Comparative Growth Rate And Body Composittion Of Major Carps (Labio Rohita , Cata Catla And Cirhinus Mrigala )
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Publisher: 2011 Dissertation note: Presently fish culture in Pakistan is primarily dependent on natural food produced in pond by the application of organic and inorganic fertilizers. It is supplemented with cheaper agriculture by-products to meet the nutrient deficiencies. Artificial feed which is a blend of various plant and animal by-products is rarely used. Development .of appropriate artificial feed now has become mandatory to transform conventional fish culture practices to advanced fish production systems to improve per unit fish production. The present study was therefore signed to formulate a quality supplementary feed from cheap and easily available feed ingredients that contains at least minimum required nutrients for different age groups (fingerlings and grow-out). The feeds developed during these studies were evaluated in terms of growth, diet utilizalion efficiency and its effect on the body composition and flesh quality of the three Indian majr carps (Catla cat/a, Labeo rohita and Cirrhinus mrigala).The study comprised of three trials. Trial I was conducted on fingerlings of individual species under monoculture system using 42% protein diet. Trials II and III were conducted on Grow-out fish using 35% protein diet under monoculture and polyculture systems. The study was conducted in earthen ponds having an area of 0.03 ha with three replicates and a control. After preliminary preparation of ponds, in trial I, fingerlings were stocked at 80 fish per pond. while in trial II at 70 fish of each species and in trial III ratio of 30%, 50% and 20% of Catla catla, Labeo rohita and Cirrhinus mrigala per pond were maintained. All the ponds received same amount of organic and inorganic fertilizers (cow dung, poultry manure, SSP and urea) thoughout the experimental period. Supplementary feed in trial I was applied at 4% of fish wet body while in trial II and III feed was applied at 3% of fish wet body weight daily. In trial I 42% protein diet was used containing fish meal. soybean meal. maize gluten (60%). rice polish, wheat bran. maize grains. molasses. vitamins and minerals while in trial II and III 3YYo protein diet containing fish meal, soybean meal. canola meal. rice polish. wheat bran, molasses, vitamins and mineral was used. Growth parameters in terms of length and weight gam were regularly monitored fortnightly. Organolept sensory evaluation was done at the termination of each trial. Proximate fish body composition was determined at the start and at the end of the experimental trials. Fatty acid profile of three experiments was performed at the post-trial basis. In addition, specific growth rate (SGR), feed conversion ratio (FeR). protein efficiency ratio (PER). protein utilization (PU). gross nitrogen retention efficiency (G RE %) and gross energy retention efficiency (GERE %) were also determined. Proximate analysis of feed ingredients and formulated diets was also done. Key physico-chemical parameters viz. temperature, dissolved oxygen (DO), free CO2, pH, electrical conductivity, total dissolved solids, light penetration. salinity and nitrates, were regularly monitored during the study period. In trial I the highest net weight gain was observed in treatment group (D 1) (Catla calla 9425.83 g and 171.5 mm) followed by Labeo rohita (374.34 g and 178.7 mm) and Cirrhinus mrigala (288.18 g and 161.9mm). The lowest growth was observed in Cirrhinus mrigala (176.9 g and 116.4 mm) in control (DO). A significant difference was observed regarding net weight gain among three fish species and between different treatments (DO and 0 I). The net weight gain was significantly higher in trial I treated (01) ponds than control (~O). Percent weight gain and specific growth rate (SGR %) were also determined. Labeo rohita exhibited higher values (1762.51 % and 3.03%) followed by Catla calla (1341.58% and 2.95%), while Cirrhinus mrigala showed lowest (976.17% and 2.6%) with experimental diet (DI) Again Cirrhinus mrigala exhibited lowest percent weight gain and SGR (300.85% and '1.54%)in control (DO) ponds. In trial II grow-out under monoculture the net weight gain of fish differed significantly among three fish species and between treatments (DO and D2). Calla catla showed highest net weight gain (37\.88 g and 72.2 mm) followed by Labeo rohita (310.18 g and 72.3 mm) and Cirrhinus mrigala (270.75 g and 57 mm) in experimental unit (02) while a lowest net weight gain of Cirrhinus mrigala (162.15 g and 36.5 mrn ) was observed in control (DO). Percent weight gain and specific growth rate of three fish species Catla catla, Cirrhinus mrigala and Labeo rohita under different treatments were found non-significant. Although Catla catla showed highest percent weight gain and SGR values (109.78% and 0.81 %) followed by Labeo rohita (90.93% and 0.69%) and Cirrhinus mrigala (84.3% and 0.65%), respectively with experimental diet (D2). Lowest values of percent weight gain and SGR (48.54% and 0.43%) were observed for Cirrhinus mrigala in control ponds (DO). In trial III grow-out under poly culture the average final weight of fish was significantly different in control (~O) and experimental diets (02) while species showed non-significant difference regarding final weight and net weight gain. The highest final and net weight gain of Lobeo rohita (679.46 g and 370.5 g) followed by Cirrhinus mrigala (674.52 g and 303.86 g ) and Catla catla (607.2 and 307.06 g), respectively in experimental unit (D2) while Catla catla exhibited lowest final weight and net gain in weight (493 g and 182.3 g) in control (DO). Regarding percent weight gain and specific growth rate of three fish species under polyculture system no significant difference was observed hence, Labeo rohita showed highest percent weight gain and SGR (126.87% and 0.9%) followed by Catla catla (l 02.31 % and 0.76%) and Cirrhinus mrigala (85.15% and 0.63%), respectively with experimental diet, while Cirrhinus mrigala once again showed lowest values (40.12% and 0.37%), respectively in control diet (DO). Feed conversion ratio (FCR), protein efficiency ratio (PER), protein utilization (PU), gross nitrogen retention efficiency (GNRE %) and gross energy retention efficiency (GERE %), in all the three experiments under monoculture as well as in polyculture system, for fingerlings and grow-out fish of three species were found non-significantly different. However, in trial I fingerlings better FCR values (1.63, 1.56 and 1.43) were obtained for Catla catla, Cirrhinus Mrigala and Labeo rohita. Regarding gross nitrogen retention efficiency Catla catla showed highest GNRE % value (10.4) followed by Labeo rohita (9.3) and were found significantly different from Cirrhinus mrigala (6.5) in experimental unit. In trial II grow-out monoculture, FCR values 3.7. 4.57 and 4.56 for Calla calla. Cirrhinus mrigala and Labeo rohita were pbtained while GNRE % varied 9.5,5.8 and 8.0. respectively. In trial III grow-out poIyculture the FCR values of three species varied from 3.99, 4.72 and 3.61, respectively while GNRE % varied from 10.3, 8.2 and 12.5%, respectively among Calla catla, Cirrhinus mrigala and Labeo Rohita. The Labeo rohita for GNRE% differed significantly from other two species. No significant difference among species and between diets (DO, D 1 and D2) was observed in proximate composition in all the three experiments. However, in case of fingerlings Labeo rohita under experimental diet (D 1) showed higher protein contents (16.44<Yo) while Catla catla showed the lowest protein content (12.9%). Crude fat contents were found highest (7.28 %) in Labeo rohita with control diet (DO) followed by Cirrhinus mrigala (6.96 %) and Labeo rohita (6.S2 %) in experimental diet (01) while lowest values were observed for Calla catla (4.17%) in control (DO). The Ash contents showed minor variations among species and treatments ranged from (4.81 % and 3.S6%) for Catla catla, (4.34% and 4.7S%) for Cirrhinus mrigala and (3.98% and 4.49%) for Labeo rohita in control and treated ponds, respectively. Highest gross energy was found (6.S3MJg'l) for Labeo rohita and lowest (S.OMJg'l) for Catla catla with experimental diet (D 1). In trial II grow-out monoculture the highest crude protein contents (1S .16%) were observed in Labeo rohita followed by Cirrhinus mrigala (14.S3%) with control diet (~O) while lowest for Labeo rohita (12.13%) in (02). Higher contents of crude fat (7.31 %) were observed in Cirrhinus mrigala followed by Catla catla (S.38%) in experimental group and lowest amount 3.18% and 3.19% was observed for Cirrhinus mrigala and Catla catla in control group (~O) . . Higher amount 4.11 % was found in Catla catla under control (~O) while lowest amount 3.1 % was observed in Labeo rohita under experimental diet (D2). Highest gross energy percentage 996.13%) was observed for Cirrhinus mrigala under experimental diet (D2) while lowest 4.91 % was observed for Catla catla in control group (DO). In case of experiment III grow-out polyculture the proximate body composition highest crude protein contents (IS.76% and 10.53%) were observed for Cirrhinus mrigala followed by catla catla 911.87% and 13.3S%) and Labeo rohita (12.72% and 6.S6%) in treated (D2) and control (DO) group. respectively. Higher crude fat contents (6.S7%) were observed in Cirrhinus mrigala under (D2) while lowest (3.13%) in Labeo rohita and (2.9S%) in Catla catla. Ash percentage was found higher in Catla catla and lowest (2.14%) in Labeo rohita and Cirrhinus mrigala (2.87%) under (DO). Gross energy contents were found highest (6.84MJg,l) in catlacalla under (DO) and (6.56MJg,l) Cirrhinus mrigala under (D2) while lowest amount (3.24MJg.l) were observed in Labeo rohita under (DO). Mineral composition of three fish species under three dfferent experiments showed non- sign ificant differences. Minor variation regarding mineral composition was observed in pre- treatment and post-treatment level. However. Ca and P contents showed relatively higher percentage than Mg and K contents in all the three experiments. A significant difference was observed in Mg contents in experiment III where Catla catla showed significantly higher (0.045%) percentage than Cirrhinus mrigala and Labeo rohita each containing 0.02%. A significant difference was observed in fatty acid profile among three fish species and between diets (~O, Oland D2). Among fatty acids, palmitic acid (C 16:0) was found a dominating fatty acids in all the three experiments. In trial I highest concentration (40.59 g 100 g-1 was found in Cirrhinus mrigala under (DO) and 37.19 in (D1) while lowest (30.75 and 30.78 g 100 g.l) in Labeo rohita and Catla catla under (D 1). The concentration of total saturated fatty acids were observed higher and ranged from (40.20 to 53.29 g 100 g-I) followed by total monounsaturated fatty acids (29.30 to 37.81 g 100 g-I), w-6 PUFA (7.65 to 14.94 g 100 g') and @-3 PUFA (7.76 to 11.07 g 100 g-I). respectively. In case of trial II significant differences were also found among three fish species and diets (D0 and 02) for different fatty acids composition. Palmitic acid (C 16:0) also showed highest concentration ranged from 28.36 to 29.73 g 100 g-I). Total saturated fatty acids were found higher that varied from (35.90 to 39.41 g 100 g-I) followed by total monounsaturated fatty acids (36.52 to 40.84 g 100 g-I), and l:PUFA (19.02 to 24.40 g 100 g-I), respectively. In trial III once again same pattern of dominance of palmitic acid along with total saturated fatty acids (36.43 to 42.24 g 100 g-I) followed by total monounsaturated fatty acids (36.899 to 43.72 g 100 g-I) and 2:PUFA (14.97 to 23.03 g 100 g-I) were observed. In case of organoleptic evaluation all the species under di Iferent culture system and treatments illustrated non-significant differences. Hence. significant differences were observed among different cooking processes (steamed and fried fish). The physico-chemical parameters of pond water remained within the acceptable limit for Fish gowth. Although comparatively lower values of temperature were found for experiment II and III for grow-out trial that was conducted in fall. The correlation co-efficient studies revealed a positive significant correlation of temperature, TDS, light penetration and salinity with growth of fish species while pH showed positive non-significant correlation with growth of fish. It was concluded from the present study that both the experimental diets D I and 02 for different age groups (fingerlings and grow-out) showed significantly higher growth of all the three species in monoculture system. The diet D2 did not showed any significant higher growth in polyculture system but overall growth performance remained high in polyculture than monoculture treated ponds of grow-out fish. Comparison of species indicated that artificial diets (DI and D2) remained much suitable for Catla catla and Labeo rohita than Cirrhinus mrigala under both the culture systems. Non-significant difference was observed in the body composition and flesh quality irrespective of their economic viability. Information derived from the present research experiments will be useful in future research and formulating supplementary feed for Indian major craps for different age groups. It can also be helpful in understanding the mineral and fatty aeid profiles of the Indian major carps cultured under semi-intensive pond culure system whieh is first study of its kind on these species in Pakistan.
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Studies On Genetic Diversity Of Labeo Rohita And Cirrhinus Mrigala By Using Molecular Markers In Punjab-Pakistan
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Publisher: 2012 Dissertation note: The studies on genetic diversity of Labeo rohita and Cirrhinus mrigala by using molecular markers in Punjab-Pakistan were carried out to investigate the genetic structure of said Indian major carps by RAPAD marker and the levels of polymorphism and similarity amongst the different groups of five populations of wild and farmed types. The results obtained from the present study after statistical analyses are presented in section-4 of this dissertation. The samples were collected from the following sites; for farmed fish was collected from UVAS-Fish Hatchery, C-block Ravi campus Pattoki district Kasur and for wild fish; from Trimu Barrage at the junction of River Chenab and Jhelum near district Jhang, Taunsa Barrage at River Indus near tehsil Kot Adu district Muzaffar Garh, Qadirabad Barrage at River Chenab near district Mandi Bahuddin and Baloki Barrage at River Ravi near tehsil Bhai Phero district Kasur. Analysis of variance (ANOVA) for the different morphometric parameters of study and Pearson's correlation among the physico-chemical parameters of water quality was done by Minitab statistical computer software. The XLSTAT 2012 version 1.02 of the computer software was used for the Pearson correlation analysis of the morphometric parameters of study. The same computer program was used for Agglomerative Hierarchical Clustering (AHC) of the different genotype occurrence on the basis of differences in morphometric parameters was done by Agglomeration method by following the Unweighted Pair Group Method with Arithmetic Mean (UPGMA). The Principle Component Analysis (PCA) on the basis of differentiation in morphometric parameters by Eigenvalues and differentiation into factors of the different genotypes from the different environmental conditions was done by correlation bi-plot/coefficient of the correlation (n) method in the same program. This software was also used to analyze the RAPAD data for Jaccard's coefficient by following the Unweighted Pair Group Method with Arithmetic Mean (UPGMA) for Hierarchical Clustering of the similar groups on the basis of similarity amongst the genotypes and the dendrogram generated is presented in the next section. The Principal Component Analysis (PCA) for grouping of the different genotypes from the different environmental conditions was done by Spearman Varimax rotation method for bi-plot generation of the co-occurrence of the same genotypes with similar genetic properties and specificity of different primersin the same program.
Following results were obtained:
1. Morphometric parameters of L. rohitashowed following trends: body weight, total length and average length of paired pectoral fins were nonsignificantly different (p > 0.05), fork length, dorsal fin length, caudal fin length and average length of paired pectoral fins were highly significantly different (p < 0.01) while anal fin length was significant different (p < 0.05) among the experimental sites. In case of C. mrigala, the body weight was non-significantly different (p > 0.05) while all other parameters were highly significantly different (p < 0.01) except the dorsal fin length which was significantly different (p < 0.05) among the study sites.
2. The results of the Pearson correlation of morphometric parameters showed that body weight of L. rohita developed a positive and highly significant (p< 0.0001) correlation with all the remaining morphometric parameters, the fork length of the said species showed a positive and highly significant (p< 0.0001) correlation with all the parameters except with the caudal fin length where the correlation was also positive but non-significant (p = 161). In case of total length of the fish body, the correlation was highly significant (p< 0.0001) and positive with all the parameters of study.The length of the dorsal fin showed highly significant (p< 0.0001) and positive correlation with all the remaining morphometric parameters under study. The caudal fin length of L. rohita showed a positive and highly significant (p< 0.0001) correlation with all the other parameters except the fork length where the correlation was positive but non-significant (p = 161). The correlation of the anal fin length of the fish body showed a highly significant (p< 0.0001) and positive correlation trends. The average length of the paired pectoral fins showed a positive and highly significant (p< 0.0001) correlation with all the remaining morphometric parameters of study, the correlation of paired pelvic fins average length showed positive and highly significant (p< 0.0001) correlation with other parameters.
3. The body weight of C. mrigala developed a positive and highly significant (p< 0.0001) correlation with all the remaining morphometric parameters. The fork length of the said species showed a positive and highly significant (p< 0.0001) correlation with body weight, total length and dorsal fin length while this correlation was positive but non significant with the caudal fin length (p = 0.228), anal fin length (p = 0.168), average length of paired pectoral fins (p = 0.031) and average length of the paired pelvic fins (p = 0.106). In case of total length of the fish body, the correlation was highly significant (p< 0.0001) and positive with all the parameters of study. The length of the dorsal fin showed highly significant (p< 0.0001) and positive correlation with all the remaining morphometric parameters under study. The caudal fin length of C. mrigala showed a positive and highly significant (p< 0.0001) correlation with all the other parameters except the fork length where the correlation was positive but non-significant (p = 0.228).The correlation of the anal fin length of the fish body showed a highly significant (p< 0.0001) and positive correlation trends with all the parameters except the fork length where the correlation was positive but non-significant (p = 0.168). The average length of the paired pectoral fins showed a positive and highly significant (p< 0.0001) correlation with all the remaining morphometric parameters of study except the fork length where the correlation was positive but non-significant (p = 0.031). InC. mrigala, the correlation of paired pelvic fins average length showed positive and highly significant (p< 0.0001) correlation with other parameters except the fork length where the correlation was positive but non-significant (p = 0.106).
4. Dendrogram generated on the basis of morphometric parameters of study dividedL. rohita genotype in to five major clusters or classes with 19.24% for within class variation while 80.76% for the between class differences. While the dendrogram developed for C. mrigala divided the genotypes in to four major clusters or classes with 27.28% for within class variation while 72.72% for the between class differences.
5. The results obtained from the PCA for morphometric parameters of L. rohitaand C. mrigalaindicated clearly that the increase in the number of factors or components was correlated with the decrease in eigenvalues. The values showed that its trend reached its maximum at level of second factor. In the same way according to the Kaiser (1958) criterion based upon the eigenvalues greater than one, first two main factors accounted for 80.273% of cumulative variability for L. rohita and 82.558% for C.mrigala. The PCA grouped the tested variables or parameters of the L. rohita,the first group amongst the major two groups accounted for 64.245% of the cumulative variability while the second from these accounted for 16.028% of the cumulative variability. The PCA grouped C. mrigala,also into two groups, the first group amongst the major two groups accounted for 59.323% of the cumulative variability while the second from these accounted for 23.235% of the cumulative variability.
6. The physico-chemical parameters of the water samples of all study sites were analyzed for correlation among them. The results were as follows; the correlation of the pH with water temperature (r= 0.107) and dissolved oxygen (r = 0.905) was positively non-significant while the correlation with electrical conductivity (r = -0.798), salinity (r= -0.888), total dissolved solids (r = -0.857), total alkalinity (r = -0.736) and total hardness (r = -0.499) was negatively non-significant. The correlation of the dissolved oxygen with water temperature (r= 0.313) was positively non-significant while the correlation with electrical conductivity (r = -0.669), salinity (r= -0.828), total dissolved solids (r = -0.809), total alkalinity (r = -0.930) and total hardness (r = -0.300) was negative but also non-significant as like with the water temperature. The electrical conductivity was positively correlated with all the physic-chemical parameters as with water temperature (r= 0.482), salinity (r= 0.925), total dissolved solids (r = 0.889), total alkalinity (r = 0.452) and total hardness (r = 0.906) and this correlation was non significant.The salinity amongst the water parameters was correlated positively with water temperature (r = 193), total alkalinity (r = 0.717) and total hardness (r = 0.734) and it was non-significant but with total dissolved solids (r = 0.994) the correlation was also positive but highly significant (P < 0.001). The total dissolved solids values observed from the study sites were positively correlated with water temperature (r = 0.172), total alkalinity (r = 0.734) and total harness (r = 0.657) and this correlation was non-significant. The correlation between the total alkalinity and total hardness was also positive and non-significant (r = 0.048).
1. In case of L. rohita, OPB-1 polymorphism remained as 16.67%, OPB-3 polymorphism remained as 40.00%, OPB-4, polymorphism remained as 16.67%, OPB-5 polymorphism remained as 20.00%, OPB-7 polymorphism was 28.57%, OPB-8 polymorphism was 20.00%, OPB-9 polymorphism was 25.00%, OPB-10 polymorphism was 28.57%, OPC-19 polymorphism was 14.29% and OPD-4 showed 50.00% polymorphism in amplification. In case of C. mrigala, OPB-1 polymorphism remained as 16.67%, OPB-3 polymorphism remained as 16.67%, OPB-4 polymorphism remained as 25.00%, OPB-5 polymorphism remained as 14.29%, OPB-7 polymorphism was 14.29%, OPB-8 polymorphism was 20.00%, OPB-9 polymorphism was 20.00%, OPB-10 polymorphism was 20.00%, OPC-19 polymorphism was 28.57% and OPD-4 polymorphism remained as 33.33% in amplification.
2. The dendrogram generated by UPGMA of RAPAD data of L. rohita by the randomly selected individuals with high scorable bands of the five populations grouped themselves in the first class/cluster while a single sample designated as Indus2 from the population from River Indus collected from Taunsa Barrage represents the second class/cluster and in same way only single individual designated as Ravi2 collected from River Ravi from the Baloki Barrage represents the third class. The dendrogram generated by UPGMA of RAPAD data of C. mrigala by the randomly selected individuals of the five populations grouped themselves in the first class/cluster and two samples designated as Indus2 and Qad2 from the populations from River Indus collected from Taunsa Barrage and River Chenab from Qadirabad Barrage represents the second class/cluster while one individual from the Trimu Barrage at the junction of Jhelum and Chenab Rivers designated as Trimu2 represents the third class and in the same way only single individual designated as Ravi2 collected from River Ravi from the Baloki Barrage represents the third class.
3. The PCA resultsfor L. rohitait can be assumedthat PCA grouped the tested variables or parameters of the fish RAPAD amplification data into two main components which all together accounted for 58.177% of the cumulative variation among the factors. The first group (F1) amongst the major two groups accounted for 33.327% of the cumulative variability while the second (F2) from these accounted for 24.850% of the cumulative variability. These results were also confirmed after the varimax rotation. By the PCA resultsfor C. mrigalawe can assume after observing the results that the PCA grouped the tested variables or parameters of the fish RAPAD amplification data into two main components which all together accounted for 70.866% of the cumulative variation among the factors. The first group (F1) amongst the major two groups accounted for 51.115% of the cumulative variability while the second (F2) from these accounted for 19.751% of the cumulative variability.
This study in this way has provided the genetic information of the present fish species and how evolutionary processes are affecting the fish fauna. So this study along with the strengthening of the academic research area has also proven an applied research which will help the breeders to the chose most fit candidates for the breeding program in the Pakistan.
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Possible Causes Of Selective Lernaea Attack On Different Fish Species
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Publisher: 2013 Dissertation note: The present study was managed to investigate the possible causes of selective Lernaea attack in different fish species. Planned studies were conducted in five trials. During the first trial lernaea susceptibility and infestation were observed in indigenous major and exotic Chinese carps. Studies were conducted in 4 earthen ponds with two ponds per experimental group. Fishes in the both groups were fed isonitrogenous diet containing 40% crude protein formulated with different feed ingredients. Fishes were identified and examined for the presence of Lernaea species. The parasites were removed and preserved in vials containing 5% formalin. Other growth parameters i.e. average weight gain, average increase in length while physico-chemical analysis including dissolved oxygen, pH, electrical conductivity, water temperature, salinity and total dissolved solids, Chlorides, Phosphates ions (PO4-2), nitrates (NO3) and secchi disk visibility were recorded. The fishes were treated with Tender, an organophasphate (DDVP (Dichlorvos) or 2, 2-dichlorovinyl dimethyl phosphate) for the control of lernaea.
The results showed that C. catla is the most susceptible fish to L. cyprinacea infestation and its appropriate control for conservation of this precious and declining fish is of extreme importance. Thunder is biologically safe as it is biodegradable and degenerated after 36 h without causing any negative effect on the water quality parameters and other water flora and fauna. Treatment of L. cyprinace with 'Thunder' (0.10-0.25ppm) gives promising results without adverse effect on fish life. Though DDVP worked well in its control but its heavy infestation really weaken fish incapacitating its feeding and competing abilities with its counterparts.
In the 2nd trial, comparison of bio-chemical profile was observed on healthy and infected Indian and Chinese major carps. The experiment was managed in four earthen rearing ponds (59m x 30.5m x 1.8m). There were two-groups, one group without any treatment served as control and the second as treatment. At the outset of trial all the fish species were weighed, measured and comprehensively examined for presence of L. cyprinacea and general health condition. Fishes from both groups were dealt uniformly except administration of regular applications of DDVP (0.25ppm in treatment group while no any medication in control group. Water quality parameters DO, pH, electrical conductivity, water temperature, salinity and total dissolved solids, chloride ion (Cl-1), phosphate ions (PO4-2) nitrates (NO-3) and light penetration were recorded. Samples of healthy and infected fishes of each species were collected for proximate composition (moisture, ash, crude protein, crude fat) and minerals (Iron, Zinc, Calcium, Copper and Magnesium) and phosphorous analysis.
The results showed that dry matter, fat and crude protein percentages were significantly decreased in lernaeid fishes. Moisture and ash contents of fishes increased in infected fishes as compared to healthy and treated fish. A slightly lower level of protein (12.65±0.49) and fat (7.30±0.28) in C. catla was observed than rest of the species. The protein was the highest (26.00±4.24) in L. rohita while the fats were the highest (10.55±0.92) in C. mrigala and C. carpio the second highest. Similarly looking at mineral profile there is not much difference, so it is hard to say that level and type of nutrients are solely responsible for L. cyprinacea attack. Mineral composition of infected fish indicated that minerals balance upsets during disease condition. Pathogenicity is a complex of so many factors, which encompass environmental, biological, and physiological so still lot remains to be explored before issuance of any concrete conclusion and recommendation that which factor is more active and critical in inviting and attracting this parasite.
In the third experiment, various blood indices were compared among Chinese and Indian major carps from the perspectives of their resistance against lernaeaosis that included probable role of blood and its components in reception of L. cyprinacea in some commercially important locally culturable herbivorous fish varieties while repulsion in others living under similar environment.
Healthy samples of each fish species were selected and blood was immediately drawn by puncturing gill lamellae, caudal vein and heart of both male and female of each representative experimental species. Blood parameters including Red Blood Cells (RBC, 10 -6/µL), White Blood Cells (WBC, 10-3/µL) and Platelets (10-3/µL) in blood from experimental fish species were counted by placing sample on haemocytometer grids. Differential Leucocyte Count (DLC), red blood indices, blood chemistry and ESR were determined for males and females of experimental fishes.
The results revealed that females of each species have relatively higher values for blood indices as compared to males. C. carpio has maximum number of granulocytes that may support the fish against the parasitic attack. C. catla has the lowest values for the immunoglobulin Ig M as compared to the species which showed less susceptibility.
In the 4th trial, healthy fishes of major and Chinese carps were collected from commercial rearing and grow out ponds. Each fish weighed 830 ± 316 g on the average. For mucus collection, fishes were bathed in Potassium permanganate (KMnO4) solution (8.0 ppm) to remove microbial or fungal infection/infestation. Samples were centrifuged at 12000×g at 4 ?C for 10 minutes and stored at -40?C in biomedical freezer. Bradford Micro Assay technique was applied to determine protein contents. Bradford protein solution (50 ?L) was added to each well and absorbance was recorded at 595nm. Standard curve was drawn from various but consecutive dilutions of BSA solution and protein concentrations in different samples were calculated. Electrophoresis was carried out with slight modifications. 15% separating and 4% staking buffer were used to run the SDS- PAGE under constant voltage of 120. Fermentas PageRuler™ protein ladder was used as the standard marker for non reducing protein. The gel was stained with PageBlue™ (Fermentas) stain for identification of protein bands for molecular weight determination. Lectin activity and Alkaline Phosphatase test were determined. Mucus was incubated with 4 mM p-nitrophenyl phosphate in ammonium bicarbonate buffer (100 mM) with 1 mM MgC12 (pH 7.8) at 30°C. The increase in optical density (OD) was measured continuously for 2 to 3 hours at 405 nm using a micro plate reader.
The results showed that lectin activity was the highest in C. idellus (109) indicative of low resistance while it was the lowest (21) in H.molitrix which was completely parasite free. Alkaline phosphatase level was the highest in C. catla, C.idella was the second highest and was the lowest in C. carpio. Protein concentrations were the highest in C. idella (3.29 ± 0.13 mg/ml) and C. catla (3.02 ± 0.57 mg/ml) while it was the lowest in C. carpio (1.80 ± 0.09). C. catla contained the highest molecular weight proteins (100 kDa) while C. carpio has one unique protein band of 14.13 kDa not present in any other species in current setup.
In the 5th experiment, the lernaea were observed in the month of June to August. Lernaeied infestation was observed in all experimental fishes except in C. carpio. After appearance of infestation fishes were treated with Thunder (DDVP- an organophasphate) to eliminate the parasite. Parasite free C. idellus, H. molitrix, L. rohita, C. mrigala, C. catla and C. carpio were collected with an average weight of 830 ± 316 g each were used for studies on whole-body amino acid composition. Triplicate samples of each species were over dried after evacuating their gut contents. Dried samples were then finely powdered, sieved and vacuum hydrolyzed in 2 ml of 6 N HCl at 1lO°C for 24 hours. Total amino acid composition was determined by o-phthaldialdehyde (OPA) method using an Agilent chromatograph, revers-phase high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). The results showed that the essential amino acids (arginine, lysine, phenylalanine, tyrosine, histidine and leucine) play a major role in the immune system. It is revealed that amino acids will widely become cost-effective neutraceuticals for improving health and preventing infectious disease in animals. C. carpio have no infestation due to increased numbers and concentrations of essential amino acids when compared to other species of Indian and Chinese major carps. C. catla, C. idella and H. molitrix have the lowest number and concentration of essential amino acids and hence appeared more susceptible to lernaea attack.
Finally it was concluded from the entire study that C. carpio may have high resistance for the L. cyprinaceaea as compared to the other experimental fishes. It possesses higher values for Ig M-immunoglobulin as compared to C. catla that indicated its high immunity against the parasite. Similarly C. carpio has maximum number of granulocytes (WBCs, esinophils, basophils and lymphocytes) that may support the fish against the parasitic attack. SDS-PAGE analysis of mucus revealed that C. carpio has one unique protein band of 14.13 kDa not present in any other species in current setup. This protein band may indicate the presence of lysozyme enzyme that actively participates against the invading pathogen. Essential and non-essential amino acids concentrations were also higher in the C. carpio that play a vital role in immunity especially arginine, lysine, phenylalanine, tyrosine, histidine, leucine, glutamic acid and aspartic acids.
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Effect Of Different Feed Ingredients On Growth, Hematology And Vital Organs In Juvenile Labeo Rohita
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Publisher: 2013 Dissertation note: This 9-month study extending from March 1, to November, 30, 2012 was conducted to find out the effect of different feed ingredients on growth, haematology and vital organs in juvenile Labeo rohita. The experiment was performed to find out the cost-effective substitutes of fishmeal and their effect on growth, digestive enzymes activity, blood profile, histology of intestine and flesh quality was monitored. To obtain the said objectives the experimental fish, Labeo rohita was subjected through three different research trials. i. A 3-month research trial was conducted to evaluate the effect of different plant/animal origin feed ingredients on growth, feed conversion ratio (FCR) and survival of fingerling Labeo rohita. Fish was fed on fish meal, guar meal, corn gluten meal (30%), soybean meal, sunflower meal, rice polish, cotton seed meal, canola meal and rape seed meal individually. Statistical analysis revealed significant differences (P?0.05) in growth, average weight gain, average length increase and specific growth rate among various ingredients. The highest average weight gain 27.162±6.950g and average length increase 6.153±0.833cm was observed in fish fed on guar meal while same was lowest 5.327±1.067g and 1.858±0.137cm, respectively in fish fed on corn gluten. However, fish showed better FCR values (2.01±0.08) when fed on guar meal while the FCR was very poor (9.57±48) for corn gluten (30%) fed group. The survival rate was highest (100%) for soybean meal fed group and lowest (70%) in canola and rapeseed meal fed group. ii. During second 3-month feeding trial, the effectiveness of individual feed ingredient from either plant or animal origin on growth, body composition, enzymes activity, haematology, histology and flesh quality of Labeo rohita was observed. The experiment was conducted in ten fiber glass tanks having size 12 ft x 4ft x 3 ft (length x width x depth). Single ingredient was considered as an independent treatment, hence guar meal, soybean meal, cotton seed meal and canola meal were considered as an independent treatment and fishmeal which was considered as a superior ingredient due to its ideal nutrient balance served as control. Ten juvenile Labeo rohita having an average weight of 200±2.33 g were harvested indiscriminately from the bulk and stocked in each fiberglass tank. Two tanks were randomly allotted to each treatment and control. Each group received uniform ration @ 4% of total fish biomass twice a day. Results revealed significant differences (P?0.05) in growth, FCR and specific growth rates among treatments. Weight gain was the highest in guar meal fed fish while the lowest on fish meal. Body composition of fish showed slight variations in fat contents with no differences in other nutrients though chemical composition of individual ingredient varies a lot. Minerals specifically Na, Ca, Fe, Zn, and Cu significantly differed (P?0.05) among treatments which might be linked with their variable release in digestive system of fish in the presence of various anti-nutritional factors. For different feed ingredients protease activity varied significantly (P<0.05) between anterior and posterior part of the intestine and also that of whole intestine when compared among various treatment groups. While amylase activity differed significantly when enzyme activity compared from the homogenate of whole intestine but not when compared partly. WBC, RBC, Hct, HB, PROT, ALB and GLOB showed significant (P<0.05) differences for blood samples of the fish fed with different feed ingredients while values of MCV, MCH, MCHC and ESR remained uniform. The feed ingredients differently affected the liver and intestinal cells. No difference was observed when fried fish fed on different ingredients were compared among each other indicating that ingredients with nominal variations in chemical composition do not leave much after effects on fish flesh. iii. Third 3-month trial was conducted to evaluate the effect of plant-animal feed and/or plant by-product based feed on growth, body composition, enzymes activity, haematology, histology and flesh quality of Labeo rohita. Fish fed on rice polish alone served as control (T0). Previously selected potential fish feed ingredients were grouped together with two ingredients in each isocaloric test diet which served as an independent trial during these studies. Group 1(T1) contained guar meal and canola meal, group 2(T2) soybean meal and cotton seed meal, group 3(T3) guar meal and cotton seed meal, group 4(T4) soybean meal and canola meal and group 5(T5) fishmeal and canola meal. Each group including control had two replicates. 12 earthen ponds with uniform area of 0.03 ha each, were randomly stocked with 100 fish (average weight 200±4.43g) in each following standard stocking protocols. All the 12 ponds were then randomly allotted to individual treatment including control group. Experimental fish were fed @ 4% of their wet biomass twice a day except Sundays which was kept open providing fish an opportunity to clean left over feed from the previous day. Better growth rate, food conversion ratio (FCR) and specific growth rate (SGR) in T3 than rest of the treatments including control suggest that guar meal and cotton seed meal is much better option to include in future feed formulations for maximum performance and minimum feed wastage. This preposition will minimize feed providing cleaner and healthy environment to fish ultimately enhancing stocking rate and fish production. Proximate analysis of dried and ground fish samples showed higher protein values in T4, fat in T2, moisture contents in control, dry matter in T1 and ash in T5. Mineral composition of Labeo rohita showed statistically significant (P ? 0.05) differences in Na, Ca, Fe, Zn and Cu content. Amylase concentration showed non-significant differences in anterior, posterior parts and the whole intestine in all the treatment and control ponds except T5 while protease concentrations were statistically significant (?0.05) in anterior and posterior part within the same group as well as among various groups. Enzymatic activity in whole intestine also varied significantly when compared among groups. Haematological parameters viz. WBC, RBC, ALB, GLOB and PROT differed significantly (?0.05) among all the treatments. Disrupted hepatic cords and hepatocytes showing pyknotic nucleus were observed in T1, moderate infiltration of fat vacuoles in T2 and, T4 caused vacuolar and hepatic cord degeneration while fish from T0 were subjected to severe vacuolation in hepatocytes. Non-significant differences in flavor, juiciness, and oiliness of fried fish from all the treatments and control ponds indicated that the sensory attributes of fish flesh were not affected by feeding fish with blend of various ingredients. It is concluded that the response of body organs varies with varying feed stuffs and the feed items have pronounced effect on enzymatic activities, hematological and histological parameters in juvenile Labeo rohita. During present study fish showed comparatively better growth when fed with guar meal as a single feed ingredient or combined with cotton seed meal than the rest of feed ingredients either offered individually or in combinations. The study provides base line information and will help aquaculture nutritionists to formulate cost-effective feeds.
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Studies On The Reproductive Biology And Induced Spawning Of Murrel, Channa Marulius
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Publisher: 2013 Dissertation note: Abstract
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Studies On The Effect Of Aflatoxin B1 On Growth And Histology Of Various Development Stages Of Catla Catla
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Publisher: 2013 Dissertation note: Abstract
Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [ Call number: 1990,T] (1).