Effect Of Different Vaccine Routes On Growth Performance, Organs Weight, Carcass Characteristics And Immune Response In Broilers
Material type: Book ; Literary form:
Publisher: 2015 Dissertation note: The purpose of study was to compare four different vaccination routes. The study was conducted at environment controlled broiler house, University of Veterinary and Animal Sciences, Ravi campus-Pattoki. In this experiment 264 commercial day old chicks were purchased from hatchery.On arrival, 24 day-old chicks were sent to laboratory for determining the maternal antibody level and remaining 240 birds were divided randomly in to four treatments (Drinking water, Eye drop, Spray,Spray +Drinking water) groups. Each group was replicated 6 times with 10 birds each. Before vaccination 03 birds were picked up randomly from each replicate and 3 ml blood was collected from the main brachial vein to determine NDV and IBV maternal antibody titers of the chickens. At the end of the trial, 03 birds were picked up randomly, slaughtered to determine the weight of immune organs and carcass characteristics. The data thus obtained were statistically analyzed through Completely Randomized Design (CRD) using one way analysis of variance (ANOVA) techniques at 0.05 significane level. The means were compared using Duncan’s Multiple Range (DMR) test with the help of SAS, 9.1.Results of present study showed non-significant differences (P ≥ 0.05) infeed intake, body weights, feed conversion ratio, feed efficiency, point spread, performance index andproduction number. Significant differences (P ≤0.05) were observed in mortality and livability percentage. The birds vaccinated thorugh the eye drop showed higher livability than spray with drinking water.Significant differences (P ≤ 0.05) were observed inBursa and thymusweights with respect to four routes of vaccination. The birds vaccinated through eye drop method had the higher bursa and thymusweight as compared to those vaccinated through drinking water, eye drop and spray with drinking water. There were non-significant (P ≥ 0.05) in spleen weight.Maternal antibody level against Infectious Bronchitis and Newcastledisease was 3421and 6.9 respectively. Decline in maternal antibody titer was recorded onthe 7th and 15th day of the experiment.Vaccination at 17th day boosted the immune response.Significant differences (P ≤ 0.05) were observed in an immune response against the Infectious Bronchitis and Newcastle Disease. The birds vaccinated through eye drop route showed higher immune response than other routes of vaccination.Non-significant differences (P ≥ 0.05) were observed in dressing percentage, breast yield percentage, gizzard percentage, heart percentage, keel length, shank length, intestinal length and intestinal weight. Significant differences (P ≤0.05) were observed in thigh percentage.
Based on the findings of the present study it may be stated that
1. Vaccination routes had no effect on growth performance.
2. Eye drop vaccinataion developed better immunity and also had higher weight of immune organs, while, spray remained poorest.
Suggestion and Recommendations:
For future it is recommended as eye drop method of vaccination is the best route of vaccination for higher immune response and higher immune organs weight and others routes of vaccinations has lower immune response and imuune organs weight. Continuous detailed and comprehensive research investigations are needed on different vaccination routes.
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Evaluation of Growth Performance, Carcass Characteristics And Economic Appraisal of 3 Broiler Strains Under 4 Brooding Sources And Varying Feeding Regimens In Termianal Phase
Material type: Book ; Literary form:
Publisher: 2015 Dissertation note: Theses submitted with corrupt cd.
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Effect Of Different Bedding Materials On The Growth Performance, Carcass Characteristics And Immune Response Of Three Different Broiler Strains
Material type: Book ; Literary form:
Publisher: 2015 Dissertation note: Broiler birds spent most of their life in close association with bedding material. Managing poultry house bedding material is an important husbandry practice. The type of bedding material can affect the performance of the broilers to a certain extent in terms of growth performance, carcass characteristics and immune response. In Pakistan, selection of bedding material is dependent upon season and availability with little knowledge of interaction with particular broiler strain. Although, it is well documented that different strains have the tendency to perform differently in similar environmental conditions still performance of particular cross on a given bedding material is not studied. Poultry industry is constantly interested in evaluating the performance of the commercially available broiler strains. The concept of using different bedding materials for three different commercial broiler strains was evaluated at the Poultry Research and Training Centre (PRTC), Ravi Campus Pattoki, University of Veterinary and Animal Sciences, Lahore. A total of 360 day old commercial broiler chicks from three different strains (Ross 308, Cobb 500 and Arbor acres) 120 from each strain were purchased from the local market. All the day old chicks having uniform body weight were randomly distributed into 36 replicates having 10 chicks each and were fed the same quality of feed. Birds from each strain were reared on each bedding material in three replicates to evaluate the ultimate growth performance, carcass characteristics and immune response influenced by four different bedding materials for the period of 5 weeks. Three birds were randomly picked up from each treatment group at the end of trial and 5 ml blood was collected in marked test tubes from Jugular vein of each bird during slaughtering to obtain serum samples. The data were analyzed through analysis of variance (ANOVA) technique using PROC GLM in SAS 9.1. Means were compared using Duncan’s Multiple Range (DMR) test.
The findings of the present study exhibited that Cobb 500 reared on corn cob pulp showed significantly (P<0.05) better final weight gain, feed intake, feed conversion ratio,European Production Efficiency Factor (EPEF), Point Spread (PS) and Livability. Regarding carcass characteristics better dressing proportion, breast yield, leg quarter yield, giblet weight and other body measurements were observed in Cobb 500 followed by Ross 308 and Arbor acres strain reared on other bedding materials used in this experiment. Corn cob pulp showed maximum potential with the best moisture absorbing capacity and favored the growth of birds followed by rice husk, wheat straw and wood shavings. Wood shaving proved to be a poor choice as it hinders the growth performance and was hard to manage due to wet, scaly and cake formation that promoted pathogenic growth leading to FPD. Moreover, corn cob pulp was better suited to promote dry condition because of fine particles size allowing more surface area for moisture evaporation and keeping it dry for longer duration. Therefore, birds kept on corn cob pulp were more comfortable as it is evident from the results that it has the potential to be used in poultry industry as alternate bedding material. Rice husk performed next to corn cob pulp while wheat straw and wood shavings did not impress by the outcome and proved to unfit for better growth and welfare of birds. In the current study, birds generated protective antibody titers against Newcastle Disease virus and no significant differences were found by using different bedding materials or broiler strains.
CONCLUSIONS AND RECOMMENDATIONS
Based on the observations made from the current experiment it may be claimed that:
• Corn cob pulp proved to be the most efficient as it significantly improved the growth performance and carcass characteristics of 3 commercial broiler strains especially for Cobb 500.
• Corn cob pulp being most comfortable promoted health and welfare of birds leading to improved immunity against pathogens and viral diseases.
• FPD can be reduced to minimum by adopting corn cob pulp as bedding material due to its fine particles and highly moisture absorbing abilities.
• The highest carcass yield, dressing proportion, organ weight (heart weight, abdominal fat, liver, spleen, heart, thymus, bursa) along with breast yield, neck, keel and shank length were recorded by Cobb 500 on corn cob pulp.
• Cobb 500 strain was found better than rest of two strains (Ross and Arbor acres) regarding growth performance and carcass characteristics.
• Being a by-product of corn processing, corn cob pulp is the cheapest and can be an economical alternate to conventional bedding materials for all strains especially for Cobb.
In Pakistan rice husk and wood shavings are abundantly used bedding materials depending upon season and availability. Rice husk is by product of rice processing and highly dependent upon season, while poultry farming is a continuous business so its availability stands as a major issue. Whereas, corn cob pulp being a by-product of corn processing is usually left on fields or wasted. So it can be used as a cheap alternative with better performance but its availability around the year and on commercial scale can be an issue.
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Physiological, Behavioral And Immune Response In Three Commercial Broiler Strains Under Four Heating Systems
Material type: Book ; Literary form:
Publisher: 2016 Dissertation note: The performance of broilers maintained under four different brooding systems with respect
to behavior of the birds, blood profile and immune response in comparison to different
strain of broilers raising needs to be studied under local conditions as it has been reported
to possess better prospects. Furthermore, broiler performance in four different brooding
zones having different air quality needs to be investigated in view of their effect on
performance of broilers. In the trial, 360 commercial (Hubbard, Ross, Cobb) day-old broiler
chicks purchased from the local hatchery. Hence the present study was conducted, Department
of Poultry Production, University of Veterinary and Animal Sciences, Ravi campus, Pattoki with
the objectives to compare the effect of strains and heating sources on the behavior (Walking,
Feeding, Jumping, Litter Pecking, Lying, Standing, Preening, Breathing, Fearfulness, Body
stretching, Rubbing beak with body) of the birds. In the present study effect of strains and
heating system on blood biochemistry and immune response were also identified. The behavior
of broilers strains studied under four different heating systems. Each treatment replicated 03 subgroups.
The experimental chicks randomly divided into 36 experimental units of 10 chicks each
after the adaptation period of three weeks. The heating system will be split into 04 groups (A, B,
C and D). The birds in group A kept over hot water pipe lines. The birds in group B will be kept
in gas heater area. The birds in group C kept in diesel brooder area. The birds in group D kept
under pen cake brooder area. The data were analyzed according to analysis of variance
(ANOVA) technique in Completely Randomized Design (CRD) under factorial
arrangements using GLM procedures. Means separated through Duncan Multiple Range
(DMR) test with the help of SAS, 9.1. Results of the present study showed significant highest
jumping behavior in birds reared on hot water pipes as compared to gas heater during starter
phase and grower phase. In interaction, significantly more jumping behavior was recorded on
electric bulbs in Ross when compared with Ross on hot water in starter phase. Significantly
highest aggression was showed in birds reared on gas heaters than birds reared on electric bulb
and diesel brooder. The preening behavior significantly improved in birds reared on gas heaters
in starter, grower and finisher phase. While minimum was recorded on hot water during starter,
grower and finisher phase. The feather picking behavior and walking behavior significantly
higher in birds reared on gas heater during starter, grower and finisher phase. The laying
behavior was statistically significant in Cobb broiler chicks during finisher phase. The feeding
and litter picking behavior significantly higher in Ross broiler chicks during finisher phase. The
under heat source, stretching and rubbing beak with body behavior significantly improved in
Hubbard broiler chicks during starter phase. The blood profile was not significantly influenced
by strains and heating source. The antibody titer against ND and IBD was higher in Ross reared
on water heating system as compared to other strains and heating sources while blood
biochemical profile was also higher in Ross when reared at floor heating system.
Ross reared under hot water during brooding showed better and healthy behavior
including jumping, aggression, walking, standing, drinking, lying, feeding and litter
Ross strains exhibited better immune response and serum chemistry at hot water brooding
Suggestion and Recommendations:
Hot water can be used as alternative brooding source
Behavior of commercial poultry needs further investigation and research.
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Effect Of Different Feeding Regimens On Subsequent Growth, Performance, Carcass Characterstics And Immune Response In Sexed Broiler
Material type: Book ; Literary form:
Publisher: 2016 Dissertation note: Protein is a major component of broilers diets. There are contradictory reports in literature regarding optimum levels of protein in broiler chicken diets to obtain reasonable performance. Initially some efforts were made to establish a minimum level of protein to get optimum performance but those moves resulted in poor performance in terms of weight gain, feed intake and feed conversion ratio. The present study was conducted at Poultry Research and Training Centre (PRTC), Ravi Campus Pattoki, University of Veterinary and Animal Sciences, Lahore. The duration of the proposed study was 35 days. In total, 360 day old commercial broiler chicks were assigned to 12 groups in 3×4 factorial arrangement under Completely Randomized Design (CRD). Treatments consisted of 3 sex rearing systems (male, female and mix) and 4 feeding regimes (HD, conventional, NRC and Soya Corn). Each treatment was replicated 3 times with 10 birds in each. Data regarding growth performance incuding feed intake, body weight and FCR were recorded on weekly basis. At the end of trial, from each replicate two birds were randomly picked up and slaughtered to collect the data for carcass characteristics. After slaughtering, 5 ml blood was collected in test tubes from Jugular vein of each bird. Serum samples were extracted and stored at -20C for measuring antibody titers against and serum chemistry. The collected data were analyzed through ANOVA technique under factorial arrangement using PROG GLM. Means were compared through Duncan’s Multiple Range (DMR) test with the help of SAS 9.1.
Broilers reared on different feeding regimes showed significantly enhanced body weight, better FCR, PEF, PS, PI and better ND titer in high density (HD) diet fed birds, whereas feed intake was found to be higher in those birds which were fed at conventional diet. On the other hand, glucose and cholesterol showed non-significant results. While carcass characteristics showed CHAPTER 6 SUMMARY
higher abdominal fat, heart weight and thymus weight in soya corn based diet whereas pancreas, breast and thigh meat yield weights were found to be higher in HD diet. Different sexes indicated higher body weight, FCR, PEF,PS, PI, dressed weight, heart weight, keel length and shank length in males whereas abdominal fat was observed to be higher in females. Males showed better economics rather than straight run and female birds. Among different feeding regimes HD feed exhibited better economical appraisal as compared to Soya corn, NRC and conventional diet.
Based on the findings of the present study it may be concluded that
1. Rearing of broilers on high density (HD) feed resulted into enhanced body weight and better FCR. Whereas feed intake was found to be higher in birds fed conventional diet. In sexes, male broilers fed high density (HD) feed showed better body weight, improved FCR, PEF, PS and PI values.
2. In carcass characteristics, birds fed high density diet showed enhanced weight of pancreas, breast meat yield, keel length and thigh yield while abdominal fat, heart weight and thymus weight were higher in soya corn diet fed birds. In different sexes, rearing of males separately indicated increased dressed weight, heart weight, keel length and shank length whereas abdominal fat was observed to be higher in females.
3. Birds reared on HD diet exhibited elevated antibody titer as compared to NRC, Conventional and soya corn based diet however with respect to cholesterol level, different sexes and feeding regimes separately could not show their response.
4. Among different feeding regimes, high density (HD) diet remained more economical than Soya corn, NRC and conventional diet. In sexes, rearing of males separately remained more economical than rearing of females alone as well as combined sex rearing.
Recommendations for the farmers
Based on the current findings, here are some recommendations for the farmers
1. HD feed can improve the growth performance and carcass characteristics.
2. HD feed is cost effective so by using the high density feed better results can be obtained.
Suggestions for the futures researchers
Same treatments can be applied in sexed broilers to evaluate meat quality and organoleptic.
Future researchers can also apply different feed regimes in different broilers strains.
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Comparative Efficacy Of Different Anti-Stressors On Growth Performance, Carcass Characteristics, Immune Response And Blood Bio- Chemistry Of Broilers Reared During Hot-Humid Climate
Material type: Book ; Literary form:
Publisher: 2016 Dissertation note: The purpose of study was to characterize the efficacy of different anti-stressors on broilers reared during heat stress. The study was conducted at Poultry Research and Training (PRTC) Centre, Ravi Campus Pattoki, in hot-humid weather (July-August), University of Veterinary and Animal Sciences, Lahore. A total of 200 day old broiler chicks (Cobb 500) were procured from hatchery and arranged according to completely randomized design; assigned 05 dietary treatments (control, Betaine 2g/kg, Chia seed 5g/kg, Potassium chloride 2g/kg and vitamin C 600mg/kg). Feed and water was provided ad-libitum throughout the experimental period. Temperature and humidity were recorded three times a day. At day 7th, 17th, 36th and 42nd, four blood samples were taken from each treatment. Serum was separated to evaluate the immune response against New-castle disease. Daily feed intake and weekly body weight were recorded. At 42nd day, four birds from each treatment were randomly selected and slaughtered to record carcass characteristics; blood samples were collected to estimate blood glucose and cholesterol level of different treatment birds. Data thus collected was analyzed through one-way ANOVA technique (Steel et al. 1997). Comparison of means were worked out through Duncan’s Multiple Range test (DMR) with the help of SAS 9.1.
Results of present study indicated that betaine group significantly (P< 0.05) improved the growth parameters; body weights and feed conversion ratio of broilers during heat stress, feed efficiency, point spread, performance index production number livability, and uniformity does not significantly (P<0.05) effected but apparently improved, mortality rates reduced in this group. Addition of chia seed to the diet resulted in to significantly (P< 0.05) better feed consumption and immune response against new-castle disease in heat stressed broilers. Vitamin C supplementation significantly (P< 0.05) improved the physiological perameters of broilers by reducing the cholesterol and glucose levels in serum samples of broilers reared during acute heat stress. Carcass characteristcs were also improved in heat stressed broilers fed on betaine supplemented diets. Dressing %, thigh yield%, intestine %, pancrease %, thymus %, breast width (cm) and shank length (cm) significantly increased (P< 0.05) while, breast meat yield %, abdominal fat %, giblets %, bursa%, spleen% and keel length (cm) were not significantly (P> 0.05) effected but apparently improved in this group. Betaine group also improved economics in heat stressed broilers.
Based upon the findings of present study it can be concluded that:
1. Supplementation of betaine in diet of heat stressd broilers proved comparatively more efficient than other anti-stressors in improving growth parameters and carcass characters of broilers reared during hot-humid climate, hence remained more economical.
2. The organic anti stressor “Chia seed” showed better antibody titer against new castle disease and also improved the weight of immune organs.
3. Supplementing vitamin C in diet decreases the serum glucose and cholesterol level in broilers.
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