Animal Sciences, Lahore and were kept at 4oc until further processing for Microscopic examination (Zakir et al. 2014) and then for PCR. We focused on the early detection of Babesiosis through Microscopic examination of Blood samples. For further confirmation of Babesiosis, the blood samples were processed through Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR) as described by Zulfiqar et al. 2012. The thick and thin smears of the blood samples were made on the new particularly labeled glass slides. The dried blood smears were fixed in absolute methyl alcohol for one Summary 32 minute. Staining was performed using Giemsa Stain as method followed by Zakir et al. 2014 i.e. the glass slides bearing thick and thin blood smears were stained with one fourth of dilution of commercially available Giemsa stain for four minutes and were observed under oil immersion at 100X objective to detect the presence of Babesiosis. All the blood samples were examined through Microscopy showing 04 positive ones, then all the samples were processed using PCR for final confirmation of Babesiosis in Cattle. PCR was performed under the conditions as previously described by Zulfiqar et al. 2012. PCR reaction was performed to obtain amplified products over 30 cycles by 94ºC for 5 min., 94ºC for 30 sec., 50ºC for 30 sec., 72ºC for 45 sec. and completed with a final extension step of 7 min. at 72ºC. Finally the amplified DNA fragments were analyzed after electrophoresis on 1.5% agarose gel. Prevalence rate will be determined with the help of the following formula: Prevalence rate = No. of positive samples / No of total samples x 100 Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 2404-T] (1).

23. Conventional And Molecular Characterization Of Theileria Species Prevalent In Cattle

by Fafiz Muhammad Nadeem (2003-VA-77) | Dr. Nisar Ahmad | Prof. Dr. Azhar Maqbool | Dr. Muhammad Ijaz.

Material type: book Book; Literary form: not fiction Publisher: 2015Dissertation note: Theileriosis is the destructive disease caused by the protozoan in cattle. It is major cause of huge losses in production of cattle. It is a wide spread protozoan syndrome of cattle playing foremost role in production losses. Early and exact diagnosis of theileriosis can be helpful in reducing production losses. Early and exact diagnosis of theileriosis can be helpful in the control of disease.( Hypothesis ) Incidence of different Theileria species was recorded. Blood samples was collected in sterilized vacutainers. The samples were examined by preparing fresh blood smears followed by Giemsa staining and observing under microscope. Identification on preliminary basis was done by morphological characters of Theileria. In order to find the harmful effect of the theileriosis, blood hematology and biochemistry values were also be determined in both healthy and infected cattle. The samples from theileriosis positive animals were used for nucleic acid extraction. The extracted nucleic acid was amplified using Species specific primers.Agarose gel electrophoresis was used to visualize the amplified DNA. Amplicons of nucleic acid was treated with different restriction enzymes and pattern was visualized to find differences among different species of Theileria. Suitable statistical tool was used to analyze the data collected. Chi was applied on data by using statistical software SPSS version 20.0. This research will help to confirm for the conventional and molecular diagnosis of theileriosis in dairy animals. Also genetic variation in Theileria species will be determined. Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 2436-T] (1).

24. Prevalence Of Hydatidosis In Small Ruminants Slaughtered At District Dera Ghazi Khan Punjab

by Muhammad Qumer Zaman (2007-VA-96) | Dr. Nisar Ahmad | Dr. Muhammad Lateef | Dr. Jawaria Ali khan.

Material type: book Book; Literary form: not fiction Publisher: 2015Dissertation note: Hydatidosis is important zoonotic and economic disease of livestock and human beings.Hydatid cyst is larval form of genus Echinococcosis Granulosis. Hydatidosis causes considerable economic loss in livestock due to condemnation of organs. Dogs are the primary definitive hosts for this parasite, with livestock acting as intermediate hosts and humans as aberrant intermediate hosts. The outcome of infection in livestock and humans is cyst development in the liver, lungs, or other organ system. The disease is spread when food or water that contains the eggs of the parasite is eaten or by close contact with an infected animal. The eggs are released in the stool of meat-eating animals that are infected by the parasite. For these animals to become infected they must eat the organs of an animal that contains the cysts such as sheep or rodents.The type of disease which occurs in people depends on the type of Echinococcus causing the infection. It is a type of worm infection and is a neglected tropical disease. To find out the prevalence of Hydatid cyst in small Ruminants, total 300 samples were studied from 300 samples, 150 were of sheep and 150 samples were of goat.Among those samples infected organs of animal like liver ,lung heart were separated in sterile container.then hydatid cyst fluid be obtained by penetrating the needle into cyst wall .A drop of cyst fluid was taken on microscopic Glass slide and cover slip was applied on it and observed under microcope for motility of flame cells to see viable protoscoleces ,live and movable protoscoleces identify as fertile cyst. Summary Conclusion This study Will be helpful to acess the prevalence of zoonotic hydatid cyst disease in the Punjab, Dera Ghazi Khan area and surroundings.And study ultimately help us to control the spread of zoonotic infection and we were be able to guide public to adopt preventive mesures against the disease. Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 2446-T] (1).



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