A Study On The Taxonomy Of Sheep Cestodes And The Efficacy Of Albendazole And Miclosamide Against Natural Infections
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Publisher: 1994 Dissertation note: Pakistan has a large population of live stock, which plays an important role in the economy of the country. Parasitism adversally effects the growth and production of livestock. Great economic losses have been attributed to the sheep population in our country due to the parasitic infections including cestodes. A study of cestodal infections with taxonomy of the prevalent cestoctes species affecting sheep at different age groups in and around Lahore was conducted. The taxonomical study was conducted in the month of August, September and October, 1993. For this purpose 200 guts (one hurtdered each from below six month and above six month of sheep) were collected from Lahore Abattoir. Parasites were identitied under the microscope by preparing permanent mounts.
The over all incidence of cestodes infection in sheep was 65.5%.
The species of various genera of cestodes observed during the present
Moniezia pansa (64%), Moniezia benedeni (60%), Avitellina cjj[iur1ctta
(49.50%), Avitellina lahorea (40%), Avitellina sudanea (30%), Stilesia vittata
(30%), Stilesia globiounctata (50%) and Thvsanosoma actinioides (6%).
Monthwise prevalence of cestodes infection was also carried out and it was observed that the highest infection rate was (76%) during the month of August and (66.25%) during the month of September. While the lowest incidence was recorded as (57.14%) during the month of october, 1993.
The taxonomy of the prevalent cestode species was carried out. The effect of age of the animals on the intensity of cestodal infection was also studied. There was a significant difference in the prevalence of cestode infections among the two groups.
The present work was also aimed to verify the efficacy of two commonly available anthelmintics namely albendazole (valbazen) and niclosarnide (mansonil), in naturally infected stceep with Gastrointestinal cestocJes. Fifty sheep positive for cestods infections were randomly divided into two groups A and B, each group comprising of 25 animals. Group. A was given albendazole (valbazen) at a dose rate of 2.5 mg/kg body weight orally while the group B was administered niclosamide (mansonil) at a dose rate of 100 mg/kg body weight orally. The efficacy of both the drugs was evaluated on the bases of reduction of segments and number of eggs per gram of faeces after medication. The egg counts were made on zero, 3rd and 21st day. Both the drugs revealed a progressive decrease in the faccal egg/segment counts. The efficacy of albenclazole on 3rd and 21st day was 96.02 and 99.23% repectively while the efficacy of niclosamide (mansonil) was 100% on 3rd and 21st day.
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Seroprevalence Of Ftoxoplasma Gondii Infection In Sheep And Goats
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Publisher: 2005 Dissertation note: Keeping in view the zoonotic importance of Toxoplasmosis the present study was carried out to determine the seroprevalence of Toxoplasma gondii infection in sheep and goats using commercially available kit "Toxopalasmosis Latex" based on the principal of Latex agglutination. . For this purpose 100 blood samples (50 sheep & 50 goats) were collected randomly from slaughter house of Lahore and local sheep & goat forms, the serum was separated and analyzed for anti Toxoplasma antibodies. The animals were divided in three groups, Group I included animals below one year, Group II 1-4 years and Group III included animals aged 4 years and above. The overall 8% and 6% seroprevalence were recorded in sheep and goats respectively. Age titer relationship in sheep showed that Group III had (12.5%), Group 11(7.6 %) and Group I had no positive cases in sheep examined. In goats Group III had (10 %), Group II (5.7%) and no seropositive cases in Group I could be recorded. These results indicate that the infection was higher in older animal than young ones, Breed wise seroprevalence indicated that, Kchhi sheep 14.28%, Desi (non descript) 8.33% and no seropositive case in Lohi and Thali breeds was recorded. In goats Teddy breed had 11.11%, Desi (non descript) 5.55% while no seropositive case in Beetal goats could be recorded.
From the data analyzed it is concluded that although the seroprevalence of T gondii infection in sheep and goats is relatively low in this area as compared to the other parts of the world. Yet adequate management might be useful and essential to further minimize the infection in sheep and goats herds. Consequently, preventive measures could further reduce the exposure of toxoplasmosis in the human population.
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Genotyping Of Echinococcus Granulosus And Its Comparative Prevalence In Sheep, Goat And Human
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Publisher: 2007 Dissertation note: Hydatidosis is caused by metacestode of the dog worm Echinococcus granulosus. It is a serious problem for both Public health and livestock economy.Echinococcus granulosus has number of genetically distinct strains which are known to differ morphologically and epidemiologically. Out of 1000 sheep and goat examined only 45 Samples of hydatid cysts were collected from different organs i.e. livers, kidneys, lungs and hearts from Lahore abbatoir. Fertility and viability of the cysts was observed microscopically. Genotyping of Echinococcus granulosus was performed through Polymerase Chain Reaction Restriction Fragment Length Polymorphism (PCR-RFLP). Seroprevalence of hydatidosis in 50 butchers working in abattoir was also determined by the use of Latex agglutination test (LAT) kit for detection of hydatidosis.
Considerable information is available about genetic variants of E. granulosus around the world. Ten genotypes of E. granulosus have been described, which exhibit a diversity of morphology, development, and host range, as confirmed by various studies. In the Mediterranean area, the Gl or common sheep strain, 02, the buffalo strain 03, and the equine strain 04 have been found in Spain, Italy, Lebanon, and Syria
To date, molecular studies using mainly DNA sequences cytochrome oxidase subunit 1 (COl) and NADH dehydrogenase 1 (ND1) genes have identified ten distinct genotypes (01 -G 10) within E. granulosus. This categorization follows very closely the patterns of strain variation emerging from biological and epidemiological traits.
In this study we perform serum analysis of butchers to detect antibodies against Echinococcus so that the prevalence of Echinococus can be checked, the data available indicated that 14% of butchers population is infected with Echinococus. In order to confirm the starin of Echinococcus in sheep and goat the PCR-RFLP analysis of ND I gene of Echinococus were performed .The data obtained was analysed and it was concluded that the 01 strain of echinococus is prevalent in sheep and goat in Punjab area. It is hoped that the findings of the present study will be helpful for further planning about the control of the disease and correlating the prevalence in sheep, goats and butchers from the zoonotic point of view.
The results demonstrated that PCR-RFLP analysis of samples of patients suspected for Echinococcus is a promising diagnostic method and also confirms the type of Echinococus prevalent in that area and also enables an early direct detection of parasite DNA. This will help to curtail this drastic malady at an early stage and will help to devise the trategy to minimize the losses due to this disease.
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Seropervalance Of Toxoplasma Gondii Infection In Indigenous Poultry And Their Dressers
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Publisher: 2007 Dissertation note: In present study a total of 100 serum samples from indigenous poultry and the dressers were analysed for determination of Toxoplasma specific anti-bodies. Under aseptic measures 1-2m1 of blood was withdrawn by veinpuncture and serum was separated. All the serum samples were analyzed for specific IgG anti Toxoplasma ant-bodies using Latex Agglutination Test (LAT). Positive reaction was visualized by the naked eyes or magnifying hand lens.
Commercially available Toxoplasma Latex test kit was used to determine the serum antibodies. Results were interpretated, data obtained was analyzed statistically by calculating the percent sero-positivity of Toxoplasma gondii in indigenous poultry.
Toxoplasma is one of the most common zoonosis worldwide.It is caused by toxoplasma gondii, an obligatory intracellular parasite that attacks warm blooded animals,birds including humanbiengs.Felines are the definite hosts where the parasite carries out its sexual cycle resulting in oocysts that are taken to the environment by the feces.Man birds and animals acquire the infection by ingesting oocysts that contaminate water,foodstuff, and pasture in that environment.
In the present study the overall seroprevalance of toxoplasma gondii infection in indigenous poultry and dressers are 12% respectively by using Latex agglutination test.
In indigenous poultry seroprevalance of toxoplasma gondii was 10% out of 100 hens examined, (3) were seropositive at screening dilution of 1:256 suggesting possible recent contact.
(2) were seropositive at 1:128 which was due to acquired or evolving immunity, while (1) were seropositive at screening dilution at 1:16 indicating residual or non specific immunity.
Toxoplasma gondii infection is increased with age because of constant exposure to contaminated environment and increased contact with cats.
In dressers (butchers) seroprevalance was 12% out of 50.Two were seropositive at screening dilution of 1:256 suggesting possible recent contacting.Two were seropositive at 1:128 which was due to acquired or evolving immunity,whike two were seropositve at screening dilution at 1:16 indicating residual or non specific immunity.
Due to increase prevalence of toxoplasmosis in humans,birds and animals daby day it is very necessary that public should be aware about the zoonotic importance of this disease and preventive measures to be adopted.
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Genotyping Of Echinococcus Granulosus And Its Comparative Prevalance In Camels And Human Beings
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Publisher: 2008 Dissertation note: Hydaiidosis is caused by metacestode of the dog worm Echinococcus granulosus. It is a serious problem br both Public health and livestock economy. Echinococcus granaiiosu.s has number of genetically distinct strains which are known to differ morphologically and epidemiologically. Out of 100 camels examined only 25 Samples of hydatid cysts were collected from different organs i.e. livers, kidneys, lungs and hearts from Lahore abattoirs. Fertility and viability of the cysts was observed microscopically. Genotyp ing of Echinococcus granulosus was performed through Polymerase Chain Reaction Restriction Fragment Length Polymorphism (PCR-RFLP). Seroprevalence of hydatidosis in 25 butchers working in abattoir was also determined by the use of Latex agglutination test (LAT) kit for detection ob hydatidosis.
Considerable information is available about genetic variants of E. granulosus around the world. Ten genotypes of E. granulosus have been described, which exhibit a diversity of morphology, development, and host range, as contrmed by various studies. In the Mediterranean area, the CI or common sheep strain, G2, Camel strain G6, and the equine strain G4 have been found in Spain, Italy, Lebanon, and Syria
To date, molecular studies using mainly DNA sequences have identitied G-6 strain of E. granulosus. This categorization follows very closely the patterns of strain variation emerging from biological and epiderniological traits.
In this study we perform serum analysis of butchers to detect antibodies against Echinococcus so that the prevalence of Echinococcus can be checked; the data available indicated that 14% of butcher's population is infected with Echinococcus. In order to confirm the strain of Echinococcus in camels the PCR-RFLP analysis were performed. The data obtained was analysed and it was concluded that the G6 strain of Echinococciis is prevalent in camels in Pakistan. The results demonstrated that PCRRFLP analysis of samples of patients suspected for Echinococcus is a promising diagnostic method and also confirms the type of Echinococcus prevalent in that area and also enables an early direct detection of parasite DNA. This will help to curtail this drastic malady at an early stage and will help to devise the strategy to minimize the losses due to this disease.
It is hoped that the findings of the present study will be helpful for further planning about the control of the disease and correlating the prevalence in camels and butchers from the zoonotic point of view.
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Molecular Detection And Speciation Of The Canme Piropiasm
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Publisher: 2008 Dissertation note: An epidemiological study of babesiosis in dogs was conducted at Pet center, University of Veterinary and Animal Sciences, Lahore, for one year and information on age, sex and breed was gathered. It was found that from a total number of 6204, dogs up to two years of age were more susceptible than other age groups (2-4, 4-6 and above 6 years).The data regarding genders revealed that males were more prone to the disease than female dogs. As far as the breeds were concerned, crossbred dogs were more susceptible followed by Pointers, Alsatians, German shepherds and Bull terriors.Hot and humid months (June to September) have greater impact on the occurrence of disease. The study regarding identification of ticks revealed that Rhiphicephalus sanguinus is the predominant vector of the disease in Pakistan.
Molecular studies were conducted to characterize and identify the species responsible for canine babesiosis in Pakistan. In this regard, a nested polymerase chain reaction-Restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP) technique was employed on different specimens (Blood, Body tissues and Ticks). For this purpose blood samples were collected from twenty four chronically infected dogs and applied on the Flinders Technologies Associates (FTA) cards for transportation to Australia. Different body tissues (Liver, Spleen, Kidney, Intestine, Bone marrow and Pancreas) were procured after euthanizing the two dogs and DNA was extracted, for further studies. Similarly, the eighty eight ticks were also collected from the infested dogs in the 70% ethanol for transportation to Australia. A nested PCR-RFLP assay was used for the detection and differentiation of Piroplasm species on the basis of the 1 8S ribosomal RNA gene. The assay potentially amplified and identified Babesia gibsoni as the main canine piroplasm. Similar assays on the DNA extracted from body tissues and ticks revealed Babesia gibsoni as the main piroplasm. The PCR was found to have a high detection limit (equivalent to i0 dilution), when using the DNA extracted from blood applied to FTA cards, body tissues and ticks. A new technique was developed for extraction of DNA from FTA cards and tick, in this technique, instead of using the FTA specified punching machine, we used scalpel blades, and so the rest of the chemicals used are'generally and easily available. The same protocol was used for extraction of DNA from ticks, only chemicals used in different quantities with different spinning times. Both of which, resulted in cost reduction, less effort and speedy DNA extraction. The technique reported here has the potential to be standardized for routine DNA extractions from FTA cards and ticks.
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Prevalance And Anthelmentic Activity Of Indigenous Plants Against Trichostrongylus Of Sheep In District Zhob
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Publisher: 2010 Dissertation note: A Trichostrongylid is gastrointestinal nematode which causes the heavy economic losses to the livestock particularly sheep. A total 240 gastrointestinal tracts of sheep from district Zhob abattoir were collected. These samples were isolated and identified for trichostrongylid nematodes. The overall prevalence was 50%(120/240), of which 39.1% in male and 60.8% in female sheep were recorded at slaughter-house. Plants were collected from area of district Zhob. These plants were Identified and authenticated by botanist .The crude aqueous methanolic extract of the plants were used for in-vivo studies. Eighty sheep of either sex, aged between three to six months and naturally infested with Trichostrongylid nematodes (including trichostrongylius spp. I-Iaemonchus contortus, cooperia etc) were selected and managed separately for the experiment. These sheep were divided into 4 groups A ,B,C and D. Group A was contained 10 sheep and was untreated and considered as control. Thirty (30) were kept in Group B, were further sub divided into three equal groups i.e. BI, B2 and B3 and treated with different levels of Chenopodium album @ 1, 2 and 3 g/kg body weight respectively. Group C having thirty (30) was also sub divided into three equal groups i.e. Cl, C2 and C3 and treated with different levels of Artemisia brevifolia @ 1, 2 and 3g/kg body weight respectively. Group D was treated with Levamisole @ 7.5 mg/kg body weight. Faecal egg count reduction was criterion for evaluation. Faecal samples were collected before treatment on day 0 and on day 3, 5, 7, 10 and 14 post treatments for EPG count.
The results of EPG for animals in group B1 at day 0 was 1325. This rate was reduced to 1250, 1125, 995 and 702 at day 3, 7, 10 and 14, respectively. Similarly EPG of sheep in B2 were 1280 at day 0 and reduced to 1205, 1202, 1001 and finally to 690 at day 3, 7, 10 and 14 respectively. Best results in B group against the nematodes were in B3 in which Chenopodium album was used 3g/kg bw. The results were 1250, 1231, 1145, 590 EPG at day 0, 3, 7, 10 and 14. The sheep in group Cl showed 1203 EPG at day 0, when treated with Ig/kg bwArtemisia brevifolia, the EPG was reduced to 1173, 1115, 700 and 528 on day 3, 7, 10 and 14 respectively. Second level of treatment C2 of
Artemisia brevifolia which was given @ 2g/kg bw initially contained reduced to 1202 EPG, on day 3, 7, 10 and 14 the EPG counts were 1020, 631, 546 and 459, respectively.
Highest dose of Artemisia brevfolia was 3g/kg body weight to sheep in group C3. On day zero the EPG count was 1196. On day 3, 7, 10 and 14th day the EPG count decreased to 1079, 905, 528 and 396 respectively. The sheep in group D, treated with recommended dose of Levamisole showed 1138 EPG prior to medication, which reduced remarkably to 681, 536, 357 and 147 on day 3, 7, 10 and 14 respectively. Although no untoward effects of plants were observed but best EPG reduction results (87.08 %) were observed in Levamisole as compared to treatment of 3gm/kg b.w Chenopodium album (51 .03 %) and Artemisia hrevfolia 3g/kgbw (66.88 %).
A wide variety of plants are naturally available in the Indo-Pakistan subcontinent which possess narrow or broad spectrum anthelmintic activities. No doubt this is true in other regions of the world as well where gastrointestinal parasitism is an important problem in livestock keeping, and the availability of commercial drugs may be limited. Conventionally, trichostrongylids has been tackled with use of synthetic anthelmintic but owning to development of anthelmintic resistance against major groups of anthelmintics viz., benzimidazole, Levamisole and avermectins, people are looking for alternatives to synthetic chemicals.
The phytochemical analysis of these plants and controlled anthelmintic trials along with contemporary knowledge of parasite control strategies may offer new opportunities for effective and economical control of parasitic diseases. So these plants can be better alternative for synthetic chemicals.
Quality control extracts of Artemisia brevifolia and Chenopodium album or possibly isolated bioactive compounds could be a promising alternative to conventional anthelmintics fbr the treatment of gastrointestinal trichostrongylids of small ruminants in the future. Such a treatment could be used in control strategies against gastro intestinal nernatodes in organic and conventional production systems. Further research is needed for studies on the bio active constituents, as well as on the reproducibility, dosage, application regime. toxicity and effectiveness of Artemisia brevifolia and C'henopodium a/bums in other host species and against other economically important gastro intestinal nematodes species.
It is recommended that further research could be carried out on large sample size in different seasons of the year and large number of plants, identification of active principles of plants with proven anthelmintic activity, standardization of dose and toxicity studies for drug development. In addition to this, large number of samples of the same plant from different geographic areas should be subjected to experimentation keeping in view the possibility of differences in chemical composition of soils.
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Toxonomical Study Of The Genus Trichuris And Comparative Anthelminitc Efficacy Of Fenbendazole (Panacur) Ad Albendazole (Valbazen) Against Gastro-Intestinal Nematodes in Sheep
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Publisher: 1990 Dissertation note: Pakistan has a large population of livestock, which plays an important role in the economy of the country. Parasitism is a major problem in our country. Great economic losses have been attributed to the sheep population in our country due to the parasitic infections. The genus Trichuris includes some of the most important nematode species effecting the sheep, therefore a taxonomical study of the genus Trichuris was conducted in the month of September and October, 1989. For this purpose 100 guts (large intestine) of sheep slaughtered at Lahore abattoir were procured and brought to the parasitology laboratory College of Veterinary Sciences, for further investigations. The overall incidence of Trichuris spp. was found to be 74% . The following two species were recorded.
1. Trichuris ovis 66%
2. Trichuris globulosa 18%
Taxonomy of Trichuris species was studied by preparing permanent mounts. The present work was also aimed to see the effect of two commonly available anthelmintics namely fenbendazole (panacur) and albendazole (valbazen), on naturally infected sheep with gastrointestinal nematodes. Sixty sheep positive for nematode infections were randomly divided into three groups A,B & C each group comprising of 20 animals. Group A and B
were given fenbendazole and albendazole respectively according to the manufacturers dose rate while group C was kept as untreated control. The efficacy of both the drugs was evaluated on the bases of reduction of eggs per gram of faeces after medication. The egg counts were made on zero, 7th, 14th and 21st day. Both the drugs revealed a progressive decrease in the faecal egg counts. The efficacy of fenbendazole on 7th, .14th and 21st day was 96.33, 97.05 and 99.66% respectively while the efficacy of albendazole was 92.56, 95.37 and 98.18% respectively. There was no significant difference in the effectiveness of the drugs.
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Serorrevalence Of Toxoplasmosis In Captive Birds
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Publisher: 2010 Dissertation note: Toxoplasmosis is caused by Toxoplasma gondii, an intracellular parasite which infects humans as well as wide variety of mammals and birds. Toxoplasmosis is found throughout the world and tends to be more prevalent in tropical climates. It is considered as one of the major public health disease. Risk of infection from turkeys, pigeons, ducks and quails to man is scarce, as they are intermediate hosts and are frequently infected by eating feed contaminated by cat faeces containing oocysts of T.gondii. The high seroprevalence in them could be related to large populations of homeless cats in the city and may suggests the significant role of urban pigeons in the epidemiology of toxoplasmosis.
A total of 200 serum samples were analyzed for anti-toxoplasma antibodies, of these 50 samples from ducks, 50 sampls from turkeys, 50 samples from pigeons and 50 samples from quails were collected at random. Under aseptic measures, 1-2 ml blood were withdrawn by venipuncture. All the serum samples wiere analyzed for specific IgG anti toxoplasma antibodies using Latex Agglutination Test (LAT). Positive reaction were visualized by naked eyes or magnifying hand lense.Commercially available Toxoplasma latex kit was used to determine the serum antibody. Results were interpretated. Data obtained was analyzed statistically by calculating the per cent sero-positivity of Toxoplasma gondii in ducks, turkeys, pigeons and quails.
In the present study the overall seroprevalence of T.gondii infection in pigeons, ducks, turkeys and quails is 8%, 12%, 16% and 4% respectively by using Latex Agglutination Test. In pigeons seroprevalence of T.gondii was 8% out of 50 pigeons examined one gave an antibody titer of 1:256, one was positive at 1:128, whereas two at 1:16 secreening dilution. In ducks seroprevalence of Toxoplasma gondii is 12% out of 50 ducks examined one gave an antibody titer of 1:256, two was positive at 1:128, whereas three at 1:16 secreening dilution. In turkeys seroprevalence of Toxoplasma gondii is 16% out of 50 turkeys examined three gave an antibody titer of 1:256, two was positive at 1:128, whereas three at 1:16 secreening dilution. In quails seroprevalence of Toxoplasma gondii is 12% out of 50 quails examined zero gave an antibody titer of 1:256, one was positive at 1:128, whereas one at 1:16 secreening dilution.
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Prevalence Of Trichomonas Foetus In Large Ruminants Of District Hafiizabad
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Publisher: 2012 Dissertation note: Trichomonas foetus (T. foetus) is a protozoan parasite of reproductive tract of large ruminants and causes abortion. This organism is found in males and females associated with varied pathology and clinical symptom. Disease has venereal transmission and male remain infected throughout the life. Pakistan is a developing country and artificial insemination facility is not available to all farmers and some are reluctant to avail it.
This study was designed to check the prevalence of T. foetus in large animals in district Hafizabad. One hundred and fifty preputial and vaginal samples were collected from cattle and buffaloes 75 each. These samples were from 100 females and 50 males. Vaginal mucus from females was thoroughly examined for T. foetus in direct smear and in smear stained by Giemsa stain. Male samples were subjected to examination by direct smear, centrifugation and stained smear performed from sediments for detection of T. foetus. Overall prevalence of T. foetus was 12.0% (18/150) in sampled animals and species wise T. foetus infection was 8% (6/75) for cattle and 16% (12/75) for buffalos. Sex related prevalence of T. foetus in cows is 6% (3/50) and in buffaloes was 14% (7/50). Infection was more common in buffalo bulls 20% (5/25) as compared with cow bulls 12% (3/25).
There was no difference in diagnosis of T. foetus in females by direct smear or by examination of stained smears. Whereas stained smears prepared from sediments of preputial washings were more sensitive in diagnosing of T. foetus infection as compared with direct smear method. Study also indicated that infection was exclusively seen in animals that were involved in natural breeding.
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Serofpidemiology, Zoonotic Potential And Chemotherapy Of Neosporosis In Dogs And Cattle
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Publisher: 2010 Dissertation note: The aim of current study was to demonstrate the most important features of Neospora caninum infection in Pakistan. In the present study, I examined the prevalence of N. caninum in 7 districts of the country and to accessed the efficacy of various drugs against the parasite in cell culture.
For the achievement of this purpose, the core objectives were,
To have an overview on the overall seroprevalence of neosporosis throughout the country by means of cELISA in aborting, at risk and clinically healthy cows.
To check the correlation of Iscom ELISA and cELISA, and determination of prevalence of N. caninum by means of Iscom ELISA on milk samples.
To identify the transmission of disease towards human.
To determine the efficacy of various drugs against N. caninum.
In phase 1, overall seroprevalence of N. caninum in dairy cattle (detected by means of cELISA, VMRD, Inc., Pullman, WA, USA) was found to be 43.4% with a significant difference (P < 0.05) of seropositivity among all 18 herds (n = 5 aborting herds, n = 13 non-aborting/clinically healthy herds) selected from 7 districts of Pakistan. The seropositivity of cattle to N. caninum antibodies was significantly higher in aborting animals (52.7%) as compared to non-aborting cows ( 41.5%), indicating a significant difference between aborting and non-aborting cattle. In case of pregnant and non-pregnant animals, similar findings were recorded in our study. A significantly higher rate of seroprevalence was observed in pregnant dams (59.8%) than non-pregnant cattle (35.2%). Overall, higher serological prevalence was evaluated during the summer season (61.1%) in all areas followed by autumn (46.9%), spring (34.9%) and least seropositivity was observed in winter season (26.6%).
The difference in seropositivity was significantly different among all age groups, greater in animals older than 2 years of age. Furthermore, the prevalence was statistically significant (P < 0.05) among cattle of different breeds. Seroprevalence in cases of crossbred animals were higher followed by exotic and indigenous breeds.
Phase 2, describes the seroprevalence of N. caninum in clinically healthy dairy cows. A selection of 760 animals from 13 dairy herds located in Punjab and Sindh Province, Pakistan to demonstrate the presence or absence of the Neospora caninum infection in commercial dairy cattle. The serostatus of the cows towards N. caninum was detected by cELISA (VMRD, Pullman, WA). Out of 760 animals, (43.2%) were seropositive to N. caninum. A significant difference of positivity was recorded among all 13 dairy herds. Age wise prevalence though not statistically significant among all age groups, was greater in animals over 2 years of age and least in heifers. Variation was also observed in samples from cattle of different breeds. A significantly higher prevalence was observed in crossbred animals than in purebred and nondescript cattle. Seasonal prevalence was higher during summer season than rest of the seasons. The seroprevalence of N. caninum in pregnant cows was significantly greater than in non-pregnant animals.
Second experiment of this phase describes the seroprevalence of 240 animals from 5 herds with a high rate of abortion, the percentage of seropositivity observed in these herds was 43.8%, slightly higher than the clinically healthy and non-aborting cattle. No significant difference was observed among all sample locations in this experiment. However, significant difference of positivity was recorded among different breeds of cattle. Age wise prevalence, though not statistically significant (P > 0.05), was greater in animals older than 2 years of age.
The assessment of milk samples from lactating cows were also determined for Neospora caninum antibodies by means of Iscom ELISA (SANOVIR® Sanova Biotech AB, Uppasala, Sweden) and showed a good level of agreement (r² = 0.9959) between the two tests (cELISA and Iscom ELISA). Although, the cELISA (VMRD, Inc., Pullman, USA) expressed a higher seropositivity and sensitivity than Iscom ELISA (Sanova Biotech AB, Uppasala, Sweden). Therefore, both of the ELISA tests (cELISA and Iscom ELISA) for the detection of N. caninum antibodies in dairy cattle can perform better in lactating animals. The Iscom ELISA has some advantages over cELISA as it's easy to collect milk samples than serum samples, moreover Iscom ELISA is cheaper and easy to use but has low sensitivity than cELISA and cannot be used in dry animals. The percentage of positivity detected through Iscom ELISA on individual milk samples were 61.4% and 76.6% by cELISA.
In phase 3, an epidemiological study was conducted to determine seroprevalence of N. caninum in dogs of different breeds and age groups. The serum samples of dogs were analyzed by cELISA (VMRD, Pullman, USA) showed a seropositivity of 23.5%. There was no significant difference of seropositivity among various sample locations, highest prevalence was observed in Muzaffar Garh (31.9%), followed by Gujranwala (27.9%), Lahore (25.1%), Hafizabad (20.2%) and least prevalence was recorded in district Okara (14.6%). A significant difference in prevalence of N. caninum antibodies between male (26.1%) and female (18.8%) dogs were recorded. The difference in seroprevalence was not significant among all age groups. The samples with no age record showed a highest prevalence (29.5%) and least seropositivity was observed in adult dogs of 3-6 years of age (18.7%). During Summer season, highest positivity to N. caninum was (31.0%) recorded while the lowest prevalence (16.0%) was observed in Winter season.
Phase 4, describes the seroprevalence and transmission of N. caninum in humans. A selection of 52 serum samples from humans was analyzed for the presence of N. caninum antibodies. The serostatus of the humans towards N. caninum antibodies (IgG) was determined by using commercially available antigen coated IFAT slides (VMRD, Inc., Pullman, Washington USA) and human conjugate. Overall very low prevalence (1.9%) of N. caninum antibodies was reported in this study. Only one case was found to be positive, these findings indicate that no strong evidence of N. caninum infection in humans.
In phase 5, in vitro drug trials was conducted to access the best efficacy of three commercially available drugs. We found that among three anticoccidial drugs i.e Clindamycin, Diclazuril and Sulfadiazine, Diclazuril has best inhibitory effect against N. caninum tachyzoites in cell culture followed by Clindamycin and sulfadiazine.
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Epidemiology Zoonotic Potential Haematology Amd Chemotherapy Of Sarcoptic Mange In Camel In Punjab
Material type: Book ; Format:
; Literary form:
Publisher: 2015 Dissertation note: A camel is a very hardy ruminant animal, which can survive under harsh climatic
conditions very effectively by utilizing the marginal areas with excellent capabilities and produce
under such conditions (Hjort and Hussein, 1986; Abbas and Tilley, 1990). Camel is an important
animal as it is well adopted in unique manners in the hot, arid and semi-arid environments
(Schwartz, 1992). It can survive without water and food for many days and this unique ability of
camel makes it an ideal for such harsh conditions for which it is also commonly known as “The
Desert Ship”. In spite of the fact that camel is an important member of a group of animals which
produces food for human consumption in the shape of milk and meat, yet it is the most neglected
one in the field of scientific research. It may be due to the fact that camel belongs to such areas
of the world which are arid, semi-arid or rain fed in nature, having harsh climatic conditions,
where poor nutrition and poor management are the major issues (Sohail, 1983).
It is an established fact that diseases originating from parasites lead to the main health
hazard issues in animals. These parasites survive at the expense of the host animals causing lot of
health problems, like skin irritation, anemia leading to weakness and debility. Some of the
parasites have zoonotic importance and may become a source for the transfer of many contagious
diseases like scabies to the human beings (Dominguez et al. 1978). McClain et al. 2009,
observed the scabies as a major health problem globally both for humans and animal population.
Sarcoptes scabiei is an ectoparasite which is a cause of scabies, a skin problem in the human
beings worldwide and the similar species of mites do also produce a similar type of disease in a
large variety of wild and domesticated mammals (Pence and Ueckermann, 2002; Fitzgerald et
al. 2004). Fain, 1978, reported that more than fifteen (15) different species of Sarcoptes scabiei
morphologically and genetically distinct from each other have been identified in different hosts.
Sarcoptic mange is the second important problematic disease of camel after
Trypanosomiasis (Nayel and Abu-Samra, 1986). Scabies caused by Sarcoptes scabiei var cameli
is a serious & highly contagious skin problem and also economically important disease of the
camels (Pegram and Higgins, 1992). Camels, which are reared with deficient nutrition, poor
management and under unhygienic conditions are mostly affected by this disease (Kumar et al.
A large group of people and communities living in arid diverse ecozones in the entire
world, particularly in harsh climates earns their livelihoods by depending on camels. This
dependence may spread to the utilization of camel milk, meat, wool and leather besides its use in
transportation, riding and sports (Wilson, 1984; Snow et al. 1992). In Pakistan camels are also
raised by the people for meat, milk, riding, transportation and sports purposes in the deserts, semi
desert & rain-fed / warm areas of the entire country being a hardy animal as it can tolerate easily
the rugged climate as well as extremes of temperatures of such areas.
The natural harsh and adverse climatic conditions, particularly during long dry seasons
lead to a paucity of feeding regimes resultantly the camels raised in such areas are subjected to
stress conditions which lower their resistance and make them easily vulnerable to diseases
(Abbas et al. 1993; Agab, 1993). Abbas & Tilley, 1990; Saint-Martin et al. 1992; Abbas and
Agab, 2002; Pathak and Chhabra, 2010; while reviewing the parasites & parasitic diseases of
camel population in India were of the opinion that Sarcoptic mange is a serious, debilitating,
dreaded and widely prevalent disease of camels in India.
Besides other infectious diseases of bacterial and viral origin, camels are exposed to a
wide range of internal & external parasitic infestations. Amongst other so many external
parasites to which camels are exposed, the Sarcoptic mange is recognized to be one of the most
serious and damaging disease. This disease is caused by a mite known as Sarcoptes scabiei var
cameli which belongs to genus Camelus of SARCOPTIDAE family in Veterinary Entomology.
It is an extremely pruritic, contagious and debilitating skin disease which is very
frequently and sudden in onset. It is also ranked as one of the most serious and important disease
of the camels. Sarcoptic mange infestation is very common in the areas of thin skin, the head,
neck, flanks, medial aspect of thighs or inguinal region, mammary glands and prepuce. The head
is usually affected very rapidly as the animal uses its teeth for scratching the affected areas.
Besides linking the occurrence of the disease with poor camel management, malnutrition and
contact with infected objects, the stray & infected camels also often become a focus of infecting
the healthy animals when mingling with them particularly at watering places for drinking
purpose (Richard, 1987; Abdel-Rehman et al. 2001).
Sarcoptes is a burrowing mite as it penetrates deeply through the skin surface of the
infected camel. This burrowing of mites in the skin helps these parasites lead to intense pruritus
and exudative dermatitis. In pruritus, mites penetrate deep into muscular areas, damaging the
flesh and lowering the quality of meat. The early inflammatory reaction of the host body towards
the mites becomes evident in the shape of small popular elevations, invasion and injuries leading
to formation of hairless areas, scaly crust formation or scabs on the affected parts and the skin
become dark and thickened. Skin of mangy camel show hemorrhages, and subcutaneous odema
after the development of fissures in the underlying epidermis (Kumar et al. 1992; Amer et al.
The fertilized female mites create winding burrows or tunnels in the upper layers of the
epidermis of the skin of the host animal and feeding on the serous exudate, a liquid oozing from
the damaged tissues. The female mites lay about 40-50 fertilized eggs in these tunnels which
hatch in 3-5 days into a six legged larvae. These larvae immediately crawl to the surface and
burrow themselves in the superficial layers of the skin and create small molting pockets. In these
molting pockets, the larvae molt to next stages of nymph and adult. The adult male then emerges
and seeks a female either in the molting pocket or on the surface of skin. After fertilization the
female produces new tunnels, either de novo or, by extension, of the molting pockets, lays eggs
in these tunnels and a new life cycle starts. The entire life cycle of Sarcoptic mange is completed
in 17-21 days.
New hosts can be infected through direct transmission by contact between the animals,
presumably from larvae, nymph or adult mites, which are commonly present on the skin surface
of the infected animal. Indirect transmission of infestation can also take place through the objects
or fomites having mange infection, which come into contact with the affected camel, such as
harnesses, blankets, baggage tack, tents and tree trunks (Richards, 1987). The pruritus increases
as the mites penetrate deeper in the skin (Al-Rawashdeh et al. 2000, Driot et al. 2011, Bekele et
al. 2012). Based on the rate of infection camels can be seriously disturbed by the Sarcoptic
infestation as they may stop grazing which can lead to a rapid fall in milk production, and
deterioration of health condition. With the increase in the irritation due to scabies, the camel
rubs, bites and scratches the affected areas in an attempt to reduce the itchiness. Due to rubbing,
biting or scratching, the mites move to the periphery affecting the healthy tissues and resultantly
affected area spreads. As the disease prolongs, the skin becomes excoriated, leading to hair loss
and the development of scabs. These scabs in turn may be rubbed away and a red surface
developed. The animal becomes restless due to severe Sarcoptic mange infestation and
involvement of most of the body surface. If the diseased animal is not treated in time, the animal
loses its health condition, become emaciated and within two, three weeks the acute stage of
disease may give way to more chronic state (Gorakh et al. 2000, Abubakar et al. 2002, Driot et
al. 2011). Sarcoptic mites rarely survive long off the host under natural conditions.
A continuous direct contact of animal keepers with their camels can also lead to
transmission of diseased condition in human beings which is termed as pseudo scabies.
Transmission of infection from camel to man usually takes place during milking, handling or
riding. The main symptoms of pseudo scabies can therefore be seen in the inter digital spaces of
the hands, on the wrists, forearms, the elbows, the axillary folds and inner side of the thighs.
Once a herd is infected with Sarcoptic mange, continuous reinfection of the disease occurs
(Schillinger 1987, Singh & Veer 2005, Premalatha et al. 2010).
Sarcoptic mange is usually considered to be a seasonal disease and is often reported
severe during the winter months as in cold weather the disease had an acute course. However,
there is some evidence that in some countries hot weather predisposes to acute outbreaks of
camel mange and in the cooler, winter season the rate of mange infestations are at the lowest. In
the summer the activity of the mite seems to decline or disease becomes chronic. Dietary intake
is an important factor in mange infestation. Nomadic camels on a low nutrition plan, probably
carrying heavy worm burdens in hot desert conditions are likely, therefore, to be highly prone to
Sarcoptes at this time (Dinka et al, 2010). During such periods of great activity, the mites are
readily transmissible from one animal to other animals (Richards, 1987, Banaja & Ghandour,
1994, Tefera & Gebreah, 2001).
Mange can easily be diagnosed clinically from the occurrence of pruritus, depilation,
alopecia, thickened skin, folds around the joints and encrusted plaques being the main
characteristics of this parasitosis. In order to control this zoonotic disease, it is essential to treat
both camel and man along with effective checks over other predisposing factors of the disease
such as hygiene and nutritional requirements of the animals.
The skin diseases like the scabies both in human beings and animals are being treated
with a variety of allopathic drugs now a day, but the role of herbal plants in use since centuries in
different shapes cannot be ignored at all, especially in the rural lifestyle. Further with the
continuous use of different acaricidal drugs, the issue of resistance development has come across
as a challenge for the researchers to find some alternatives for the purpose. Accordingly the
research work on the use of traditional herbal medicines is gaining attention day by day.
Although there are many reports and studies regarding the prevalence of Sarcoptic mange
in camel from different parts of the world, only few preliminary reports are available for Pakistan
and none of them provide detailed epidemiology of Sarcoptic mange and its effect on host
health. Therefore, keeping in view the importance of the mange problem in camel population of
the country, the present project was designed to determine the prevalence of Sarcoptic mange
infestation, factors in its occurrence its zoonotic importance, effect on blood physiology and
different treatment options in the camel population of Punjab, province in Pakistan.
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Anticoccidial Activity Of Aloe Vera (Qawar Gandal) In Broiler
Material type: Book ; Literary form:
Publisher: 2014 Dissertation note: There are various species of Eimeria that cause coccidiosis. This disease is considered to be one of the most significant and prevalent diseases across the world. This disease reduces the production and causes high morbidity and death rates, on the other hand for controlling this eimeriosis, one has to adopt preventive therapy in the form of anticoccidial drugs in combination with occurrence of natural immunity in birds. Coccidia cause infection in intestine and multiply in gut and belong to protozoan parasites. These protozoan coccidian cause chicken Eimeriosis which is considered one of the most significant diseases, that cause severe economic losses across the world. For poultry control houses, coccidiosis is considered one of the most common (Hamidinejat et al., 2010).
As oocysts of coccidia are very unique so they spread from one poultry farm to another poultry farm and for dissemination of this protozoan, parasitic disease management plays a pivotal role. Now it’s very hard to keep chickens safe from these parasitic protozoa particularly in the control poultry houses where high production is required. In poultry house litter, oocycts multiply readily. But there are some factors which affect the number of these protozoa like bacteria or some environmental factors like liberation of Ammonia gases and under these factors, Eimeria start to diminish after three weeks (Williams, 1995).
Caecal and intestinal forms are the two important forms of avian coccidiosis. Diarrhoea and excessive caecal haemorrhages are the main symptoms of caecal coccidiosis and its causative agent is Eimeria tenella (Gardinar 1955). In prevention, surveillance and control of coccidiosis specific diagnosis plays a pivotal role. Eimeria oocysts from the faeces of infected chickens have been detected or enumerated by conventional methods and pathological lesions resulted by Eimeria infection and oocyst structure can also be determined by employing traditional methods (Long and Joyner 1984). But because of the involvement of multiple species of Eimeria in coccidial infection these approaches cannot be realistic as there can be overlapping among various sizes of oocysts (Long and Joyner 1984).
There are six species of Eimeria which cause great economic loss in chickens and also these species are highly host specific. High mortality rate and morbidity rate due to bloody enteritis and production losses are reasons of great economic. Despite management now a days anticoccidial drugs have been used in chicken feed to minimize the effect of this disease. E. tenella, E. necatrix, E acervulina, E. maxima, E. brunetti , E. mitis and E. praecox are the seven species of Eimeria which are considered as main causative agents of coccidiosis in chicken (Arabkhazaeli et al. 2011).
However, control of coccidiosis can be achieved by producing species-specific natural immunity along with anticoccidial drugs (Shirley et al. 2004), but it’s also evident from the fact that drug resistance has been increasing due to excessive use of anticoccidial drugs (Williams 1998). Pathological lesions, host and protozoan characteristics are very important for diagnosis of coccidiosis. But one cannot identify the Eimeria species accurately as analysis of these characteristics requires high expertise.
Good management plays key role in controlling coccidiosis which includes proper ventilation, dry litter, drinkers and feeders in good clean condition and appropriate density of stock (Jordan 1995, Gross 1985). Size and morphology of parasite at various stages of life cycle plays an important role in identification of Eimeria and site of enteric pathological lesions. In complex infection it’s very hard to identify the species showing same features (Long and Reid 1982).
The increasing resistance of avian coccidiosis to anti-coccidial drugs currently used by poultry industry together with the requirement for drug and the production systems which should be antibiotic free, it’s now very necessary to go for the new and advanced methods to prevent from this disease. Therefore, scientists started to work on medicinal use of herbal products to control this eimeriosis. In past for treatment of various human and poultry ailments the natural herbal products have been effectively used several times. Because of the anticoccidial nature and antibacterial effect, Aloe vera could be served as a valuable alternative for coccidiostats as a medicinal plant. Previously aloe gel has been used for multipurpose like as an antibiotic, for healing of wounds, for anti-inflammatory effects, for anti Eimerial response and as an anti-ulcer agent. It was also reported that in broilers it increases immunity by enhancing the number of microvilli (Jinag et al., 2005). In Asia Aloe gel is considered one of the most common and easily available country medicines to get effective deliberate results. Therefore, the current study planned to cope coccidial diseases in broilers by serving Aloe vera as an effective weapon.
The present study therefore planned to discover the anti-coccidial effects of Aloe vera in broilers by using its powdered form, aqueous and methanol extracts.
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Isolation and Identification of Parasites From Available Raw Vegetables
Material type: Book ; Literary form:
Publisher: 2015 Dissertation note: Blank CD.
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Taxonomy And Control Of Flea Infestation In Cats At Lahore
Material type: Book ; Literary form:
Publisher: 2015 Dissertation note: INTRODUCTION
Fleas play an important role in causing clinical skin disorders and diseases transmission in man
and pets animals (Rust & Dryden, 1997). Fleas are one of the most important ectoparasites with
more than 2,000 species worldwide affecting mammals, birds, and reptiles (Hsu, 2003). In some
locations, fleas represent over 50% of all the dermatological cases presented to small animal
clinics. Most are limited to hosts with nests as this can provide conditions for the completion of
their life cycle (Linardi & de Avelar, 2014). While fleas on pets are generally considered a
nuisance that may cause some dermatologic problems, they are also responsible for the
transmission of several important diseases in humans and animals (Dryden & Rust, 1994). They
have been involved in transmission of cat scratch disease (Bartonella henselae) (Chomel et al.,
2006; Comer et al., 2001), Rickettsia typhi (Murine thyphus), Rickettsia felis (Finkelstein et al.,
2002; Rolain et al., 2005), and also serve as the intermediate host for the tapeworm Dipylidium
caninum (Rust & Dryden, 1997) and several trypanosomatids (Coutinho & Linardi, 2007).
The term ‘‘cat flea,’’ which is the approved common name for Ctenocephalides felis felis (C. f
felis), can occasionally cause confusion. When it appears in print, it refers to the specific flea
genus and species and not to fleas recovered from cats. There are four recognized subspecies of
C. felis throughout the world: Ctenocephalides felis damarensis and C. felis strongylus occur
primarily in East Africa, C felis orientis occurs in India and Australia, and the widespread C. f
felis occurs in all continents except Antarctica and is the only subspecies that occurs in North
America (Rust & Dryden, 1997). The cat flea, C. felis, is a clinically important parasite of
domestic pets, being responsible for the production of allergic dermatitis, serving as the vector of
various bacterial pathogens, and being the intermediate host for filarid and cestode parasites.
Flea allergy dermatitis is the most common dermatologic disease of dogs and a major cause of
feline miliary dermatitis (Dryden & Rust, 1994; Rust & Dryden, 1997).
Clinical features vary from asymptomatic to severe hypersensitivity reactions with restlessness,
alopecia from scratching and biting resulting in a pruritic papular dermatitis. Vacuuming of
carpets, furniture cushions, rugs, or other substrata, with a vacuum machine containing a ‘‘beater
bar,’’ will remove many of the flea eggs and larvae. In addition, cocooned pupae at the upper
levels of the carpet can also be affected. The vibration also stimulates adult fleas to emerge from
their cocoons so that they can be collected in the vacuum machine. Therefore frequent
vacuuming, during a flea infestation, can reduce the overall flea burden in the home. It should be
ensured that vacuum bags are disposed of properly, to prevent recolonization of the home with
flea stages previously removed by vacuuming. Because outdoor development of immature flea
life stages is limited to shaded areas, altering outdoor environments to eliminate such habitats
can effectively reduce flea populations. Because urban wildlife, such as opossums, raccoons, and
foxes, are good hosts for cat fleas, pet owners should avoid encouraging visitations by wildlife,
which will affect flea and tick control (see later discussion). Treatment of indoor and outdoor
environments with insecticides requires knowledge of what to use and where to use it. For this
reason, it is suggested that pet owners consult with a licensed pest control specialist for such
applications (Angelbeck-Schulze et al., 2014; Perrins & Hendricks, 2007).
In line with increasing urbanization over the last few decades, flea species that infest pets have
become household pests. Thus, and for reasons of animal and human welfare, the control of fleas
is of great importance worldwide. Despite the increase in the number of products available and
their use, flea infestation of cats and dogs is still widespread in Europe and on other continents,
whereas resistance of these insects against many chemicals has been detected (El-Gazzar et al.,
1986). Cat fleas are the most important ectoparasite of cats and dogs worldwide. During the past
ten years, topical and oral applications of insecticides such as fipronil, imidacloprid, lufenuron
and, most recently, selamectin have revolutionized cat-flea control. Recent studies show that
these therapies eliminate the need to treat indoor and outdoor environments, and their use
markedly reduces the severity and prevalence of flea allergic dermatitis. Surveys have yet to
reveal the development of insecticide resistance to these chemical compounds. Extending the
longevity of these effective host-targeted therapies should be a major goal of the veterinary
community (Rust, 2005).
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Isolation Of Surface Antigen 1 Gene Of Toxoplasma Gondii And Its Cloning In The Expression Plasmid
Material type: Book ; Literary form:
Publisher: 2015 Dissertation note: Toxoplasma gondii is an obligate intracellular protozoan parasite which comes under the classification of phylum Apicomplexa, subclass Coccidiasina (Cornelissen et al. 1984). Toxoplasmosis is one of the more common parasitic zoonoses world-wide caused by Toxoplasma gondii which is a facultatively heteroxenous, polyxenous protozoon that has developed several potential routes of transmission within and between different host species (Tenter et al. 2000). It is the most important source of toxoplasmosis in humans and animals, with cat as definite host and warm-blooded animals as intermediate host (Frenkel et al. 1970). It was first described by Nicolle, Manceaux and Splendore in 1908 from rodents Ctenodactylus gondii (Black and Boothroyd 2000).
Toxoplasmosis is a worldwide parasitic disease and it is estimated that about one-third total population of the world is seropositive for Toxoplasma gondii (Tenter et al. 2000). Prevalence of infection varies between countries, geographical areas and ethnic groups living within a specific region. In Humans, infection rates range from 50% to 83% in Brazil (Tenter et al. 2000; Dubey et al. 2012). Seropositivity of Toxoplasma gondii in China is about 8% with continuously increase while in USA its 10-15%, 50-70% in France and 20% in UK (Dubey and Jones 2008; Zhou et al. 2008; Jones et al. 2009). Prevalence of toxoplasmosis is higher in males (79%) as compared to females (63.4%) and the age dependent sero-prevalence reaches >92% in age group of 40 to 50 (Coêlho et al. 2003).
Transmission occurs through the ingestion of contaminated vegetable /water with oocysts, as well as the ingestion of contaminated raw/undercooked meat with tissue cysts (Gajadhar et al. 2006). Transmission may also occurs by ingestion of sporulated oocysts, or bradyzoites within cysts present in the tissues of numerous food animals (Esteban-Redondo et al. 1999). In humans, transmission of Toxoplasma gondii happens mainly by eating raw or undercooked contaminated meat, raw cow’s milk and birds eggs, swallowing oocysts dis-charged in feces of infected cats, inoculation of trophozoites through the skin, or by inhalation (Wallace 1971; Wallace 1973; Bannister 1982).
In humans, mostly infections (congenitally or post-natally acquired) are asymptomatic. Congenital infection occurs only when a woman becomes infected during pregnancy. Congenital infections acquired during the first trimester are more severe than those acquired in the second and third trimester (Desmonts and Couvreur 1974). The main clinical signs associated with toxoplasmosis are anorexia, weight loss, lethargy, dyspnea, ocular signs, pyrexia, vomiting and diarrhea, jaundice, myositis, encephalitis and abortion. Humans become infected when they ingest the toxoplasma at infective stages (oocysts and tissue cysts) found in some cat feces and in raw meats.
In addition to being hazardous to livestock animals, the T. gondii infection is also important due to its zoonotic implications (Jittapalapong et al. 2005). Congenital abnormalities in humans, such as microcephaly, hydrocephaly, chorioretinitis, convulsion, cerebral calcification, epilepsy, blindness, deafness, and mental retardation may occur if the mother acquires infection during pregnancy (Jones et al. 2003). In addition to congenital anomalies, T. gondii also causes severe neuropathologic infections in immuno-compromised hosts, such as AIDS and cancer patients receiving chemotherapy (Del Valle and Piña-Oviedo 2005).
Seroprevalence studies of T. gondii among domestic animals in South-Western Pakistan has indicated considerable prevalence (25% in cattle, 2.5% sheep) (Zaki 1995) and suggesting potential transmission to the human community. Small scale study in urban area of Rahim Yar Khan (Punjab), Pakistan has revealed that the overall prevalence of toxoplasmosis in food animals is 19% (Ramzan et al. 2009). Another study has already been published that untreated patients with leprosy in Pakistan have shown significant seroprevalence (29.6%) of antibodies against T. gondii (Hussain et al. 1992).
Vaccine against toxoplasmosis is not available yet with one exception (“Toxovax” for sheep). Vaccine against T. gondii in animals used for human consumption may block the possible transmission to humans (Bhopale 2003). SAG1, among one of the major antigenic components of Toxoplasma gondii is a major surface antigen identified on the surface membrane of this parasite using a monoclonal antibody (Handman et al. 1980). SAG1 is an important surface antigen, expressed by tachyzoite form of T. gondii and is a putative candidate for vaccine and diagnostic against toxoplasmosis (Sharma et al. 1983; Godard et al. 1990). Immunization with SAG1 adjuvanted with saponin Quil A or incorporated in lysosomes provided total protection after challenge (Bülow and Boothroyd 1991; Khan et al. 1991). SAG1 is single copy gene with no introns (Burg et al. 1988), regulates both humoral as well as cellular Th1 immune responses (Liu et al. 2008) and is powerful candidate for vaccine against toxoplasmosis. SAG1 is a potent candidate of diagnostics for detection of serum antibodies against toxoplasmosis in Man and animals (Abu-Zeid 2002).
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Molecular Diagnosis Of Anaplasmosis In Buffaloes
Material type: Book ; Literary form:
Publisher: 2015 Dissertation note: Bovine Anaplasmosis is a tick-borne haemo-rickettsail disease, caused by Anaplasma species transmitted mechanically by flies, biologically by ticks and blood contaminant fomites. It is an economically important tick-borne disease of buffalo in tropical and sub-tropical areas of the world. In current study, we developed and optimized PCR first for detecting Anaplasma at genus level in buffaloes. One hundred (100) blood samples were collected from buffaloes around the Lahore region. The stained thin blood films were examined microscopically and 37% blood samples were found positive for intra-erythrocytic bodies which were then selected for DNA extraction. The DNA was extracted using commercially available kit for eventual use in optimization of PCR for diagnosis of bovine Anaplasmosis. The primers were designed targeting 16S rRNA gene of Anaplasma. For the detection, the PCR product was run in 2% agarose gel stained with ethidium bromide and thirty seven samples showed the amplification band at 179bp. The selected samples were sent for ABI sequencing to Singapore for the accurate detection of the Anaplasma species. The sequencing results were blasted with database of Genbank and we observed homology with Anaplasma phagocytophilum. We found 37% prevalence of Anaplasmosis in buffaloes through PCR. However more studies are required to confirm the species of Anaplasma infecting buffaloes (Bobalus bobalis) by designing species specific primers. Furthermore, additional studies are needed to establish the epidemiology of Anaplasmosis by using molecular tools in different geographical areas of the country for their better control.
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Molecular Diagnosis Of Babesiosis In Cattle With Special Reference To Cardinal Signs In District Lahore, Punjab
Material type: Book ; Literary form:
Publisher: 2015 Dissertation note: Tick infestation and the resulting transmission of serious pathogens in ruminants is one of the most important problems of the livestock industry in developing countries (Aktas et al. 2012).Bovine babesiosis is economically the most important tick-borne disease of cattle worldwide including areas of Australia, Africa, South and Central America. Babesia species are protozoan parasites that parasitize the erythrocytes of domestic animals and humans, causing Anemia in the host affected. Polymerase chain reaction (PCR), which is more sensitive and specific technique, offers an alternative approach for the diagnosis of Babesiosis (Zulfiqar et al. 2012).
Geo-climatic condition of Punjab, Pakistan favours the multiplication and survival of ticks which play a major role in the biological transmission of Tick Born Diseases. In earlier reports the prevalence of cattle tick infestation was more than 50% from Punjab (Durrani et al. 2008, Sajid et al. 2009).
Keeping in views the importance of the disease, the present study was carried out to determine the prevalence of Babesiosis in cattle of Lahore, District of the Punjab, Pakistan. A total of sixty (60) blood samples was collected randomly from dairy cattle of District Lahore. These samples were transported to the Laboratory of Parasitology, Department, University of Veterinary & Animal Sciences, Lahore and were kept at 4oc until further processing for Microscopic examination (Zakir et al. 2014) and then for PCR. We focused on the early detection of Babesiosis through Microscopic examination of Blood samples. For further confirmation of Babesiosis, the blood samples were processed through Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR) as described by Zulfiqar et al. 2012.
The thick and thin smears of the blood samples were made on the new particularly labeled glass slides. The dried blood smears were fixed in absolute methyl alcohol for one
minute. Staining was performed using Giemsa Stain as method followed by Zakir et al. 2014 i.e. the glass slides bearing thick and thin blood smears were stained with one fourth of dilution of commercially available Giemsa stain for four minutes and were observed under oil immersion at 100X objective to detect the presence of Babesiosis.
All the blood samples were examined through Microscopy showing 04 positive ones, then all the samples were processed using PCR for final confirmation of Babesiosis in Cattle. PCR was performed under the conditions as previously described by Zulfiqar et al. 2012. PCR reaction was performed to obtain amplified products over 30 cycles by 94ºC for 5 min., 94ºC for 30 sec., 50ºC for 30 sec., 72ºC for 45 sec. and completed with a final extension step of 7 min. at 72ºC. Finally the amplified DNA fragments were analyzed after electrophoresis on 1.5% agarose gel.
Prevalence rate will be determined with the help of the following formula:
Prevalence rate = No. of positive samples / No of total samples x 100
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Occurrence And Economic Losses From Theileriosis On Commercial Dairy Farm Of Holstein Friesian
Material type: Book ; Literary form:
Publisher: 2016 Dissertation note: Background: Theileriosis is a tick-borne disease and it is transmitted by the bite of ticks.
Previous work on disease problems in the study area suggested that Ticks and Tick-Borne
Diseases (TTBDs) are the major constraints to cattle production. They cause economic losses to
farmers in terms of cattle mortality, loss of body weight, loss of milk production and costs of
control of TTBDs by use of acaricides. Theileria is one of the major threat to cattle as it causes
anemia, weight loss, decrease production, mortality, treatment cost and cost for the control of
theileria. The proper data for losses atributed to theileriosis is still not available in Pakistan. For
this purpose a study was carried out in a commercial exotic dairy farm to evaluate losses
associated with theileriosis
Methodology: The study was done during the period of theileriosis to calculate its economic
effect on animal health and production. A total of 150 animals were selected randomly using
random number sample formula. The animal tag numbers were compared with random number
table, comparing animals were slecteded for study. Thin blood smear was performed for
diagnosis haemoparasite, further PCR was performed on those animals that were found +ve for
intraerythrocytic bodies. Faecal examination, California mastitis test, teat abnormality and
parturition history were recorded for the screening of these factors that decrease milk production.
After final grouping, milk production was recorded to identify the effect of theileriosis on
production. As theileriosis cause anemia due to destruction of RBC’s. body condition scoring
was also performed. Physical examination (lymph node and body temperature) of animals were
also performed to evaluate the clinical and subclinical theileriosis.
Results: For the evaluation of theileriosis, microscopy was performed on all the animals’ blood
samples. Haemoparasites were found in 28.67%. These were further processed by PCR for the
detection of theileriosis. Theileria was found in 27.90%. Screening of clinical and subclinical
mastitis by Califirnia Mastitis Test and microscopy for gastrointestinal parasite were performed.
On faecal examination, there found nematode, cestode and balantidium in 51.72%, 60.92% and
42.53%% respectively. After deworming with Valbazine and curafluke, nematode, cestode
(monzia), balantidium and coccidiosis were found in 0%, 39.13, 43.48% and 4.35% respectively.
Before grouping clinical and subclinical mastitis were found in 5.38% and 24.62% respectively.
After grouping clinical and subclinical mastitis were evaluated by California mastitis test with
two weeks interval. At 7th week clinical and subclinical mastitis were 3.85% and 7.69% due to
improved management. The decrease in milk production for clinical and subclinical theileriosis
was 87 lit./animal and 42.77 lit./animal. Costs for control, treatment and mortality were 0.12%,
0.20% and 13.09% respectively from overall farm expenditure. The prevalence of haemoparasite
was 28.67%, while the prevalence of theileriosis was 8%. The new cases of theileriosis were
recorded and incidence of theileriosis was found to be 2.25%. Overall losses due to theileriosis
Outcomes: We can conclude from our finding that theileriosis has drastic affect on the
profitability of the farms. Then losses can be attributed to decreased milk production and
mortality. Medications and control measure for theileriosis have added effect on the losses at
exotic animal breed dairy farms.
Perspectives: Cost analysis studies need to be done on different dairy farms of cattle of different
breeds at different ecological/climatic zones of Pakistan so that investors would know the risks
of establishing dairy farms.
Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [ Call number: 2515-T] (1).
Study On Prevalence Of Intestinal Nematodes In Buffalo And Comparative Efficacy Of Herbal And Conventional Drugs Against Intestinal Nematodiosis In Buffalo Calves
Material type: Book ; Literary form:
Publisher: 2016 Dissertation note: Parasites are a major cause of disease and production losses in livestock, frequently causing major economic loss and impacting on animal health. In livestock roundworms are deliberated the important economically upsetting internal parasites. Although buffalo can be diseased with tapeworms and flat worms, their effect on animal performance is minimal compared to the round worms. Buffalo feed on dry concentrate are less infected with parasite as compared to those who fed on pastures. The timing and frequency of anthelmintic treatments under such climatic conditions will vary greatly from place to place. Humid climates are permanently favorable for the development of infective larvae. With the frequently use of one or more dewormer animal produces anthelmintic resistance also its cost a lot for large herds. Herbal medicine is better option for control of intestinal worms. Herbal drugs are cheap, easy available and easy in administration.
The present study was designed to
1. Check the prevalence of intestinal nematodes in the buffalo population.
2. To determine the efficacy of herbal drugs against intestinal Nematodes in buffalo calves
3. To evaluate the comparison of effectiveness between herbal and commercial drugs to control the intestinal Nematodiosis in buffalo calves.
One hundred buffalo’s faecal samples were examined to check intestinal nematodes prevalence. All buffaloes belonging to various breeds were examined. 56 (93.33%) were Mix breed, 13 (72.22%) Nili Ravi breed and 18 (81.82%) of Kundi breed were positive for intestinal nematodiosis. 47
Among the examined (87 %) buffaloes were found positive for nematodiosis. Ten buffaloes found positive (10 %) were less than 12 months, 25 buffaloes were between 1-2 year, 39% buffaloes were between 2 - 4 year and 13 buffaloes were above 4 years old were found positive for intestinal nematodiosis.
Among these buffaloes, 65 were male and 35 females. Out of male buffaloes 55 were found positive. While among 35 females 32 were positive for intestinal nematodes.
A total of 30 infected buffalo calves, of various ages (8-12 months), both sexes average body weight of 100 kg and naturally infected with intestinal nematodiosis were used for anthelmintic trials. These were randomly divided into 3 groups i.e. A, B, and C each having 10 calves. Group A and B were treated with herbal medicine. Group A was treated with dried powder Nigella Sativa (Kalonji) seeds at dose level of 250 mg/kg body weight. Group B was treated with Citrullus colocynthis (Kor Tumbha) fruit dried powder at dose level of 250 mg/kg body weight, group C was treated with Albandazole at dose level of 7.5 mg / kg body weight. The sample were taken on 0 day, 7th day, 14th, 21st and 28th day and EPG was determined by modified McMaster technique.
Statistical analysis was done using the statistical package for social science, (SPSS) version 20 (Chicago IL, USA). Data was presented as (mean+ S.D), the group descriptive measures were compared by CR Design (Anova) and applying differences were considered significant at P < 0.05. Post hoc test using Duncan multiple range test, to check the pair wise differences and alpha M. There was highly significant difference between commercial and herbal drugs. There was small significant difference between herbal drugs Nigella sativa and Citrullus 48
colocynthis, both were highly effective against intestinal nematodiosis but less effective than Albandazole.
It is observed Nigella sativa dose showed a significant reduction in EPG .p value is p > .2284 at o day and at 7th day P>0.0146 ,at 14th day p> .0029 . There was also a significant decrease in EPG by Citrullus colocynthis but when compared these herbal drugs with commercial drugs the efficacy of herbal drug is 100 % at 21st day.
Both herbal drugs Nigella sativa and Citrullus colocynthis used in trial were found highly effective against intestinal nematodiosis in buffalo calves but less effective than synthetic drug Albandazole hence, these herbal drugs cannot be recommended to be used as routine deworming of animals at farm level.
Keeping in view effectiveness of these herbal drugs in early age and having no side effects, it is recommended to be administered as feed additive to enhance immune-potentiation, effective anthelmintic and liver tonic.
There is dire need to carry out more research with increased dose rate of these herbal drugs and also use in combination with other herbal as well as synthetic drugs to evaluate its synergistic effect so farmer can be benefited of its maximum potential.
Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [ Call number: 2637-T] (1).