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1. Effect Of Vitamin E And Selenium Supplementation On The Performance, Carcass Characteristics And Immune Response in Broilers

by Syed Kaleem -Ul- Hassan | Dr.Abdul Waheed Sahota | Prof. Dr.Muhammad Akram.

Material type: book Book; Format: print Publisher: 2007Dissertation note: The present study was conducted to examine the effect of vitamin E and selenium supplementation on the performance, carcass characteristics and immune response in broilers. For this purpose, 400 commercial day old broiler chicks of Hubbard strain were purchased from a reputed local hatchery. They were maintained in experimental poultry house, Department of Poultry Production, University of Veterinary and Animal Sciences, Lahore during the month of July & August. The chicks were randomly divided into 4 equal experimental groups viz. without supplementation, selenium supplemented, vitamin E supplemented and vitamin E+selenium supplemented, each comprising 100 chicks. The chicks in each group were further randomly sub-divided into 10 replicates of 10 chicks each. All the experimental chicks were initially weighed and individually tagged for identification and kept in 40 pens (10 birds/pen) on littered floor under optimal managemental conditions. The experimental birds were protected against Newcastle Disease through prophylactic vaccination at the age of 4 days (Intraocular route) and then at 21 days (drinking water). Prophylactic vaccination against Infectious Bursal Disease was also performed at 14 and 28 days through drinking water. The birds were given selenium (3mg/kg feed), vitamin E (200 mg/kg feed) and vitamin E+selenium (lcc/10L drinking water) in selenium supplemented, vitamin E supplemented and vitamin E+selenium supplemented groups, respectively, and those in without supplementation were maintained as non-supplemented group. Body weight gain and feed intake were recorded weekly to calculate the Feed Conversion Ratio. At the end of experiment mortality, carcass characteristics, anti-NDV titre were recorded and economics of the project was calculated. The results of this study indicated significant (P<0.05) differences in feed intake and feed conversion ratio due to supplementation with selenium and vitamin E, however, a non-significant effect on body weight gain of broilers was observed due to supplementation. The feed intake in group without supplementation was significantly (P<0.05) different from all other groups, however, non-significant difference was observed in feed intake of groups selenium supplemented, vitamin E supplemented and vitamin E+selenium supplemented. FCR in group without supplementation was significantly poor than those of other groups, however, non-significant difference in FCR of groups selenium supplemented, vitamin E supplemented and vitamin E+selenium supplemented was observed. Results obtained from the study showed significant (P<0.05) differences on carcass characteristics i.e. liver weight and bursa weight, however, non-significant difference in dressing percentage, shank length, keel length, gizzard weight, heart weight, spleen weight and bursa of fabricious diameter due to supplementation of selenium and vitamin E was observed. Statistically significant (P<0.05) difference was found in liver weight of broilers between without supplemented and supplemented groups. The liver weight in group selenium supplemented was significantly greater from group without supplementation, however, non-significant difference was observed in liver weight of groups without supplementation, vitamin E supplemented and vitamin E+selenium supplemented. The bursa weight of the birds in group vitamin E+selenium supplemented was significantly lower from all groups, however, non-significant differences were observed among the birds in groups without supplementation, selenium supplemented and vitamin E supplemented. The results in respect of antibody titres against New castle disease virus vaccine showed that the groups supplemented either with selenium and vitamin E alone or in combination through feed or drinking water gave higher anti-NDV titre than un-supplemented group. The values obtained were 5.30, 6.77, 7.06 and 7.80 for without supplementation, selenium supplemented, vitamin E supplemented and vitamin E+selenium (D), respectively. The economics of production of broilers in different experimental groups indicated that average cost of production remained RS 91.86, 88.21,86.84 and 87.61 in groups without supplementation (A), selenium supplemented (B), vitamin E supplemented (C) and vitamin E+selenium supplemented (D), respectively, showing a higher cost of production in groups B, C and D by RS 3.65, 5.02 and 4.25, respectively in comparison to the control group on account of additional cost of supplementation with selenium, vitamin E and vitamin E+selenium, respectively. The average return came out to be RS 102.042, 104.304, 104.034 and 103.20 in groups A, B, C and D, respectively, and this variation was due to difference in cost of feed intake and weight gain of broilers in different groups. The average profit per bird in groups A, B, C and D was found to be RS 10.182, 16.094, 17.195 and RS 15.586, respectively, indicating a higher margin of profit in groups B, C and D by RS 5.912, 7.013 and 5.404, respectively, in comparison to the control group. CONCLUSION Based on the findings of this study it may be stated that dietary supplementation of selenium (3 mg/kg feed) in broilers may improve feed conversion efficiency. The dietary supplementation with vitamin E (200 mg/kg feed) may increase anti-NDV titres and may enhance economic returns in broilers. Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 1002,T] (1).

2. A Study On Single Nucleotide Polymorphism Of Chicken Growth Hormone Gene In White Cornish ,Lyall Pur Silver Black ,Aseel and Desi Chicken of Pakistan

by Mr.Imran Zahoor | Dr.Muhamad Akram | Dr.Abdul Waheed Sahota | Prof.

Material type: book Book; Format: print Publisher: 2008Dissertation note: The present study was conducted at Molecular Cytogenetics and Genomic Lab, Department of Livestock Production, University of Veterinary and Animal Sciences, Lahore and School of Biological Sciences, Punjab University, Lahore. For this Purpose twelve chickens, three each of four different breeds (White Cornish, Lyall pur Silver Black, Aseel, Desi,) were selected. LSB birds were collected from Agriculture University, Faisalabad. Where as birds of Desi and Aseel chickens were taken from Mianwali. White Comish birds were obtained from Big Bird Poultry breeders, Lahore. The pituitary gland of all the twelve birds of the above mentioned four breeds were taken out to extract the mRNA that was then converted into eDNA by using RT-PCR. Then that cDNA was amplified through PCR reaction. After amplification, the PCR products were loaded on agarose gel. Then these PCR products were cloned into vector in three steps. Firstly purified Gg GH mRNA was ligated into linearized pET22b. Then it was transformed into E. coli DH5CL with pTZ57R/GgGHG. Positive clones containing recombinant plasmid (pTZ57R/GgGHG) were screened by "Blue-White screening". Cells from a single colony for each of the W1 -W4 were resuspended separately in 50µl of sterile distilled water. This mixture was then used as template for PCR and the Gg GHG coding sequence cloned in plasmid DNA was then amplified and product was run on gel to study the result. These cloned products were used for the sequencing of growth hormone gene. Further results were obtained by using the consensus sequences of growth hormone of four breeds of chicken in ClustalW2 and Bioedit software and it was found that three SNPs were detected in Aseel, and one in each of Desi and LSB while comparing with White Comish. Out of three, first, second and third SNP were detected in Aseel at location of 261, 435 and 551 position of nucleotide in the exon portion of growth hormone gene, and C is replaced with G at location 261 and C is replaced with T at position 435 whereas at position 551, T is replaced by A. At these locations codon changes from CTC to CTG and TTC to TTC and TTC to TAC respectively. Only one SNP was detected in Desi and LSB at location 513 where A is replaced with G in both the breeds and codon change from AAA to AAG. To determine the relationship among all these breed (White Cornish, Aseel, Desi and LSB) a phylogenetic analysis was done. The phylogenetic tree was constructed using the presence and absence of restriction site and/or genotypic frequencies in the cGH motif of growth hormone gene. The phylogenetic consensus tree was constructed using the boostrapped data and neighbour-joining method. The Nei's genetic distance (Da) values of Aseel was 0. 00970, while comparing the genetic distances of White Comish with Aseel, it is found that there was a difference of 0 . 00320 and LSB has similar genetic distances and having no genetic difference among themselves. As LSB was evolved by crossing four different breeds Desi and White Leg Horn for female line and White Cornish and New Hampshire for male line so LSB is placed in-between Desi and White Comish as it has the 25% blood of Desi and 25% blood of White Cornish. Where as Aseel is different that's why it is placed far distant from three other breeds but as Aseel and Desi and LSB also are breeds of Asian origin and they were originated from red jungle fowl that's why Aseel, Desi and LSB (a cross of Desi with other three breeds; mentioned above) are placed more close to each other than White Cornish that is the breed of English class. In the present study, the Amino Acid compositions of the growth hormone of four different breeds of chicken were also studied and it was found that there although there were three mutations in Aseel but out of these three, two showed silent mutation and only one mutation was active. This active mutation cause change in the amino acid composition of the chicken growth hormone of these four breeds of poultry and in this study Phenylalanine is changed into Tyrosine at the location of 184t11 amino acid out of 191 amino acids (full length chicken growth hormone). But one mutation that was found in each of Desi and LSB in their comparison with White Comish were silent as the new sequences does not cause any change in amino acid sequence of growth hormone gene of Desi and LSB. CONCLUSION: In the present study, three SNPs were detected in the Exon region of the mRNA and one amino acid Phenylalanine is changed to Tyrosine, this amino acid change is in the conserved domain so it can be used as a marker for the further breeding program. RECOMMENDATIONS Present study laid the foundation of molecular techniques in the poultry but still 1. There is need of comprehensive study in which atleast 25 bird should be used in each strain. 2. Along with DNA study, there is need to study the phenotypic characters by rearing these strain upto three generations. Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 1003,T] (1).

3. Relative Biological Availability Of Feed Grade Dicalcium Phosphate & Monocalcium Phosphate And Their Effects on Productive Performance of Broilers

by Muhammad Asim Shahzad | Dr.Farine Malik Khattak | Dr.Abdul Waheed Sahota | Prof.Dr.Talat.

Material type: book Book; Format: print ; Literary form: not fiction Publisher: 2008Dissertation note: The live weights of different groups (A, B, C, D and E) gave non significant (p<O.05) results but numerically group D and E gave higher values, like wise, dressed weight were higher in group D and E. The dressing % of different groups (A, B, C, D and E) were also non significant (P>O.05). The liver weights of different groups (A, B, C, D and E) at 35 days of age were non significant (P<O.05). However within these groups, birds fed on control diet & DCP imported (group A & D) showed higher liver weights. Similarly there was n0 significant difference (p>O.05) in the heart and gizzard weights of different experimental groups. The result obtained in the course of this study highlighted an invaluable lesson. Regardless of the potential availability of the phosphorus in a feed phosphate, dietary factors and bird condition may result in a dramatically lower effective utilization of the phosphorus. It became evident that the availability of phosphorus was not an inherent property, characteristic of the material being assayed alone, but an experimentally determined value which reflects the absorption and utilization of the phosphorus ingested under the condition of the test. (Steven George Payne, 2005). Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 1018,T] (1).

4. Post Peak Productive Performance Of Local & Imported Quail Parent Stocks Reared Under Different Lighting Regimes

by Muhammad Karim Khan | Dr.Abdul Waheed Sahota | Prof.Dr.Khalid | Prof.Dr.Muhammad Akram.

Material type: book Book; Format: print ; Literary form: not fiction Publisher: 2010Dissertation note: The present study was designed to explore the photoperiodic effect of intermittent lighting on various economic traits as well as egg quality traits initiating from post peak egg production in quails. This study was conducted at Avian Research and Training (ART) Centre, Ferozpur Road Lahore with both local and imported quails maintained under different continuous and intermittent lighting regimes. The experimental quails were subjected to 05 different lighting regimes viz., A (16L: 8D), B (8L: 6D: 2L: 8D), C (8L: 7D: IL: 8D), D (8L :7.5D: 0.5L: 8D) and E (8L: 16D) from 23 -34 weeks of age. The group E (8L: 16D) served as a negative control and group A (16L: 8D) was a positive control, while, the three intermittent lighting regimes used as experimental treatments were named as B, C and D. From 15th to 221I1 week the quails were maintained on a long day lighting schedule of (16L: 8D) in order to create uniformity among birds. The effect of these above mentioned lighting schedules on early productive performance of this flock of quails was examined in another study. In this trial the same act of treatments was used to investigate its lighting effect on post peak production (from 23 to 34 weeks). The experiment was conducted on 240 adult quails (23 weeks old) under factorial arrangements of 5 lighting regimes x 4 purebred strains x 3 replicates having 4 quails (1 male: 3 female) each. The experimental quails were maintained in a 5 tier quail battery (each tier had 6 decks). The study was conducted under the same manage mental conditions. The weekly data on body weight, egg production, FCR (for egg production and egg weight), egg quality traits (egg weight, shell weight, shell thickness, haugh unit and yolk index were recorded. The data thus collected were statistically analysed using analysis of variance technique and comparison of means was made using DMR test. The results of the present study show that mean body weight under light regimes A, B, C, D and E was recorded as 268.81 (+5.09), 280.70 (+12.3), 267.96 (+2.99), 274.10 (+12.3) and 271.20 (+10.3)gm, respectively. A significant (p<0.Ol) effect of light treatments on body weight was observed. The highest body weight (280.70+12.3gm) was recorded under treatment B (8L: 6D: 2L: 8D)which was found to be significantly better than recorded under other treatments, however, A and C and D and E differed non- significantly from each other. Breed differences in body weight were observed to be significant (p<0.Ol). Significantly (p<O.O5) higher body weight was observed in strain M. Body weight between M and K and S and Z strains varied non-significantly. Light and breed interaction was found to be significant (p<O.Ol). The results on feed intake followed almost a similar pattern indicating significant (p<O.Ol) effect of light treatments, breeds and light into breed interaction. However, feed intake under light treatment A (16L: 8D) was more, which varied non-significantly with light treatment D (8L: 7'/2D: '/2L: 8D). The highest feed consumption (p<O.O5) in strain M, which also ranked best in body weight. A non-significant difference in feed intake of M and Z and S and K strains was observed. The mean egg production of quails under lighting regimes A (16L: 8D), B (8L: 6D: 2L: 8D), C (8L: 7D: 1L: 8D), D (8L: 7V2D: V2L: 8D) and E (8L: 16D) during the experimental period was recorded as 79.49, 74.65, 75.99, 76.33, 75.64 percent, respectively. The effect of lighting treatment was found to be significant (p<O.O5) on mean egg production. The birds in positive control group produced significantly (p<O.O5) more eggs when compared with birds on experimental treatments. The results indicated that light treatments of quails during growing period significantly (p<O.Ol) influenced the feed conversion ratio (feed/dozen egg) of quails during post peak production with significant (p<O.Ol) breed and light into breed interaction. FCR of quails of negative control group E (8L: 16D) was significantly (p<O.O5) better than all other light treatments. The strain Z exhibited better (p<O.O5) FCR than the strains M and S, however a non-significant difference between Z and K strains was recorded. A similar trend for FCR (feed/kg eggs) was observed except that Z strain exhibited better FCR than other three strains. The results showed non-significant close bred strain as well as light into breed effect. Breeds differed significantly (p<O.O5) in egg weight and K strain had greater egg weight than the other strains. The results in respect of yolk index and yolk height showed a similar trend. The yolk index in K strain was found to be better (p<O.Ol) than other strains except M strain. The yolk height was observed to be significantly better (p<O.O5) in strain M when compared with S and K strains, however, a non-significant effect between close bred strain M and K was observed. The results showed that quails subjected to different lighting regimes during the experimental period significantly (p<O.Ol) influenced egg shell thickness. The birds on experimental regime B (8L: 6D: 2L: 8D) produced significantly (p<O.O5) thicker shells than other competitive treatments. Breed and light into breed effect was also found to be significant (p<O.O5). Strain Z had the greatest shell thickness than all other strains. The results of the study in respect of other egg quality traits such as Haugh unit, egg shell weight, yolk diameter and albumen height showed non-significant effect ofdifferent lighting regimes applied during experimental period. The effect of breed and light into breed interaction was found to be non-significant. Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 1109,T] (1).

5. Effect Of Different Management Strategies On Growth Performance, Biochemical Profile And Immune

by Shahid Mehmood | Dr.Abdul Waheed Sahota | Dr. Khalid Javed | Dr. Muhammad Akram.

Material type: book Book; Format: print Publisher: 2013Dissertation note: Abstract Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 1768,T] (1).

6. Hatching Performance Of Different Broiler Breeder Strains At Four Production Phases With Three Different Egg Weights

by Hafiz Muhammad Ishaq | Prof. Dr. Muhammad Akram | Dr.Abdul waheed sahota | Prof. Dr.

Material type: book Book; Format: print ; Literary form: not fiction Publisher: 2013Dissertation note: Abstract Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 1940,T] (1).

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