Haemato-Biochemical Profile And Immune Response In 3 Batches Of 4 Closebred Quail Parent Flocks Selected for Higher 4-Week Body Weight in 4th Generation
Material type: Book ; Format:
Publisher: 2014 Dissertation note: Abstract
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Productive And Reproductive Performance In Japanese Quail As Affected By Interventions In The Age At Photo Stimulation
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Publisher: 2015 Dissertation note: Light play an important role in controlling the age at sexual maturity in birds. Among various managemental aspects, light management is the basic one. Attaining sexual maturity at an appropriate age and weight is the key to reproductive success and the present study was an effort in the same direction. To develop specific practice for quail production and to optimize the best age for photo-stimulation present experiment was conducted. In total 225 females and 75 males of 5 week old were studied. A completely randomized design with three treatment of 5 replicates with 15 female and 5 male each, was applied. Treatment consisted 3 different ages of photo-stimulation (30, 35 and 40 days). Production performance (body weight, feed intake, egg production, feed conversion ratio and livability), egg characteristics (egg weight, shell thickness, yolk index and Haugh unit) and hatching traits (infertile, hatchability, dead germ, dead in shell percent and hatchling body weight) were evaluated. This has been observed in the study that photo-stimulating the birds at 40 days of age influenced positively egg production % with longest consistent peak, number of eggs, FCR / dozen eggs and FCR/Kg egg mass. Birds stimulated at 40 days of age showed better hatchability and very low dead in germ percentage. It was concluded that photo-stimulation at 40 days of age not only significantly improves productive, reproductive and egg quality traits but also gives the consistency in all respects of these traits.
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Evaluation of Growth Performance, Carcass Characteristics And Economic Appraisal of 3 Broiler Strains Under 4 Brooding Sources And Varying Feeding Regimens In Termianal Phase
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Publisher: 2015 Dissertation note: Theses submitted with corrupt cd.
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Effect Of Different Bedding Materials On The Growth Performance, Carcass Characteristics And Immune Response Of Three Different Broiler Strains
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Publisher: 2015 Dissertation note: Broiler birds spent most of their life in close association with bedding material. Managing poultry house bedding material is an important husbandry practice. The type of bedding material can affect the performance of the broilers to a certain extent in terms of growth performance, carcass characteristics and immune response. In Pakistan, selection of bedding material is dependent upon season and availability with little knowledge of interaction with particular broiler strain. Although, it is well documented that different strains have the tendency to perform differently in similar environmental conditions still performance of particular cross on a given bedding material is not studied. Poultry industry is constantly interested in evaluating the performance of the commercially available broiler strains. The concept of using different bedding materials for three different commercial broiler strains was evaluated at the Poultry Research and Training Centre (PRTC), Ravi Campus Pattoki, University of Veterinary and Animal Sciences, Lahore. A total of 360 day old commercial broiler chicks from three different strains (Ross 308, Cobb 500 and Arbor acres) 120 from each strain were purchased from the local market. All the day old chicks having uniform body weight were randomly distributed into 36 replicates having 10 chicks each and were fed the same quality of feed. Birds from each strain were reared on each bedding material in three replicates to evaluate the ultimate growth performance, carcass characteristics and immune response influenced by four different bedding materials for the period of 5 weeks. Three birds were randomly picked up from each treatment group at the end of trial and 5 ml blood was collected in marked test tubes from Jugular vein of each bird during slaughtering to obtain serum samples. The data were analyzed through analysis of variance (ANOVA) technique using PROC GLM in SAS 9.1. Means were compared using Duncan’s Multiple Range (DMR) test.
The findings of the present study exhibited that Cobb 500 reared on corn cob pulp showed significantly (P<0.05) better final weight gain, feed intake, feed conversion ratio,European Production Efficiency Factor (EPEF), Point Spread (PS) and Livability. Regarding carcass characteristics better dressing proportion, breast yield, leg quarter yield, giblet weight and other body measurements were observed in Cobb 500 followed by Ross 308 and Arbor acres strain reared on other bedding materials used in this experiment. Corn cob pulp showed maximum potential with the best moisture absorbing capacity and favored the growth of birds followed by rice husk, wheat straw and wood shavings. Wood shaving proved to be a poor choice as it hinders the growth performance and was hard to manage due to wet, scaly and cake formation that promoted pathogenic growth leading to FPD. Moreover, corn cob pulp was better suited to promote dry condition because of fine particles size allowing more surface area for moisture evaporation and keeping it dry for longer duration. Therefore, birds kept on corn cob pulp were more comfortable as it is evident from the results that it has the potential to be used in poultry industry as alternate bedding material. Rice husk performed next to corn cob pulp while wheat straw and wood shavings did not impress by the outcome and proved to unfit for better growth and welfare of birds. In the current study, birds generated protective antibody titers against Newcastle Disease virus and no significant differences were found by using different bedding materials or broiler strains.
CONCLUSIONS AND RECOMMENDATIONS
Based on the observations made from the current experiment it may be claimed that:
• Corn cob pulp proved to be the most efficient as it significantly improved the growth performance and carcass characteristics of 3 commercial broiler strains especially for Cobb 500.
• Corn cob pulp being most comfortable promoted health and welfare of birds leading to improved immunity against pathogens and viral diseases.
• FPD can be reduced to minimum by adopting corn cob pulp as bedding material due to its fine particles and highly moisture absorbing abilities.
• The highest carcass yield, dressing proportion, organ weight (heart weight, abdominal fat, liver, spleen, heart, thymus, bursa) along with breast yield, neck, keel and shank length were recorded by Cobb 500 on corn cob pulp.
• Cobb 500 strain was found better than rest of two strains (Ross and Arbor acres) regarding growth performance and carcass characteristics.
• Being a by-product of corn processing, corn cob pulp is the cheapest and can be an economical alternate to conventional bedding materials for all strains especially for Cobb.
In Pakistan rice husk and wood shavings are abundantly used bedding materials depending upon season and availability. Rice husk is by product of rice processing and highly dependent upon season, while poultry farming is a continuous business so its availability stands as a major issue. Whereas, corn cob pulp being a by-product of corn processing is usually left on fields or wasted. So it can be used as a cheap alternative with better performance but its availability around the year and on commercial scale can be an issue.
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Physiological, Behavioral And Immune Response In Three Commercial Broiler Strains Under Four Heating Systems
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Publisher: 2016 Dissertation note: The performance of broilers maintained under four different brooding systems with respect
to behavior of the birds, blood profile and immune response in comparison to different
strain of broilers raising needs to be studied under local conditions as it has been reported
to possess better prospects. Furthermore, broiler performance in four different brooding
zones having different air quality needs to be investigated in view of their effect on
performance of broilers. In the trial, 360 commercial (Hubbard, Ross, Cobb) day-old broiler
chicks purchased from the local hatchery. Hence the present study was conducted, Department
of Poultry Production, University of Veterinary and Animal Sciences, Ravi campus, Pattoki with
the objectives to compare the effect of strains and heating sources on the behavior (Walking,
Feeding, Jumping, Litter Pecking, Lying, Standing, Preening, Breathing, Fearfulness, Body
stretching, Rubbing beak with body) of the birds. In the present study effect of strains and
heating system on blood biochemistry and immune response were also identified. The behavior
of broilers strains studied under four different heating systems. Each treatment replicated 03 subgroups.
The experimental chicks randomly divided into 36 experimental units of 10 chicks each
after the adaptation period of three weeks. The heating system will be split into 04 groups (A, B,
C and D). The birds in group A kept over hot water pipe lines. The birds in group B will be kept
in gas heater area. The birds in group C kept in diesel brooder area. The birds in group D kept
under pen cake brooder area. The data were analyzed according to analysis of variance
(ANOVA) technique in Completely Randomized Design (CRD) under factorial
arrangements using GLM procedures. Means separated through Duncan Multiple Range
(DMR) test with the help of SAS, 9.1. Results of the present study showed significant highest
jumping behavior in birds reared on hot water pipes as compared to gas heater during starter
phase and grower phase. In interaction, significantly more jumping behavior was recorded on
electric bulbs in Ross when compared with Ross on hot water in starter phase. Significantly
highest aggression was showed in birds reared on gas heaters than birds reared on electric bulb
and diesel brooder. The preening behavior significantly improved in birds reared on gas heaters
in starter, grower and finisher phase. While minimum was recorded on hot water during starter,
grower and finisher phase. The feather picking behavior and walking behavior significantly
higher in birds reared on gas heater during starter, grower and finisher phase. The laying
behavior was statistically significant in Cobb broiler chicks during finisher phase. The feeding
and litter picking behavior significantly higher in Ross broiler chicks during finisher phase. The
under heat source, stretching and rubbing beak with body behavior significantly improved in
Hubbard broiler chicks during starter phase. The blood profile was not significantly influenced
by strains and heating source. The antibody titer against ND and IBD was higher in Ross reared
on water heating system as compared to other strains and heating sources while blood
biochemical profile was also higher in Ross when reared at floor heating system.
Ross reared under hot water during brooding showed better and healthy behavior
including jumping, aggression, walking, standing, drinking, lying, feeding and litter
Ross strains exhibited better immune response and serum chemistry at hot water brooding
Suggestion and Recommendations:
Hot water can be used as alternative brooding source
Behavior of commercial poultry needs further investigation and research.
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Performance And Immune Response Of Layers Among Different Production Cycles Influenced By Body Weight Losses During Molting
Material type: Book ; Literary form:
Publisher: 2016 Dissertation note: Molting is a natural phenomenon in birds to rejuvenate their potential and body reserves. Commercially molting is being practiced in most of the countries to extend the production cycle of the bird and gain more from a single birds. It also reduces the cost of rearing the replacement pullet and increase egg size. The success of molting depends on loss of body weight during molting. Genetic improvement is a continuous process and new strains of layers are being developed on regular basis. LSL Lite is one of the recently introduced strain in Pakistan. But, its optimum body weight loss during molting in different production cycles is need to be optimized. The present study was planned to compare the performance of birds after different body weight losses during molting in different production cycles of commercial LSL Lite strain. The study was conducted at a Commercial layer farm. A total of 216 uniform weight birds of three production cycles (1st Cycle = 16 Wk, 2nd Cycle = 80 Wk, 3rd Cycle = 108 wk) were placed in battery cages. The birds of 2nd and 3rd production cycles were first molted till reduction of 20, 25, and 30% body weight loss. The birds of 1st production cycle (Control group) were those having same body weight as those of 2nd and 3rd production cycle after molting. The birds used in 3rd production cycle were first molted at the age of 64 Wk. Each treatment was replicated three times with 8 birds each and placed according to Completely Randomized Designs. The parameters used were post-moult production performance, egg geometry, egg quality and immune profile of these birds. The data collected were subjected to ANOVA under Completely Randomized Design in factorial arrangement using SAS 9.1. Significant means (P<0.05) were compared using Duncan’s Multiple Range test. Results of the present study showed that birds in 1st production cycle have highest egg production %, better FCR per dozen eggs and per kg egg mass, shape index, egg surface area,
Huagh unit, yolk index, shell %, egg shell thickness. Whereas birds in 3rd production cycle have highest feed intake. Egg weight was highest in 2nd and 3rd production cycle. Similarly birds in low weight category have highest egg production %, better FCR per dozen eggs and per kg egg mass. Whereas birds heavy weight category had highest egg mass. Non-significant difference were observed regarding immunity in different production cycles and body weight loss categories. Similarly non-significant difference were observed regarding egg quality with respect to body weight loss categories throughout the experiment. Feed intake and egg production remained non-significant in case of interaction of production cycles and body weight loss categories.
From present studied it can be concluded that:
Different production cycles influence productive performance of the birds, especially 1st production cycle birds had higher production % FCR per dozen eggs and FCR per kg egg mass however the production performance of 2nd and 3rd production cycles birds is relatively comparable. Similarly 2nd and 3rd production cycle birds exhibit higher egg weight and egg mass.
Birds of low weight category (< 1400 g) of 1st production cycle and 30% body weight loss groups of 2nd and 3rd production cycles had relatively higher egg production %, better FCR per dozen eggs and FCR per kg egg mass. Whereas heavy weight category of 1st production cycle and 20 % body weight loss groups of 2nd and 3rd production cycle had higher egg weight and egg mass.
Egg quality and geometry was influenced by production cycles but no difference was observed by body weight loss categories in this regard.
Different production cycles and body weight loss categories did not influence immune parameters.
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Supplementation Of Glycerin In Rearing Diets And Its Subsequent Effect On Production Performance, Egg Quality And Hatchability In Japanese Quails
Material type: Book ; Literary form:
Publisher: 2016 Dissertation note: Glycerin has gained attraction being a low cost and energy rich compound that can partially replace the major ingredients including corn and some other energy rich stuffs. It may work as an alternative energy source without any detrimental effect on production performance, egg quality and hatching traits in Japanese quails. This study evaluated subsequent effect of glycerin on productive performance, egg quality and hatching traits in Japanese quail. A total of 200 birds were arranged according to completely randomized design into 5 treatment groups having 5 replicates of 8 birds each (6 female + 2 Males). Treatment consisted 5 levels of glycerin i.e., 2.5, 5, 7.5 and 10 % and control group. Birds were fed with different levels of glycerin during rearing period of six weeks and their subsequent effect on productive performance, egg quality and hatching traits were observed. Data were collected regarding productive performance for 16 weeks, however, egg quality and hatching traits were recorded during pre-peak (at 4th week), peak (at 12th week) and post peak (at 16th week) phase. No significant effect of glycerin on subsequent productive performance, egg quality and hatching traits were observed throughout the experimental period. Regarding productive performance, initial and final body weight, feed intake, hen housed and hen day production%, egg weight, egg mass, FCR / dozen egg and / kg egg mass did not show any major significant difference in all three phases. However, glycerin had significant effect on subsequent egg weight during peak and post peak phase. In egg quality, no significant effect of glycerin were observed on subsequent egg shell thickness, shell weight and yolk index in all three phases, whereas, albumen height and Haugh Unit score during pre-peak and peak phase were effected significantly. In terms of hatching traits, hatchability, fertility, dead in shell and dead germ% did not show any significant difference in all phases. However, clear egg % showed significant difference during peak phase of production.
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Effect Of Different Feeding Regimens On Subsequent Growth, Performance, Carcass Characterstics And Immune Response In Sexed Broiler
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Publisher: 2016 Dissertation note: Protein is a major component of broilers diets. There are contradictory reports in literature regarding optimum levels of protein in broiler chicken diets to obtain reasonable performance. Initially some efforts were made to establish a minimum level of protein to get optimum performance but those moves resulted in poor performance in terms of weight gain, feed intake and feed conversion ratio. The present study was conducted at Poultry Research and Training Centre (PRTC), Ravi Campus Pattoki, University of Veterinary and Animal Sciences, Lahore. The duration of the proposed study was 35 days. In total, 360 day old commercial broiler chicks were assigned to 12 groups in 3×4 factorial arrangement under Completely Randomized Design (CRD). Treatments consisted of 3 sex rearing systems (male, female and mix) and 4 feeding regimes (HD, conventional, NRC and Soya Corn). Each treatment was replicated 3 times with 10 birds in each. Data regarding growth performance incuding feed intake, body weight and FCR were recorded on weekly basis. At the end of trial, from each replicate two birds were randomly picked up and slaughtered to collect the data for carcass characteristics. After slaughtering, 5 ml blood was collected in test tubes from Jugular vein of each bird. Serum samples were extracted and stored at -20C for measuring antibody titers against and serum chemistry. The collected data were analyzed through ANOVA technique under factorial arrangement using PROG GLM. Means were compared through Duncan’s Multiple Range (DMR) test with the help of SAS 9.1.
Broilers reared on different feeding regimes showed significantly enhanced body weight, better FCR, PEF, PS, PI and better ND titer in high density (HD) diet fed birds, whereas feed intake was found to be higher in those birds which were fed at conventional diet. On the other hand, glucose and cholesterol showed non-significant results. While carcass characteristics showed CHAPTER 6 SUMMARY
higher abdominal fat, heart weight and thymus weight in soya corn based diet whereas pancreas, breast and thigh meat yield weights were found to be higher in HD diet. Different sexes indicated higher body weight, FCR, PEF,PS, PI, dressed weight, heart weight, keel length and shank length in males whereas abdominal fat was observed to be higher in females. Males showed better economics rather than straight run and female birds. Among different feeding regimes HD feed exhibited better economical appraisal as compared to Soya corn, NRC and conventional diet.
Based on the findings of the present study it may be concluded that
1. Rearing of broilers on high density (HD) feed resulted into enhanced body weight and better FCR. Whereas feed intake was found to be higher in birds fed conventional diet. In sexes, male broilers fed high density (HD) feed showed better body weight, improved FCR, PEF, PS and PI values.
2. In carcass characteristics, birds fed high density diet showed enhanced weight of pancreas, breast meat yield, keel length and thigh yield while abdominal fat, heart weight and thymus weight were higher in soya corn diet fed birds. In different sexes, rearing of males separately indicated increased dressed weight, heart weight, keel length and shank length whereas abdominal fat was observed to be higher in females.
3. Birds reared on HD diet exhibited elevated antibody titer as compared to NRC, Conventional and soya corn based diet however with respect to cholesterol level, different sexes and feeding regimes separately could not show their response.
4. Among different feeding regimes, high density (HD) diet remained more economical than Soya corn, NRC and conventional diet. In sexes, rearing of males separately remained more economical than rearing of females alone as well as combined sex rearing.
Recommendations for the farmers
Based on the current findings, here are some recommendations for the farmers
1. HD feed can improve the growth performance and carcass characteristics.
2. HD feed is cost effective so by using the high density feed better results can be obtained.
Suggestions for the futures researchers
Same treatments can be applied in sexed broilers to evaluate meat quality and organoleptic.
Future researchers can also apply different feed regimes in different broilers strains.
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Morphometric Measurements, Carcass And Slaughter Characteristics In Japanese Quails As Affected By Different Patio Strategies And Growth Promoters
Material type: Book ; Literary form:
Publisher: 2016 Dissertation note: The present study was conducted at Avian Research and Training (ART) Centre, University of Veterinary and Animal Sciences (UVAS) Lahore to evaluate the effect of 5 Patio strategies (0, 1, 3, 5, and 7 days) along with growth promoters (Neomycin, Protexin and control) on morphometric measurement, carcass and slaughter characteristics of Japanese quail. A total of 900 recently hatched chicks from prior incubated eggs were randomly divided into 5 Patio strategies i.e., Treatment 0 included chicks without any feed and water in hatcher, Treatment 1 included offering feed and water during the last three days in hatcher, Treatment 3 included birds kept for extra 3 days in hatcher with feed and water, Treatment 5 included keeping chicks for extra 5 days in hatcher with feed and water and Treatment 7 included birds kept for extra 7 days in hatcher and offered feed and water at same place.
Chicks hatched in each tray were further subdivided into 3 groups and subjected to three dietary treatments including (0.3 g/kg Neomycin, 0.1 g/kg Protexin and Control group) with 3 replicates of 20 birds each. At the age of five and seven weeks six birds (3 males and 3 females) from each replicate; hence a total of 90 birds were slaughtered to study different parameters pertaining to morphometric measurements, carcass and slaughter characteristics. At the end of the experiment, the data were analyzed according to Completely Randomized Design (CRD) under factorial arrangement using GLM (General Linear Model) procedures (Steel et al. 1997). Comparison of means was worked out through Duncan’s Multiple Range test with the help of SAS 9.1. (2002-2004).
Result of present study showed significant differences among different patio strategies and growth promoters in different parameters at 5 and 7 week of age. Breast width, drumstick circumference, liver % Heart%, Bursa% and pancreas% were found to be significantly higher in birds kept under patio system for 0 days at the age of 5th week. Keel length, Breast %, neck %, head% and ovary % were found to be higher in birds kept under patio system for 1 day at the age of 5th week. Shank circumference and testes % were found to be higher in birds kept under patio system for 5 day at the age of 5th week. However Body length, drumstick length, shank length, wing spread, fillets%, thymus%, and spleen%, were found to be higher in birds kept under patio system for 7 day. The most promising result in terms of growth performance and carcass characteristic were observed in birds kept under patio system for 3 days at the age of 5th week. Under patio system 3 highest body weight, carcass % Wing %, back%, drumstick %, shank %, and gizzard % were observed.
Breast width, breast %,drumstick circumference, shank length, shank circumference, keel length, wing spread, thigh %, back %,head % ,heart %,% thymus% ,spleen %, and pancreas % were found to be higher in male birds. Body length, body weight Carcass %, Shank %, shank circumference, drumstick length, wing %, fillets%, drumstick %, neck%, liver %, and bursa % were found to be higher in female birds.
Body weight, Fillets%, breast %, liver %, shank % and heart % were found to be higher in birds supplemented with probiotic diet. Breast width, drumstick length, keel length, shank length, wingspread, drumstick %, back %, head %, gizzard%, spleen%, and bursa%, were found to be higher in birds supplemented with antibiotic diet. Body length, Drumstick circumference, shank circumference, wing%, neck%, carcass%, thymus%, bursa % and pancreas % were found to be higher in birds fed Control diet.
Body length, Shank Circumference, Wing spread, and liver % were found to be significantly higher in birds kept under patio system for 0 days at the age of 7th week. Fillets, bursa %, ovary % and testes were found to be higher in birds kept under patio system for 1 day. Breast width, Keel length, thigh %, back%, neck %and spleen % testes were found to be higher in birds kept under patio system for 5 day. However breast %,Head % ,shank %,Heart %,Gizzard % and pancreas % were found to be higher in birds kept under patio system for 7 day. Body weights, carcass %, Drumstick circumference, Drumstick length, shank length, wing %, Drumstick % and thymus % werefound to be higherin birds kept under patio system for 3 days.
Breast width, breast %,drumstick circumference, drumstick length, keel length, wing spread, fillets %, thigh %, back %,head % shank %,heart %gizzard% thymus% and pancreas % were found to be higher in male birds. Body length, body weight, Carcass %, Shank length, shank circumference, wing %, drumstick %, neck% liver %, spleen %and bursa % were found to be higher in female birds.
Body length, body weight, Wing %, Back %, neck % and ovary % were found to be higher in birds supplemented with probiotic diet.Shank circumference, Shank length, wingspread, Breast %,Head %,liver %,heart %,thymus %,bursa%, pancreas % and tested % were found to be higher in birds supplemented with antibiotic diet.Breast width, Drumstick circumference, drumstick length, keel length, thigh %,drumstick %,carcass %,shank %,gizzard % and spleen % were found to be higher in birds fed Control diet.
Based upon findings of the present study it can be concluded that:
1. Patio system helped improving body measurement (body weight, breast width, body length, drumstick length, keel length, shank length, drumstick and shank circumference and wing spread) in Japanese quail at different week of age.
2. Patio system also had positive effect on carcass %.
3. The use of probiotic at different week of age helped improving body weight and body length in Japanese quail.
Suggestions and recommendations
No doubt the results of present study are very promising regarding the use of patio systems. However, This is an entirely new approach and unique in the sense that a little work is documented , hence needs to be studied very thoroughly.
1. It is suggested that the use of different probiotics and antibiotics needs to be studied in as much details as possible to draw some solid conclusions and guidelines for the quail industry regarding the use of these products.
2. In addition, females quail produced superior mean values in live body weight, body length and carcass % than males. So, more female quails be raised and produced by using these strategies.
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Comparative Efficacy Of Different Anti-Stressors On Growth Performance, Carcass Characteristics, Immune Response And Blood Bio- Chemistry Of Broilers Reared During Hot-Humid Climate
Material type: Book ; Literary form:
Publisher: 2016 Dissertation note: The purpose of study was to characterize the efficacy of different anti-stressors on broilers reared during heat stress. The study was conducted at Poultry Research and Training (PRTC) Centre, Ravi Campus Pattoki, in hot-humid weather (July-August), University of Veterinary and Animal Sciences, Lahore. A total of 200 day old broiler chicks (Cobb 500) were procured from hatchery and arranged according to completely randomized design; assigned 05 dietary treatments (control, Betaine 2g/kg, Chia seed 5g/kg, Potassium chloride 2g/kg and vitamin C 600mg/kg). Feed and water was provided ad-libitum throughout the experimental period. Temperature and humidity were recorded three times a day. At day 7th, 17th, 36th and 42nd, four blood samples were taken from each treatment. Serum was separated to evaluate the immune response against New-castle disease. Daily feed intake and weekly body weight were recorded. At 42nd day, four birds from each treatment were randomly selected and slaughtered to record carcass characteristics; blood samples were collected to estimate blood glucose and cholesterol level of different treatment birds. Data thus collected was analyzed through one-way ANOVA technique (Steel et al. 1997). Comparison of means were worked out through Duncan’s Multiple Range test (DMR) with the help of SAS 9.1.
Results of present study indicated that betaine group significantly (P< 0.05) improved the growth parameters; body weights and feed conversion ratio of broilers during heat stress, feed efficiency, point spread, performance index production number livability, and uniformity does not significantly (P<0.05) effected but apparently improved, mortality rates reduced in this group. Addition of chia seed to the diet resulted in to significantly (P< 0.05) better feed consumption and immune response against new-castle disease in heat stressed broilers. Vitamin C supplementation significantly (P< 0.05) improved the physiological perameters of broilers by reducing the cholesterol and glucose levels in serum samples of broilers reared during acute heat stress. Carcass characteristcs were also improved in heat stressed broilers fed on betaine supplemented diets. Dressing %, thigh yield%, intestine %, pancrease %, thymus %, breast width (cm) and shank length (cm) significantly increased (P< 0.05) while, breast meat yield %, abdominal fat %, giblets %, bursa%, spleen% and keel length (cm) were not significantly (P> 0.05) effected but apparently improved in this group. Betaine group also improved economics in heat stressed broilers.
Based upon the findings of present study it can be concluded that:
1. Supplementation of betaine in diet of heat stressd broilers proved comparatively more efficient than other anti-stressors in improving growth parameters and carcass characters of broilers reared during hot-humid climate, hence remained more economical.
2. The organic anti stressor “Chia seed” showed better antibody titer against new castle disease and also improved the weight of immune organs.
3. Supplementing vitamin C in diet decreases the serum glucose and cholesterol level in broilers.
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