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251. Physico-Chemical Analysis Of Milk From Different Milch Species (Cow, Buffalo, Camel)

by Tahira Jamil (2015-VA-595) | Dr. Sanaullah Iqbal | Haroon Jamshid Qazi | Dr. Muhammad Tayyab | Muhammad Asif Ali.

Material type: book Book; Format: print ; Literary form: not fiction Publisher: 2017Dissertation note: SUMMARY Milk is described as almost a complete food as it contains all the essential nutrients in balanced quantity. Milk is a complete basis of proteins, fats and dietary energy and there are several factors that can effect the composition of milk. Factors such as (seasonal changes, feed, environmental changes, lactation, milking durations) and variations in analytical methods such as (evaluating proteins, fats, total solids, ash and moisture) can also lead to differences in results. According to FAO STAT 2010, despite the fact that Pakistan ranked among top five milk producing countries in the world, no study has been made so far that is composed of complete data based on physico-chemical analysis of milk composition of various species with respect to seasonal changes. Milk samples were collected from three different species from UVAS Pattoki Campus i.e. cow, buffalo and camel in morning and evening time. The samples were then sent to UVAS Lahore Campus. These samples were analyzed to obtain different compositional parameters of milk which includes LR, fat, protein, SNF, TS, Ash, Moisture, pH, COB and APT. In the present study, the results showed that the LR, fat, SNF, TS, Proteins, ash, moisture and pH showed no signifgicant differences when studied between the groups by independent sample t test. All results were statistically non-significant i-e p>0.05. Whereas when results of each sample were studied individually throughout the year by descriptive statistic, it was found that samples of cow, buffalo and showed high content of fats, SNF, TS and protein during the summer season and lower in winter season. Other parmeters like ash, moisture, pH also had significant change throughout the year. The monthly results were found to be statistical significant at p<0.05. COB and APT were analyzed as soon the samples arrived the laboratory. So no clotting or precipitations were observed in the sample and gave the negative results throughout the year. Thestudy was helpful in generating yearly data that was used in comparing the physico-chemical variations in morning and evening samples of milk among different milk producing species (cow, buffalo, camel) on the basis of seasonal changes. Conclusion: The directive of the current research was to analyze the physico-chemical parameters from the morning and evening samples of milk of three milk producing species (cow, buffalo, acmel). It was concluded from the results that no significant differences were found within groups of each sample. Whereas when the analysis were conducted on monthly basis throughout the year, it was determined that fat content of the samples of cow, buffalo and camel was high during the summer season. There are several reasons for this such as lactation, feed composition, milking timings, seasonal variations. SNF, TS and protein contents were directly related to fat. It was possible to state that when the fat of milk was higher the solid not fat, total solids and protein contents were also higher. However the other contents of milk such as ash, moisture, pH, COB and APT were not significantly affected by these factors. Limitations:  Diet is also an important factor that could affect the composition of milk. This factor can also be researched along with seasonal changes.  Different geographical regions affect the milk composition of animals. This is also another factor of interest.  Physiochemical changes of sheep, goat and humans can also be analyzed on the basis of seasonal changes. Milk is described as almost a complete food as it contains all the essential nutrients in balanced quantity. Milk is a complete basis of proteins, fats and dietary energy and there are several factors that can effect the composition of milk. Factors such as (seasonal changes, feed, environmental changes, lactation, milking durations) and variations in analytical methods such as (evaluating proteins, fats, total solids, ash and moisture) can also lead to differences in results. According to FAO STAT 2010, despite the fact that Pakistan ranked among top five milk producing countries in the world, no study has been made so far that is composed of complete data based on physico-chemical analysis of milk composition of various species with respect to seasonal changes. Milk samples were collected from three different species from UVAS Pattoki Campus i.e. cow, buffalo and camel in morning and evening time. The samples were then sent to UVAS Lahore Campus. These samples were analyzed to obtain different compositional parameters of milk which includes LR, fat, protein, SNF, TS, Ash, Moisture, pH, COB and APT. In the present study, the results showed that the LR, fat, SNF, TS, Proteins, ash, moisture and pH showed no signifgicant differences when studied between the groups by independent sample t test. All results were statistically non-significant i-e p>0.05. Whereas when results of each sample were studied individually throughout the year by descriptive statistic, it was found that samples of cow, buffalo and showed high content of fats, SNF, TS and protein during the summer season and lower in winter season. Other parmeters like ash, moisture, pH also had significant change throughout the year. The monthly results were found to be statistical significant at p<0.05. COB and APT were analyzed as soon the samples arrived the laboratory. So no clotting or precipitations were observed in the sample and gave the negative results throughout the year. Thestudy was helpful in generating yearly data that was used in comparing the physico-chemical variations in morning and evening samples of milk among different milk producing species (cow, buffalo, camel) on the basis of seasonal changes. Conclusion: The directive of the current research was to analyze the physico-chemical parameters from the morning and evening samples of milk of three milk producing species (cow, buffalo, acmel). It was concluded from the results that no significant differences were found within groups of each sample. Whereas when the analysis were conducted on monthly basis throughout the year, it was determined that fat content of the samples of cow, buffalo and camel was high during the summer season. There are several reasons for this such as lactation, feed composition, milking timings, seasonal variations. SNF, TS and protein contents were directly related to fat. It was possible to state that when the fat of milk was higher the solid not fat, total solids and protein contents were also higher. However the other contents of milk such as ash, moisture, pH, COB and APT were not significantly affected by these factors. Limitations:  Diet is also an important factor that could affect the composition of milk. This factor can also be researched along with seasonal changes.  Different geographical regions affect the milk composition of animals. This is also another factor of interest.  Physiochemical changes of sheep, goat and humans can also be analyzed on the basis of seasonal changes. Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 2884-T] (1).

252. Assessment Of Nutritional Status And Dietary Patterns Of Orphan Children Rrsiding In Different Orphanages Of Lahore

by Huseen Bukhat (2014-VA-500) | Mr. Haroon Jamshaid Qazi | Dr.Sanauallah Iqbal | Dr.Sualeha Riffat.

Material type: book Book; Literary form: not fiction Publisher: 2017Dissertation note: Children of age 5-14 involved childhood and early adolescents that have special needs regarding nutrition. The growth and development during 5 to 14 years of age is fast and they require balanced diet. A diet that contains adequate amount of macro and micronutrients is needed for growing children. In Pakistan, there is insufficient evidence that indicates the nutritional status of orphans as well as adequacy of menus in orphanages. In the current study 67% of orphans are male and 33% of orphans are female aged 5-14 years. Mean BMI of 318 participants aged 5 to 14 years was 16.4±2. From whole population 279 participants (88%) had Z -score between -2 to 2 SD that suggest normal weight-for-height Z-score. Only17 participants (5%) had Z-score less than -2 SD that suggest moderate mal-nutritional status of participants and 20 participants (6%) had Z-score less than -3 SD that suggest severe mal-nutritional status of orphans and only 2 participants (1%) had Z-score more than 3 SD that suggest severely obese nutritional status of orphans. The study was cross sectional design. Participants of both gender aged 5 to 14 years were included in study. 67% male orphan and 33% female orphan were assessed through, 24 hour dietary recall at three alternative days, clinical assessment and anthropometric assessments including height, weight and weight-for-height (BMI) was recorded to assess nutritional status of orphans. Furthermore physical assessment was done to examine clinical sign and symptoms of iron deficiency anemia among orphan children by using questionnaire. Data were analyzed by using SPSS version 22. Descriptive statistic was used to describe the background characteristic profile of the respondents. Mean caloric and macronutrients intake of male and female orphans and comparison of mean caloric and nutrient intake among different male and female orphanages was calculated by using Excel. There is great need of studies to be conducted in adjoining areas of Lahore as well as other cities especially small underdeveloped cities of Pakistan for accessing the nutritional status of orphan population and comparison must be done between orphan and non orphans groups. Nutrition interventional strategies must be followed to ensure better nutritional status of orphans. 6.1 Conclusion: The nutritional requirement varies according to different age groups. Present study concluded that overall the nutritional status of male and female orphans and the dietary assessment of menus indicated that there is need of intervention in selected orphanages. Present study reported that inadequate composition of food according to age and sex is being provided in different orphanages. It is also reported that on average children derived 18% of calories from protein which is adequate intake for 5-8 years of both male and female orphans but mean caloric intake was inadequate foe all age groups and especially for male orphans as they need more proteins than female of same age. Menus of orphanages were also assessed which has been reported to imbalanced in regard to varieties of four food groups. Present study has also concluded that consumption of fruits and dairy product among all orphanages was very low and to meet protein requirement orphanages mostly used legumes especially gram pulse as it is cheap source of protein. It is also reported that majority 88% of population had Z score between -2 to 2 SD that is considered as normal but mean caloric and macronutrients intake of male orphan aged 14 years is very low only 65% of their calories meet their RDAs. It is also recorded that fat percentage had fluctuated that may affect the body composition of respondents. Mean caloric and macro nutrient intake of female orphans aged 5 to 9 years is adequate thus showing well nourished status. Physical assessment data showed that 55% of all respondents and pallor skin, 55% of population had sore slimy tongue and 47% of respondents had suffered from pica these three clinical sign and symptoms are considered very important in regard to iron deficiency. It is suggested from present study that more than half population is at risk of developing iron deficiency anemia. 6.2 Recommendations: • There is need for orphanages’ management to ensure diet diversification and include more animal source foods and Fruits in menus to improve the nutritional status of the children • Further studies must be conducted to compare nutritional status of orphans with non- orphan group • Biochemical parameters specially testing of Hemoglobin level must be done to check and ensure iron deficiency anemia • Efforts should also be directed towards increasing energy intake in the diets of children in orphanages. This could be through increasing frequency of meal intake per day specifically introduction of school breakfast and lunch programs to impact positively on the nutritional status of school children in the study area. There’s need for the government to set up support and enforce minimum hygiene. • There is need for the government to provide proper system that ensures proper hygiene standards of the orphanage. Management of the orphanages must take important steps to maintain good personal hygiene practices among the children. Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 2898-T] (1).

253. Nutrition : Concepts and Controversies / 12th ed

by Whitney, Sizer.

Edition: 12th ed.Material type: book Book; Format: print Publisher: USA: Cengage Learning; 2011Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 613.2 Whitney 27557 12th 2011 Food.Science] (1).

254. Nutritional Status, Dietary Practices And Physical Activities Among Female Adolescents: A Cross Sectional Study In District Okara,Pakistan

by Nazish Afzal (2011-VA-513) | Dr.Azmatullah Khan | Mr. Aamir Iqbal | Dr.Sajid Khan Tahir.

Material type: book Book; Literary form: not fiction Publisher: 2017Dissertation note: A cross sectional study was conducted in female adolescents of secondary school in district Okara. The study was planned to analyze physical activity and dietary habits among adolescent girls of private and government schools in Pakistan. Overweight and obesity are increasing rapidly among children and adolescents all over the world. A questionnaire was used to assess their nutritional status, physical activity pattern and dietary habits of each student. Data was collected from both urban and rural locations and then from government and private schools. Data of 850 students was collected out of them there were 401 students of private schools and 449 were from government school. Weight of each participant was measured in kg and height was measured in squares of meters. Body mass index was calculated to see that how many of them were underweight, normal, overweight and obese. TEE (Total energy expenditure) was also measured. A cross sectional study was conducted among sedentary-school adolescents. Questionnaire was used to assess their physical activity and eating patterns of female adolescents. Data was collected from both urban and rural locations and then from private and government schools. Data of 850 students was collected. Body weight of each participant was measured to the nearest 100 g using a calibrated portable scale. In the present study X2 (chi square) test was used to analyze proportion of different variables of females of both government and private school. P value <0.05 was considered statistically significant. Data was examined using the statistical software SPSS (Statistical package for social sciences) version 22.0. This study helped to assess the dietary habits, physical activity patterns among school going female adolescents. These results are beneficial for making suitable interventions for increasing healthy eating habits, physical activity awareness and implementation among female adolescents. Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 2916-T] (1).

255. Nutrition Research Methodologies

by Lovegrove, Julie A | Hodson, Leanne.

Edition: 1st ed.Material type: book Book Publisher: India: Wiley Blackwell; 2015Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 610.724 Lovegrove 32533 1st 2015 nutrition] (1).

256. Research Methods in Health

by Bowling, Ann.

Edition: 4th ed.Material type: book Book; Literary form: not fiction Publisher: USA: McGraw Hill; 2014Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 362.1072 Bowling 32535 4th 2014 Food.Science] (1).

257. Krause's Food & Nutrition Care Process

by Mahan, L. Kathleen | Raymond, Janice L.

Edition: 14th ed.Material type: book Book; Literary form: not fiction Publisher: Canada: Elsevier; 2017Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 615.854 Mahan 32532 14th 2017 Food&Nutrition] (1).

258. Vitamins in animal and human nutrition

by McDowell, L. R.

Edition: 2nd ed.Material type: book Book; Literary form: not fiction Publisher: USA: Iowa State University Press; 2000Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 613.286 McDowell 32896 2nd 2000 H.Nutrition] (1).

259. Food process engineering and technology

by Berk, Zeki.

Edition: 3rd ed.Material type: book Book; Literary form: not fiction Publisher: India: Academic Press; 2018Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 664 Berk 32976 3rd 2018 Food.Science] (1).

260. Beverage quality and safety

by Foster, Tammy | Vasavada, Purnendu C.

Edition: 1st ed.Material type: book Book; Literary form: not fiction Publisher: USA: CRC Press; 2003Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 663 Foster 32989 1st 2003 Food.Science] (1).



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