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1. Aquaculture Engineering

by Lekang, Odd-Ivar.

Edition: 2nd ed.Material type: book Book Publisher: Malaysia: Wiley-Blackwell, 2013Availability: No items available Checked out (1).

2. Effect Of Different Salinity On The Growth And Survival Of Nile Tilapia (Oreochromis Niloticus) Reared in Cemented Tanks

by Khalid Javed Iqbal | Prof.Dr Naureen Aziz Qureshi | Dr.Zulfiqar Ali | Mr.Noor Khan.

Material type: book Book; Format: print Publisher: 2009Dissertation note: The experiment was conducted to study the effect of different salinity levels on the growth and survival of Nile tilapia (Oreochromis nhloticus) in cemented tanks having dimensions 2.896x0.762x0.914 meters (length x width x depth) or 2.018 cubic meters for three months (thirteen weeks). There were four treatments and a control; each having two replicate and 15 fish was stocked in each replicate. At the time of stocking, the average body weight of Nile tilapia (Oreochromis nhloticus) was 23.0±3.51 and 23.2±3.78, 22.2±2.98 and 22.8±416, 22.9±3.69 and 22.9±3.09, 24.7±4.50 and 23.1±4.98, 24.3±4.51 and 25.0±5.36 (g) in control, treatment 1, treatment 2, treatment 3 arid treatment 4 (Tank I and Tank2 of each treatment), respectively. Fish were regularly fed at the rate of 4% of its body weight on daily basis and growth parameters viz., increase in body weight and total length of fish were monitored on weekly basis. After recording data, fishes were released back into their respective tank. At the end of experiment the average body weight of Nile tilapia (Oreochromis nhloticus) was 43.2±4.87 and 38.7±5.47, 47.4±5.24 and 44.6±7.24, 48.8±7.33 and 44.4±6.54, 48.4±6.80 and 44.4±8.68, and 48.1±7.87 and 50.4±9.67 (g) in control, treatment 1, treatment 2, treatment 3 and treatment 4 (Tankl and Tank2), respectively. Physico-chemical characteristics viz., water temperature, dissolved oxygen (DO), pH electrical conductivity (EC) were also monitored on the daily basis. Better growth performance in terms a average weight gain (g) and average length gain (cm) was seen in treatment containing highest salinity level viz. 4000 ppm. Better food conversion ratio (FCR) was found in 1600 ppm salinity level and increases with increased salinity level. Feed intake was kept lowest at lowest level of salinity i.e. 800 ppm which linearly increases with increasing levels of salinity. It was noted that at high salinity the growth of Nile tilapia showed improved growth potential. This might be due to better ionic balance and improved acid-base balance in the body which leads to better performance. Physico-chemical characteristics viz., temperature, conductivity and pH showed positive and significant correlation but DO showed significant negative correlation on body weight and length, but correlation among both response parameters (weight with length) was significantly positive. Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 1072,T] (1).

3. Determination Of Feed Digestibility And Growth Performance Of Indian Major Carps (Catla Catla, Cirrhinus Mrigala And Labeo Rohita) Reared Under Similar Feeding Conditions

by Farzana Abbas | Prof. Dr. Naureen Aziz Qureshi | Prof. Dr. Azhar | Prof. Dr. Talat Naseer Pasha.

Material type: book Book; Format: print Publisher: 2010Dissertation note: Artificial feed plays an important role in semi-intensive fish farming, where density of fish is high. Fish feed development is the least developed sector in aquaculture, particularly in third world countries. The formulation of nutritionally balanced and acceptable diet for fish feed is possible only if information regarding its digestibility is available. It is well known that these two parameters, nutritionally balanced diet and its digestibility, play a key role for the development of artificial feed for fish. Determination of nutrient digestibility is the first step in evaluating the potential of an ingredient for use in the diet of reared species. Information on digestibility coefficients of feed ingredients is very useful not only to enable formulation of diets that maximize fish growth by providing appropriate amounts of available nutrients but also to reduce fish wastes. The present study was therefore, designed to find out the digestibility of nutritionally balanced diet that contains cheap and easily available ingredients. The experimental and reference diets were evaluated for comparative growth and diet utilization efficiency in three Indian major carps (Catla catla, Labeo rohita and Cirrhinus rnrigala). The highest weight gain was observed in the Cirrhinus miri gala (20.57 ± 2.8 g & 0.7 ± 0.4 cm) followed by Labeo rohita (19.17 ± 3.02g & 1.1 ± 0.4 cm) and Catla catla (19.23 ± 3.Og & 0.4 ± 0.3cm), with the experimental or test diet (TD). The lowest growth was also observed in the Catla catla (14.6 ± 3.8 g & 0.2 ± 0.1cm) with reference diet (RD). Growth, FCR and digestibility of nutrients (Protein, EE, DE) were assessed. Proximate analysis (i.e., crude protein, gross energy, dry matter and marker estimation) of feed ingredients and formulated diets was also done. The highest protein digestibility was observed in Labeo rohita (83.4±3.5%) followed by Cirrhinus mn gala (82.2 ± 4.2) and Catla catla (81.8± 4.6%) The over all digestibility's of nutrients was higher for experimental diet in three fish species i.e. crude protein (84.4 ± 2.1), dry matter (33.3 ± 8.4), crude fat (82.1± 3.1) and gross energy (61.0 ± 5.1). Nutrient digestibility of reference diet were lower (crude protein 77.2 ± 1.3, dry matter 53.0 ± 3.0, crude fat 78.7 ± 0.58 and gross energy 58.3 ± 4.5) as compared to the experimental diet. Similarly the FCR and FCE values for experimental diet (3.1 ± 0.12 and 32.4 ± 0.69) were better than the reference diet (3.8 ± 0.06 and 25.6 ± 0.58). Among three fish species the Cirrlzinus miri gala has better FCR and FCE (3.4 ± 0.57 and 29.6 ± 5.1) followed by Cat/a catla (3.5 ± 0.42 and 29 ±.0 4.2) and Labeo rohita (3.5 ± 0.49 and 28.5 ± 4.95), respectively. FCR and FCE ratios for reference diet was the lowest in the Labeo rohita (3.9 and 25.0), whereas Cirrhinus mrigala and Cat/a cat/a showed similar ratios (3.8 0 and 26.0), respectively. Key physico-chemical parameters viz, temperature, dissolved oxygen (DO), pH, conductivity, total dissolved solids, were regularly monitored during the study period. All the parameters showed positive significant correlation with each other except DO which showed negative significant correlation. The correlation of physico-chemical parameters with growth was negatively significant whereas positive correlation was observed between DO and growths indicating that DO have a significant effect on the growth. The over all results showed that the experimental diet (40% protein level) has better growth and nutrient digestibility as compared to the reference diet (24.5% protein level) which resulted poorer growth and digestibility values. Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 1151,T] (1).

4. Prevalence And Effects Of Lernaea Spp. (Anchor Worm) On The Growth, Skin Histopathology And Hematology Of Catla

by Huma Tufail | Prof. Dr. Naureen Aziz Qureshi | Mr. Noor Khan | Prof. Dr. Azhar Maqool.

Material type: book Book; Format: print Publisher: 2010Dissertation note: The experiment was conducted for the duration of three months in four earthen ponds each having dimension 21 xl 3. 5x2. I m (length x width x depth) to evaluate the prevalence of Lernaea spp. and its effects on the growth of Catla catla (Thaila) and hematology and skin. The data regarding the growth performance, Lernaea and ulceration prevalence of fish was recorded on fortnightly basis. The parasite was individually collected from each fish in all four ponds after fifleen days and a detailed microscopic examination of all individuals was done. The species found in the pond fish was identified as the Lernaea cyprincaea. Our results show the highest weight gain was observed in the pond 4 (413.7 g) followed by pond 2 (378.7 g) and pond 1 (359.8 g), and pond 3 showed the lowest weight gain (357.8 g). There was no significant difference between weight gains of Catla catla irrespective of the prevalence of lernaea species. The highest length increment was observed in the pond 2 (17.5 cm) followed by pond 1 (14.04 cm) and pond 3 (12.1). The lowcst length increment was in pond 4 (11.89 cm). There was no significant difference between initial and final length gain of Catla caila irrespective of the prevalence of lernaea species infestation in all ponds. At the start of studies there was no infestation of lernaea on thaila. Fish was healthy and fast growing but after fifteen days of stocking L. cyprincaea infestation was observed. infestation was observed in all ponds. There was gradual increase in the rate of infestation till half of the experimental duration irrespective of the environmental changes in all ponds. Increase in the L. cyprincaea percentage in first half of the study was from 20.51% - 36.25% in pond no.1, 17.75% -25.25% in pond no.2, 6.5% - 10% in pond no.3 and 14.75% - 13.1% in pond no.4. In the second half of the experiment fish was treated with KMnO4 @ 1 ppm and common salt @ 1% of total water volume in the second half of the experiment there was a gradual decrease in the lernaea percentage due to treatment. However, the proliferation of the lernaea remained after some time of the treatment, although the lernaea percentage was decreased at the end of study. Decrease in the second half of the study was from 6.9%-5% in pond no.1, 5% - 6.45% in pond no.2, 10.83% -5% in pond no.3 and 5.7% - 5% in pond no. 4. The percentage of L. cyprinacea infestation was compared and there was significant increase in the percentage of Lernaea with the passage of time. However, after the treatment there was a significant decrease in the Lernaea percentage at the end of study. The ulceration percentage in fish was also studied in relation to the Lernaea prevalence and it showed good correspondence and higher the prevalence with higher the ulceration was observed. The ulceration percentage showed a significant difference with respect to time. The histopathological studies of thaila showed a vast difference b/w healthy and lernaeid fish skin. Healthy thaila skin has no change and variation in its structure while lernaeid thaila skin showed deep variation and ulceration. Skin burst from epidermis and cutis till lower connective tissues. Study of hematological parameters of lernaeid and non lernaeid fish blood exhibited a significant decreased in Neutrophils, Eosinophils, Lymphocytes, Basophils, Monocytes and Thrombocytes count duration of the blood collection was four months. With respect to duration of exposure to parasites significant increase in the Hb and ESR and decrease in TEC, TLC, PCV and DLC show significant severity of parasitic infection. Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 1237,T] (1).

5. Comparative Growth Rate And Body Composittion Of Major Carps (Labio Rohita , Cata Catla And Cirhinus Mrigala )

by Noor Khan | Prof . Dr . Grant William Vandenberg | Prof . Dr . Makhdoom Abdul Jabbar.

Material type: book Book; Format: print ; Literary form: not fiction Publisher: 2011Dissertation note: Presently fish culture in Pakistan is primarily dependent on natural food produced in pond by the application of organic and inorganic fertilizers. It is supplemented with cheaper agriculture by-products to meet the nutrient deficiencies. Artificial feed which is a blend of various plant and animal by-products is rarely used. Development .of appropriate artificial feed now has become mandatory to transform conventional fish culture practices to advanced fish production systems to improve per unit fish production. The present study was therefore signed to formulate a quality supplementary feed from cheap and easily available feed ingredients that contains at least minimum required nutrients for different age groups (fingerlings and grow-out). The feeds developed during these studies were evaluated in terms of growth, diet utilizalion efficiency and its effect on the body composition and flesh quality of the three Indian majr carps (Catla cat/a, Labeo rohita and Cirrhinus mrigala).The study comprised of three trials. Trial I was conducted on fingerlings of individual species under monoculture system using 42% protein diet. Trials II and III were conducted on Grow-out fish using 35% protein diet under monoculture and polyculture systems. The study was conducted in earthen ponds having an area of 0.03 ha with three replicates and a control. After preliminary preparation of ponds, in trial I, fingerlings were stocked at 80 fish per pond. while in trial II at 70 fish of each species and in trial III ratio of 30%, 50% and 20% of Catla catla, Labeo rohita and Cirrhinus mrigala per pond were maintained. All the ponds received same amount of organic and inorganic fertilizers (cow dung, poultry manure, SSP and urea) thoughout the experimental period. Supplementary feed in trial I was applied at 4% of fish wet body while in trial II and III feed was applied at 3% of fish wet body weight daily. In trial I 42% protein diet was used containing fish meal. soybean meal. maize gluten (60%). rice polish, wheat bran. maize grains. molasses. vitamins and minerals while in trial II and III 3YYo protein diet containing fish meal, soybean meal. canola meal. rice polish. wheat bran, molasses, vitamins and mineral was used. Growth parameters in terms of length and weight gam were regularly monitored fortnightly. Organolept sensory evaluation was done at the termination of each trial. Proximate fish body composition was determined at the start and at the end of the experimental trials. Fatty acid profile of three experiments was performed at the post-trial basis. In addition, specific growth rate (SGR), feed conversion ratio (FeR). protein efficiency ratio (PER). protein utilization (PU). gross nitrogen retention efficiency (G RE %) and gross energy retention efficiency (GERE %) were also determined. Proximate analysis of feed ingredients and formulated diets was also done. Key physico-chemical parameters viz. temperature, dissolved oxygen (DO), free CO2, pH, electrical conductivity, total dissolved solids, light penetration. salinity and nitrates, were regularly monitored during the study period. In trial I the highest net weight gain was observed in treatment group (D 1) (Catla calla 9425.83 g and 171.5 mm) followed by Labeo rohita (374.34 g and 178.7 mm) and Cirrhinus mrigala (288.18 g and 161.9mm). The lowest growth was observed in Cirrhinus mrigala (176.9 g and 116.4 mm) in control (DO). A significant difference was observed regarding net weight gain among three fish species and between different treatments (DO and 0 I). The net weight gain was significantly higher in trial I treated (01) ponds than control (~O). Percent weight gain and specific growth rate (SGR %) were also determined. Labeo rohita exhibited higher values (1762.51 % and 3.03%) followed by Catla calla (1341.58% and 2.95%), while Cirrhinus mrigala showed lowest (976.17% and 2.6%) with experimental diet (DI) Again Cirrhinus mrigala exhibited lowest percent weight gain and SGR (300.85% and '1.54%)in control (DO) ponds. In trial II grow-out under monoculture the net weight gain of fish differed significantly among three fish species and between treatments (DO and D2). Calla catla showed highest net weight gain (37\.88 g and 72.2 mm) followed by Labeo rohita (310.18 g and 72.3 mm) and Cirrhinus mrigala (270.75 g and 57 mm) in experimental unit (02) while a lowest net weight gain of Cirrhinus mrigala (162.15 g and 36.5 mrn ) was observed in control (DO). Percent weight gain and specific growth rate of three fish species Catla catla, Cirrhinus mrigala and Labeo rohita under different treatments were found non-significant. Although Catla catla showed highest percent weight gain and SGR values (109.78% and 0.81 %) followed by Labeo rohita (90.93% and 0.69%) and Cirrhinus mrigala (84.3% and 0.65%), respectively with experimental diet (D2). Lowest values of percent weight gain and SGR (48.54% and 0.43%) were observed for Cirrhinus mrigala in control ponds (DO). In trial III grow-out under poly culture the average final weight of fish was significantly different in control (~O) and experimental diets (02) while species showed non-significant difference regarding final weight and net weight gain. The highest final and net weight gain of Lobeo rohita (679.46 g and 370.5 g) followed by Cirrhinus mrigala (674.52 g and 303.86 g ) and Catla catla (607.2 and 307.06 g), respectively in experimental unit (D2) while Catla catla exhibited lowest final weight and net gain in weight (493 g and 182.3 g) in control (DO). Regarding percent weight gain and specific growth rate of three fish species under polyculture system no significant difference was observed hence, Labeo rohita showed highest percent weight gain and SGR (126.87% and 0.9%) followed by Catla catla (l 02.31 % and 0.76%) and Cirrhinus mrigala (85.15% and 0.63%), respectively with experimental diet, while Cirrhinus mrigala once again showed lowest values (40.12% and 0.37%), respectively in control diet (DO). Feed conversion ratio (FCR), protein efficiency ratio (PER), protein utilization (PU), gross nitrogen retention efficiency (GNRE %) and gross energy retention efficiency (GERE %), in all the three experiments under monoculture as well as in polyculture system, for fingerlings and grow-out fish of three species were found non-significantly different. However, in trial I fingerlings better FCR values (1.63, 1.56 and 1.43) were obtained for Catla catla, Cirrhinus Mrigala and Labeo rohita. Regarding gross nitrogen retention efficiency Catla catla showed highest GNRE % value (10.4) followed by Labeo rohita (9.3) and were found significantly different from Cirrhinus mrigala (6.5) in experimental unit. In trial II grow-out monoculture, FCR values 3.7. 4.57 and 4.56 for Calla calla. Cirrhinus mrigala and Labeo rohita were pbtained while GNRE % varied 9.5,5.8 and 8.0. respectively. In trial III grow-out poIyculture the FCR values of three species varied from 3.99, 4.72 and 3.61, respectively while GNRE % varied from 10.3, 8.2 and 12.5%, respectively among Calla catla, Cirrhinus mrigala and Labeo Rohita. The Labeo rohita for GNRE% differed significantly from other two species. No significant difference among species and between diets (DO, D 1 and D2) was observed in proximate composition in all the three experiments. However, in case of fingerlings Labeo rohita under experimental diet (D 1) showed higher protein contents (16.44<Yo) while Catla catla showed the lowest protein content (12.9%). Crude fat contents were found highest (7.28 %) in Labeo rohita with control diet (DO) followed by Cirrhinus mrigala (6.96 %) and Labeo rohita (6.S2 %) in experimental diet (01) while lowest values were observed for Calla catla (4.17%) in control (DO). The Ash contents showed minor variations among species and treatments ranged from (4.81 % and 3.S6%) for Catla catla, (4.34% and 4.7S%) for Cirrhinus mrigala and (3.98% and 4.49%) for Labeo rohita in control and treated ponds, respectively. Highest gross energy was found (6.S3MJg'l) for Labeo rohita and lowest (S.OMJg'l) for Catla catla with experimental diet (D 1). In trial II grow-out monoculture the highest crude protein contents (1S .16%) were observed in Labeo rohita followed by Cirrhinus mrigala (14.S3%) with control diet (~O) while lowest for Labeo rohita (12.13%) in (02). Higher contents of crude fat (7.31 %) were observed in Cirrhinus mrigala followed by Catla catla (S.38%) in experimental group and lowest amount 3.18% and 3.19% was observed for Cirrhinus mrigala and Catla catla in control group (~O) . . Higher amount 4.11 % was found in Catla catla under control (~O) while lowest amount 3.1 % was observed in Labeo rohita under experimental diet (D2). Highest gross energy percentage 996.13%) was observed for Cirrhinus mrigala under experimental diet (D2) while lowest 4.91 % was observed for Catla catla in control group (DO). In case of experiment III grow-out polyculture the proximate body composition highest crude protein contents (IS.76% and 10.53%) were observed for Cirrhinus mrigala followed by catla catla 911.87% and 13.3S%) and Labeo rohita (12.72% and 6.S6%) in treated (D2) and control (DO) group. respectively. Higher crude fat contents (6.S7%) were observed in Cirrhinus mrigala under (D2) while lowest (3.13%) in Labeo rohita and (2.9S%) in Catla catla. Ash percentage was found higher in Catla catla and lowest (2.14%) in Labeo rohita and Cirrhinus mrigala (2.87%) under (DO). Gross energy contents were found highest (6.84MJg,l) in catlacalla under (DO) and (6.56MJg,l) Cirrhinus mrigala under (D2) while lowest amount (3.24MJg.l) were observed in Labeo rohita under (DO). Mineral composition of three fish species under three dfferent experiments showed non- sign ificant differences. Minor variation regarding mineral composition was observed in pre- treatment and post-treatment level. However. Ca and P contents showed relatively higher percentage than Mg and K contents in all the three experiments. A significant difference was observed in Mg contents in experiment III where Catla catla showed significantly higher (0.045%) percentage than Cirrhinus mrigala and Labeo rohita each containing 0.02%. A significant difference was observed in fatty acid profile among three fish species and between diets (~O, Oland D2). Among fatty acids, palmitic acid (C 16:0) was found a dominating fatty acids in all the three experiments. In trial I highest concentration (40.59 g 100 g-1 was found in Cirrhinus mrigala under (DO) and 37.19 in (D1) while lowest (30.75 and 30.78 g 100 g.l) in Labeo rohita and Catla catla under (D 1). The concentration of total saturated fatty acids were observed higher and ranged from (40.20 to 53.29 g 100 g-I) followed by total monounsaturated fatty acids (29.30 to 37.81 g 100 g-I), w-6 PUFA (7.65 to 14.94 g 100 g') and @-3 PUFA (7.76 to 11.07 g 100 g-I). respectively. In case of trial II significant differences were also found among three fish species and diets (D0 and 02) for different fatty acids composition. Palmitic acid (C 16:0) also showed highest concentration ranged from 28.36 to 29.73 g 100 g-I). Total saturated fatty acids were found higher that varied from (35.90 to 39.41 g 100 g-I) followed by total monounsaturated fatty acids (36.52 to 40.84 g 100 g-I), and l:PUFA (19.02 to 24.40 g 100 g-I), respectively. In trial III once again same pattern of dominance of palmitic acid along with total saturated fatty acids (36.43 to 42.24 g 100 g-I) followed by total monounsaturated fatty acids (36.899 to 43.72 g 100 g-I) and 2:PUFA (14.97 to 23.03 g 100 g-I) were observed. In case of organoleptic evaluation all the species under di Iferent culture system and treatments illustrated non-significant differences. Hence. significant differences were observed among different cooking processes (steamed and fried fish). The physico-chemical parameters of pond water remained within the acceptable limit for Fish gowth. Although comparatively lower values of temperature were found for experiment II and III for grow-out trial that was conducted in fall. The correlation co-efficient studies revealed a positive significant correlation of temperature, TDS, light penetration and salinity with growth of fish species while pH showed positive non-significant correlation with growth of fish. It was concluded from the present study that both the experimental diets D I and 02 for different age groups (fingerlings and grow-out) showed significantly higher growth of all the three species in monoculture system. The diet D2 did not showed any significant higher growth in polyculture system but overall growth performance remained high in polyculture than monoculture treated ponds of grow-out fish. Comparison of species indicated that artificial diets (DI and D2) remained much suitable for Catla catla and Labeo rohita than Cirrhinus mrigala under both the culture systems. Non-significant difference was observed in the body composition and flesh quality irrespective of their economic viability. Information derived from the present research experiments will be useful in future research and formulating supplementary feed for Indian major craps for different age groups. It can also be helpful in understanding the mineral and fatty aeid profiles of the Indian major carps cultured under semi-intensive pond culure system whieh is first study of its kind on these species in Pakistan. Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 1290,T] (1).

6. Variation Of The Primary And Secondary Productivity In Monoculture And Polyculture System Of Fish Pond

by Muhammad Sohail | Prof. Dr. Naureen Aziz Qureshi | Dr. Saima | Mr. Noor Khan.

Material type: book Book; Format: print ; Literary form: drama Publisher: 2010Dissertation note: The present study was planned to check the primary and secondary productivity of fish ponds. The primary productivity was checked by the estimation of chlorophyll-a and abundance and diversity of phytoplankton in fish pond, the secondary productivity was studied by identifying and counting the species of zooplankton. Sample were obtained from treated and controlled ponds; in treated ponds in addition to periodic fertilization of ponds, supplementary experimental fish feed was provided but in controlled ponds only fertilizers (organic and inorganic) was applied to enrich the productivity. This study provides a comparison of the effect of fish feed on plankton productivity. Data were obtained on weekly basis during l " September to 31 November and on daily basis from I st November to is" November. The data were collected weekly for chlorophyll concentrations in fish ponds and fortnightly for phytoplankton and zooplankton abundance and diversity and were related with the physico-chemical parameter. The amount of chlorophyll a pigment and plankton abundance in treated and control pond of Catla catla, Cirrhinus mrigala and Labeo rohita was observed. It was high in pond containing Cirrhinus mrigala ranging from 2.056-4.421 IJ.g/L in pond containing Catla catla it was low (ranging from 0.313-0.768 IJ.g/L). It was observed those ponds that were treated although showed significantly higher chlorophyll-a, phytoplankton and zooplanktons but fish was keeping the biomass grazed and there were no blooms of phytoplankton were observed after the application of fertilizer. Data obtained weekly as well as every day showed a decrease in the level of chlorophyll with the time. It was high in the treated ponds compared to control pond however the decreasing trend remained same. Primary productivity as studied from chlorophyll was significantly difference in the ponds with Cirrhinus mrigala (F = 40.14**) and was non significant in ponds with Labeo rohita ( F = 2.9SNS) and Catla catla (0.75NS) when studied weekly and chlorophyll concentration values when observed daily showed Cirrhinus mrigala (F = 52.91 **) Labeo rohita ( F = 20.00**) and Catla catla (11.73*) all were significantly different and were higher in treated ponds in comparison to control ponds. The diversity indices for phytoplankton and zooplankton distribution abundance were estimated for treated and control ponds with different species of fish (Cirrhinus mrigala, Labeo rohita and Cirrhinus mrigala). Higher values of diversity (H' =), equitability (E =) and Simpson index (D= ) was observed in treated pond of Cirrhinus mrigala. Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 1337,T] (1).

7. Studies On Genetic Diversity Of Labeo Rohita And Cirrhinus Mrigala By Using Molecular Markers In Punjab-Pakistan

by Fayyaz Rasool | Prof. Dr. Naureen Aziz Qureshi | Prof. Dr. Muhammad Ashraf.

Material type: book Book; Format: print Publisher: 2012Dissertation note: The studies on genetic diversity of Labeo rohita and Cirrhinus mrigala by using molecular markers in Punjab-Pakistan were carried out to investigate the genetic structure of said Indian major carps by RAPAD marker and the levels of polymorphism and similarity amongst the different groups of five populations of wild and farmed types. The results obtained from the present study after statistical analyses are presented in section-4 of this dissertation. The samples were collected from the following sites; for farmed fish was collected from UVAS-Fish Hatchery, C-block Ravi campus Pattoki district Kasur and for wild fish; from Trimu Barrage at the junction of River Chenab and Jhelum near district Jhang, Taunsa Barrage at River Indus near tehsil Kot Adu district Muzaffar Garh, Qadirabad Barrage at River Chenab near district Mandi Bahuddin and Baloki Barrage at River Ravi near tehsil Bhai Phero district Kasur. Analysis of variance (ANOVA) for the different morphometric parameters of study and Pearson's correlation among the physico-chemical parameters of water quality was done by Minitab statistical computer software. The XLSTAT 2012 version 1.02 of the computer software was used for the Pearson correlation analysis of the morphometric parameters of study. The same computer program was used for Agglomerative Hierarchical Clustering (AHC) of the different genotype occurrence on the basis of differences in morphometric parameters was done by Agglomeration method by following the Unweighted Pair Group Method with Arithmetic Mean (UPGMA). The Principle Component Analysis (PCA) on the basis of differentiation in morphometric parameters by Eigenvalues and differentiation into factors of the different genotypes from the different environmental conditions was done by correlation bi-plot/coefficient of the correlation (n) method in the same program. This software was also used to analyze the RAPAD data for Jaccard's coefficient by following the Unweighted Pair Group Method with Arithmetic Mean (UPGMA) for Hierarchical Clustering of the similar groups on the basis of similarity amongst the genotypes and the dendrogram generated is presented in the next section. The Principal Component Analysis (PCA) for grouping of the different genotypes from the different environmental conditions was done by Spearman Varimax rotation method for bi-plot generation of the co-occurrence of the same genotypes with similar genetic properties and specificity of different primersin the same program. Following results were obtained: Morphometric Parameters 1. Morphometric parameters of L. rohitashowed following trends: body weight, total length and average length of paired pectoral fins were nonsignificantly different (p > 0.05), fork length, dorsal fin length, caudal fin length and average length of paired pectoral fins were highly significantly different (p < 0.01) while anal fin length was significant different (p < 0.05) among the experimental sites. In case of C. mrigala, the body weight was non-significantly different (p > 0.05) while all other parameters were highly significantly different (p < 0.01) except the dorsal fin length which was significantly different (p < 0.05) among the study sites. 2. The results of the Pearson correlation of morphometric parameters showed that body weight of L. rohita developed a positive and highly significant (p< 0.0001) correlation with all the remaining morphometric parameters, the fork length of the said species showed a positive and highly significant (p< 0.0001) correlation with all the parameters except with the caudal fin length where the correlation was also positive but non-significant (p = 161). In case of total length of the fish body, the correlation was highly significant (p< 0.0001) and positive with all the parameters of study.The length of the dorsal fin showed highly significant (p< 0.0001) and positive correlation with all the remaining morphometric parameters under study. The caudal fin length of L. rohita showed a positive and highly significant (p< 0.0001) correlation with all the other parameters except the fork length where the correlation was positive but non-significant (p = 161). The correlation of the anal fin length of the fish body showed a highly significant (p< 0.0001) and positive correlation trends. The average length of the paired pectoral fins showed a positive and highly significant (p< 0.0001) correlation with all the remaining morphometric parameters of study, the correlation of paired pelvic fins average length showed positive and highly significant (p< 0.0001) correlation with other parameters. 3. The body weight of C. mrigala developed a positive and highly significant (p< 0.0001) correlation with all the remaining morphometric parameters. The fork length of the said species showed a positive and highly significant (p< 0.0001) correlation with body weight, total length and dorsal fin length while this correlation was positive but non significant with the caudal fin length (p = 0.228), anal fin length (p = 0.168), average length of paired pectoral fins (p = 0.031) and average length of the paired pelvic fins (p = 0.106). In case of total length of the fish body, the correlation was highly significant (p< 0.0001) and positive with all the parameters of study. The length of the dorsal fin showed highly significant (p< 0.0001) and positive correlation with all the remaining morphometric parameters under study. The caudal fin length of C. mrigala showed a positive and highly significant (p< 0.0001) correlation with all the other parameters except the fork length where the correlation was positive but non-significant (p = 0.228).The correlation of the anal fin length of the fish body showed a highly significant (p< 0.0001) and positive correlation trends with all the parameters except the fork length where the correlation was positive but non-significant (p = 0.168). The average length of the paired pectoral fins showed a positive and highly significant (p< 0.0001) correlation with all the remaining morphometric parameters of study except the fork length where the correlation was positive but non-significant (p = 0.031). InC. mrigala, the correlation of paired pelvic fins average length showed positive and highly significant (p< 0.0001) correlation with other parameters except the fork length where the correlation was positive but non-significant (p = 0.106). 4. Dendrogram generated on the basis of morphometric parameters of study dividedL. rohita genotype in to five major clusters or classes with 19.24% for within class variation while 80.76% for the between class differences. While the dendrogram developed for C. mrigala divided the genotypes in to four major clusters or classes with 27.28% for within class variation while 72.72% for the between class differences. 5. The results obtained from the PCA for morphometric parameters of L. rohitaand C. mrigalaindicated clearly that the increase in the number of factors or components was correlated with the decrease in eigenvalues. The values showed that its trend reached its maximum at level of second factor. In the same way according to the Kaiser (1958) criterion based upon the eigenvalues greater than one, first two main factors accounted for 80.273% of cumulative variability for L. rohita and 82.558% for C.mrigala. The PCA grouped the tested variables or parameters of the L. rohita,the first group amongst the major two groups accounted for 64.245% of the cumulative variability while the second from these accounted for 16.028% of the cumulative variability. The PCA grouped C. mrigala,also into two groups, the first group amongst the major two groups accounted for 59.323% of the cumulative variability while the second from these accounted for 23.235% of the cumulative variability. 6. The physico-chemical parameters of the water samples of all study sites were analyzed for correlation among them. The results were as follows; the correlation of the pH with water temperature (r= 0.107) and dissolved oxygen (r = 0.905) was positively non-significant while the correlation with electrical conductivity (r = -0.798), salinity (r= -0.888), total dissolved solids (r = -0.857), total alkalinity (r = -0.736) and total hardness (r = -0.499) was negatively non-significant. The correlation of the dissolved oxygen with water temperature (r= 0.313) was positively non-significant while the correlation with electrical conductivity (r = -0.669), salinity (r= -0.828), total dissolved solids (r = -0.809), total alkalinity (r = -0.930) and total hardness (r = -0.300) was negative but also non-significant as like with the water temperature. The electrical conductivity was positively correlated with all the physic-chemical parameters as with water temperature (r= 0.482), salinity (r= 0.925), total dissolved solids (r = 0.889), total alkalinity (r = 0.452) and total hardness (r = 0.906) and this correlation was non significant.The salinity amongst the water parameters was correlated positively with water temperature (r = 193), total alkalinity (r = 0.717) and total hardness (r = 0.734) and it was non-significant but with total dissolved solids (r = 0.994) the correlation was also positive but highly significant (P < 0.001). The total dissolved solids values observed from the study sites were positively correlated with water temperature (r = 0.172), total alkalinity (r = 0.734) and total harness (r = 0.657) and this correlation was non-significant. The correlation between the total alkalinity and total hardness was also positive and non-significant (r = 0.048). RAPAD Data 1. In case of L. rohita, OPB-1 polymorphism remained as 16.67%, OPB-3 polymorphism remained as 40.00%, OPB-4, polymorphism remained as 16.67%, OPB-5 polymorphism remained as 20.00%, OPB-7 polymorphism was 28.57%, OPB-8 polymorphism was 20.00%, OPB-9 polymorphism was 25.00%, OPB-10 polymorphism was 28.57%, OPC-19 polymorphism was 14.29% and OPD-4 showed 50.00% polymorphism in amplification. In case of C. mrigala, OPB-1 polymorphism remained as 16.67%, OPB-3 polymorphism remained as 16.67%, OPB-4 polymorphism remained as 25.00%, OPB-5 polymorphism remained as 14.29%, OPB-7 polymorphism was 14.29%, OPB-8 polymorphism was 20.00%, OPB-9 polymorphism was 20.00%, OPB-10 polymorphism was 20.00%, OPC-19 polymorphism was 28.57% and OPD-4 polymorphism remained as 33.33% in amplification. 2. The dendrogram generated by UPGMA of RAPAD data of L. rohita by the randomly selected individuals with high scorable bands of the five populations grouped themselves in the first class/cluster while a single sample designated as Indus2 from the population from River Indus collected from Taunsa Barrage represents the second class/cluster and in same way only single individual designated as Ravi2 collected from River Ravi from the Baloki Barrage represents the third class. The dendrogram generated by UPGMA of RAPAD data of C. mrigala by the randomly selected individuals of the five populations grouped themselves in the first class/cluster and two samples designated as Indus2 and Qad2 from the populations from River Indus collected from Taunsa Barrage and River Chenab from Qadirabad Barrage represents the second class/cluster while one individual from the Trimu Barrage at the junction of Jhelum and Chenab Rivers designated as Trimu2 represents the third class and in the same way only single individual designated as Ravi2 collected from River Ravi from the Baloki Barrage represents the third class. 3. The PCA resultsfor L. rohitait can be assumedthat PCA grouped the tested variables or parameters of the fish RAPAD amplification data into two main components which all together accounted for 58.177% of the cumulative variation among the factors. The first group (F1) amongst the major two groups accounted for 33.327% of the cumulative variability while the second (F2) from these accounted for 24.850% of the cumulative variability. These results were also confirmed after the varimax rotation. By the PCA resultsfor C. mrigalawe can assume after observing the results that the PCA grouped the tested variables or parameters of the fish RAPAD amplification data into two main components which all together accounted for 70.866% of the cumulative variation among the factors. The first group (F1) amongst the major two groups accounted for 51.115% of the cumulative variability while the second (F2) from these accounted for 19.751% of the cumulative variability. This study in this way has provided the genetic information of the present fish species and how evolutionary processes are affecting the fish fauna. So this study along with the strengthening of the academic research area has also proven an applied research which will help the breeders to the chose most fit candidates for the breeding program in the Pakistan. Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 1504,T] (1).

8. Investigation Of Post Spawning Mortality In Selected Carps

by Shahid Sherzada | Prof. Dr. Muhammad Ashraf | Prof. Dr. Muhammad Sharif Mughal.

Material type: book Book; Format: print ; Literary form: not fiction Publisher: 2013Dissertation note: Abstract Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 1381,T] (1).

9. Assessment Of Tanneries Based Heavy Metals In Fish, Water & Sediment Of River Sutlej (Near Kasur)

by Usman Atique | Dr. Noor Khan | Prof. Dr. Muhammad Sharif Mughal.

Material type: book Book; Format: print ; Literary form: drama Publisher: 2013Dissertation note: Abstract Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 1640,T] (1).

10. To Investigate The Effects Of Heavy Metals Toxicity On Vital Organs Of Rohu (Labeo Rohita)

by Ghina Islam | Prof. Dr. Muhammad Ashraf | Mr. Muhammad Hafeez-ur-rehman.

Material type: book Book; Format: print Publisher: 2013Dissertation note: At the time of collection of samples Temperature, Dissolved Oxygen, Total Dissolved Solids (TDS), Conductivity and pH were determined (YSI Digital meters) of selected sites for any possible relationship between water quality parameters, heavy metal concentrations and their effects on fish body. Fish from the selected water bodies was blotted dry and then weighed individually. After wet digestion of the sampled fish, the volume was prepared for the determination of heavy metals viz. chromium, copper, cadmium, lead, nickel and manganese. Samples for histological studies were collected on monthly basis. Slides were prepared. The results of this study provided valuable information on the metal contents in fish from different sampling stations. Fish from Balloki Headworks exhibited the highest tendency of accumulation of cadmium, lead and chromium in liver and intestine while it was the minimum in fish collected from controlled fish ponds from Ravi Campus Pattoki. Accumulation of these metals was, however, the minimum in fish muscle collected both from Fish ponds Pattoki and Balloki Headworks. The present situation can be considerably improved by taking effective measures such as better cleaning of waste water from the industrial enterprises and urban agglomeration as well as by installing new waste water treatment plants. Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 1660,T] (1).

11. Stock Assessment Of Trout Soecies In Upper River Swat

by Tariq Khan | Dr. Sumaira Abbas | Dr. Arshad Javaid | Dr. Noor Khan.

Material type: book Book; Format: print ; Literary form: drama Publisher: 2013Dissertation note: Abstract Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 1700,T] (1).

12. Role Of Cyprinus Carpio In Innutrient Dynamics Of Fish Ponds Under Polyculture System

by Muhammad Ahmad | Dr. Sumaira Abbas | Prof. Dr. muhammad Ashraf.

Material type: book Book; Format: print ; Literary form: drama Publisher: 2013Dissertation note: The present project was planned to study gradual replacement of Cirrhinus mrigala with Cyprinus carpio and its impact on pond ecosystem. 900 fish individuals belonging to six species viz. Catla catla, Labeo rohita, Cirrhinus mrigala, Ctenopharyngodon idella, Hypophythylmichthys molitrix and Cyprinus carpio were stocked in four earthen ponds. The dimensions of each pond were 220 X 198 X 7 feet length, breadth and depth. The stocking density in pond 1 (T1) was C. catla 150, L. rohita 200, C. mrigala 200, C. idella 150, H. molitrix 150 and C. carpio 50. The stocking density of C. mrigala and C. carpio in pond 2 (T2) was 150 and 100, in pond 3 (T3), 100 and 150 and in pond 4 (T4) it was 50 and 200, respectively while the stocking density of all the other four fish species remained constant in all the four ponds. All the fish were fed with a diet of 25.16% crude protein @ 2% body weight. C. idella and C. mrigala showed maximum growth in T1, C. catla and H. molitrix in T2, L. rohita and C. carpio in T3. Maximum growth was observed in T3 followed by T4, T1 and T2. Among fish species C. idella and C. carpio showed higher growth rates than the rest of fish species. Our results reveal that in polyculture system stocking density of C. mrigala and C. carpio in a ratio of 1: 1.5 gives better results. In treatment 1 pond higher SGR 0.552% was observed in H. molitrix and lower 0.238 in C. carpio. Similarly, in T2 pond maximum SGR 0.703% was observed in H. molitrix and minimum 0.260% in C. idella. Maximum SGR 0.409 % was observed in H. molitrix in on T3 pond while it was minimum 0.153 in C. mrigala. In T4 pond maximum SGR 0.322% was observed in L. rohita while it was minimum 0.139 in C. idella. During present study major water quality parameters remained in the favorable range for fish culture, average value of temperature remained in the range 27.08 to 28.66 oC, salinity 0.86 to 0.99 ppt, DO 5.15 to 5.91 mg/L, EC ranges from 2.23 to 2.32 Ms/cm and pH ranges from 8.04 to 8.23 were observed within the optimum range throughout the experiment. Statistically significant variations in nitrate content of water were observed in T1 and T4 ponds while non-significant differences for nitrates were recorded in T2 and T3 ponds. Similarly, phosphates in water showed significant differences in T1 as compared to T3 and T4 ponds while T2, T3 and T4 showed non-significant differences for phosphates. Light penetration varied significantly between T1, T2 and T4 ponds and its values varied from minimum 18.17±0.946 cm in T4 to maximum 25.50±1.057 cm in T1 ponds The phytoplankton density was similar in ponds during the given period except the start month of study the low plankton values in April due to the ponds being filled with fresh water and immediately stocked with fish. The density of zooplankton components was higher under T3 where silver carp gained more weight. A total of 11 species of Bacillariophyceae, 10 species of Cyanophyceae, 30 species of Chlorophyceae, 2 species of Euglenophyceae, 3 species of Cladocera, 4 species of Copepoda, 9 species of Myxophyceae, 9 species of Crustacea, 11 species of Rotatoria and 1 species of Olygochaeta were identified. The number of identified species was relatively small, consisting of eurytopic species only, possibly as a result of the heavy activity these ponds suffered. Microcrustaceans, being valuable food organism for many fish species, were represented by genera Daphnia, Cyclops, Bosmina, Moina and Scapholeberis. Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 1705,T] (1).

13. Evaluation Of Water Hyacinth (Eichhornia Crassipes) Supplemented Diet On The Growth, Digestibility And

by Sajid Mahmood | Dr. Noor Khan | Prof. Dr. Muhammad Aahraf.

Material type: book Book; Format: print ; Literary form: not fiction Publisher: 2013Dissertation note: Present experiment was conducted in 8 aquaria of size 1.5ft x 2ft x 3ft (width, height and length, respectively) with 1.5 feet water level in each aquarium on fingerlings of Ctenopharyngodon idella. Sun dried different parts of water hyacinth was used to prepare three isoproteic diets (30%) i.e. whole plant meal diet (WP), leaf meal diet (LM), root meal diet (RM) and a control diet. Overall significant (p. 0.05) difference was observed in weight and length among the treatments. On termination of experimental trial, all the fish were harvested, weighed and measured for assessment of growth performance. Representative samples from each treatment were randomly picked up for determination of body composition and histological studies. Former were dried for proximate analysis while latter were dissected, liver and kidney were excised out for further tissue processing. Statistically non-significant variations in increase in weight and length were recorded among Control, WP and LM diets while RM depressed fish growth. Mean weight 4.636}0.605g and length 78.757}3.995mm were relatively higher when grass carp juveniles were fed with LM and the same were the lowest 2.465}0.178g and 65.405}1.877mm, respectively, for RM diets. Higher weight gain was observed in LM (7.14 g) and lower on RM (2.10 g). Maximum length increase was observed on WP (50 mm) and minimum on RM (20 mm). Better FCR was observed on LM (2.113}0.102) and poor on RM (5.142}0.212). SGR % was observed maximum on LM (0.787}0.051) and minimum on RM (0.415}0.041). Histological study showed that there was no variation in liver and kidney in the Control diet whereas variations in cell patterns have been observed due to incorporation of water hyacinth which may be due to inherent toxic materials present in water hyacinth or due to some 61 heavy metals it absorbed from the surroundings. This research exposes that Eichhornia crassipes meal has an optimistic nutrient utilization effect on fish growth. Farmers can use water hyacinth to formulate cost-effective fish feeds. Water hyacinth leaf meal is more appropriate for fish production than the whole plant meal. But farmer has to be very careful and make sure that water hyacinth to be used in feed should come from clean water, because water hyacinth can absorb heavy metals and poisons from polluted water. Such plants if used in fish feed will affect the fish health and farmer profit. Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 1716,T] (1).

14. Intraspecific Genetic Variations Amongst The Populations Of Labeo Rohita

by Syed shafat hussain | Dr. Fayyaz rasool | Dr. Noor khan | Mr. Hamid mustafa.

Material type: book Book; Format: print ; Literary form: not fiction Publisher: 2014Dissertation note: Abstract Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 1782,T] (1).

15. Possible Causes Of Selective Lernaea Attack On Different Fish Species

by Farzana Abbas | Prof. Dr. Muhammad Ashraf | Dr. Arshad | Dr. Sumaira Abbas.

Material type: book Book; Format: print ; Literary form: drama Publisher: 2013Dissertation note: The present study was managed to investigate the possible causes of selective Lernaea attack in different fish species. Planned studies were conducted in five trials. During the first trial lernaea susceptibility and infestation were observed in indigenous major and exotic Chinese carps. Studies were conducted in 4 earthen ponds with two ponds per experimental group. Fishes in the both groups were fed isonitrogenous diet containing 40% crude protein formulated with different feed ingredients. Fishes were identified and examined for the presence of Lernaea species. The parasites were removed and preserved in vials containing 5% formalin. Other growth parameters i.e. average weight gain, average increase in length while physico-chemical analysis including dissolved oxygen, pH, electrical conductivity, water temperature, salinity and total dissolved solids, Chlorides, Phosphates ions (PO4-2), nitrates (NO3) and secchi disk visibility were recorded. The fishes were treated with Tender, an organophasphate (DDVP (Dichlorvos) or 2, 2-dichlorovinyl dimethyl phosphate) for the control of lernaea. The results showed that C. catla is the most susceptible fish to L. cyprinacea infestation and its appropriate control for conservation of this precious and declining fish is of extreme importance. Thunder is biologically safe as it is biodegradable and degenerated after 36 h without causing any negative effect on the water quality parameters and other water flora and fauna. Treatment of L. cyprinace with 'Thunder' (0.10-0.25ppm) gives promising results without adverse effect on fish life. Though DDVP worked well in its control but its heavy infestation really weaken fish incapacitating its feeding and competing abilities with its counterparts. In the 2nd trial, comparison of bio-chemical profile was observed on healthy and infected Indian and Chinese major carps. The experiment was managed in four earthen rearing ponds (59m x 30.5m x 1.8m). There were two-groups, one group without any treatment served as control and the second as treatment. At the outset of trial all the fish species were weighed, measured and comprehensively examined for presence of L. cyprinacea and general health condition. Fishes from both groups were dealt uniformly except administration of regular applications of DDVP (0.25ppm in treatment group while no any medication in control group. Water quality parameters DO, pH, electrical conductivity, water temperature, salinity and total dissolved solids, chloride ion (Cl-1), phosphate ions (PO4-2) nitrates (NO-3) and light penetration were recorded. Samples of healthy and infected fishes of each species were collected for proximate composition (moisture, ash, crude protein, crude fat) and minerals (Iron, Zinc, Calcium, Copper and Magnesium) and phosphorous analysis. The results showed that dry matter, fat and crude protein percentages were significantly decreased in lernaeid fishes. Moisture and ash contents of fishes increased in infected fishes as compared to healthy and treated fish. A slightly lower level of protein (12.65±0.49) and fat (7.30±0.28) in C. catla was observed than rest of the species. The protein was the highest (26.00±4.24) in L. rohita while the fats were the highest (10.55±0.92) in C. mrigala and C. carpio the second highest. Similarly looking at mineral profile there is not much difference, so it is hard to say that level and type of nutrients are solely responsible for L. cyprinacea attack. Mineral composition of infected fish indicated that minerals balance upsets during disease condition. Pathogenicity is a complex of so many factors, which encompass environmental, biological, and physiological so still lot remains to be explored before issuance of any concrete conclusion and recommendation that which factor is more active and critical in inviting and attracting this parasite. In the third experiment, various blood indices were compared among Chinese and Indian major carps from the perspectives of their resistance against lernaeaosis that included probable role of blood and its components in reception of L. cyprinacea in some commercially important locally culturable herbivorous fish varieties while repulsion in others living under similar environment. Healthy samples of each fish species were selected and blood was immediately drawn by puncturing gill lamellae, caudal vein and heart of both male and female of each representative experimental species. Blood parameters including Red Blood Cells (RBC, 10 -6/µL), White Blood Cells (WBC, 10-3/µL) and Platelets (10-3/µL) in blood from experimental fish species were counted by placing sample on haemocytometer grids. Differential Leucocyte Count (DLC), red blood indices, blood chemistry and ESR were determined for males and females of experimental fishes. The results revealed that females of each species have relatively higher values for blood indices as compared to males. C. carpio has maximum number of granulocytes that may support the fish against the parasitic attack. C. catla has the lowest values for the immunoglobulin Ig M as compared to the species which showed less susceptibility. In the 4th trial, healthy fishes of major and Chinese carps were collected from commercial rearing and grow out ponds. Each fish weighed 830 ± 316 g on the average. For mucus collection, fishes were bathed in Potassium permanganate (KMnO4) solution (8.0 ppm) to remove microbial or fungal infection/infestation. Samples were centrifuged at 12000×g at 4 ?C for 10 minutes and stored at -40?C in biomedical freezer. Bradford Micro Assay technique was applied to determine protein contents. Bradford protein solution (50 ?L) was added to each well and absorbance was recorded at 595nm. Standard curve was drawn from various but consecutive dilutions of BSA solution and protein concentrations in different samples were calculated. Electrophoresis was carried out with slight modifications. 15% separating and 4% staking buffer were used to run the SDS- PAGE under constant voltage of 120. Fermentas PageRuler™ protein ladder was used as the standard marker for non reducing protein. The gel was stained with PageBlue™ (Fermentas) stain for identification of protein bands for molecular weight determination. Lectin activity and Alkaline Phosphatase test were determined. Mucus was incubated with 4 mM p-nitrophenyl phosphate in ammonium bicarbonate buffer (100 mM) with 1 mM MgC12 (pH 7.8) at 30°C. The increase in optical density (OD) was measured continuously for 2 to 3 hours at 405 nm using a micro plate reader. The results showed that lectin activity was the highest in C. idellus (109) indicative of low resistance while it was the lowest (21) in H.molitrix which was completely parasite free. Alkaline phosphatase level was the highest in C. catla, C.idella was the second highest and was the lowest in C. carpio. Protein concentrations were the highest in C. idella (3.29 ± 0.13 mg/ml) and C. catla (3.02 ± 0.57 mg/ml) while it was the lowest in C. carpio (1.80 ± 0.09). C. catla contained the highest molecular weight proteins (100 kDa) while C. carpio has one unique protein band of 14.13 kDa not present in any other species in current setup. In the 5th experiment, the lernaea were observed in the month of June to August. Lernaeied infestation was observed in all experimental fishes except in C. carpio. After appearance of infestation fishes were treated with Thunder (DDVP- an organophasphate) to eliminate the parasite. Parasite free C. idellus, H. molitrix, L. rohita, C. mrigala, C. catla and C. carpio were collected with an average weight of 830 ± 316 g each were used for studies on whole-body amino acid composition. Triplicate samples of each species were over dried after evacuating their gut contents. Dried samples were then finely powdered, sieved and vacuum hydrolyzed in 2 ml of 6 N HCl at 1lO°C for 24 hours. Total amino acid composition was determined by o-phthaldialdehyde (OPA) method using an Agilent chromatograph, revers-phase high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). The results showed that the essential amino acids (arginine, lysine, phenylalanine, tyrosine, histidine and leucine) play a major role in the immune system. It is revealed that amino acids will widely become cost-effective neutraceuticals for improving health and preventing infectious disease in animals. C. carpio have no infestation due to increased numbers and concentrations of essential amino acids when compared to other species of Indian and Chinese major carps. C. catla, C. idella and H. molitrix have the lowest number and concentration of essential amino acids and hence appeared more susceptible to lernaea attack. Finally it was concluded from the entire study that C. carpio may have high resistance for the L. cyprinaceaea as compared to the other experimental fishes. It possesses higher values for Ig M-immunoglobulin as compared to C. catla that indicated its high immunity against the parasite. Similarly C. carpio has maximum number of granulocytes (WBCs, esinophils, basophils and lymphocytes) that may support the fish against the parasitic attack. SDS-PAGE analysis of mucus revealed that C. carpio has one unique protein band of 14.13 kDa not present in any other species in current setup. This protein band may indicate the presence of lysozyme enzyme that actively participates against the invading pathogen. Essential and non-essential amino acids concentrations were also higher in the C. carpio that play a vital role in immunity especially arginine, lysine, phenylalanine, tyrosine, histidine, leucine, glutamic acid and aspartic acids. Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 1787,T] (1).

16. Effect Of Different Feed Ingredients On Growth, Hematology And Vital Organs In Juvenile Labeo Rohita

by Khalid Javed Iqbal | Prof. Dr. Muhammad Ashraf | Dr. Arshad | Dr. Aumaira Abbas.

Material type: book Book; Format: print ; Literary form: not fiction Publisher: 2013Dissertation note: This 9-month study extending from March 1, to November, 30, 2012 was conducted to find out the effect of different feed ingredients on growth, haematology and vital organs in juvenile Labeo rohita. The experiment was performed to find out the cost-effective substitutes of fishmeal and their effect on growth, digestive enzymes activity, blood profile, histology of intestine and flesh quality was monitored. To obtain the said objectives the experimental fish, Labeo rohita was subjected through three different research trials. i. A 3-month research trial was conducted to evaluate the effect of different plant/animal origin feed ingredients on growth, feed conversion ratio (FCR) and survival of fingerling Labeo rohita. Fish was fed on fish meal, guar meal, corn gluten meal (30%), soybean meal, sunflower meal, rice polish, cotton seed meal, canola meal and rape seed meal individually. Statistical analysis revealed significant differences (P?0.05) in growth, average weight gain, average length increase and specific growth rate among various ingredients. The highest average weight gain 27.162±6.950g and average length increase 6.153±0.833cm was observed in fish fed on guar meal while same was lowest 5.327±1.067g and 1.858±0.137cm, respectively in fish fed on corn gluten. However, fish showed better FCR values (2.01±0.08) when fed on guar meal while the FCR was very poor (9.57±48) for corn gluten (30%) fed group. The survival rate was highest (100%) for soybean meal fed group and lowest (70%) in canola and rapeseed meal fed group. ii. During second 3-month feeding trial, the effectiveness of individual feed ingredient from either plant or animal origin on growth, body composition, enzymes activity, haematology, histology and flesh quality of Labeo rohita was observed. The experiment was conducted in ten fiber glass tanks having size 12 ft x 4ft x 3 ft (length x width x depth). Single ingredient was considered as an independent treatment, hence guar meal, soybean meal, cotton seed meal and canola meal were considered as an independent treatment and fishmeal which was considered as a superior ingredient due to its ideal nutrient balance served as control. Ten juvenile Labeo rohita having an average weight of 200±2.33 g were harvested indiscriminately from the bulk and stocked in each fiberglass tank. Two tanks were randomly allotted to each treatment and control. Each group received uniform ration @ 4% of total fish biomass twice a day. Results revealed significant differences (P?0.05) in growth, FCR and specific growth rates among treatments. Weight gain was the highest in guar meal fed fish while the lowest on fish meal. Body composition of fish showed slight variations in fat contents with no differences in other nutrients though chemical composition of individual ingredient varies a lot. Minerals specifically Na, Ca, Fe, Zn, and Cu significantly differed (P?0.05) among treatments which might be linked with their variable release in digestive system of fish in the presence of various anti-nutritional factors. For different feed ingredients protease activity varied significantly (P<0.05) between anterior and posterior part of the intestine and also that of whole intestine when compared among various treatment groups. While amylase activity differed significantly when enzyme activity compared from the homogenate of whole intestine but not when compared partly. WBC, RBC, Hct, HB, PROT, ALB and GLOB showed significant (P<0.05) differences for blood samples of the fish fed with different feed ingredients while values of MCV, MCH, MCHC and ESR remained uniform. The feed ingredients differently affected the liver and intestinal cells. No difference was observed when fried fish fed on different ingredients were compared among each other indicating that ingredients with nominal variations in chemical composition do not leave much after effects on fish flesh. iii. Third 3-month trial was conducted to evaluate the effect of plant-animal feed and/or plant by-product based feed on growth, body composition, enzymes activity, haematology, histology and flesh quality of Labeo rohita. Fish fed on rice polish alone served as control (T0). Previously selected potential fish feed ingredients were grouped together with two ingredients in each isocaloric test diet which served as an independent trial during these studies. Group 1(T1) contained guar meal and canola meal, group 2(T2) soybean meal and cotton seed meal, group 3(T3) guar meal and cotton seed meal, group 4(T4) soybean meal and canola meal and group 5(T5) fishmeal and canola meal. Each group including control had two replicates. 12 earthen ponds with uniform area of 0.03 ha each, were randomly stocked with 100 fish (average weight 200±4.43g) in each following standard stocking protocols. All the 12 ponds were then randomly allotted to individual treatment including control group. Experimental fish were fed @ 4% of their wet biomass twice a day except Sundays which was kept open providing fish an opportunity to clean left over feed from the previous day. Better growth rate, food conversion ratio (FCR) and specific growth rate (SGR) in T3 than rest of the treatments including control suggest that guar meal and cotton seed meal is much better option to include in future feed formulations for maximum performance and minimum feed wastage. This preposition will minimize feed providing cleaner and healthy environment to fish ultimately enhancing stocking rate and fish production. Proximate analysis of dried and ground fish samples showed higher protein values in T4, fat in T2, moisture contents in control, dry matter in T1 and ash in T5. Mineral composition of Labeo rohita showed statistically significant (P ? 0.05) differences in Na, Ca, Fe, Zn and Cu content. Amylase concentration showed non-significant differences in anterior, posterior parts and the whole intestine in all the treatment and control ponds except T5 while protease concentrations were statistically significant (?0.05) in anterior and posterior part within the same group as well as among various groups. Enzymatic activity in whole intestine also varied significantly when compared among groups. Haematological parameters viz. WBC, RBC, ALB, GLOB and PROT differed significantly (?0.05) among all the treatments. Disrupted hepatic cords and hepatocytes showing pyknotic nucleus were observed in T1, moderate infiltration of fat vacuoles in T2 and, T4 caused vacuolar and hepatic cord degeneration while fish from T0 were subjected to severe vacuolation in hepatocytes. Non-significant differences in flavor, juiciness, and oiliness of fried fish from all the treatments and control ponds indicated that the sensory attributes of fish flesh were not affected by feeding fish with blend of various ingredients. It is concluded that the response of body organs varies with varying feed stuffs and the feed items have pronounced effect on enzymatic activities, hematological and histological parameters in juvenile Labeo rohita. During present study fish showed comparatively better growth when fed with guar meal as a single feed ingredient or combined with cotton seed meal than the rest of feed ingredients either offered individually or in combinations. The study provides base line information and will help aquaculture nutritionists to formulate cost-effective feeds. Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 1819,T] (1).

17. Studies On The Reproductive Biology And Induced Spawning Of Murrel, Channa Marulius

by Muhammad Hafeez-ur-Rehman | Prof. Dr. Muhammad Ashraf | Dr. Muhammad | Dr. Sumaira Abbas.

Material type: book Book; Format: print Publisher: 2013Dissertation note: Abstract Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 1832,T] (1).

18. Efffects Of Various Processing Techniques On The Nutritional Composition Of Exotic And Indigenous

by Riffat yasin | Dr Muhammad Hayat jaspal | Prof.Dr. Muhammad Ashraf.

Material type: book Book; Format: print Publisher: 2014Dissertation note: Abstract Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 1974,T] (1).

19. Effect Of Selenium Supplemented Feed On Growth Histology Of Selcted Vital Organs Hematology And Intestinal Enzyme

by Sonia iqbal | Prof. Dr. Rana Muhammad younis | Prof. Dr.Muhammad Ashraf.

Material type: book Book; Format: print Publisher: 2014Dissertation note: Abstract Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 1975,T] (1).

20. Studies On The Effect Of Aflatoxin B1 On Growth And Histology Of Various Development Stages Of Catla Catla

by Syedah Andleeb | Prof. Dr. Muhammad Ashraf | Dr. Sumaira abbas | Prof. Dr.

Material type: book Book; Format: print ; Literary form: not fiction Publisher: 2013Dissertation note: Abstract Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 1990,T] (1).

21. Control of Biotic and Abiotic Factors in Aquaculture

by Saxena, Amita.

Edition: 1st ed.Material type: book Book Publisher: India : Daya Publishing House,India, 2003Availability: Items available for loan: Pattoki Library [Call number: 639 Saxena 17817 1st 2003 Fisheries] (1).

22. Diseases and Disorders of FinFish in Cage Culture

by Woo, Patrick T K | Bruno, David W | Lim, L. H. S.

Edition: 1stMaterial type: book Book; Format: print Publisher: UK: CABI, 2002Availability: Items available for loan: Pattoki Library [Call number: 639.3 Woo 15478 1st 2002 Fishries] (1).

23. Effects of Pollution on Fish : Molecular Effects and Population Responses

by Lawrence, Andrew J | Hemingway, Krystal L.

Edition: 1st ed.Material type: book Book; Format: print Publisher: UK: Wiley-Blackwell, 2003Availability: Items available for loan: Pattoki Library [Call number: 571.9517 Lawrence 17569 1st 2003 Fisheries] (1).

24. A Compendium of Aquaculture Technologies for Developing Countries

by Sinha., V. R. P.

Edition: 1stMaterial type: book Book; Literary form: not fiction Publisher: India: Oxford & IBH Publishing; 1993Availability: Items available for loan: Pattoki Library [Call number: 639.809172 Sinha 22952 1st 1993 Fisheries] (1).

25. Encyclopedia of Aquaculture / by Robert R. Stickney

by Stickney, Robert R.

Edition: 1st ed.Material type: book Book; Format: print Publisher: USA: Wiley-Interscience, 2000Availability: Items available for loan: Pattoki Library [Call number: 639.803 Stickney 15415 1st 2000 Fisheries] (1).

26. Introduction to Aquaculture

by Landau, Matthew.

Edition: 1st ed.Material type: book Book; Format: print Publisher: USA: Wiley, 1992Availability: No items available In transit (1).

27. Restoration of Aquatic Systems

by Livingston, Robert J.

Edition: 1st ed.Material type: book Book; Format: print Publisher: USA: CRC Press, 2006Availability: Items available for loan: Pattoki Library [Call number: 639.9 Livingston 18997 1st 2006 Fisheries] (1).

28. Freshwater Prawn Culture : The Farming of Macrobrachium Rosenbergii

by New, Michael Bernard | Valenti.

Edition: 1st ed.Material type: book Book; Format: print Publisher: Hongkong: Blackwell Publishing, 2000Availability: Items available for loan: Pattoki Library [Call number: 639.58 Bernard 24380 1st 2000 Fisheries] (1).

29. Towards Safe and Effective Use of Chemicals in Coastal Aquaculture

by FAO, UNESCO.

Edition: 1stMaterial type: book Book; Format: print Publisher: India: Daya Publishing House, 1997Availability: Items available for loan: Pattoki Library [Call number: 639.8 Fao 20718 1st 1997 Fisheries] (3).

30. Rural Aquaculture

by Edwards, Peter | Demaine, Harvey.

Edition: First ed.Material type: book Book; Format: print Publisher: UK: CABI, 2002Availability: Items available for loan: Pattoki Library [Call number: 639.8095 Edwards 19963 1st 2002 Fisheries] (1).

31. Breeding and Seed Production of Fin Fish and Shell Fish

by Thomas, P.C.

Edition: 1stMaterial type: book Book; Format: print Publisher: India: Daya Publishing House, 2003Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 594.146 Thomas 17558 1st 2003 Fisheries] (1).

32. Agro's Dictionary of Aquaculture / 2nd ed.

by Ghosh, P.K.

Edition: 2nd ed.Material type: book Book; Literary form: not fiction Publisher: India: Agrobios; 2006Availability: Items available for loan: Pattoki Library [Call number: 639.803 Ghosh 20349 2nd 2006 Fisheries] (1).

33. Aquaculture: Principles and Practice / 2nd ed.

by Pillay, T.V.R.

Edition: 1st ed.Material type: book Book; Literary form: not fiction Publisher: UK: Fishing News Books; 1990Availability: Items available for loan: Pattoki Library [Call number: 639.8 Pillay 15470 2nd 1990 Fisheries] (1). Checked out (1).

34. Sustainability and Management of Aquaculture and Fisheries

by Kumar,H.D | Aquaculture.

Edition: 1st ed.Material type: book Book Publisher: India: Daya Publishing, 2003Availability: Items available for loan: Pattoki Library [Call number: 639.1 Kumar 16516 1st 2003 Fisheries] (2).

35. Aquaculture Farming Aquatic Animals and Plants

by Lucas,John S.

Edition: 1st ed.Material type: book Book; Format: print ; Literary form: not fiction Publisher: UK Fishing News Books, 2003Availability: Items available for loan: Pattoki Library [Call number: 639 Lucas 17554 1st 2003 Fisheries] (1).

36. Fish Oil Replacement and Alternative Lipid Sources in Aquaculture Feeds

by Turchini,Giovanni M.

Edition: 1st ed.Material type: book Book Publisher: USA CRC Press, 2011Availability: Items available for loan: Pattoki Library [Call number: 639.8 Turchini 24378 1st 2011 Fisheries] (1).

37. Genetics In Aquaculture III

by Gjedrem,T.

Edition: 1ST ED.Material type: book Book; Literary form: not fiction Publisher: Netherlands, Elsevier, 1990Availability: Items available for loan: Pattoki Library [Call number: 639.1 Gjedrem 22429 1st 1990 Fisheries] (1).

38. Aquaculture: Principles and Practices / 2nd ed.

by Pillay, T.V.R.

Edition: 2nd ed. Material type: book Book; Literary form: not fiction Publisher: New Delhi: Wiley India; 2012Availability: Items available for loan: Pattoki Library [Call number: 597.015 Pillay 32258 2nd 2012 Fisheries] (3).

39. Aquaculture : Principles And Practices

by Pillay, T. V. R.

Edition: 2nd ed.Material type: book Book; Literary form: not fiction Publisher: Blackwell Publishing; 2005Availability: Items available for loan: Pattoki Library [Call number: 639.8 Pillay 19245 2nd 2005 Fisheries] (1).

40. Aquaculture Management Techniques

by Akhter,Nasreen.

Edition: 1st ed.Material type: book Book; Format: print ; Literary form: not fiction Publisher: India Random 2016Availability: Items available for loan: Pattoki Library [Call number: 639.3 Akhter 50037 1st 2016 Fisheries] (2).

41. Aquaculture and Fisheries Biotechnology

by Dunham ,Rex A.

Edition: 2nd ed.Material type: book Book; Literary form: not fiction Publisher: USA CABI 2011Availability: Items available for loan: Pattoki Library [Call number: 639.1 Dunham 50135 2nd 2011 Fisheries] (1).

42. Biotechnology Development in Fishery Management

by Sharma,Mukesh.

Edition: 1st ed.Material type: book Book; Literary form: not fiction Publisher: India: Random, 2017Availability: Items available for loan: Pattoki Library [Call number: 639.1 Sharma 50139 1st 2017 Fisheries] (1).

43. Aquaculture

by Pandey,B.N.

Edition: 1st ed.Material type: book Book; Literary form: not fiction Publisher: India: APH 2015Availability: Items available for loan: Pattoki Library [Call number: 639.5 Pandey 50140 1st 2015 Fisheries] (1).

44. Aquarium Fish Keeping

by Hadwin.George.

Edition: 1st ed.Material type: book Book; Literary form: not fiction Publisher: India: Random, 2016Availability: No items available

45. Aquarium Fish Keeping

by Hadwin.George.

Edition: 1st ed.Material type: book Book; Literary form: not fiction Publisher: India: Random, 2016Availability: No items available

46. Aquarium Fish Keeping

by Hadwin.George.

Edition: 1st ed.Material type: book Book; Literary form: not fiction Publisher: India: Random, 2016Availability: No items available

47. Aquarium Management

by Roy,Diptanshu.

Edition: 1st ed.Material type: book Book; Literary form: not fiction Publisher: India: Random, 2014Availability: Items available for loan: Pattoki Library [Call number: 639.6 Roy 50142 1st 2014 Fishereis] (1).

48. Textbook of Limnology

by Cole,Gerald A.

Edition: 4th edMaterial type: book Book; Literary form: not fiction Publisher: India: CBS 2015Availability: Items available for loan: Pattoki Library [Call number: 639.1 Cole 50152 4th 2015 Fisheries] (1).

49. Modern Trends and Techniques in Aquaculture

by Rai,Sunita.

Edition: 1st ed.Material type: book Book; Literary form: not fiction Publisher: India: Random, 2015Availability: Items available for loan: Pattoki Library [Call number: 639.6 Rai 50151 1st 2015 Fishereis] (1).

50. Fish Biology

by Kumar,Arvind.

Edition: 1st ed.Material type: book Book; Literary form: not fiction Publisher: India APH N.DAvailability: No items available Checked out (1).



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