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1. Effect Of Different Bedding Materials On The Growth Performance, Carcass Characteristics And Immune Response Of Three Different Broiler Strains

by Muhammad Irfan (2013-VA-966) | Prof. Dr. Athar Mahmud | Dr. Shahid Mehmood | Prof. Dr. Saima.

Material type: book Book; Literary form: not fiction Publisher: 2015Dissertation note: Broiler birds spent most of their life in close association with bedding material. Managing poultry house bedding material is an important husbandry practice. The type of bedding material can affect the performance of the broilers to a certain extent in terms of growth performance, carcass characteristics and immune response. In Pakistan, selection of bedding material is dependent upon season and availability with little knowledge of interaction with particular broiler strain. Although, it is well documented that different strains have the tendency to perform differently in similar environmental conditions still performance of particular cross on a given bedding material is not studied. Poultry industry is constantly interested in evaluating the performance of the commercially available broiler strains. The concept of using different bedding materials for three different commercial broiler strains was evaluated at the Poultry Research and Training Centre (PRTC), Ravi Campus Pattoki, University of Veterinary and Animal Sciences, Lahore. A total of 360 day old commercial broiler chicks from three different strains (Ross 308, Cobb 500 and Arbor acres) 120 from each strain were purchased from the local market. All the day old chicks having uniform body weight were randomly distributed into 36 replicates having 10 chicks each and were fed the same quality of feed. Birds from each strain were reared on each bedding material in three replicates to evaluate the ultimate growth performance, carcass characteristics and immune response influenced by four different bedding materials for the period of 5 weeks. Three birds were randomly picked up from each treatment group at the end of trial and 5 ml blood was collected in marked test tubes from Jugular vein of each bird during slaughtering to obtain serum samples. The data were analyzed through analysis of variance (ANOVA) technique using PROC GLM in SAS 9.1. Means were compared using Duncan’s Multiple Range (DMR) test. The findings of the present study exhibited that Cobb 500 reared on corn cob pulp showed significantly (P<0.05) better final weight gain, feed intake, feed conversion ratio,European Production Efficiency Factor (EPEF), Point Spread (PS) and Livability. Regarding carcass characteristics better dressing proportion, breast yield, leg quarter yield, giblet weight and other body measurements were observed in Cobb 500 followed by Ross 308 and Arbor acres strain reared on other bedding materials used in this experiment. Corn cob pulp showed maximum potential with the best moisture absorbing capacity and favored the growth of birds followed by rice husk, wheat straw and wood shavings. Wood shaving proved to be a poor choice as it hinders the growth performance and was hard to manage due to wet, scaly and cake formation that promoted pathogenic growth leading to FPD. Moreover, corn cob pulp was better suited to promote dry condition because of fine particles size allowing more surface area for moisture evaporation and keeping it dry for longer duration. Therefore, birds kept on corn cob pulp were more comfortable as it is evident from the results that it has the potential to be used in poultry industry as alternate bedding material. Rice husk performed next to corn cob pulp while wheat straw and wood shavings did not impress by the outcome and proved to unfit for better growth and welfare of birds. In the current study, birds generated protective antibody titers against Newcastle Disease virus and no significant differences were found by using different bedding materials or broiler strains.   CONCLUSIONS AND RECOMMENDATIONS Based on the observations made from the current experiment it may be claimed that: • Corn cob pulp proved to be the most efficient as it significantly improved the growth performance and carcass characteristics of 3 commercial broiler strains especially for Cobb 500. • Corn cob pulp being most comfortable promoted health and welfare of birds leading to improved immunity against pathogens and viral diseases. • FPD can be reduced to minimum by adopting corn cob pulp as bedding material due to its fine particles and highly moisture absorbing abilities. • The highest carcass yield, dressing proportion, organ weight (heart weight, abdominal fat, liver, spleen, heart, thymus, bursa) along with breast yield, neck, keel and shank length were recorded by Cobb 500 on corn cob pulp. • Cobb 500 strain was found better than rest of two strains (Ross and Arbor acres) regarding growth performance and carcass characteristics. • Being a by-product of corn processing, corn cob pulp is the cheapest and can be an economical alternate to conventional bedding materials for all strains especially for Cobb. In Pakistan rice husk and wood shavings are abundantly used bedding materials depending upon season and availability. Rice husk is by product of rice processing and highly dependent upon season, while poultry farming is a continuous business so its availability stands as a major issue. Whereas, corn cob pulp being a by-product of corn processing is usually left on fields or wasted. So it can be used as a cheap alternative with better performance but its availability around the year and on commercial scale can be an issue. Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 2424-T] (1).

2. Physiological, Behavioral And Immune Response In Three Commercial Broiler Strains Under Four Heating Systems

by Muhammad Jamil Alvi (2008-VA-480) | Prof. Dr. Athar Mahmud | Prof. Dr. Muhammad Akram | Prof. Dr. Saima | Dr. Shahid Mehmood.

Material type: book Book; Literary form: not fiction Publisher: 2016Dissertation note: The performance of broilers maintained under four different brooding systems with respect to behavior of the birds, blood profile and immune response in comparison to different strain of broilers raising needs to be studied under local conditions as it has been reported to possess better prospects. Furthermore, broiler performance in four different brooding zones having different air quality needs to be investigated in view of their effect on performance of broilers. In the trial, 360 commercial (Hubbard, Ross, Cobb) day-old broiler chicks purchased from the local hatchery. Hence the present study was conducted, Department of Poultry Production, University of Veterinary and Animal Sciences, Ravi campus, Pattoki with the objectives to compare the effect of strains and heating sources on the behavior (Walking, Feeding, Jumping, Litter Pecking, Lying, Standing, Preening, Breathing, Fearfulness, Body stretching, Rubbing beak with body) of the birds. In the present study effect of strains and heating system on blood biochemistry and immune response were also identified. The behavior of broilers strains studied under four different heating systems. Each treatment replicated 03 subgroups. The experimental chicks randomly divided into 36 experimental units of 10 chicks each after the adaptation period of three weeks. The heating system will be split into 04 groups (A, B, C and D). The birds in group A kept over hot water pipe lines. The birds in group B will be kept in gas heater area. The birds in group C kept in diesel brooder area. The birds in group D kept under pen cake brooder area. The data were analyzed according to analysis of variance (ANOVA) technique in Completely Randomized Design (CRD) under factorial arrangements using GLM procedures. Means separated through Duncan Multiple Range (DMR) test with the help of SAS, 9.1. Results of the present study showed significant highest jumping behavior in birds reared on hot water pipes as compared to gas heater during starter SUMMARY 48 phase and grower phase. In interaction, significantly more jumping behavior was recorded on electric bulbs in Ross when compared with Ross on hot water in starter phase. Significantly highest aggression was showed in birds reared on gas heaters than birds reared on electric bulb and diesel brooder. The preening behavior significantly improved in birds reared on gas heaters in starter, grower and finisher phase. While minimum was recorded on hot water during starter, grower and finisher phase. The feather picking behavior and walking behavior significantly higher in birds reared on gas heater during starter, grower and finisher phase. The laying behavior was statistically significant in Cobb broiler chicks during finisher phase. The feeding and litter picking behavior significantly higher in Ross broiler chicks during finisher phase. The under heat source, stretching and rubbing beak with body behavior significantly improved in Hubbard broiler chicks during starter phase. The blood profile was not significantly influenced by strains and heating source. The antibody titer against ND and IBD was higher in Ross reared on water heating system as compared to other strains and heating sources while blood biochemical profile was also higher in Ross when reared at floor heating system. Conclusion:  Ross reared under hot water during brooding showed better and healthy behavior including jumping, aggression, walking, standing, drinking, lying, feeding and litter picking  Ross strains exhibited better immune response and serum chemistry at hot water brooding system. Suggestion and Recommendations:  Hot water can be used as alternative brooding source  Behavior of commercial poultry needs further investigation and research. Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 2428-T] (1).

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