Determination Of Feed Digestibility And Growth Performance Of Indian Major Carps (Catla Catla, Cirrhinus Mrigala And Labeo Rohita) Reared Under Similar Feeding Conditions
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Publisher: 2010 Dissertation note: Artificial feed plays an important role in semi-intensive fish farming, where density of fish is high. Fish feed development is the least developed sector in aquaculture, particularly in third world countries. The formulation of nutritionally balanced and acceptable diet for fish feed is possible only if information regarding its digestibility is available. It is well known that these two parameters, nutritionally balanced diet and its digestibility, play a key role for the development of artificial feed for fish. Determination of nutrient digestibility is the first step in evaluating the potential of an ingredient for use in the diet of reared species. Information on digestibility coefficients of feed ingredients is very useful not only to enable formulation of diets that maximize fish growth by providing appropriate amounts of available nutrients but also to reduce fish wastes.
The present study was therefore, designed to find out the digestibility of nutritionally balanced diet that contains cheap and easily available ingredients. The experimental and reference diets were evaluated for comparative growth and diet utilization efficiency in three Indian major carps (Catla catla, Labeo rohita and Cirrhinus rnrigala). The highest weight gain was observed in the Cirrhinus miri gala (20.57 ± 2.8 g & 0.7 ± 0.4 cm) followed by Labeo rohita (19.17 ± 3.02g & 1.1 ± 0.4 cm) and Catla catla (19.23 ± 3.Og & 0.4 ± 0.3cm), with the experimental or test diet (TD). The lowest growth was also observed in the Catla catla (14.6 ± 3.8 g & 0.2 ± 0.1cm) with reference diet (RD). Growth, FCR and digestibility of nutrients (Protein, EE, DE) were assessed. Proximate analysis (i.e., crude protein, gross energy, dry matter and marker estimation) of feed ingredients and formulated diets was also done. The highest protein digestibility was observed in Labeo rohita (83.4±3.5%) followed by Cirrhinus mn gala (82.2 ± 4.2) and Catla catla (81.8± 4.6%) The over all digestibility's of nutrients was higher for experimental diet in three fish species i.e. crude protein (84.4 ± 2.1), dry matter (33.3 ± 8.4), crude fat (82.1± 3.1) and gross energy (61.0 ± 5.1). Nutrient digestibility of reference diet were lower (crude protein 77.2 ± 1.3, dry matter 53.0 ± 3.0, crude fat 78.7 ± 0.58 and gross energy 58.3 ± 4.5) as compared to the experimental diet.
Similarly the FCR and FCE values for experimental diet (3.1 ± 0.12 and 32.4 ± 0.69) were better than the reference diet (3.8 ± 0.06 and 25.6 ± 0.58). Among three fish species the Cirrlzinus miri gala has better FCR and FCE (3.4 ± 0.57 and 29.6 ± 5.1) followed by Cat/a catla (3.5 ± 0.42 and 29 ±.0 4.2) and Labeo rohita (3.5 ± 0.49 and 28.5 ± 4.95), respectively. FCR and FCE ratios for reference diet was the lowest in the Labeo rohita (3.9 and 25.0), whereas Cirrhinus mrigala and Cat/a cat/a showed similar ratios (3.8 0 and 26.0), respectively.
Key physico-chemical parameters viz, temperature, dissolved oxygen (DO), pH, conductivity, total dissolved solids, were regularly monitored during the study period. All the parameters showed positive significant correlation with each other except DO which showed negative significant correlation. The correlation of physico-chemical parameters with growth was negatively significant whereas positive correlation was observed between DO and growths indicating that DO have a significant effect on the growth.
The over all results showed that the experimental diet (40% protein level) has better growth and nutrient digestibility as compared to the reference diet (24.5% protein level) which resulted poorer growth and digestibility values.
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Comparative Growth Rate And Body Composittion Of Major Carps (Labio Rohita , Cata Catla And Cirhinus Mrigala )
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Publisher: 2011 Dissertation note: Presently fish culture in Pakistan is primarily dependent on natural food produced in pond by the application of organic and inorganic fertilizers. It is supplemented with cheaper agriculture by-products to meet the nutrient deficiencies. Artificial feed which is a blend of various plant and animal by-products is rarely used. Development .of appropriate artificial feed now has become mandatory to transform conventional fish culture practices to advanced fish production systems to improve per unit fish production. The present study was therefore signed to formulate a quality supplementary feed from cheap and easily available feed ingredients that contains at least minimum required nutrients for different age groups (fingerlings and grow-out). The feeds developed during these studies were evaluated in terms of growth, diet utilizalion efficiency and its effect on the body composition and flesh quality of the three Indian majr carps (Catla cat/a, Labeo rohita and Cirrhinus mrigala).The study comprised of three trials. Trial I was conducted on fingerlings of individual species under monoculture system using 42% protein diet. Trials II and III were conducted on Grow-out fish using 35% protein diet under monoculture and polyculture systems. The study was conducted in earthen ponds having an area of 0.03 ha with three replicates and a control. After preliminary preparation of ponds, in trial I, fingerlings were stocked at 80 fish per pond. while in trial II at 70 fish of each species and in trial III ratio of 30%, 50% and 20% of Catla catla, Labeo rohita and Cirrhinus mrigala per pond were maintained. All the ponds received same amount of organic and inorganic fertilizers (cow dung, poultry manure, SSP and urea) thoughout the experimental period. Supplementary feed in trial I was applied at 4% of fish wet body while in trial II and III feed was applied at 3% of fish wet body weight daily. In trial I 42% protein diet was used containing fish meal. soybean meal. maize gluten (60%). rice polish, wheat bran. maize grains. molasses. vitamins and minerals while in trial II and III 3YYo protein diet containing fish meal, soybean meal. canola meal. rice polish. wheat bran, molasses, vitamins and mineral was used. Growth parameters in terms of length and weight gam were regularly monitored fortnightly. Organolept sensory evaluation was done at the termination of each trial. Proximate fish body composition was determined at the start and at the end of the experimental trials. Fatty acid profile of three experiments was performed at the post-trial basis. In addition, specific growth rate (SGR), feed conversion ratio (FeR). protein efficiency ratio (PER). protein utilization (PU). gross nitrogen retention efficiency (G RE %) and gross energy retention efficiency (GERE %) were also determined. Proximate analysis of feed ingredients and formulated diets was also done. Key physico-chemical parameters viz. temperature, dissolved oxygen (DO), free CO2, pH, electrical conductivity, total dissolved solids, light penetration. salinity and nitrates, were regularly monitored during the study period. In trial I the highest net weight gain was observed in treatment group (D 1) (Catla calla 9425.83 g and 171.5 mm) followed by Labeo rohita (374.34 g and 178.7 mm) and Cirrhinus mrigala (288.18 g and 161.9mm). The lowest growth was observed in Cirrhinus mrigala (176.9 g and 116.4 mm) in control (DO). A significant difference was observed regarding net weight gain among three fish species and between different treatments (DO and 0 I). The net weight gain was significantly higher in trial I treated (01) ponds than control (~O). Percent weight gain and specific growth rate (SGR %) were also determined. Labeo rohita exhibited higher values (1762.51 % and 3.03%) followed by Catla calla (1341.58% and 2.95%), while Cirrhinus mrigala showed lowest (976.17% and 2.6%) with experimental diet (DI) Again Cirrhinus mrigala exhibited lowest percent weight gain and SGR (300.85% and '1.54%)in control (DO) ponds. In trial II grow-out under monoculture the net weight gain of fish differed significantly among three fish species and between treatments (DO and D2). Calla catla showed highest net weight gain (37\.88 g and 72.2 mm) followed by Labeo rohita (310.18 g and 72.3 mm) and Cirrhinus mrigala (270.75 g and 57 mm) in experimental unit (02) while a lowest net weight gain of Cirrhinus mrigala (162.15 g and 36.5 mrn ) was observed in control (DO). Percent weight gain and specific growth rate of three fish species Catla catla, Cirrhinus mrigala and Labeo rohita under different treatments were found non-significant. Although Catla catla showed highest percent weight gain and SGR values (109.78% and 0.81 %) followed by Labeo rohita (90.93% and 0.69%) and Cirrhinus mrigala (84.3% and 0.65%), respectively with experimental diet (D2). Lowest values of percent weight gain and SGR (48.54% and 0.43%) were observed for Cirrhinus mrigala in control ponds (DO). In trial III grow-out under poly culture the average final weight of fish was significantly different in control (~O) and experimental diets (02) while species showed non-significant difference regarding final weight and net weight gain. The highest final and net weight gain of Lobeo rohita (679.46 g and 370.5 g) followed by Cirrhinus mrigala (674.52 g and 303.86 g ) and Catla catla (607.2 and 307.06 g), respectively in experimental unit (D2) while Catla catla exhibited lowest final weight and net gain in weight (493 g and 182.3 g) in control (DO). Regarding percent weight gain and specific growth rate of three fish species under polyculture system no significant difference was observed hence, Labeo rohita showed highest percent weight gain and SGR (126.87% and 0.9%) followed by Catla catla (l 02.31 % and 0.76%) and Cirrhinus mrigala (85.15% and 0.63%), respectively with experimental diet, while Cirrhinus mrigala once again showed lowest values (40.12% and 0.37%), respectively in control diet (DO). Feed conversion ratio (FCR), protein efficiency ratio (PER), protein utilization (PU), gross nitrogen retention efficiency (GNRE %) and gross energy retention efficiency (GERE %), in all the three experiments under monoculture as well as in polyculture system, for fingerlings and grow-out fish of three species were found non-significantly different. However, in trial I fingerlings better FCR values (1.63, 1.56 and 1.43) were obtained for Catla catla, Cirrhinus Mrigala and Labeo rohita. Regarding gross nitrogen retention efficiency Catla catla showed highest GNRE % value (10.4) followed by Labeo rohita (9.3) and were found significantly different from Cirrhinus mrigala (6.5) in experimental unit. In trial II grow-out monoculture, FCR values 3.7. 4.57 and 4.56 for Calla calla. Cirrhinus mrigala and Labeo rohita were pbtained while GNRE % varied 9.5,5.8 and 8.0. respectively. In trial III grow-out poIyculture the FCR values of three species varied from 3.99, 4.72 and 3.61, respectively while GNRE % varied from 10.3, 8.2 and 12.5%, respectively among Calla catla, Cirrhinus mrigala and Labeo Rohita. The Labeo rohita for GNRE% differed significantly from other two species. No significant difference among species and between diets (DO, D 1 and D2) was observed in proximate composition in all the three experiments. However, in case of fingerlings Labeo rohita under experimental diet (D 1) showed higher protein contents (16.44<Yo) while Catla catla showed the lowest protein content (12.9%). Crude fat contents were found highest (7.28 %) in Labeo rohita with control diet (DO) followed by Cirrhinus mrigala (6.96 %) and Labeo rohita (6.S2 %) in experimental diet (01) while lowest values were observed for Calla catla (4.17%) in control (DO). The Ash contents showed minor variations among species and treatments ranged from (4.81 % and 3.S6%) for Catla catla, (4.34% and 4.7S%) for Cirrhinus mrigala and (3.98% and 4.49%) for Labeo rohita in control and treated ponds, respectively. Highest gross energy was found (6.S3MJg'l) for Labeo rohita and lowest (S.OMJg'l) for Catla catla with experimental diet (D 1). In trial II grow-out monoculture the highest crude protein contents (1S .16%) were observed in Labeo rohita followed by Cirrhinus mrigala (14.S3%) with control diet (~O) while lowest for Labeo rohita (12.13%) in (02). Higher contents of crude fat (7.31 %) were observed in Cirrhinus mrigala followed by Catla catla (S.38%) in experimental group and lowest amount 3.18% and 3.19% was observed for Cirrhinus mrigala and Catla catla in control group (~O) . . Higher amount 4.11 % was found in Catla catla under control (~O) while lowest amount 3.1 % was observed in Labeo rohita under experimental diet (D2). Highest gross energy percentage 996.13%) was observed for Cirrhinus mrigala under experimental diet (D2) while lowest 4.91 % was observed for Catla catla in control group (DO). In case of experiment III grow-out polyculture the proximate body composition highest crude protein contents (IS.76% and 10.53%) were observed for Cirrhinus mrigala followed by catla catla 911.87% and 13.3S%) and Labeo rohita (12.72% and 6.S6%) in treated (D2) and control (DO) group. respectively. Higher crude fat contents (6.S7%) were observed in Cirrhinus mrigala under (D2) while lowest (3.13%) in Labeo rohita and (2.9S%) in Catla catla. Ash percentage was found higher in Catla catla and lowest (2.14%) in Labeo rohita and Cirrhinus mrigala (2.87%) under (DO). Gross energy contents were found highest (6.84MJg,l) in catlacalla under (DO) and (6.56MJg,l) Cirrhinus mrigala under (D2) while lowest amount (3.24MJg.l) were observed in Labeo rohita under (DO). Mineral composition of three fish species under three dfferent experiments showed non- sign ificant differences. Minor variation regarding mineral composition was observed in pre- treatment and post-treatment level. However. Ca and P contents showed relatively higher percentage than Mg and K contents in all the three experiments. A significant difference was observed in Mg contents in experiment III where Catla catla showed significantly higher (0.045%) percentage than Cirrhinus mrigala and Labeo rohita each containing 0.02%. A significant difference was observed in fatty acid profile among three fish species and between diets (~O, Oland D2). Among fatty acids, palmitic acid (C 16:0) was found a dominating fatty acids in all the three experiments. In trial I highest concentration (40.59 g 100 g-1 was found in Cirrhinus mrigala under (DO) and 37.19 in (D1) while lowest (30.75 and 30.78 g 100 g.l) in Labeo rohita and Catla catla under (D 1). The concentration of total saturated fatty acids were observed higher and ranged from (40.20 to 53.29 g 100 g-I) followed by total monounsaturated fatty acids (29.30 to 37.81 g 100 g-I), w-6 PUFA (7.65 to 14.94 g 100 g') and @-3 PUFA (7.76 to 11.07 g 100 g-I). respectively. In case of trial II significant differences were also found among three fish species and diets (D0 and 02) for different fatty acids composition. Palmitic acid (C 16:0) also showed highest concentration ranged from 28.36 to 29.73 g 100 g-I). Total saturated fatty acids were found higher that varied from (35.90 to 39.41 g 100 g-I) followed by total monounsaturated fatty acids (36.52 to 40.84 g 100 g-I), and l:PUFA (19.02 to 24.40 g 100 g-I), respectively. In trial III once again same pattern of dominance of palmitic acid along with total saturated fatty acids (36.43 to 42.24 g 100 g-I) followed by total monounsaturated fatty acids (36.899 to 43.72 g 100 g-I) and 2:PUFA (14.97 to 23.03 g 100 g-I) were observed. In case of organoleptic evaluation all the species under di Iferent culture system and treatments illustrated non-significant differences. Hence. significant differences were observed among different cooking processes (steamed and fried fish). The physico-chemical parameters of pond water remained within the acceptable limit for Fish gowth. Although comparatively lower values of temperature were found for experiment II and III for grow-out trial that was conducted in fall. The correlation co-efficient studies revealed a positive significant correlation of temperature, TDS, light penetration and salinity with growth of fish species while pH showed positive non-significant correlation with growth of fish. It was concluded from the present study that both the experimental diets D I and 02 for different age groups (fingerlings and grow-out) showed significantly higher growth of all the three species in monoculture system. The diet D2 did not showed any significant higher growth in polyculture system but overall growth performance remained high in polyculture than monoculture treated ponds of grow-out fish. Comparison of species indicated that artificial diets (DI and D2) remained much suitable for Catla catla and Labeo rohita than Cirrhinus mrigala under both the culture systems. Non-significant difference was observed in the body composition and flesh quality irrespective of their economic viability. Information derived from the present research experiments will be useful in future research and formulating supplementary feed for Indian major craps for different age groups. It can also be helpful in understanding the mineral and fatty aeid profiles of the Indian major carps cultured under semi-intensive pond culure system whieh is first study of its kind on these species in Pakistan.
Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [ Call number: 1290,T] (1).