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151. Study Of Effect Of Heat On Aflatoxin Reduction In Chickpea

by Zarmeena Khan (2009-VA-514) | Dr. Zubair Farooq | Dr. Naureen Naeem | Dr. Muhammad Nawaz.

Material type: book Book; Literary form: not fiction Publisher: 2016Dissertation note: Chickpea (Cicer arietinum L.), also called garbanzo bean or Bengal gram, belongs to the family Fabaceae of class dicots (Lev-Yadun et al. 2000). It is an important legume crop cultivated over an area of 963.0 hectares with a production of about 675.2 tons in Pakistan. It is the most nutritive pulse extensively used as protein addition to starchy diet. The major issue which influences the chickpea is naturally occurring aflatoxins (AFB1, AFB2, AFG1 and AFG2) with AFB1 the most important, toxic and carcinogenic. Aflatoxins (AFB1, AFB2, AFG1, and AfG2) are toxins produced by Aspergillus flavis and Aspergillus parasiticus infecting the agricultural crops. Chickpea is largely contaminated by aflatoxins in Pakistan due to seasonal variations, improper management of grains and contaminated soils. These are dangerous fungal metabolites that impair child development, suppress the immune system, cause cancer and in severe acute exposure death occurs, so it is necessary to estimate its toxicity in public health perspective. For this purpose present study was conducted to determine the level of aflatoxins in Chickpea samples (Roasted and Unroasted). Samples were collected from different areas of Lahore i.e. Anarkali, Icchra, Model town, Gulberg, Mughalpura,Iqbal Town, Samnabad, Secretriate, Sabza Zar, Wahdat Road, Shad Bagh, Data Darbar, Thokar Niaz Begh, Cantt, Lohari Gate, Outfall Road, Dharampura, Joray Pull, Rehman Pura, Mozang, Faiz Bagh, Akbari Mandi, Liberty, Jallo Morh, Lahore Medical Society, Darogha Wala, Firdous Market, Siddiqia Colony, District Court, Sanat Nagar and also from chickpea vendors. The samples were analyzed by thin layer chromatography (TLC) to check the presence of aflatoxins (B1, B2, G1 & G2). TLC analyses were further confirmed by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) to verify the accuracy of TLC. These analyses were performed in the Department of Food Science and Human Nutrition and WTO labs, University of Veterinary and Animal Sciences, Lahore. Experimental results showed that 60 out of 120 samples were contaminated with four different types of aflatoxins. In other words, 50% samples were found contaminated with aflatoxnis. Aflatoxin B1 was the major aflatoxin found in many samples but aflatoxins B2, G1 and G2 were also identified. Samples were analyzed on TLC method and 5% of contaminated samples were re- evaluated on HPLC technique to get precise results. Out of 120 samples sixty samples (50%) were collected from retail shops and other sixty (50%) samples were collected from street vendors. Each category of sixty samples holds 50% roasted and 50% un-roasted samples. Out of 120 total samples of chickpea 60 samples were taken from vendors with 2 categories of roasted and unroasted while 60 samples were collected from shops with the same categories. In those 120 samples, 60 (50%) were contaminated. From those 60 samples 39 (65%) samples were contaminated with aflatoxin B1. And it was also observed that the aflatoxin contamination level in vendors sample was high as compared to samples collected from shops. Out of 39 AFB1 contaminated samples vendor’s samples included 26 (66.66%) samples and samples collected from shops included 13 (33.3%) samples. In 26 vendors’ samples contaminated by AFB1, 18 (69.2%) samples were un-roasted while 8 (30.7%) samples were roasted. Aflatoxin B2 was present in 14 (23.33%) samples from these 60 contaminated samples, and presents only in both vendors and shops samples i.e. 7 (50%) samples from vendors and 7 (50%) from shops. From these AFB2 contaminated samples 10 samples (71.4%) were un-roasted and 4 samples (28.5%) was roasted. Aflatoxin G1 is also present in 5 samples (8.33%), out of which one sample (20%) was collected from vendors and 4 samples (80%) was collected from shop. From these G1 contaminated samples, 1 (20%) was roasted and 4 (80%) was un-roasted. Aflatoxin G2 is present only in two samples collected from vendors and shops, and we can say that 3.33% samples were contaminated with aflatoxin G12, out of 60 contaminated samples. From above results it is concluded that out of 60 contaminated samples 43 (71.66%) were un-roasted and 17 samples (28.33%) were roasted. After the aflatoxin determination in 60 shop’s and 60 vendor’s roasted and unroasted chickpea samples 5 samples were further processed at home by keeping 1 sample unroasted and 4 samples roasted at time intervals of 5mins,10mins,15mins and 20mins in sand bath. All the samples were free from the aflatoxin contamination except one which was unroasted. AFB1 was present in that sample at its minimum level i.e. 32.16µg/kg. AFB1 was present more frequently in chickpea samples. Present study will be supportive for the investigation of aflatoxins in chickpea samples. Chickpea is widely consumed all over the world and occurrence of aflatoxins in this commodity is a major concern to human health. The present situation is too much worse about the levels of aflatoxins which are higher than the prescribed limit by the regulatory authorities. It was observed that TLC technique is good for the determination of aflatoxins in developing countries where the facilities of sensitive instruments are not accessible. Furthermore to quantify levels of aflatoxins by using sensitive instruments like HPLC, GC-MS and LC-MS is required for accurate detection of Aflatoxins (B1, B2, G1 & G2) in chickpea samples available in markets to protect the consumers from exposure of aflatoxins high level which are carcinogenic and hepatotoxic. Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 2599-T] (1).

152. Handbook of Milk Proeins

by Gardner, Caroline.

Edition: 1st ed.Material type: book Book; Literary form: not fiction Publisher: New York: Callisto Reference; 2015Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 636.08522 Gardner 31777 1st 2015 Food.Science] (1).

153. Nutrition in Public Health : Principles, Policies and Practice / 2nd ed.

by Spark, Arlene.

Edition: 2nd ed.Material type: book Book; Literary form: not fiction Publisher: UK: CRC Press; 2016Availability: Items available for loan: Pattoki Library [Call number: 363.85610973 Spark 31877 2nd 2016 H.Nutrition] (1).

154. Nutrition and Dietetics : Practice and Future Trends / 4th ed.

by Winterfeldt, Esther A.

Edition: 4th ed. Material type: book Book; Literary form: not fiction Publisher: USA: Jones and Bartlett; 2014Availability: Items available for loan: Pattoki Library [Call number: 613.2023 Winterfeldt 31876 4th 2014 H.Nutrition] (1).

155. Nutrition Across the Life Span / 2nd ed.

by Mitchell, Mary Kay.

Edition: 2nd ed. Material type: book Book; Literary form: not fiction Publisher: Delhi: MedTech; 2015Availability: Items available for loan: Pattoki Library [Call number: 613.2 Mitchell 31875 2nd 2015 H.Nutrition] (1).

156. Food Chemistry

by Thapar, Hema.

Edition: 1st ed. Material type: book Book; Literary form: not fiction Publisher: India: Pacific Books International; 2010Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 641.3 Thapar 24348 1st 2010 Food.Science] (1).

157. Fundamentals of Nutrition Science

by Sharma, Yogesh.

Edition: 1st ed. Material type: book Book; Literary form: not fiction Publisher: New Delhi: Mohit Publications; 2009Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 612.39 Sharma 24590 1st 2009 Food.Science] (1).

158. Nutritional Assessment Of Hypertensive Patients And The Impact Of Nutrition Education On Their Dietary Practices In Contrast To Dash Diet

by Farah Naz (2012-VA-401) | Miss Tahreem Hussain | Dr. Sanaullah Iqbal | Dr. Mamoona Chaudary.

Material type: book Book; Literary form: not fiction Publisher: 2015Dissertation note: Hypertension is a common public health problem in developing countries. It leads to further complications such as coronary heart disease, stroke and renal disorder. The main reason is unawareness, poor dietary habits and worsened lifestyle in hypertensive patients. Nutritional education at the right time may prevent other risk factors associated with hypertension. Nutrition education have a positive impact on dietary practices of hypertensive patients for secondary prevention. A total of 200 hypertensive patients was purposively selected for this study. The willing patients was informed about the purpose of study and consent was taken. The pretesting of the hypertensive patients was administered about their usual dietary habits through questionnaire, Food Frequency Questionnaire and 24-hour dietary recall. A total of 60 hypertensive patients came with chronic diseases so they were excluded from the Research. Lessons and handouts on nutrition education were given to the patients for a period of four weeks (1 month). After completion of one month of nutrition education, post-testing was administered through filling up of the same Questionnaire, Food Frequency Questionnaire and 24-hour dietary recall to assess the improvement in dietary habits of hypertensive patients and results were calculated. SPSS v. 21 was used for the compilation and analysis. Wilcoxon signed ranked test and Paired t-test was applied to analyze the effectiveness of nutritional education on dietary habits of hypertensive patients. Level of significance was p ≤ 0.05. The present study helped to assess the effectiveness of nutrition education on improving the knowledge and dietary practices of hypertensive patients. Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 2661-T] (1).

159. Effect Of Various Classroom Educational Activities On Fresh Fruit Intake Of Children

by Anum Zafar (2014-VA-533) | Ms. Tahreem Hussain | Ms. Amina Chughtai | Mr. Muhammad Bilal.

Material type: book Book; Literary form: not fiction Publisher: 2016Dissertation note: Children of age group 3-4 years are developing their dietary habits. Multiple factors affect their eating preferences. Intake of fresh fruits is observed to be less in this age group. Initiative to improve fresh fruit intake during this age is of utmost importance as fruits are rich in micronutrients. The proposed study attempts to find out the effect of class activities on fresh fruit intake of children. The current study hypothesized that class learning activities can improve the consumption of fresh fruits in children and the results of the current study indicates that fresh fruit intake can be increased by different educational activities. A sample of 100 children 3-4 years of age enrolled in The Educators (Shahdara campus) participated in the study. They were divided in four equal sub groups, 25 children in each group. Each group was given the same weighed (109grams) fruit bowls for 20 mins. One group was the control group. In contrast the other three experimental groups received the treatment in the form of different class activities like animated movie, storytelling and the talk session. The fruit bowls were served after these activities and then the weight of the fruit bowls were recorded again. The experiment was performed thrice with a gap of one week to observe the difference. Those participants who were suffering from any type of allergy were excluded from this study. Data of the leftover weight was analyzed statistically by SPSS version 21. Descriptive statistics (frequency/percentage), graphs, tables and graphs were used to analyze the data of different days of the treatment. One way ANOVA was used to check the difference between the outputs of different groups. The result of the current study showed that participant with the treatment of storytelling ate more than any other treatment with lowest mean value of left over weight 14.36, however the group which receive the treatment of discussion had the mean value of 21.49 and the treatment with movie had the mean value of 34.02. Participant belong to the control group did not eat much fruit because they had highest mean value of leftover weight of 39.69. Therefore it can be concluded from the current study that there is a positive effect of different class based learning activities on fresh fruits intake in children of age group 3-4 year. Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 2659-T] (1).

160. Nutraceuticals and Functional Foods in Human Health and Disease Prevention

by Bagchi, Debasis.

Edition: 1st ed. Material type: book Book; Literary form: not fiction Publisher: USA: CRC Press; 2016Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 613.2 Bagchi 31896 1st 2016 Food.Science] (1).

161. Food Science, Safety and Quality Control

by Field, Margo.

Edition: 1st ed. Material type: book Book; Literary form: not fiction Publisher: China: Syrawood Publishing House; 2016Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 664 Field 31895 1st 2016 Food.Science] (1).

162. Foodborne Diseases :Case Studies of Outbreaks in the Agri-Food Industries

by Soon, Jan Mei.

Edition: 1st ed.Material type: book Book; Literary form: not fiction Publisher: USA: CRC Press; 2016Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 363.1926 Soon 31977 1st 2016 Food.Science] (1).

163. Fermented Meat Products: Health Aspects

by Zdolec, Nevijo.

Edition: 1st ed.Material type: book Book; Literary form: not fiction Publisher: USA: CRC Press; 2017Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 664.9028 Zdolec 31979 1st 2017 Food.Science] (1).

164. Effect Of Chicory (Cichorium Intybus L) Roots Powder On Blood Glucose Level Of Streptozotocin Induced Diabetic Rats

by Nazish Abid (2012-VA-782) | Dr. Sanaullah Iqbal | Ms. Tahreem Hussain | Dr. Abu Saeed Hashmi.

Material type: book Book; Literary form: not fiction Publisher: 2015Dissertation note: The increasing numbers of elderly people, eating calorie rich diets, obesity and lack of physical activity have increased a great the number of patients with diabetes. Worldwide According to International Diabetes Federation (IDF) there were 6.9 million cases of diabetes in Pakistan in 2014 and occurrence of diabetes in adults of 20-79 years of age was 6.8 %.( International Diabetes Federation, cited on January 31, 2015). The feeding on chicory roots decreased the levels of plasma glucose, cholesterol, high density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol and also reduced liver cholesterol, triglyceride and total lipids of diabetic patient. In the present study, it was aimed to utilize a indigenous sources like prebiotics to overcome the representative burden on economy and estimating the outcome of administration of chicory powder for use as a substitute mediator of insulin in the control of diabetes mellitus. In the present study, chicory roots were cleaned, oven dried and ground to fine powder. The proximate analysis of chicory powder was performed. For feeding trial, thirty two Albino rats 5 to 6 weeks age, almost of same weight and mixed sex were procured and were randomly divided into four groups i.e. (A) Control , (B) Diabetic control, (C) Chicory treated and (D) Metformin treated group containing six rats each (three male and three female). Each group of rats was fed with a high fat diet (20%) for the first 2 weeks of adaptation. Then Diabetes was induced in B, C and D groups of rats by injecting 65mg/kg STZ through intraperitoneally. The diabetic rats of group C and D were then used for chicory intervention (125mg/kg of body weight) and for Metformin medication (500mg/kg body weight) along with normal diet respectively. The blood glucose level and weighing of animals measured initially and then Summary 39 weekly whereas glucose tolerance test of rats was performed initially and thereafter fortnightly. The feed and water consumption was measured on daily bases. A significant (p<0.05) difference in blood glucose level was seen among the group B, C and D of rats. A non-significance difference (p>0.05) in blood glucose level was observed when compared between male and female rats of groups A, B, C and D. A significant (p<0.05) difference in live body weight was observed. The group B, C and D showed significant (p<0.05) decrease in live body weight from day 7 to day 28 as compared to group A whereas a non-significant (p>0.05) difference in live body weight of male and female rats of all groups was observed. A significant (p<0.05) difference in glucose tolerance between group C and D was observed whereas a non-significant (p>0.05) difference of glucose tolerance was seen between all male and female rats of groups A, B, C and D while a significant difference (p>0.05) in feed consumption within group A, B, C and D was seen whereas a significant difference (p<0.05) in feed consumption was seen between the subjects. A significant gender difference in feed consumption was observed (p<0.05) between the subjects but within the subjects a non-significant difference was seen. A non-significant (p>0.05) difference was observed within the subjects in water intake whereas significant (p<0.05) difference was seen between the subjects whereas a significant gender difference (p<0.05) was seen between the subject but a non-significant gender difference was observed within the subjects. It is concluded that Cichoriun intybus root extract can be used as hypoglycemic agent to treat diabetic condition and has no adverse effects on body weight, feed intake and water intake. Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 2727-T] (1).

165. Comparative Study Of Nutritional Status Of Geriatric Population Living In Old Age Homes And With Families

by Firdos Kausar (2014-VA-910) | Haroon Jamshid Qazi | Dr.Sanauallahiqbal | Muhammad Bilal.

Material type: book Book; Literary form: not fiction Publisher: 2016Dissertation note: Elderly population is one of the most vulnerable groups that are on the risk of malnutrition due to various physiological and environmental reasons. Elderly population have high prevalence of malnutrition Geriatric populations living in old age homes have high risk of malnutrition a respect to those living with families. A comparative study was conducted to evaluate the nutritional status of geriatric population living with families and living in old age homes in the city of Lahore Pakistan. The study was cross sectional design. Participants above 60 years were included in study. Two hundred elderly persons, hundred living in old age homes and hundred (100) with families in this 65% male and 35% females were assessed through, 24 hour dietary recall and Macro nutrients intake calculated, clinical assessment and anthropometric assessments BMI, mid arm circumferences and calf circumferences Furthermore mini nutritional assessment MNA® tool was also is used to assess the nutritional status of participants. Data was analyzed by using SPSS version 19. Descriptive statistic was used to describe the background characteristic profile of the respondents. Chi square was used to find the association between home living and old age homes living. The MNA results revels the prevalence of malnutrition in living with families were 6.5% and 19.5 % were at risk of malnutrition while in old age homes 14.5% were malnourished and 22.5% were at risk of malnutrition. Intake of carbohydrates, protein, energy, was significantly higher in geriatric population living with families when compared to geriatric population living in old age homes (p<0.05). The energy derived from proteins was 8% from living in old age homes while 12% elderly living with families. The results of current study showed high risk of malnutrition (p<0.05) in geriatric population living in old age homes, and verify the need for health support and nutritional interventions for geriatric population in old age homes. The energy intake and some nutrients especially protein in geriatric population living in old age homes was lower than dietary reference intake. Further studies should be conducted in neighboring areas of Lahore and other cities of Pakistan as well as to access nutritional status in elderly population especially living in old age homes. Provision of healthy well balanced diet, and considering needs of nutrients and specific micronutrients including iron vitamin A long term provision, and their like and dislike in planning of menus in this manner it will encourage food consumption Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 2743-T] (1).

166. Evaluating The Efects Of Prebiotics In Rehabilitation Of Gut Microbiota After Antibiotic (Cephalexin) In Rats

by Rabia Omer (2011-VA-512) | Dr. SanaullahIqbal | Mr. Muhammad Amir Iqbal | Dr. Sajid khan Tahir.

Material type: book Book Publisher: 2017Dissertation note: Antibiotics are widely used to kill pathogenic bacteria that have adverse effects on human health. It has been seen that these kind of drugs causes imbalance of microbes because these are not only target the pathogens but also suppressing the growth of beneficial bacteria. Beneficial bacteria such as bifidobacteria and lactobacilli species conquer many benefits for human health. That’s why there is a need to rehabilitate these valuable microorganisms. The worthwhile approach in this regard is the use of galacto-oligosaccharides(GOS). Adult male Wistar rats (n= 24) were used in present study. Rats were divided into 4 groups having 6 rats in each group. Group G1 was a control normal that was fed on a basal diet. Group G2 was treated with an antibiotic cephalexin for five days. Moreover, Group G3 wasgiven GOS as well as antibiotic. In Group G4, firstly antibiotic was given for specific duration and after that GOS was given for the rest period of time. The fecal sample were collected from rats with time interval of 0, 5 , 10 and 15day of antibiotic therapy or treatment and were analyzed for bacterial population especially Bifidobacteria, Lactobacilli, E. coli and total plate count using selective media. The results of bifidobacteria and lactobacilli of group 3 were significantly same with group 1 at 15th day and were notably higher from group 1 at 20th day. In addition the beneficial species in group 2 were decreased at 5th day that significantly different with group 1 and didn’t recover till at 20th day. The colonies of E. coli in various groupswere different at various time intervals. Moreover the results of TPC were based on the treatments. It was significantly higher in group 3 that was given antibiotic with prebiotics while it was significantly lower in group 2 as compared to normal.The data were analyzed using One way Analysis of variance (ANOVA). The group differences were compared by the Duncan’s Multiple Range Test. Differences were considered significant at P < 0.05. This study helped to turn down the side effects of antibiotic as well as maintain the normal micro-flora by rehabilitate the beneficial species such as bifidobacteria and lactobacilli and also suppressing the growth of harmful pathogens e.g. E. coli Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 2859-T] (1).

167. Food Analysis / 5th ed.

by Nielsen, S. Suzanne.

Edition: 5th ed.Material type: book Book; Literary form: not fiction Publisher: Switzerland: Springer; 2017Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 664 Nielsen 32316 5th 2017 Food.Science] (1).

168. Food Analysis Laboratory Manual / 3rd ed.

by Nielsen, S. Suzanne.

Edition: 3rd ed.Material type: book Book; Literary form: not fiction Publisher: Switzerland: Springer; 2017Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 664.07 Nielsen 32317 3rd 2017 Food.Science] (1).

169. Assessment Of Nutritional Supplements Intake Among Females Excercising In Various Gyms Of Lahore

by Sana Azher (2015-VA-808) | Haroon Jamshid Qazi | Dr.SanauallahIqbal | Dr. Sajid khan Tahir.

Material type: book Book; Literary form: not fiction Publisher: 2017Dissertation note: Diet, exercise, body composition, and weight management play important role in an active person's life and performance. People without having knowledge about the importance of balance diet and their needs use nutritional supplements to improve their health status. Lack of knowledge regarding the importance of balanced diet, have negative impact on food choices, which is also the main reason of increasing trend of consuming nutritional supplements all over the world in all age groups. Results of the current study showed that most individuals who used supplements were young, unhealthy, rated their eating habits as bad or average, exercised regularly three to five times a week for 1 to 2 hours daily, and had the main goal of weight management, improved performance and avoiding a sedentary lifestyle. The use of supplement may be highly associated with people who have poor or average food intake or in those individuals who mostly skip their meal on regular basis. In gyms and fitness clubs female’s participants, with higher percentage 46% were consuming supplements. Subjects included in this study, use supplements with many reasons such as for weight gain or loss, strengthen muscle mass, improving physical appearance, recover nutritional deficiencies, or to reduce stress etc. Half of the user consumes supplements from 1-3months, only 14% consume over 1 year. Most of them were consuming supplements in tablets and gel capsule form, and obtained desired response with their use. Most of the subjects were consuming different type of supplements without having knowledge, regarding its use, dosage and safety. Also, (24%) individual said that the use of supplements caused no side effects. However, 43% reported some problems such as dizziness, nausea, or some impact on the skin problems. Purchasing or availability of these products are done through various sources i.e. Internet, pharmacy, coaches, gym instructors, magazines, peer influence. It is also evaluated that in many gyms and fitness centers of Lahore city, there is no availability of any professional guider or instructor. Significant number of participants 32.8% did not know about the qualification of their gym instructor. Most of gyms have coaches, instructor, trainers, professional guiders have their education at matric or graduates level, only 4 % have nutritionist. However, gyms included in this study, may need to have qualified health professionals such as nutritionists, dietitian, qualified instructor, or physician which have all knowledge related to supplement quality, quantity, safety and its use, also provide accurate information about supplements and assist members to be aware of both positive as well as adverse health effects of dietary supplements. In order to provide more comprehensive nutrition services to exercisers here are some recommendations: 1. Provision of healthy well balanced diet and considering needs of nutrients will be encouraged. 2. Further studies should be conducted in neighboring areas of Lahore and other cities of Pakistan as well as to assess intake of supplements among male exercisers and general population as well. 3. Supplements intake among gym participants according to one’s need should be administered with the help of dietitian and other allied health professionals. 4. There is a need of nutrition education and public health knowledge among general population. 5. Policy should develop in cooperation with multidiscipline, doctors, dietitians, and experts. 6. Non-Governmental organization (NGOs) and Governmental must contribute in establishing a research and consensus regarding safe intake of nutritional supplements. 7. At gym there should be availability of professional guider, instructor or coaches should be provided for exercisers. Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 2885-T] (1).

170. Physico-Chemical Analysis Of Milk From Different Milch Species (Cow, Buffalo, Camel)

by Tahira Jamil (2015-VA-595) | Dr. Sanaullah Iqbal | Haroon Jamshid Qazi | Dr. Muhammad Tayyab | Muhammad Asif Ali.

Material type: book Book; Format: print ; Literary form: not fiction Publisher: 2017Dissertation note: SUMMARY Milk is described as almost a complete food as it contains all the essential nutrients in balanced quantity. Milk is a complete basis of proteins, fats and dietary energy and there are several factors that can effect the composition of milk. Factors such as (seasonal changes, feed, environmental changes, lactation, milking durations) and variations in analytical methods such as (evaluating proteins, fats, total solids, ash and moisture) can also lead to differences in results. According to FAO STAT 2010, despite the fact that Pakistan ranked among top five milk producing countries in the world, no study has been made so far that is composed of complete data based on physico-chemical analysis of milk composition of various species with respect to seasonal changes. Milk samples were collected from three different species from UVAS Pattoki Campus i.e. cow, buffalo and camel in morning and evening time. The samples were then sent to UVAS Lahore Campus. These samples were analyzed to obtain different compositional parameters of milk which includes LR, fat, protein, SNF, TS, Ash, Moisture, pH, COB and APT. In the present study, the results showed that the LR, fat, SNF, TS, Proteins, ash, moisture and pH showed no signifgicant differences when studied between the groups by independent sample t test. All results were statistically non-significant i-e p>0.05. Whereas when results of each sample were studied individually throughout the year by descriptive statistic, it was found that samples of cow, buffalo and showed high content of fats, SNF, TS and protein during the summer season and lower in winter season. Other parmeters like ash, moisture, pH also had significant change throughout the year. The monthly results were found to be statistical significant at p<0.05. COB and APT were analyzed as soon the samples arrived the laboratory. So no clotting or precipitations were observed in the sample and gave the negative results throughout the year. Thestudy was helpful in generating yearly data that was used in comparing the physico-chemical variations in morning and evening samples of milk among different milk producing species (cow, buffalo, camel) on the basis of seasonal changes. Conclusion: The directive of the current research was to analyze the physico-chemical parameters from the morning and evening samples of milk of three milk producing species (cow, buffalo, acmel). It was concluded from the results that no significant differences were found within groups of each sample. Whereas when the analysis were conducted on monthly basis throughout the year, it was determined that fat content of the samples of cow, buffalo and camel was high during the summer season. There are several reasons for this such as lactation, feed composition, milking timings, seasonal variations. SNF, TS and protein contents were directly related to fat. It was possible to state that when the fat of milk was higher the solid not fat, total solids and protein contents were also higher. However the other contents of milk such as ash, moisture, pH, COB and APT were not significantly affected by these factors. Limitations:  Diet is also an important factor that could affect the composition of milk. This factor can also be researched along with seasonal changes.  Different geographical regions affect the milk composition of animals. This is also another factor of interest.  Physiochemical changes of sheep, goat and humans can also be analyzed on the basis of seasonal changes. Milk is described as almost a complete food as it contains all the essential nutrients in balanced quantity. Milk is a complete basis of proteins, fats and dietary energy and there are several factors that can effect the composition of milk. Factors such as (seasonal changes, feed, environmental changes, lactation, milking durations) and variations in analytical methods such as (evaluating proteins, fats, total solids, ash and moisture) can also lead to differences in results. According to FAO STAT 2010, despite the fact that Pakistan ranked among top five milk producing countries in the world, no study has been made so far that is composed of complete data based on physico-chemical analysis of milk composition of various species with respect to seasonal changes. Milk samples were collected from three different species from UVAS Pattoki Campus i.e. cow, buffalo and camel in morning and evening time. The samples were then sent to UVAS Lahore Campus. These samples were analyzed to obtain different compositional parameters of milk which includes LR, fat, protein, SNF, TS, Ash, Moisture, pH, COB and APT. In the present study, the results showed that the LR, fat, SNF, TS, Proteins, ash, moisture and pH showed no signifgicant differences when studied between the groups by independent sample t test. All results were statistically non-significant i-e p>0.05. Whereas when results of each sample were studied individually throughout the year by descriptive statistic, it was found that samples of cow, buffalo and showed high content of fats, SNF, TS and protein during the summer season and lower in winter season. Other parmeters like ash, moisture, pH also had significant change throughout the year. The monthly results were found to be statistical significant at p<0.05. COB and APT were analyzed as soon the samples arrived the laboratory. So no clotting or precipitations were observed in the sample and gave the negative results throughout the year. Thestudy was helpful in generating yearly data that was used in comparing the physico-chemical variations in morning and evening samples of milk among different milk producing species (cow, buffalo, camel) on the basis of seasonal changes. Conclusion: The directive of the current research was to analyze the physico-chemical parameters from the morning and evening samples of milk of three milk producing species (cow, buffalo, acmel). It was concluded from the results that no significant differences were found within groups of each sample. Whereas when the analysis were conducted on monthly basis throughout the year, it was determined that fat content of the samples of cow, buffalo and camel was high during the summer season. There are several reasons for this such as lactation, feed composition, milking timings, seasonal variations. SNF, TS and protein contents were directly related to fat. It was possible to state that when the fat of milk was higher the solid not fat, total solids and protein contents were also higher. However the other contents of milk such as ash, moisture, pH, COB and APT were not significantly affected by these factors. Limitations:  Diet is also an important factor that could affect the composition of milk. This factor can also be researched along with seasonal changes.  Different geographical regions affect the milk composition of animals. This is also another factor of interest.  Physiochemical changes of sheep, goat and humans can also be analyzed on the basis of seasonal changes. Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 2884-T] (1).

171. Assessment Of Nutritional Status And Dietary Patterns Of Orphan Children Rrsiding In Different Orphanages Of Lahore

by Huseen Bukhat (2014-VA-500) | Mr. Haroon Jamshaid Qazi | Dr.Sanauallah Iqbal | Dr.Sualeha Riffat.

Material type: book Book; Literary form: not fiction Publisher: 2017Dissertation note: Children of age 5-14 involved childhood and early adolescents that have special needs regarding nutrition. The growth and development during 5 to 14 years of age is fast and they require balanced diet. A diet that contains adequate amount of macro and micronutrients is needed for growing children. In Pakistan, there is insufficient evidence that indicates the nutritional status of orphans as well as adequacy of menus in orphanages. In the current study 67% of orphans are male and 33% of orphans are female aged 5-14 years. Mean BMI of 318 participants aged 5 to 14 years was 16.4±2. From whole population 279 participants (88%) had Z -score between -2 to 2 SD that suggest normal weight-for-height Z-score. Only17 participants (5%) had Z-score less than -2 SD that suggest moderate mal-nutritional status of participants and 20 participants (6%) had Z-score less than -3 SD that suggest severe mal-nutritional status of orphans and only 2 participants (1%) had Z-score more than 3 SD that suggest severely obese nutritional status of orphans. The study was cross sectional design. Participants of both gender aged 5 to 14 years were included in study. 67% male orphan and 33% female orphan were assessed through, 24 hour dietary recall at three alternative days, clinical assessment and anthropometric assessments including height, weight and weight-for-height (BMI) was recorded to assess nutritional status of orphans. Furthermore physical assessment was done to examine clinical sign and symptoms of iron deficiency anemia among orphan children by using questionnaire. Data were analyzed by using SPSS version 22. Descriptive statistic was used to describe the background characteristic profile of the respondents. Mean caloric and macronutrients intake of male and female orphans and comparison of mean caloric and nutrient intake among different male and female orphanages was calculated by using Excel. There is great need of studies to be conducted in adjoining areas of Lahore as well as other cities especially small underdeveloped cities of Pakistan for accessing the nutritional status of orphan population and comparison must be done between orphan and non orphans groups. Nutrition interventional strategies must be followed to ensure better nutritional status of orphans. 6.1 Conclusion: The nutritional requirement varies according to different age groups. Present study concluded that overall the nutritional status of male and female orphans and the dietary assessment of menus indicated that there is need of intervention in selected orphanages. Present study reported that inadequate composition of food according to age and sex is being provided in different orphanages. It is also reported that on average children derived 18% of calories from protein which is adequate intake for 5-8 years of both male and female orphans but mean caloric intake was inadequate foe all age groups and especially for male orphans as they need more proteins than female of same age. Menus of orphanages were also assessed which has been reported to imbalanced in regard to varieties of four food groups. Present study has also concluded that consumption of fruits and dairy product among all orphanages was very low and to meet protein requirement orphanages mostly used legumes especially gram pulse as it is cheap source of protein. It is also reported that majority 88% of population had Z score between -2 to 2 SD that is considered as normal but mean caloric and macronutrients intake of male orphan aged 14 years is very low only 65% of their calories meet their RDAs. It is also recorded that fat percentage had fluctuated that may affect the body composition of respondents. Mean caloric and macro nutrient intake of female orphans aged 5 to 9 years is adequate thus showing well nourished status. Physical assessment data showed that 55% of all respondents and pallor skin, 55% of population had sore slimy tongue and 47% of respondents had suffered from pica these three clinical sign and symptoms are considered very important in regard to iron deficiency. It is suggested from present study that more than half population is at risk of developing iron deficiency anemia. 6.2 Recommendations: • There is need for orphanages’ management to ensure diet diversification and include more animal source foods and Fruits in menus to improve the nutritional status of the children • Further studies must be conducted to compare nutritional status of orphans with non- orphan group • Biochemical parameters specially testing of Hemoglobin level must be done to check and ensure iron deficiency anemia • Efforts should also be directed towards increasing energy intake in the diets of children in orphanages. This could be through increasing frequency of meal intake per day specifically introduction of school breakfast and lunch programs to impact positively on the nutritional status of school children in the study area. There’s need for the government to set up support and enforce minimum hygiene. • There is need for the government to provide proper system that ensures proper hygiene standards of the orphanage. Management of the orphanages must take important steps to maintain good personal hygiene practices among the children. Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 2898-T] (1).

172. Nutrition : Concepts and Controversies / 12th ed

by Whitney, Sizer.

Edition: 12th ed.Material type: book Book; Format: print Publisher: USA: Cengage Learning; 2011Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 613.2 Whitney 27557 12th 2011 Food.Science] (1).

173. Nutritional Status, Dietary Practices And Physical Activities Among Female Adolescents: A Cross Sectional Study In District Okara,Pakistan

by Nazish Afzal (2011-VA-513) | Dr.Azmatullah Khan | Mr. Aamir Iqbal | Dr.Sajid Khan Tahir.

Material type: book Book; Literary form: not fiction Publisher: 2017Dissertation note: A cross sectional study was conducted in female adolescents of secondary school in district Okara. The study was planned to analyze physical activity and dietary habits among adolescent girls of private and government schools in Pakistan. Overweight and obesity are increasing rapidly among children and adolescents all over the world. A questionnaire was used to assess their nutritional status, physical activity pattern and dietary habits of each student. Data was collected from both urban and rural locations and then from government and private schools. Data of 850 students was collected out of them there were 401 students of private schools and 449 were from government school. Weight of each participant was measured in kg and height was measured in squares of meters. Body mass index was calculated to see that how many of them were underweight, normal, overweight and obese. TEE (Total energy expenditure) was also measured. A cross sectional study was conducted among sedentary-school adolescents. Questionnaire was used to assess their physical activity and eating patterns of female adolescents. Data was collected from both urban and rural locations and then from private and government schools. Data of 850 students was collected. Body weight of each participant was measured to the nearest 100 g using a calibrated portable scale. In the present study X2 (chi square) test was used to analyze proportion of different variables of females of both government and private school. P value <0.05 was considered statistically significant. Data was examined using the statistical software SPSS (Statistical package for social sciences) version 22.0. This study helped to assess the dietary habits, physical activity patterns among school going female adolescents. These results are beneficial for making suitable interventions for increasing healthy eating habits, physical activity awareness and implementation among female adolescents. Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 2916-T] (1).

174. Research Methods in Health

by Bowling, Ann.

Edition: 4th ed.Material type: book Book; Literary form: not fiction Publisher: USA: McGraw Hill; 2014Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 362.1072 Bowling 32535 4th 2014 Food.Science] (1).

175. Krause's Food & Nutrition Care Process

by Mahan, L. Kathleen | Raymond, Janice L.

Edition: 14th ed.Material type: book Book; Literary form: not fiction Publisher: Canada: Elsevier; 2017Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 615.854 Mahan 32532 14th 2017 Food&Nutrition] (1).

176. Food process engineering and technology

by Berk, Zeki.

Edition: 3rd ed.Material type: book Book; Literary form: not fiction Publisher: India: Academic Press; 2018Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 664 Berk 32976 3rd 2018 Food.Science] (1).

177. Beverage quality and safety

by Foster, Tammy | Vasavada, Purnendu C.

Edition: 1st ed.Material type: book Book; Literary form: not fiction Publisher: USA: CRC Press; 2003Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 663 Foster 32989 1st 2003 Food.Science] (1).



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