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1. Evaluation Of Current Food Safety Practices At Various Food Establishments In Lahore

by Muhammad Shahbaz (2013-VA-600) | Dr. Muhammad Nasir | Dr. Zubair Farooq.

Material type: book Book; Literary form: not fiction Publisher: 2015Dissertation note: Food Safety is a scientific discipline describing handling, preparation and storage of foods in ways that prevent food borne illnesses. In present era there is much advancement in the process of product control and practices which are aimed to produce wholesome and safe food. Governments have imposed very strict quality and food safety assessment parameters for food establishments. All food establishments have not adopted practices to ensure food safety.In the present study the survey of 500 food establishments of Lahore were conducted to evaluate current food safety practices adopted by various food establishments. The evaluation was done by using structured questionnaire/checklist. The questionnaire/checklist detailed of food establishment, management and personnel, personal hygiene, establishment design and physical facilities, maintenance and sanitation of establishments, control of operations and consumer awareness with product information. SPSS version 16 was used for all data analyses. Descriptive statistics including frequencies, means, and standard deviations were calculated for all variables as appropriate.The project highlighted the situation of current food safety practices and gaps in implementation adopted by various food establishments in Lahore. Evidence from the literature suggests that majority of Pakistani foods are drastically implicated with contaminants. Food hygiene training as a means of improving food safety, strong consumer protection groups, awareness of food safety, and the right to acquire safe food, strict adherence to food laws, new legislation with changing food safety perspectives, and the recognition of this challenging problem by all stakeholders are some of the practical, systematic, and aggressive steps that can be taken to curtail the risk of microbiological and chemical foodborne diseases and to minimize the health consequences associated with the consumption of unsafe foods in Pakistan. Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 2331-T] (1).

2. Assessment Of Correlation Between Food Choices And Fertility Status In Females

by Tamkenat Mansoor (2013-VA-923) | Dr. Muhammad Nasir | Ms. Amina Chughtai | Mr. Muhammad Bilal.

Material type: book Book; Literary form: not fiction Publisher: 2015Dissertation note: The changing lifestyles and eating patterns have resulted in a number of fertility related problems, especially in females. Initially it was thought that only morbidly increased or decreased body weights were the causative factors in cases of infertility and sub fertility but it has been observed that a lot of women with normal body weight are also increasingly finding it difficult to conceive. Similarly obese and underweight women have also been seen to reproduce normally. Thus, in order to have a better understanding of the relationship between food and fertility we need to compare the eating patterns of fertile women with those of infertile ones. Various eating patterns are associated, either negatively or positively, with the fertility status of females. At least 50 fertile and 50 infertile females, attending the OPDs at health centers in Gujrat, during the time of 6 months or until the benchmark of 50 control and 50 cases is not achieved, will be recruited and interviewed through a proposed questionnaire. Other than Food frequency checklist, social, medical and sexual history of the females will also be included in the questionnaire. Filled questionnaires will be analyzed using Minitab. Comparisons will be made between the food choices of fertile and infertile group using t-test and other relevant tests. The results of the proposed study will help to assess the association between the eating patterns and fertility status of females and help the practitioners to educate and better assist their patients to conceive successfully. Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 2415-T] (1).

3. Evaluation Of Microbiological Quality Ofshawarma Sold By The Street Vendors Of Lahore

by Sana Adrees (2013-VA-896) | Dr. Zabair Farooq | Dr. Muhammad Nasir | Prof. Dr. Aftab Ahmed Anjum.

Material type: book Book; Literary form: not fiction Publisher: 2015Dissertation note: Food safety is a scientific discipline describes handling, preparation and storage of food that prevents food borne diseases.It includes a number of ways that must be followed to avoid potentially severe health hazards.The tracks within this line of thought are safety between the market and consumer. With the fast pace of life the consumption of fast food is going to increase day by day in Lahore. It is imperative to prepare food at good hygienic conditions because of its perishability. The usual thougt is that food should be safe in the market and the concern is safe delivery and preparation of food for the consumer. Microorganisms affecting food comes from natural micro flora or are introduced by manufacturing steps ranging from processing storage and distribution. In some cases these micro flora have no effect on the food and can be consumed without consequence, but those that are introduced during course of processing depending on type and level of contamination can spoil the food and cause food borne illnesses. Food can transmit diseases from one person to another as well as serve as growth medium for bacteria that can cause food poisonoing. In the developed countries there are standards for food, whereas in less developed countries the main issue is the availability of safe water supply which is one of the critical item. The present research work was undertaken to investigate the microbial count in shawarma which is a vended food. Samples collected from Anarkali,Wahdat road and Islampura showed high microbial count which shows contamination due to poor handling and hygienic conditions and improper storage conditionswhile the samples taken from Fortress, Gulberg having less microbial count as compared to these areas. High microbial load in street foods occur due to improper food handling, unhygienic food preparation and processing, cooking and storage at inappropriate temperature. Consumer, food vendors and all type people should be aware of food hygiene, public health, implications of consuming contaminated foods, causative diseases. Food safety rules and implementation of food regulatory laws in food preparation, serving and preservation should be strongly maintained to avoid contamination problems and food-borne diseases. Following points should be strongly observed and maintained for future work and further investigative study to improve the quality of shawarama. 1. Ensuring regular inspection and periodical check on these food preparation procedures. 2.Continuous lab test and analytical lab analysis to check the unwanted presence of any new harmful agents in these foods to ensure food safety for consumers. Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 2455-T] (1).

4. Evaluation Of Microbial Quality Of Burger Sold By Roadside Fast Food Centers In Various Regions Of Lahore

by Nimra Khalid (2013-VA-900) | Dr. Zubair Farooq | Dr. Muhammad Nasir | Prof. Dr. Aftab Ahmed Anjum.

Material type: book Book; Literary form: not fiction Publisher: 2015Dissertation note: Food safety actions need to cover the entire food chain, from production to consumption. The implementation of food safety include safety between industry and the market and then between the market and the consumer. In considering industry to market practices, food safety considerations include the origins of food including the practices relating to food labeling, food hygiene, food additives and pesticides residues, as well as policies for certification systems for foods. Food industry regarding safety issue is one of the most unseen areas of policy in developing countries, especially in Pakistan. As a result, food systems in these countries are not always as well controlled and comprehensive as in the mechanized world. This situation is exacerbated by an ever increasing population, rapid urbanization and, most importantly, a lack of the economic and practical resources needed to hold a sound food safety system. As a result, people in developing countries are continuously facing a wide range of potential food safety risks. Food borne illness is a disease caused by consuming contaminated food or drink.There are more than 250 known food borne diseases. Food can transmit disease from individual to individual as well as serve as a growth medium for bacteria that can cause food poisoning. Today, people try to save as much time as possible due to the requisite to cope with many tasks within restricted time. In many cases people who have busy schedule don’t have enough time to cook food therefore prefer to eat fast food like burger, shawarma, fries etc. from fast food centers. The present research was undertaken to investigate the microbial load of the chicken burger samples (n=96) collected aseptically from different regions of Lahore. Samples were collected in sterile plastic bags and analyzed for microbial load immediately after collection in Microbiology lab of University of Veterinary and Animal Sciences. Nutrient agar was used to perform Total Plate Count, Mackonkey Agar was used for total coliform count, Manitol salt agar was used to count Staphylococcus Aureus and SalmonellaShigella agar was used to detect Salmonella. The findings of the current study showed that samples taken multinational restaurant have less contamination than from local fast food centers. While among local fast food centers Liberty, Fortress, Anarkali and Akbarimandi have lesser microbial count than samples collected from Ichra, moon market, Mori gate. The difference in microbial load is due to improper food handling, processing, cooking and storage temperature, time and manufacturing practices of the food handlers. After conducting my research I concluded that following points should be strongly observed and maintained to improve the quality of chicken burger in local fast food centers • Ensuring regular inspection and periodical check on these food centers • Continuous lab test and analytical lab analysis to check the unwanted presence of any new harmful agents in these foods to ensure food safety for consumer. Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 2456-T] (1).

5. Nutritional, Microbiological And Organoleptic Evaluation Of Yoghurt Prepared From Goat-Buffalo Milk Blends

by Noor Haider (2009-VA-661) | Dr. Muhammad Nasir | Prof. Dr. Makhdoom Abdul Jabbar | Prof. Dr. Muhammad Abdullah.

Material type: book Book; Literary form: not fiction Publisher: 2011Dissertation note: Due to the high nutritional quality, goat milk is considered important daily food. But in our country, less usage of goat milk is due to lack of information about its basic nutrients and nutritional benefits, which provides less profit to the goat owners. Present study has been designed to prepare yoghurt from goat-buffalo milk blends for physico-chemical, nutritional and microbiological evaluation and to find out the best goat-buffalo milk blend for yoghurt preparation through organoleptic acceptability studies. Raw goat and buffalo milk was collected from University of Veterinary and Animal Sciences, Pattoki Campus, Pakistan and transferred to laboratory for analysis. After yoghurt preparation, chemical analysis was conducted for total solids, pH, ash content, lactose, cholesterol, protein, acidity and then physical analysis for viscosity and syneresis was conducted. Samples of yoghurt were microbiological analyzed for total viable count of Lactobacillus acidophilus, yeast, molds, coliforms by using different media. Yoghurt was also studied for sensory and nutritional evaluation after 0, 1, 3, 5, 7 and 9 days of storage at 4 °C. The data obtained was statistically evaluated through two way ANOVA by applying CRD. Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 2522-T] (1).

6. Effect Of Inulin Present In Chicory Roots On The Diabetes

by Saeed Ahmad (2009-VA-642) | Dr. Sana Ullah Iqbal | Dr. Muhammad Nasir | Dr. Saima Inayat.

Material type: book Book; Literary form: not fiction Publisher: 2016Dissertation note: Diabetes is metabolic disease in which there are high glucose levels over a long period of time. The principle symptoms of high glucose are expanded thirst, regular pee, and expanded craving. Diabetes is a disease that influences the way the body uses food from the blood. It is normally a hereditarily issue of digestion system, that is showed by the inability to tolerate carbohydrates and insulin inadequacy. In 2014 around 387 million individuals have diabetes the whole way across the world and 90% of the cases were of Type 2 diabetes which is equivalent to 8.3% of the grown-up population. This proportion was equivalent for both ladies and men. From years 2012 to 2014, it is evaluated that 1.5 to 4.9 million deaths each year was because of DM. The danger of death is twice with diabetes. The normal number of individuals with diabetes is 592 million by 2035 by this rate. With more than 16 million individuals America have some type of this disease (DM). 700,000 new instances of DM are analyzed each year. Diabetes is increasing at very high rate in Pakistan. There are nearly 7.1 million DM patients in Pakistan and it is also estimated that if DM continually develop at this rate then 11.4 million patients of diabetics will be there and Pakistan would rank 10th in the world in 2030. This study is designed due to this alarming rate of diabetes in our country. Inulin present in chicory roots may be used to optimize blood glucose level in diabetic patients. Total 20 diabetic participants aged 30 to 40 years, present in Lahore, were selected for this study in two groups with 10 each participants. Chicory root powder was used as a source of inulin. 60 Chicory roots was purchased from the market. Then cleaned from dirt and then it was dried with the help of oven at temperature 55˚c.Then this dried roots were grinded with the help of grinder machine. Two group were formed. One group was control group that used only allopathic medicines specifically for diabetes. Other group was inulin group that used chicory root powder. Inulin group used both chicory root powder and medicines 1st week of the study. This was done only to ensure no side effect of chicory root powder on the participants. Next week when there was no adverse effect then participants were advised to use half of the medicine along with the chicory root powder. Then after 13 days when glucose level of the participant was on the course then eliminated the medicines and told them to use only 10 grams of chicory root powder daily. Glucose level of these patients was tested daily by the glucometer for two weeks. Then after every 5 to 7 days for 3 months. Then at the end of this period HBA1C test was carried at the hospital laboratory. In this experimental trial, we investigated the effect chicory root supplementation especially inulin has on glucose level of type 2 diabetic patients. Our results showed that three months of chicory root supplementation significantly decreased blood glucose level. My study reveals that inulin as a fiber didn’t control the diabetes but have a little effect on the glucose intake in the blood due to its fibrous nature. Data showed that the inulin supplementation slightly reduce the glucose level in the blood. First week of the supplementation was along with medicines and data showed reduction in the glucose level of blood. At initial day the average random blood glucose level was 251.2 ± 60.1 mg/dl and after 7 days it was 220 ± 53.1 mg/dl and at the end of 90th day it was 195 ± 52.3 which shows that inulin has a reducing effect on the diabetes to some 61 extent. In this study we can conclude that inulin containing chicory roots has a positive effect on the reduction of glucose level of blood (p < 0.001). The patients that use 10 grams of chicory root powder constantly were able to lower their blood glucose level and HbA1c. But it cannot be used as a medicine replacement in diabetic patients because it does not control blood glucose level to the normal range. Future Recommendations: I recommend in future that effect of inulin on the diabetic patients should be checked in relation to amount of medicines given to the patients. Researchers should check that what happens when inulin is used with different amount of medicines in diabetic patients. And also what happens when different amount of inulin is given to diabetic patients along with same medicine. Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 2568-T] (1).

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