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1. Effect Of Various Concen Trayious Of Hydrogen Pereoxide On Chemical And Microbiogical Quality Of Raw Buffalo Milk

by Muhammad Ilyas Alam | Prof. Dr. Muhammad Ayaz | Dr. Aftab Ahmed Anjum | Dr. Imran Javed.

Material type: book Book; Format: print Publisher: 2011Dissertation note: Milk is a complex mixture of fat, proteins, carbohydrates, minerals, vitamins and other miscellaneous constituents dispersed in water. Milk production in flush season is much more than in the normal. Milk production and supply fluctuate through out the year and during winter it is surplus to its demand. Surplus milk is available in winter due to new calving, less consumption of milk by the consumer. In winter season ample amount of green fodder is available to the animals which in turn increase the milk production. Milk and milk products being very delicate and perishable food require special handling prior to the consumption and further treatment. Pakistan due to its harsh climatic conditions people are using different methods, for the preservation of milk. They are using different chemicals, additives and antibiotics to enhance the keeping quality of milk. Present study was planned to investigate the various concentration of hydrogen peroxide or raw buffalo milk and its effect on chemical and microbiological quality of raw buffalo milk. Raw buffalo milk samples were collected from Dairy Animal Training and Research Centre, University of Veterinary and Animal Sciences, Ravi campus Pattoki Fifty samples of raw buffalo milk (100ml each) were collected to studied the nutritional composition and microbiological quality of the milk after adding the hydrogen peroxide. The hydrogen peroxide of different concentration i.e. 0.025%, 0.05%, 0.075%and 0.1% were used in this study. There was no significant change in the result regarding various nutritional composition of raw buffalo milk after adding the various concentrations of hydrogen peroxide. There is a slight change in the lactose % during study of 48 h storage of milk at different temperature. Statistically the change which occurred in lactose during storage is significant whereas over all decrease in Solid Not Fat is non significant Mean value of TPC of raw buffalo milk treated with different concentrations of hydrogen peroxide storage at the three different temperatures indicated that at 10° C TPC was very less as compared to control. TPC at 30° C after 48 h was 9.83x106.Which was very less as compared to TPC of control i.e. 1.195 x107. The effect of H2O2 on the quality of the milk is negligible as compared to the losses suffered without it. The hydrogen peroxide definitely have its effect as a preservative.. The use of preservative in milk and dairy products are not new in the countries where ambient temperature remains quite high. Our study suggests that the concentration of hydrogen peroxide to be used for the preservation of raw milk is 0.05 % to 0.1 % Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 1291,T] (1).

2. Survival Of Probiotic Bacteria In Commercial Infant Foods And Their Antimcrobial Activity Against Food Borne

by Rana Faheem Sakhawat Ali | Prof. Dr. Muhammad Ayaz | Dr. Imran Javed | Dr. Muhammad Nasir.

Material type: book Book; Format: print ; Literary form: not fiction Publisher: 2011Dissertation note: Novel bio-therapeutic agents (Probiotics) are live microorganisms that, when administered in adequate number provide health benefits to the consumer. Functional foods contain viable probiotic bacteria in sufficient population. Some manufacturing companies of multi national fame claim the presence of probiotics in their dairy and cereal products especially for the consumption of infants and growing children of different age groups. But neither a legal definition nor specific regulations governing probiotic food exist. There is no approved list of human foods and any bacterial strain of a known species that is traditionally used can be added. Pakistani parents spent huge amount to purchase the different infant formulas for the better nourishment of their children. Any information basing on scientific grounds which confirms the presence or absence of gut friendly bacteria will be of great value for the general consumers. It is important to ensure a high survival rate of these bacteria during the product shelf life to maintain consumer confidence in probiotic products. This study is presented to assess the viability, label correctness and diversity of Lactobacillus and Bifidobacterium species in powder milk and cereals recommended for infants. The viability of the probiotic microorganisms was evaluated throughout the shelf life. Antibacterial activity of the recovered strains was also measured against the common food borne pathogens. Isolation, identification and count of micro-organisms was carried out by serial ten fold dilutions prepared in PBS solution using the pour plate technique. Strains were propagated by inoculating the Lactobacillus in de Man Rogosa-Sharpe (MRS) and Bifidobacterium species in Reinforced Clostridium Agar under anaerobic conditions at 42°C.Typical cell morphology, colony characteristics and biochemical tests are used for the identification of isolates. Survival rate of the microorganisms was calculated by the viable cell count which represents the original concentration of probiotics in the infant formulation. Out of the total 45 analyses it is concluded that cereal food contains Bifidobacterium species only and the number of Bifidobacterium species in all three products is more than the Lactobacillus species. Moreover, survival rate of both organisms showed a decline pattern in the terminal stage of shelf life. Lactobacillus and Bifidobacterium species were identified and differentiated by the application of various biochemical tests including Catalase test, Carbohydrate fermentation profile and growth response at different temperature and NaCl concentration. Gram positive and catalase negative isolates fermented the glucose without the production of CO2. Isolates were tested for their antimicrobial activity using the Stab overlay, Cross streak and Agar well diffusion method against the common food borne pathogenic bacteria i.e. E.coli, Staphylococcs aureus, Salmonella species and Bacillus subtilus. After the completion of experiments it is concluded that Bifidobacterium species have more inhibition effect against the pathogens as compare to Lactobacillus species. Overall effect of isolates was mild to strong inhibition. Bacillus subtilus was resistant to probiotics as compare to the rest of three pathogenic bacteria. Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 1292,T] (1).

3. Development And Sensory Evaluation Of Flavored Probiotic Acidophilus Milk

by Muhammad Junaid | Dr. Imran Javed | Prof. Dr. Muhammad Ayaz.

Material type: book Book; Format: print Publisher: 2011Dissertation note: Fermented milk products are the foods that have been fermented with lactic acid bacteria includes Lactobacillus, Lactococcus, Leuconostoc, bifidobacterium etc. These are of great significance as they not only preserve the surplus milk but also provide vast quantities of nutritious and healthy foods in a wide variation of flavors, aromas and textures. Acidophilus milk is one of the fermented milk products in which probiotic starter culture is used for fermentation. This probiotic product not only adds to the taste but also improves the digestibility of milk. This value added product helps in maintaining the normal mocroflora of GIT by boosting the number of friendly intestinal bacteria. Decreasing the incidence of pediatric diarrhea, reducing serum cholesterol concentration, reducing the risk of coronary heart diseases are some of health promoting benefits of this value added product. Presently in Pakistan none of the dairy company is producing value added flavored acidophilus milk product using probiotic culture so the research project was designed in a way to develop flavored probiotic acidophilus milk which has its health benefits along with fulfilling the nutritional requirement with acceptable organoleptic characteristics. Consumer acceptability was found to be important for product development and its marketing. The aim of the present study was the development the probiotic acidophilus milk having health promoting benefits of probiotics and to appeal its consumer recognition by flavoring the product. For flavoring purpose different food grade flavors like strawberry, chocolate and vanilla at different levels was used with the purpose of providing our people with good, nutritional, healthy and value added product through research and development. Flavored probiotic acidophilus milk is a product in which the milk a perishable commodity was fermented using the pure culture of Lactobacillus acidophilus as a starter culture. The freshly drawn raw milk used in the study was obtained from Dairy Animal Training and Research Center (DAT&RC), UVAS, Ravi campus, Pattoki. The whole milk was pasteurized at 72 °C for 15 minutes to kill the pathogenic microorganism and ensuring the safety of consumer. It was then standardized to 3.5% fat and 8.5% SNF and cooled at 4 ±1°C. This standardized milk was used for preparation of flavored probiotic acidophilus milk. The microbiological identification and confirmation of Lactobacillus acidophilus starter culture procured from starter culture collection center (Danisco) was carried out in the postgraduate laboratory of Department of Dairy Technology UVAS, Ravi campus, Pattoki. The freeze dried culture was activated by inoculating and growing it in sterile whole milk at 40 ±1ºC and then maintained at 4 ± 1ºC. Preliminary studies were performed to optimize and standardize the conditions like culture concentration (to be added in the milk for acidification and fermentation), temperature of incubation and time duration for incubation during the preparation of probiotic acidophilus milk. This task was accomplished by using culture varying in concentration form 1-5%. Similarly temperature variations were studied at 30°C, 35 °C and 40 °C. Time for incubation was given 04hrs and 08hrs for each culture concentration at different temperatures. The results of preliminary studies showed the development of probiotic acidophilus milk by inoculating with Lactobacillus acidophilus culture at 01% concentration incubated at 40 °C for 04hrs as the best choice. The actual product development phase started after finding the best combination of culture concentration with temperature of incubation and time for incubation. During this phase the standardized and pasteurized milk (200ml) equilibrated for one hour at the fermentation temperature (40ºC) in a water bath was inoculated with overnight fresh culture of Lactobacillus acidophilus at the rate of 1%. Thereafter it was flavored using three different flavors e.g., mango, strawberry, and pineapple. Fermentation time was given 4hrs and the temperature of milk was maintained at 40ºC. The flavored probiotic acidophilus milk after its development was cooled and stored at 4±1 °C up to six days. During storage the prepared flavored Probiotic acidophilus milk was evaluated for its sensory attributes. A panel of 10 judges evaluated the product for color, taste, aroma, appearance, acidic flavor and overall acceptability on 9-point hedonic scale (9 = like very much; 1 = dislike very much). The sensory evaluation of the product at day-1 and day-6 of its production was carried out in the Department of Dairy Technology University of Veterinary and Animal Sciences, Ravi Campus, Pattoki. The sensory evaluation performa was prepared and distributed to the panelist along with the consent form to participate in this sensory evaluation. The flavored probiotic acidophilus milk, prepared, was evaluated regularly for physico-chemical analysis, based on pH and titrateable acidity (expressed as lactic acid %) during its storage up to six days with one day interval. The total viable count of the product was also determined microbiologically at day-1 and day-6 to study the viability of culture in the probiotic product. All the results obtained were analyzed thorough analysis of variance technique (ANOVA). The significant differences were compared using Duncan's Multiple Range (DMR) test with a probability P ? 0.05. Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 1296,T] (1).

4. Physico-Chemical And Sensory Characteristics Of Feta Cheese Made From Sheep Milk Blends.

by Muhammad Adeel | Dr. Imran Javed | Dr. Muhammad Nasir | Dr. Saima Inayat.

Material type: book Book; Format: print ; Literary form: not fiction Publisher: 2013Dissertation note: Abstract Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 1639,T] (1).

5. Oxidative Stabilization Of Butter Oil (Enriched With Iron) By Natural Nanti-Oxidant

by Ikramullah | dr. Imran Javed | Mr. Ishtiaque Ahmad | Prof. Dr.

Material type: book Book; Format: print Publisher: 2013Dissertation note: The chief purpose of this study was developed to check the natural antioxidant prospective of sesame oil against oxidation of iron fortified butter oil during storage period by using different concentrations and to investigate oxidative stability. Sesame oil and turmeric powder was used as natural antioxidants and was augmented in butter oil at 3 different levels i.e. 5%, 10% and 15% of sesame oil and 0.10%, 0.15%, 0.20% of turmeric powder in T1, T2 and T3 respectively. These three treatments were matched with control T0 which did not contain any antioxidant. Butter oil was procured having 0.27% moisture. Then the antioxidants were augmented and mixed thoroughly and stored at 40 0C in an incubation lab up to 90 days. After that all the four treatments were analyzed to check the oxidative stability by using chemical parameters like POV, FFA, TBA, Shaal oven test and rancidity at zero day and after every 1 month of storage period up to 3 months. The oxidation of iron fortified butter oil reduces their shelf life. These natural antioxidants are effective against oxidation. Due to this reason, a number of legislations of the world are emphasizing on the use of these natural antioxidants. Also at the international level there is emphasis on the use of natural sources of antioxidants to reduce the oxidation problems in food fat. The Sesame oil was incorporated in the iron (Iron sulfate) fortified butter oil. To check oxidation, peroxide value, TBA value and FFA etc. were used as a tool to determine the oxidative stability. During the storage period, prepared samples were also evaluated to check their sensory attributes. The data collected was analyzed using two way Analysis of Variance (ANOVA) techniques. In Pakistan, a very little work has been done to check the potential of natural sources of anti-oxidants for the oxidative stabilization of fat based dairy products. This study will be highly helpful to explore the potential of natural plant source antioxidants against oxidative stabilization of butter oil. Fortified butter oil can also be further used to develop value added dairy products. In addition, we are able to generate an inventory for the replacement of health hazardous synthetic anti-oxidants by natural sources of plant anti-oxidants. That was a very positive exploitation of indigenous sources which can even be used as a reference in future to control the oxidation of fat based dairy products. Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 1654,T] (1).

6. Improving Nutritional Value And Acceptability Of Dairy Products With Lower Contents Of Saturated Fatty

by Muhammad Nadeem | Dr. Muhammad Ayaz | Dr. Imran Javed | Prof. Dr. Muhammad.

Material type: book Book; Format: print Publisher: 2013Dissertation note: Abstract Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 1742,T] (1).

7. Survival Of Probiotics In Yogurt Ice Cream

by Hafiz Shahzad Muzammil | Dr. Imran Javed | Dr.Muhammad Ayaz | Prof. Dr.

Material type: book Book; Format: print ; Literary form: not fiction Publisher: 2013Dissertation note: This study was designed to produce the yogurt ice cream containing probiotic microorganisms with the recommended levels (106-107) of live cells at the time consumption. The mixture was supplemented before freezing with prebiotics (inulin and oligofructose) and cryoprotectant (glycerol) to see their (prebiotics and glycerol) effects on the survival of Streptococcus thermophilus, Lactobacillus bulgaricus, Lactobacillus acidophilus and Bifidobacterium lactis during freezing process and in storage period. Along with bacterial population, the effects of prebiotics and glycerol supplementation on physicochemical properties like air holding capacity, fat components, protein contents, total solids, hardness, stickiness, melting rate, glass transition, air cell size and ice crystal size were also investigated. Glass transition temperature was analyzed in each treatment mixture before freezing with differential scanning calorimeter. The results from the data obtained at various stages of study have shown different variation pattern for each property. The initial count of each bacterium before freezing in all treatments with in experiment was similar and during the freezing process there was non-significant change in bacterial population. During the storage period at -20°C in the first three weeks there was less loss in all the samples (P<0.05). With the passage of time the death rate is increased in all the samples but this decrease was very less with supplementation as compared to control samples (P<0.05). In the prebiotic yogurt ice cream the greatest loss was observed in L. acidophilus (P<0.05), while the S. thermophilus concentration was the maximum among all the bacteria (P<0.05). At the Summary 110 end of 12 weeks storage period all the bacteria maintained the minimum required (106-107 CFU/g) concentration (P<0.05). The addition of prebiotics and glycerol has increased the total solids of all the samples (P<0.05) that would ultimately led to more overrun percentage. The supplementation of prebiotics and glycerol have shown non-significant effect on the fat quantity while decreased the protein concentration significantly (P<0.05). Fat and protein contents remained unchanged during the storage period of 90 days (P<0.05). The hardness increased with prebiotics and decreased with glycerol supplementation, while the stickiness increased with the increasing prebiotics and glycerol concentration (P<0.05). The melting rate has shown different behavior although the dry matter contents increased with prebiotics and glycerol but it did not support the slow melting (P<0.05). Prebiotics show less effect on glass transition temperature, the increase was very less almost to 1°C. Glycerol has shown most of the effect and it decreased Tg to near about 10°C in 4% supplemented samples (P<0.05). The overrun percentage show most of its effect on probiotics as these bacteria are anaerobic and grow best in absence of oxygen, but the addition of glycerol minimized its effect on survival rate of the bacteria. The overrun have shown no effect on total solids, fat and protein level but it decreased the melting rate at 22 °C. The air act as insulator and prevent the melting of yogurt ice cream (P<0.05). The hardness and stickiness also decreased with increasing level of overrun (P<0.05). The prebiotics and glycerol supplementation have shown non- significant change in air cell size and ice crystal size while overrun percentage has significantly decreased the air cell and ice crystal sizes (P<0.05). Summary 111 In conclusion, the addition of prebiotics and glycerol increased the survival rate by decreasing the freeze damage caused by large ice crystal formation and also improved the physicochemical properties of yogurt ice cream. Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 1769,T] (1).

8. Isolation And Molecular Identification Of Enterotoxigenic Escherichia Coli Strains Isolated From Raw And Pasteurized Milk

by Rahman Ullah | Dr. Imran Javed | Mr. Muhammad Junaid | Prof. Dr.

Material type: book Book; Format: print Publisher: 2013Dissertation note: Abstract Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 1816,T] (1).

9. Quality Enhancement Of Soy Milk And Soy Yoghurt Blender With Buffalo Milk

by Muhammad Asad Hameed | Dr. Saima Inayat | Dr. Imran Javed | Dr. Muhammad Nasir.

Material type: book Book; Format: print ; Literary form: not fiction Publisher: 2014Dissertation note: Yoghurt is a fermented milk product, which is produced by the bacterial fermentation of milk. It is a rich source of calcium, protein and vitamin B-complex. Lactose-intolerant people can eat yoghurt without any harm as lactose is converted into lactic acid by the bacterial culture. Yoghurt is more nutritive then milk and possesses better digestibility. The benefit of yoghurt depends upon the presence of beneficial viable bacterial culture in adequate number. The bacterial cultures are used in the fermentation process to metabolize the lactose, secondly the proteolysis of protein for improving bioavailability and thirdly lactic acid bacteria for production of some B-complex vitamins and vitamin K. Yoghurt culture are responsible for the production of aromatic flavor compounds. In Pakistan the production of soy milk and soy yoghurt isnot common because ofconsumerunawareness for such kind of products. Therefore, this study was designed to develop soy milk and soy yoghurt by using different concentrations of buffalo milk. To produce soy yoghurt, soy milk and whole milk was pasteurized at 85°C for 30 minutes to kill the pathogenic microorganism. Thencooled at 42°C. This milk was used for the production of yoghurt.Thecommercial starter culture was used for the manufacturing of soy yoghurt. This culture was imported from Italy. During storage the prepared soy yoghurt was evaluated for its sensory qualities. A panel of judges evaluated the yoghurt samples for appearance, taste, color and overall acceptability on 9-point hedonic scale (9 = like extremely; 1 = dislike extremely). The sensory evaluation of the product at 0, 7, 14 and 21 day was carried out in the Department of Dairy Technology, University of Veterinary and Animal Sciences, Ravi Campus, Pattoki. There was significant effect of storage on sensory attributes of soy yoghurt. Highest score was awarded to T0. Soy yoghurts were evaluated for physico-chemical parameters (Fat, protein, total solid, acidity, pH and ash) during storage of 21 days with 7 days interval. Fat, pH and ash contents were continuously decreased while protein, total solid and acidity values show continuous increase in all treatments. Soy yoghurt was also evaluated for microbiological examination (total plate). Highest microbial count was observed in T0. Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 1842,T] (1).

10. Isolation And Molecular Characteracterization Of Staphylococcus Aureus From Raw Milk

by Ibrar hussain | Prof. Dr. Muhammad ayaz | Dr. Imran javed | Prof. Dr. Aftab ahmad anjum.

Material type: book Book; Format: print ; Literary form: drama Publisher: 2013Dissertation note: Abstract Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 1853,T] (1).

11. Photo-Oxidation Of Pasteurized Milk In Polyethylene Pouch Packs

by Asif anwar | Dr. Muhammad Nadeem | Dr. Imran javed | Prof. DR. Masroor ellahi.

Material type: book Book; Format: print ; Literary form: not fiction Publisher: 2014Dissertation note: Abstract Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 1938,T] (1).

12. Incidence Of Spore Former Microbes In Pasteurized Milk Available In Lahore Disteict

by Muhammad Asim ikram | Dr. Imran javed | Dr. Saima inayt.

Material type: book Book; Format: print ; Literary form: not fiction Publisher: 2014Dissertation note: Abstract Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 2054,T] (1).

13. Physicochemical Microbiological And Sensorial Characteristics Of Probiotic Labneh Prepared From Different Milk Blends

by Zulqurnain | Dr. Imran Javed | Mr. Ishtiaque ahmad | Mr. Nisar ahmad.

Material type: book Book; Format: print ; Literary form: not fiction Publisher: 2014Dissertation note: Abstract Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 2104,T] (1).

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