Determination Of Heavy Metals In Cauliflower And Carrot Grown In Suburbs Of Lahore
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Publisher: 2015 Dissertation note: Vegetables are the fresh and edible portions of the herbaceous plants. They classified as seasonal vegetables but they also classified as root, tuber, shoot, flower, fruit and leafy on the base of mode of consumption. Each of the categories mentioned above have its own role in human body. They play a vital role in human health due to their higher nutritional values. They are major source of macro and micro nutrients which required by the human body for optimal functioning. They are not only involved for normal body functioning but they also disease preventive in nature. Heavy metals get entry through different routes and accumulate in edible and inedible portions of the vegetables in quantity enough to cause clinical problems to humans and animals. This study was designed to assess the level of heavy metals in vegetables in different districts of Punjab.
Heavy metal is defined as metallic element usually toxic in nature with high density and atomic weight. As they are toxic in nature they accumulate in different parts of the vegetables and lead to several health complications in humans. Some of these metals are of nutritionally important for human health in small quantities and referred as trace elements which include zinc, iron, copper etc. They are among the major toxicants in vegetables which may cause chronic diseases in the kidney and liver of humans and causes disruption of numerous biochemical processes leading to cardiovascular, nervous, kidney and bone diseases. Open crown vegetables like cauliflower have more chances of infestation in suburbs due to waste water irrigation as compared to intact skin vegetables especially grown away from suburbs. Moreover, vegetables treated under clean sanitary conditions can have low levels of heavy metals as compared to the untreated ones.
There are different sources of heavy metals which include waste water irrigation, industrial waste water and soil pollution which associated with industrialization and agricultural activities such as atmospheric deposition, waste disposal, waste incineration, vehicle exhaust, fertilizer application and long term application of sewage sludge in agriculture land. Waste water contains sufficient amount toxic heavy metals which cause clinical problems.
In the present study two vegetable cauliflower (Brassica oleracea) and carrot (Dascusorrota) were collected from suburbs of Lahore. While samples of cauliflower were include from various districts of Punjab. The heavy metals Pb, Zn, Cr, Ni, Ca, Mg, K and Na were determined in cauliflower and carrot from suburbs; While Pb, Zn, Cr and Ni were observed in cauliflower from various districts of Punjab. Digested vegetable samples were analyzed through Atomic Absorption Spectrophotometer.
The highest levels for heavy metals (ppm) Lead, Zinc, Chromium and Nickel in Lahore for cauliflower and carrot was (2.2267±0.0251, 2.2317±0.0076), (5.7100±0.0360,5.0333±0.2516), (1.1133±0.1154, 1.7333±0.0763), (2.466±0.1040, 2.4000±0.3605) respectively. There was a significant difference in both vegetables. Difference in concentration in both vegetables is due to the surface area of both vegetables as cauliflower has large surface area as compared to carrot.
The highest levels for heavy metals (ppm) Lead, Zinc, Chromium and Nickel in Gujranwala for cauliflower was (2.3266±0.0145, 4.5966±0.0152, 0.9333±0.0152, 2.2467±0.0251) respectively.
The highest levels for heavy metals (ppm) Lead, Zinc, Chromium and Nickel in Sheikhupura for cauliflower was (1.9000±0.0200, 6.043±0.0513, 0.933±0.0152, 2.490±0.0100) respectively.
The highest levels for heavy metals (ppm) Lead, Zinc, Chromium and Nickel in Faisalabad for cauliflower was (1.928±0.0104, 5.736±0.0156, 1.193±0.0057, 2.476±0.152) respectively.
The highest levels for heavy metals (ppm) Lead, Zinc, Chromium and Nickel in Kasoor for cauliflower was (1.900±0.0200, 6.043±0.0513, 0.933±0.0152, 2.490±0.0100) respectively.
Each of the city have different concentration of the metals, several reasons for this variation which include medium on which these vegetables are growing, water used for irrigation, application of agricultural products, poor agricultural practices and post-harvest treatment which include harvesting procedure, washing of vegetables with unsafe water and transfer from long rooted areas. Uptake behavior of these metals and minerals by vegetables also affect it. The transfer factor (TF) of different heavy metals from soil to vegetation is one of the key components of human exposure to metals through the food chain. The highest TF valueis found for Zn because Zn is more mobile in nature. This study will provide a baseline data and there is a need for intensive sampling of the same for quantification of the results. Soil, plant and water quality monitoring, together with the prevention of metals entering the plant, is a prerequisite in order to prevent potential health hazards of wastewater irrigation. By using good agricultural practices including use of less agricultural chemical products and sewage water should be used after proper treatment.
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Evaluation Of The Microbiological Quality Of Ice Cream Sold At Local Shops In Lahore
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Publisher: 2016 Dissertation note: Ice cream is a delicious, wholesome, nutritious frozen dairy food. It is noticed that generally manufacturing of ice cream on small scale production units like local shops doesn't totally follow the standard procedures of ice cream production. Ice cream can be contaminated with microorganisms if some ingredients have been added after pasteurization or by means of improper sanitation of the equipment and environment. Microbiological quality of ice cream reflects hygienic practice in production and is an indication of food safety. There was variation in quality of locally produced ice cream in different areas of Lahore.
Food safety is a scientific discipline describes handling, preparation and storage of food that prevents food borne diseases. It includes a number of ways that must be followed to avoid potentially severe health hazards. The tracks within this line of thought are safety between the market and consumer with the fast pace of life the consumption of fast food is going to increase day by day in Lahore. It is imperative to prepare food at good hygienic conditions because of its perishability. The usual thought is that food should be safe in the market and the concern is safe delivery and preparation of food for the consumer.
Microorganisms affecting food comes from natural microflora or are introduced by manufacturing steps ranging from processing storage and distribution. In some cases these micro flora have no effect on the food and can be consumed without consequence, but those that are introduced during course of processing depending on type and level of contamination can spoil the food and cause food borne illnesses.
Food can transmit diseases from one person to another as well as serve as growth medium for bacteria that can cause food poisoning. In the developed countries there are standards for food, whereas in less developed countries the main issue is the availability of safe water supply which is one of the critical item. Foodborne illness is a problem resulting from the consumption of contaminated food, bacteria, viruses, or parasites, natural toxins, chemicals that contaminate food.
For this study total 108 locally produced samples of ice cream were carried from different areas of Lahore. Mughalpura, Sadar, Model town, Gulberg, Town ship and Johar town. 6 shops from each area and 3 samples from each shop were purchased and put in the sampling box with ice packs. Samples were analyzes for microbial load in microbiology Lab of University of Veterinary and Animal Sciences.
Each sample was analyzed for microbiological analysis (Enumeration of Total Viable Count (TVC), Enumeration of Total Coliform Count (TCC), Enumeration of Total Staphylococcal Count (TSC) and detection of salmonella spp.
Nutrient agar was used to perform Total plate count, Mackonky agar was used for Total coliform count, Mannitol salt agar was used to count S.aureus , Salmonella Shigella agar for Salmonella detection . Each analysis was performed 3 times.
The samples collected from Mughalpura, Sadar and Model town were highly contaminated having more microbial count which shows contamination due to poor handling and hygienic conditions while Gulberg, Johar town and Town ship having less contaminated.
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Effect Of Inulin Present In Chicory Roots On The Diabetes
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Publisher: 2016 Dissertation note: Diabetes is metabolic disease in which there are high glucose levels over a long period of time. The principle symptoms of high glucose are expanded thirst, regular pee, and expanded craving. Diabetes is a disease that influences the way the body uses food from the blood. It is normally a hereditarily issue of digestion system, that is showed by the inability to tolerate carbohydrates and insulin inadequacy.
In 2014 around 387 million individuals have diabetes the whole way across the world and 90% of the cases were of Type 2 diabetes which is equivalent to 8.3% of the grown-up population. This proportion was equivalent for both ladies and men. From years 2012 to 2014, it is evaluated that 1.5 to 4.9 million deaths each year was because of DM. The danger of death is twice with diabetes. The normal number of individuals with diabetes is 592 million by 2035 by this rate. With more than 16 million individuals America have some type of this disease (DM). 700,000 new instances of DM are analyzed each year.
Diabetes is increasing at very high rate in Pakistan. There are nearly 7.1 million DM patients in Pakistan and it is also estimated that if DM continually develop at this rate then 11.4 million patients of diabetics will be there and Pakistan would rank 10th in the world in 2030. This study is designed due to this alarming rate of diabetes in our country. Inulin present in chicory roots may be used to optimize blood glucose level in diabetic patients.
Total 20 diabetic participants aged 30 to 40 years, present in Lahore, were selected for this study in two groups with 10 each participants. Chicory root powder was used as a source of inulin.
Chicory roots was purchased from the market. Then cleaned from dirt and then it was dried with the help of oven at temperature 55˚c.Then this dried roots were grinded with the help of grinder machine.
Two group were formed. One group was control group that used only allopathic medicines specifically for diabetes. Other group was inulin group that used chicory root powder. Inulin group used both chicory root powder and medicines 1st week of the study. This was done only to ensure no side effect of chicory root powder on the participants. Next week when there was no adverse effect then participants were advised to use half of the medicine along with the chicory root powder. Then after 13 days when glucose level of the participant was on the course then eliminated the medicines and told them to use only 10 grams of chicory root powder daily.
Glucose level of these patients was tested daily by the glucometer for two weeks. Then after every 5 to 7 days for 3 months. Then at the end of this period HBA1C test was carried at the hospital laboratory.
In this experimental trial, we investigated the effect chicory root supplementation especially inulin has on glucose level of type 2 diabetic patients. Our results showed that three months of chicory root supplementation significantly decreased blood glucose level. My study reveals that inulin as a fiber didn’t control the diabetes but have a little effect on the glucose intake in the blood due to its fibrous nature. Data showed that the inulin supplementation slightly reduce the glucose level in the blood. First week of the supplementation was along with medicines and data showed reduction in the glucose level of blood. At initial day the average random blood glucose level was 251.2 ± 60.1 mg/dl and after 7 days it was 220 ± 53.1 mg/dl and at the end of 90th day it was 195 ± 52.3 which shows that inulin has a reducing effect on the diabetes to some
extent. In this study we can conclude that inulin containing chicory roots has a positive effect on the reduction of glucose level of blood (p < 0.001). The patients that use 10 grams of chicory root powder constantly were able to lower their blood glucose level and HbA1c. But it cannot be used as a medicine replacement in diabetic patients because it does not control blood glucose level to the normal range.
I recommend in future that effect of inulin on the diabetic patients should be checked in relation to amount of medicines given to the patients. Researchers should check that what happens when inulin is used with different amount of medicines in diabetic patients. And also what happens when different amount of inulin is given to diabetic patients along with same medicine.
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Impact Of Nutrition Education On Knowledge About Osteoporosis Among Women
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Publisher: 2016 Dissertation note: Osteoporosis is a serious public health problem. It leads to compromised bone health and quality of life deteriorates. As there is no cure to it, it is important to prevent it. The peak bone mass can be achieved prior to the age of 30. Therefore, prevention is most effective if done in childhood and adolescent. About 9.9 million people in Pakistan have osteoporosis of which 7.2 million are women. The occurrence of Pakistan is expected to rise in the coming years with an estimated prevalence of 11.3 million in 2020, and 12.9 million in 2050. Therefore, the high prevalence of osteoporosis in Pakistan is of public health concern. The nutrition knowledge about osteoporosis in women was improved after nutrition education. The study design was randomized pretest posttest control group design. A sample of 150 females aged between 16 - 30 years visiting Pakistan Society for the Rehabilitation and Disabled were selected through purposive sampling. Data was collected through closed ended questionnaire. Sample was divided into two equal groups; Control Group and Experimental Group. Both groups were pretested. The baseline knowledge of both the groups was assessed using a 27-item questionnaire. After pretesting nutrition education was imparted to the experimental group through various materials. Nutrition education was given once a week for 2 months (8 weeks). Each education session was of 30 minutes approximately. The educational tools used were handouts for participants and multimedia power point presentations. After 2 months, both control and experimental group were post-tested to assess the effectiveness of nutrition education. The data analysis was done using SPSS v.20 software. Pearson’s Chi-square test was used and qualitative data was presented in the form of descriptive statistics. Analysis of data was carried out by making tables and clustered bar charts. The study concluded that intervention (nutrition education) is effective on improving the knowledge and attitudes about Osteoporosis among females aged 16-30 years. The findings are in conformity with studies from Pakistan and abroad.
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Linking Childhood Obesity With Excessive Use Of Digital Media
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Publisher: 2016 Dissertation note: Obesity is one of the most prevalent problems all over the world particularly in children and adolescence that could lead to sedentary behavior and influence the dietary habits of children. The television food commercials have bad impact on children and increased brand advertisements may lead to unhealthy consumption patterns. The hypothesis of the study was excessive use of digital media can lead to weight gain in children. The sample of 400 children of class 4-6 was taken from private schools, Daar-e-Arqam school, Himayat-e-Islam higher secondary school and Al-Huda Educational Institute, Lahore.. Children of age 9-11 years was included from middle class group (monthly income 30,000-70,000/-). The demographic measurements were obtained by each student while having a personal interview with them. The anthropometric measurements (heights, weights, BMI, TSF, MUAC and MAMC) were taken by using specific measuring tools. The height were measured by stadiometers, weights by weighing machine and other anthropometric measurements by abs plastic medical body fat skinfold caliper meter. Growth charts were used to assess the degree of malnutrition (over nutrition or under nutrition). The questionnaire was filled by asking questions to the children in order to assess the relationship of body weight and digital media. Descriptive statistics and chi square, Pearson’s correlation (SPSS version 20) was applied on the data to assess either digital media has positive or negative relationship with children’s body weight. The age, gender and class are significantly associated with nutritional status of the students. The students of Lahore Pakistan like to use mobile and laptop and the duration of using mobile or laptop is positively associated with health status of the individual. Student has very busy life and they do not have spare time to watch television so it is not significantly
associated with health status of the individual. In such case, students have low physical activity and increase sedentary behavior. Parents do not allow their children to go out for games or activities because of security concerns or restrictions on girls especially. The physical activity is negatively associated with health status of the individual. The dietary habits of the individuals are badly affected due to the trends of junk and fast food consumption but it is not associated with food marketing campaigns in this study. The food marketing campaigns target young children for selling their products by advertising them in prime time of children programs but due to busy schedule of the individuals , they do not have time to be effected by them.
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