Evaluation Of Current Food Safety Practices At Various Food Establishments In Lahore
Material type: Book ; Literary form:
Publisher: 2015 Dissertation note: Food Safety is a scientific discipline describing handling, preparation and storage of foods in ways that prevent food borne illnesses. In present era there is much advancement in the process of product control and practices which are aimed to produce wholesome and safe food. Governments have imposed very strict quality and food safety assessment parameters for food establishments. All food establishments have not adopted practices to ensure food safety.In the present study the survey of 500 food establishments of Lahore were conducted to evaluate current food safety practices adopted by various food establishments. The evaluation was done by using structured questionnaire/checklist. The questionnaire/checklist detailed of food establishment, management and personnel, personal hygiene, establishment design and physical facilities, maintenance and sanitation of establishments, control of operations and consumer awareness with product information. SPSS version 16 was used for all data analyses. Descriptive statistics including frequencies, means, and standard deviations were calculated for all variables as appropriate.The project highlighted the situation of current food safety practices and gaps in implementation adopted by various food establishments in Lahore. Evidence from the literature suggests that majority of Pakistani foods are drastically implicated with contaminants. Food hygiene training as a means of improving food safety, strong consumer protection groups, awareness of food safety, and the right to acquire safe food, strict adherence to food laws, new legislation with changing food safety perspectives, and the recognition of this challenging problem by all stakeholders are some of the practical, systematic, and aggressive steps that can be taken to curtail the risk of microbiological and chemical foodborne diseases and to minimize the health consequences associated with the consumption of unsafe foods in Pakistan.
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Assessment Of Food Safety Knowledge, Attitude Andpractices (Kap) Among Food Handlers At Hospitals In Lahore
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Publisher: 2016 Dissertation note: Food safety is an alarming issue now a days in Pakistan as many food borne illnesses, diseases and spoilage of food occur due to poor knowledge, attitude and practices of food handlers about food safety and hygiene. Food safety is a scientific discipline describing preparation, handling and storage of food in different ways to prevent food borne illness. In present era there is much improvement in food preparation, serving, washing, handling and storage. Food safety knowledge, attitude and good practices which are aimed to produce safe food.
All food handlers have not good knowledge, attitude and good practices to ensure food safety.In the present study the cross sectional survey of 500 food handlers of public sector hospitalsof Lahore were conducted to evaluate current food safety knowledge, attitude and practices adopted by them. The evaluation was done by using modified questionnaire. The questionnaire consisted of food safety knowledge, attitude and practices among food handlers.SPSS version 22.0was used for all data analyses. Descriptive statistics including frequencies percentageswere calculated for all variables as appropriate.Educating, training and promoting positive attitude of food handlers would improve the status of food hygiene knowledge, attitudes and practices. Research is needed to focus on how to change the culture and behavior of the food handlers, and to improve their adherence and compliance with hand washing.The studyhighlighted the situation of current food safety knowledge, attitude and practices among food handlers of public sector hospitals in Lahore. Food safety, personal hygiene training as a means of improving food safety, awareness of food safety, among food handlers can prevent foodborne diseases and to minimize the health consequences associated with the consumption of unsafe foods in Pakistan.
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Determination Of Heavy Metals In Cauliflower And Carrot Grown In Suburbs Of Lahore
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Publisher: 2015 Dissertation note: Vegetables are the fresh and edible portions of the herbaceous plants. They classified as seasonal vegetables but they also classified as root, tuber, shoot, flower, fruit and leafy on the base of mode of consumption. Each of the categories mentioned above have its own role in human body. They play a vital role in human health due to their higher nutritional values. They are major source of macro and micro nutrients which required by the human body for optimal functioning. They are not only involved for normal body functioning but they also disease preventive in nature. Heavy metals get entry through different routes and accumulate in edible and inedible portions of the vegetables in quantity enough to cause clinical problems to humans and animals. This study was designed to assess the level of heavy metals in vegetables in different districts of Punjab.
Heavy metal is defined as metallic element usually toxic in nature with high density and atomic weight. As they are toxic in nature they accumulate in different parts of the vegetables and lead to several health complications in humans. Some of these metals are of nutritionally important for human health in small quantities and referred as trace elements which include zinc, iron, copper etc. They are among the major toxicants in vegetables which may cause chronic diseases in the kidney and liver of humans and causes disruption of numerous biochemical processes leading to cardiovascular, nervous, kidney and bone diseases. Open crown vegetables like cauliflower have more chances of infestation in suburbs due to waste water irrigation as compared to intact skin vegetables especially grown away from suburbs. Moreover, vegetables treated under clean sanitary conditions can have low levels of heavy metals as compared to the untreated ones.
There are different sources of heavy metals which include waste water irrigation, industrial waste water and soil pollution which associated with industrialization and agricultural activities such as atmospheric deposition, waste disposal, waste incineration, vehicle exhaust, fertilizer application and long term application of sewage sludge in agriculture land. Waste water contains sufficient amount toxic heavy metals which cause clinical problems.
In the present study two vegetable cauliflower (Brassica oleracea) and carrot (Dascusorrota) were collected from suburbs of Lahore. While samples of cauliflower were include from various districts of Punjab. The heavy metals Pb, Zn, Cr, Ni, Ca, Mg, K and Na were determined in cauliflower and carrot from suburbs; While Pb, Zn, Cr and Ni were observed in cauliflower from various districts of Punjab. Digested vegetable samples were analyzed through Atomic Absorption Spectrophotometer.
The highest levels for heavy metals (ppm) Lead, Zinc, Chromium and Nickel in Lahore for cauliflower and carrot was (2.2267±0.0251, 2.2317±0.0076), (5.7100±0.0360,5.0333±0.2516), (1.1133±0.1154, 1.7333±0.0763), (2.466±0.1040, 2.4000±0.3605) respectively. There was a significant difference in both vegetables. Difference in concentration in both vegetables is due to the surface area of both vegetables as cauliflower has large surface area as compared to carrot.
The highest levels for heavy metals (ppm) Lead, Zinc, Chromium and Nickel in Gujranwala for cauliflower was (2.3266±0.0145, 4.5966±0.0152, 0.9333±0.0152, 2.2467±0.0251) respectively.
The highest levels for heavy metals (ppm) Lead, Zinc, Chromium and Nickel in Sheikhupura for cauliflower was (1.9000±0.0200, 6.043±0.0513, 0.933±0.0152, 2.490±0.0100) respectively.
The highest levels for heavy metals (ppm) Lead, Zinc, Chromium and Nickel in Faisalabad for cauliflower was (1.928±0.0104, 5.736±0.0156, 1.193±0.0057, 2.476±0.152) respectively.
The highest levels for heavy metals (ppm) Lead, Zinc, Chromium and Nickel in Kasoor for cauliflower was (1.900±0.0200, 6.043±0.0513, 0.933±0.0152, 2.490±0.0100) respectively.
Each of the city have different concentration of the metals, several reasons for this variation which include medium on which these vegetables are growing, water used for irrigation, application of agricultural products, poor agricultural practices and post-harvest treatment which include harvesting procedure, washing of vegetables with unsafe water and transfer from long rooted areas. Uptake behavior of these metals and minerals by vegetables also affect it. The transfer factor (TF) of different heavy metals from soil to vegetation is one of the key components of human exposure to metals through the food chain. The highest TF valueis found for Zn because Zn is more mobile in nature. This study will provide a baseline data and there is a need for intensive sampling of the same for quantification of the results. Soil, plant and water quality monitoring, together with the prevention of metals entering the plant, is a prerequisite in order to prevent potential health hazards of wastewater irrigation. By using good agricultural practices including use of less agricultural chemical products and sewage water should be used after proper treatment.
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Evaluation Of Microbiological Quality Ofshawarma Sold By The Street Vendors Of Lahore
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Publisher: 2015 Dissertation note: Food safety is a scientific discipline describes handling, preparation and storage of food that prevents food borne diseases.It includes a number of ways that must be followed to avoid potentially severe health hazards.The tracks within this line of thought are safety between the market and consumer. With the fast pace of life the consumption of fast food is going to increase day by day in Lahore. It is imperative to prepare food at good hygienic conditions because of its perishability. The usual thougt is that food should be safe in the market and the concern is safe delivery and preparation of food for the consumer.
Microorganisms affecting food comes from natural micro flora or are introduced by manufacturing steps ranging from processing storage and distribution. In some cases these micro flora have no effect on the food and can be consumed without consequence, but those that are introduced during course of processing depending on type and level of contamination can spoil the food and cause food borne illnesses.
Food can transmit diseases from one person to another as well as serve as growth medium for bacteria that can cause food poisonoing. In the developed countries there are standards for food, whereas in less developed countries the main issue is the availability of safe water supply which is one of the critical item.
The present research work was undertaken to investigate the microbial count in shawarma which is a vended food. Samples collected from Anarkali,Wahdat road and Islampura showed high microbial count which shows contamination due to poor handling and hygienic conditions and improper storage conditionswhile the samples taken from Fortress, Gulberg having less microbial count as compared to these areas.
High microbial load in street foods occur due to improper food handling, unhygienic food preparation and processing, cooking and storage at inappropriate temperature. Consumer, food vendors and all type people should be aware of food hygiene, public health, implications of consuming contaminated foods, causative diseases. Food safety rules and implementation of food regulatory laws in food preparation, serving and preservation should be strongly maintained to avoid contamination problems and food-borne diseases.
Following points should be strongly observed and maintained for future work and further investigative study to improve the quality of shawarama.
1. Ensuring regular inspection and periodical check on these food preparation procedures.
2.Continuous lab test and analytical lab analysis to check the unwanted presence of any new
harmful agents in these foods to ensure food safety for consumers.
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Evaluation Of Microbial Quality Of Burger Sold By Roadside Fast Food Centers In Various Regions Of Lahore
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Publisher: 2015 Dissertation note: Food safety actions need to cover the entire food chain, from production to consumption. The implementation of food safety include safety between industry and the market and then between the market and the consumer. In considering industry to market practices, food safety considerations include the origins of food including the practices relating to food labeling, food hygiene, food additives and pesticides residues, as well as policies for certification systems for foods.
Food industry regarding safety issue is one of the most unseen areas of policy in developing countries, especially in Pakistan. As a result, food systems in these countries are not always as well controlled and comprehensive as in the mechanized world. This situation is exacerbated by an ever increasing population, rapid urbanization and, most importantly, a lack of the economic and practical resources needed to hold a sound food safety system. As a result, people in developing countries are continuously facing a wide range of potential food safety risks.
Food borne illness is a disease caused by consuming contaminated food or drink.There are more than 250 known food borne diseases. Food can transmit disease from individual to individual as well as serve as a growth medium for bacteria that can cause food poisoning.
Today, people try to save as much time as possible due to the requisite to cope with many tasks within restricted time. In many cases people who have busy schedule don’t have enough time to cook food therefore prefer to eat fast food like burger, shawarma, fries etc. from fast food centers.
The present research was undertaken to investigate the microbial load of the chicken burger samples (n=96) collected aseptically from different regions of Lahore. Samples were collected in sterile plastic bags and analyzed for microbial load immediately after collection in Microbiology lab of University of Veterinary and Animal Sciences.
Nutrient agar was used to perform Total Plate Count, Mackonkey Agar was used for total coliform count, Manitol salt agar was used to count Staphylococcus Aureus and SalmonellaShigella agar was used to detect Salmonella.
The findings of the current study showed that samples taken multinational restaurant have less contamination than from local fast food centers. While among local fast food centers Liberty, Fortress, Anarkali and Akbarimandi have lesser microbial count than samples collected from Ichra, moon market, Mori gate. The difference in microbial load is due to improper food handling, processing, cooking and storage temperature, time and manufacturing practices of the food handlers.
After conducting my research I concluded that following points should be strongly observed and maintained to improve the quality of chicken burger in local fast food centers
• Ensuring regular inspection and periodical check on these food centers
• Continuous lab test and analytical lab analysis to check the unwanted presence of any new harmful agents in these foods to ensure food safety for consumer.
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Evaluation Of The Microbiological Quality Of Ice Cream Sold At Local Shops In Lahore
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Publisher: 2016 Dissertation note: Ice cream is a delicious, wholesome, nutritious frozen dairy food. It is noticed that generally manufacturing of ice cream on small scale production units like local shops doesn't totally follow the standard procedures of ice cream production. Ice cream can be contaminated with microorganisms if some ingredients have been added after pasteurization or by means of improper sanitation of the equipment and environment. Microbiological quality of ice cream reflects hygienic practice in production and is an indication of food safety. There was variation in quality of locally produced ice cream in different areas of Lahore.
Food safety is a scientific discipline describes handling, preparation and storage of food that prevents food borne diseases. It includes a number of ways that must be followed to avoid potentially severe health hazards. The tracks within this line of thought are safety between the market and consumer with the fast pace of life the consumption of fast food is going to increase day by day in Lahore. It is imperative to prepare food at good hygienic conditions because of its perishability. The usual thought is that food should be safe in the market and the concern is safe delivery and preparation of food for the consumer.
Microorganisms affecting food comes from natural microflora or are introduced by manufacturing steps ranging from processing storage and distribution. In some cases these micro flora have no effect on the food and can be consumed without consequence, but those that are introduced during course of processing depending on type and level of contamination can spoil the food and cause food borne illnesses.
Food can transmit diseases from one person to another as well as serve as growth medium for bacteria that can cause food poisoning. In the developed countries there are standards for food, whereas in less developed countries the main issue is the availability of safe water supply which is one of the critical item. Foodborne illness is a problem resulting from the consumption of contaminated food, bacteria, viruses, or parasites, natural toxins, chemicals that contaminate food.
For this study total 108 locally produced samples of ice cream were carried from different areas of Lahore. Mughalpura, Sadar, Model town, Gulberg, Town ship and Johar town. 6 shops from each area and 3 samples from each shop were purchased and put in the sampling box with ice packs. Samples were analyzes for microbial load in microbiology Lab of University of Veterinary and Animal Sciences.
Each sample was analyzed for microbiological analysis (Enumeration of Total Viable Count (TVC), Enumeration of Total Coliform Count (TCC), Enumeration of Total Staphylococcal Count (TSC) and detection of salmonella spp.
Nutrient agar was used to perform Total plate count, Mackonky agar was used for Total coliform count, Mannitol salt agar was used to count S.aureus , Salmonella Shigella agar for Salmonella detection . Each analysis was performed 3 times.
The samples collected from Mughalpura, Sadar and Model town were highly contaminated having more microbial count which shows contamination due to poor handling and hygienic conditions while Gulberg, Johar town and Town ship having less contaminated.
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Determination Of Heavy Metals In Beverages Sold By Roadside Vendors From Different Public Places Of Lahore
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Publisher: 2016 Dissertation note: Food safety is serious issue now a days in Pakistan as many food borne diseases occur due to consumption of unsafe local beverages and soft drinks. Use of polluted water in locally produce beverages and juices without any treatment liable to cause diseases.
In summer beverages are commonly used to quench the thirst in Pakistan due to hot weather. Excessive use of such type of drinks cause different diseases like hypertension, gastrointestinal problem, liver and kidney failure, and also carcinogenic. So in this project, concentrations of various heavy metals including Lead, Cadmium and Iron were determined in local beverages (roadside vendors) from different public places of Lahore, Punjab Pakistan.
Total 200 samples of five different types of beverages were collected from ten different public places of Lahore. 50 samples were collected with the interval of 15 days. Sampling were repeated three times from four different road side vendors of same areas. The analyses will be carried out using atomic absorption spectroscopy (AAS) with electro thermic atomization in graphite furnace for the determination of the total content of lead (Pb) iron (Fe) and cadmium (Cd). The concentration of the digested soft drink samples will be derived from the regression equation and the samples will analyzed in duplicates. Present study was conducted at the Department of Environmental Sciences, UVAS Lahore for the duration of four months.
The data thus obtained from this research was evaluated through descriptive statistics. And the results of concentration of lead, iron and cadmium are not significant and not according to Standards of Pakistan.
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Evaluation Of Microbial Quality And Sensory Attributes Of Fresh Fruit Juices Sold At Various Places Of Lahore
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Publisher: 2016 Dissertation note: The beverage industry in Pakistan has emerged as a progressive sector over the years. Juices are rich source of nutrients containing vitamins minerals but the microbial quality and sensory attributes of street vended, corners and restaurant juices is not at satisfied level. Juices squeezed from fresh fruits and vegetables contain microorganisms which are potentially hazardous to public health Therefore this study aimed to evaluate the microbial quality and sensory attributes of fresh fruit juices sold at various places of Lahore. The selling and consumption of juices are never stopped on nutritional grounds as well as livelihood of street vendors. It is alarming situation for suitable agency to take some necessary action, make guidelines to prevent potential food poisoning from juices that contain pathogenic bacteria, and find natural antimicrobials from plants that control spoilage and pathogenic microorganisms in juices.
Microbial quality and sensory attributes of Street vended, corners and restaurant juices are not in good condition.
Sample of 243 juices of three types, pineapple, peach pomegranate took from three categories, collected from 9 towns of Lahore (for 1 town 9 from each flavor that makes 27 from each town). The categories were juices from Street Vender (SV), Juice Corner (JC) and Restaurants (RT). All the samples were evaluated for sensory attributes (appearance, color, smell, taste and overall acceptability) by using 15-point hedonic scale and microbiological parameters, Aerobic Plate Count (APC), Total Coliform Count (TCC), Total Staphylococcus Count (TSC) and Salmonella detection.Data was analyzed statistically by theone way ANOVA for sensory evaluation and microbial count with 5% probability. Means were compared by LSD (least significant difference) test (Steel et al.,1997).
Results of my study indicates that juice samples collected from SV of various areas of Lahore showed very high number of microbiological counts and got very low score for its sensory attributes. While samples collected from JC showed microbiological counts less than SV and sensory attributes scores more than juices from SV. This was not only due to poor hygienic quality of these juices but also places consumers at a high risk of contracting food-borne infections. Lack of sanitary conditions in street vended juice stalls and the occurrence of pathogenic bacteria in juices are alarming enough for an immediate action by the suitable agency. Regular monitoring of the quality of fruit juices for human consumption must be introduced to avoid any future pathogen outbreaks. Juices took from RT revealed very low microbiological counts and very good score on hedonic scale which shows that they have good hygienic conditions. Their preparation methods and surrounding environment are clean.
At the end of this study we concluded that there was significant discrimination among the categories and the varieties of fresh fruit juice vendors as well as among the different towns. The microbial quality and sensory acceptability of fresh fruit juices sold at various locations of Lahore were not satisfied and we have to take step to make the conditions of our street vendors and juice corners better by giving them proper training about personal and environmental hygiene so that consumers can use the safe juices free from contamination.
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Study Of Effect Of Heat On Aflatoxin Reduction In Chickpea
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Publisher: 2016 Dissertation note: Chickpea (Cicer arietinum L.), also called garbanzo bean or Bengal gram, belongs to the family Fabaceae of class dicots (Lev-Yadun et al. 2000). It is an important legume crop cultivated over an area of 963.0 hectares with a production of about 675.2 tons in Pakistan. It is the most nutritive pulse extensively used as protein addition to starchy diet. The major issue which influences the chickpea is naturally occurring aflatoxins (AFB1, AFB2, AFG1 and AFG2) with AFB1 the most important, toxic and carcinogenic. Aflatoxins (AFB1, AFB2, AFG1, and AfG2) are toxins produced by Aspergillus flavis and Aspergillus parasiticus infecting the agricultural crops. Chickpea is largely contaminated by aflatoxins in Pakistan due to seasonal variations, improper management of grains and contaminated soils. These are dangerous fungal metabolites that impair child development, suppress the immune system, cause cancer and in severe acute exposure death occurs, so it is necessary to estimate its toxicity in public health perspective.
For this purpose present study was conducted to determine the level of aflatoxins in Chickpea samples (Roasted and Unroasted). Samples were collected from different areas of Lahore i.e. Anarkali, Icchra, Model town, Gulberg, Mughalpura,Iqbal Town, Samnabad, Secretriate, Sabza Zar, Wahdat Road, Shad Bagh, Data Darbar, Thokar Niaz Begh, Cantt, Lohari Gate, Outfall Road, Dharampura, Joray Pull, Rehman Pura, Mozang, Faiz Bagh, Akbari Mandi, Liberty, Jallo Morh, Lahore Medical Society, Darogha Wala, Firdous Market, Siddiqia Colony, District Court, Sanat Nagar and also from chickpea vendors. The samples were analyzed by thin layer chromatography (TLC) to check the presence of aflatoxins (B1, B2, G1 & G2). TLC analyses were further confirmed by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) to verify the accuracy of TLC. These analyses were performed in the Department of Food Science and Human Nutrition and WTO labs, University of Veterinary and Animal Sciences, Lahore.
Experimental results showed that 60 out of 120 samples were contaminated with four different types of aflatoxins. In other words, 50% samples were found contaminated with aflatoxnis. Aflatoxin B1 was the major aflatoxin found in many samples but aflatoxins B2, G1 and G2 were also identified. Samples were analyzed on TLC method and 5% of contaminated samples were re- evaluated on HPLC technique to get precise results. Out of 120 samples sixty samples (50%) were collected from retail shops and other sixty (50%) samples were collected from street vendors. Each category of sixty samples holds 50% roasted and 50% un-roasted samples. Out of 120 total samples of chickpea 60 samples were taken from vendors with 2 categories of roasted and unroasted while 60 samples were collected from shops with the same categories. In those 120 samples, 60 (50%) were contaminated. From those 60 samples 39 (65%) samples were contaminated with aflatoxin B1. And it was also observed that the aflatoxin contamination level in vendors sample was high as compared to samples collected from shops. Out of 39 AFB1 contaminated samples vendor’s samples included 26 (66.66%) samples and samples collected from shops included 13 (33.3%) samples. In 26 vendors’ samples contaminated by AFB1, 18 (69.2%) samples were un-roasted while 8 (30.7%) samples were roasted. Aflatoxin B2 was present in 14 (23.33%) samples from these 60 contaminated samples, and presents only in both vendors and shops samples i.e. 7 (50%) samples from vendors and 7 (50%) from shops. From these AFB2 contaminated samples 10 samples (71.4%) were un-roasted and 4 samples (28.5%) was roasted. Aflatoxin G1 is also present in 5 samples (8.33%), out of which one sample (20%) was collected from vendors and 4 samples (80%) was collected from shop. From these G1 contaminated samples, 1 (20%) was roasted and 4 (80%) was un-roasted. Aflatoxin G2 is present only in two samples collected from vendors and shops, and we can say that 3.33% samples were contaminated with aflatoxin G12, out of 60 contaminated samples. From above results it is concluded that out of 60 contaminated samples 43 (71.66%) were un-roasted and 17 samples (28.33%) were roasted. After the aflatoxin determination in 60 shop’s and 60 vendor’s roasted and unroasted chickpea samples 5 samples were further processed at home by keeping 1 sample unroasted and 4 samples roasted at time intervals of 5mins,10mins,15mins and 20mins in sand bath. All the samples were free from the aflatoxin contamination except one which was unroasted. AFB1 was present in that sample at its minimum level i.e. 32.16µg/kg.
AFB1 was present more frequently in chickpea samples. Present study will be supportive for the investigation of aflatoxins in chickpea samples. Chickpea is widely consumed all over the world and occurrence of aflatoxins in this commodity is a major concern to human health. The present situation is too much worse about the levels of aflatoxins which are higher than the prescribed limit by the regulatory authorities. It was observed that TLC technique is good for the determination of aflatoxins in developing countries where the facilities of sensitive instruments are not accessible. Furthermore to quantify levels of aflatoxins by using sensitive instruments like HPLC, GC-MS and LC-MS is required for accurate detection of Aflatoxins (B1, B2, G1 & G2) in chickpea samples available in markets to protect the consumers from exposure of aflatoxins high level which are carcinogenic and hepatotoxic.
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