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1. Study On Prevalence Of Osteoprosis And Its Relationship With Dietary And Lifestyle Habits

by Tahir Rasool Qamar | Dr. Muhammad Nasir | Prof. Dr. Makhdoom Abdul Jabbar.

Material type: book Book; Format: print ; Literary form: not fiction Publisher: 2011Dissertation note: Abstract Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 1488,T] (1).

2. Effecacy Assessment Of Omega-3 Bio-Fortified-Eggs Against Hypercholesterolemia In Human Subjects

by Hussnain Rasul | Dr. Muhammad Nasir | Dr. Athar Mahmud | Dr. Saima.

Material type: book Book; Format: print Publisher: 2012Dissertation note: Omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids which include linolenic acid, eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) might reduce risk factors for heart disease through lowering total blood cholesterol, LDL, blood pressure, triglycerides and enhancing the level of blood HDL. Excellent sources of omega-3 fatty acids are fish, flax seed, olive oil etc. Recently the efforts had been successful to bio-fortify or improve the omeg-3 fatty acid contents of the products like eggs through feed manipulation. However, the information was lacking on extent of subsequent health benefits of such bio-fortified/ designer products. For the purpose, this project had been designed to test the efficacy of omega-3 enriched eggs against hyperlipidemia in hypercholesterolemia adult human subjects. Omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid bio-fortified eggs improved the lipid profile in hypercholesterolemia humans. Omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids eggs (more than 200mg per egg); already bio-fortified through feeding management, were obtained from University of Sargodha. The eggs were analyzed for chemical composition; protein, carbohydrates, ash, fatty acids, cholesterol content and physical parameters color, weight, volume, density etc. Representative samples from bio-fortified lots and control eggs were boiled and evaluated for organoleptic acceptability through a 10-member panel of trained judges for parameters of taste, texture, flavor and overall acceptability. Finally, representative samples of bio-fortified and control eggs were used for efficacy studies against hypercholesterolemia in human subjects. Twenty- two hypercholesterolemia adult subjects with both sexes without complications were recruited after informed consent, divided into two groups having 11 in each group. We selected those patients whom cholesterol level was > 200mg/dl, triglycerides level also greater than 200 mg/dl, normal blood pressure and no heart problem. First group was provided with bio-fortified eggs whereas second group was not provided either of the eggs. The individuals in 1st group were asked to eat one egg per day in morning until 40 days whereas the individuals in 2nd group were advised to continue with their usual diets. The blood samples of the individuals were obtained at the start of the study, after this blood sample was obtained only weekly basis for 40 days. The blood was analyzed for blood lipid profile to assess the impact of omega-3 bio-fortified eggs against various blood lipid fractions. The data thus collected was analyzed statistically to check significance (Steel et al., 1997). Means were compared for significant difference with t-test for physical and chemical composition parameters and with Least Significant Difference (Duncan, 1955) for efficacy studies. Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 1522,T] (1).

3. Preparation Of Low-Glycemic India Vetch-Wheat Composite Flours And Evaluation Of Their Chapatti Making

by Amara Khan | Dr. Muhammad Nasir | Dr. Sanaullah Iqbal | Dr. Sualeha.

Material type: book Book; Format: print ; Literary form: drama Publisher: 2012Dissertation note: Wheat is one of the popular cereals that supply the basic nutritional and energy requirements of the population. More so, wheat flour is commonly consumed across the world. Complementation of wheat flour with Indian vetch will not only upgrade its protein quality but also will helpful in decreasing glycemic index because studies have shown effects of Indian vetch on glycemic index. Objectives of the present study are to develop low glycemic, nutritious composite flours and to assess the glycemic efficacy of selected composite flour based chapattisin normal adult human subjects. The present study was conducted in two phases. During first phase composite flours were prepared and their chemical, functional and rheological properties were analyzed. In second phase the effect of sample chapattis on post- prandial glycemic response in healthy subjects was evaluated. The composite flours were prepared by mixing various ratios of wheat flour and Indian vetch flour. The ratio of Indian vetch flour was 10, 20, and 30 g respectively with 90, 80, and 70g wheat flour. Chemical properties revealed that The results for the proximate composition of composite flour and wheat flour show that the moisture content of composite flours is lower than the wheat flour , which progressively decreased as the level of Indian vetch supplementation increased. The supplementation at different levels of Indian vetch flour (seed coat removed during milling) has a significant lowering effect on the crude fiber, ash and crude fat but a significant increase was observed in the protein content, which was due to high protein content of Indian vetch flour. Mean square for bulk density of composite flour blends shows that bulk density was significantly affected by the Indian vetch flour addition (10-30Overall, bulk density ranged from 86.66±1.527 to 83.66±1.154 in all flour blends. Water and oil absorption capacities are amongst the important functional properties for additives supplemented in food systems. Water and oil absorption are significantly affected with addition of Indian vetch). 30% Indian vetch Composite flour showed excellent water holding capacity 5.889±0.040% as compared to wheat flour 4.956±0.056%. The oil absorption capacity of composite flour was noted to be 5.64±0.032% that was significantly higher than that of wheat flour (T0). Therefore water and oil absorption capacities of flour blends were improved at all levels of Indian vetch flour addition. Foaming capacity and stability were also significantly affected among different compositions of flours. T30 flour sample showed foaming capacity 9±0% and foaming stability 8.5±0%, whilst T0 wheat flour possessed 7.166±0.288% and 6.51±0.5% of foaming capacity and stability, respectively. The foaming stability of composite flours increased as the ratio of Indian vetch increased in present study. As expected, Indian vetch flour addition resulted a significant increase in the stability of foam in flour blends. Gelling power of the flour dispersions increased with the level of Indian Vetch flour in flour blends. The highest gelling power was observed in T30 (30% Indian vetch flour). The partial gelation in T20 was observed at 4% flour suspension, whereas in T30 above 3% flour dispersion resulted in complete gelling. The lowest gelling properties were noticed in case of T0 (100% wheat flour). It is evident from results that Indian vetch addition resulted in decreased redness ("a") and increased lightness ("L") . Hunter color values increased significantly with Indian vetch addition in composite flour , representing an increased yellowness of chapatti . The values for Chroma remained same while hue angle also increased momentously by adding up of Indian vetch. Dough rheological behavior is mainly affected due to protein quantity and quality of flour. The rheological characteristics are the source for understanding the dough handling behavior in bakery. Consequently, dough properties play a key role in quality of finished products. Significant variations were observed among various flour samples for these traits. On the basis of sensory evaluation two best chapatti samples T10 and T20 were selected for further efficacy studies. A total of 10 healthy adult volunteers were recruited through flyers, emails and personal contacts. Eligibility for volunteers will be determined on the basis of age (20-50 years), health status, individuals having optimum BMI and free from any communicable diseases and gluten allergy. The study procedure was discussed with all volunteers and were asked to sign the consent to voluntarily participate in the study. Predicted glycemic index was lower in chapattis added with 20% Indian vetch flour than in 10% composite flour and 100% wheat flour. So chapattis of composite flour might be a dietetic alternative forpeople with low-calorie requirements. Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 1550,T] (1).

4. Impact Of Dietary Habits, Lifestyle Practices And Preventive Health Care Services On Nutritional Status Of Females of Reproductive Age of Rural Areas in Selected Districts of Punjab

by Rabia Javed | Dr. Muhammad Nasir | Prof. Dr | Prof. Dr. Anjum Khalique.

Material type: book Book; Format: print ; Literary form: drama Publisher: 2013Dissertation note: The present study was designed to describe the nutritional status of females of reproductive age years from the rural areas of selected districts of Punjab. For this purpose the data was collected for 300 females from rural areas of Lahore, Kasur and Okara district. A questionnaire was established for collecting the data along with that 24 hours dietary recall and food frequency questionnaire were also been established to assess the nutrition status of females in relation to their dietary habits as well as in relation to their life style. The data was analyzed by cross tabs using SPSS version 20.0. The results of the study showed the significant variations among the districts, age group, marital status,and appetite and food adequacy in relation to their BMI. The impact of socioeconomic status, education level, blood sugar level, menstrual cycle and family setup were insignificant as the p value in all cases was more than 0.05. The females that were receiving adequate food intake were also consuming adequate protein intake. The females of selected age group that were taking adequate food intake were mostly lie in the normal BMI range while that were receiving excessive food intake were mostly overweight as compared to the others that were receiving adequate food intake. Chi square analysis showed the significant difference among the females receiving adequate and inadequate food intake in relation to their BMI as the p value was less than0.05. Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 1669,T] (1).

5. The Development Of Tea Whitener By Partial Replacement Of Palm Oil With Canola Oil

by Junaid Kabir | Dr. Muhammad Nasir | Dr. Aftab Ahmad anjum | Dr. Saima.

Material type: book Book; Format: print ; Literary form: not fiction Publisher: 2013Dissertation note: Tea whitener is now become a popular trend in Pakistan with 01 billion tons consumption annually according to my personal information and its consumption is increasing day by day. The replacement of hydrogenated palm oil used traditionally is necessary as they contains 49.3% saturated fatty acids, the majority of which are palmitic acid, myristic acid and lauric acid which are proved to be most injurious for human health, raises the total and LDL cholesterol (Bonanome et. Al, 1998). Canola oil is known for its low level of saturated fatty acids, a relatively high level of monounsaturated fatty acids, and a very good amount of the n-3 fatty acid a-linolenic acid. Canola oil consists of an appreciable amount of a-linolenic acid which amounts for almost 10 percent which is a fairly good quantity. In addition, 1:2 is the ratio balance between linolenicacid and linoleic acid which is favorable and well balanced. Canola oil is a relatively rich source of tocopherols,60-70 mg/100g, contains high level of phytosterols (892 mg/100 g. Keeping in mind the above mentioned nutritional aspects, canola oil based tea whitener is developed. The research was conducted in two phases. During 1stphase the HLB requirement of the canola oil and partially hydrogenated palm oil was determined which are determined as 08 and 06 respectively. Then the emulsifier's percentages are calculated according to their standard HLB values and the doses of the emulsifiers "DATEM" and "GMS" are adjusted according to the ratios of hydrogenated palm oil and canola oil in all the formulations. During second phase the proximate, chemical, physical and sensory analysis are done for all the emulsions so as to determine their resemblance with the control formulation S1. Different graph analysis regarding proximate analysis of canola oil based tea whitener showed that the results for moisture percentage are (85.69 ± 0.089), for crude protein the values are (1.66±0.22), for dry matter its (14.32±0.04) for crude fat the result shows (7.01±0.03). The variation in all the emulsions were negligible, as the ingredients except fat source is almost the same in all the formulations. The results for acidity of tea whitener emulsions on the 2nd day which is 0.09± 0.02 which shows the acceptable range, while on the 6th day the mean value of the acidity is also in the acceptable range which is 0.14± 0.01 which means acidity increases to some extent on the 6th day of storage. The mean of the acidity on the 8th day is 0.16± 0.01. The trend shows the acidity increases from 0.09±0.02 to 0.16±0.01 in 08 days. The variation was observed in all the emulsions with the passage of time, but there is not a very significant difference among all the emulsions as compared to control S1. Mean values for pH on the 2nd day is 6.79±0.03 while the control sample S1 has the pH value of 6.82 on the 2nd day and the treatment which has the lowest pH values on day 2nd is S6 with pH 6.75. The observations on 6th days are shown in pH chart which shows slight decrease in pH in the 6th day with the mean value 6.71±0.02. The mean value of pH on the 8th day is 6.61±0.02. The results showed that pH of tea whitener emulsionsdecreases as storage progressed. A very interesting point raised during study that the pH values of the standard emulsion S1 is higher among all the emulsions on the 2nd day, but as the days proceeds, the pH of the emulsions with different rations of canola oil retains their pH and the pH becomes almost the same as standard on the 8th day. This may concludes that the emulsions containing canola oil retains their ph more as compared to palm oil based emulsion. The mean value of density of the tea whitener emulsions 1.12±0.02. So overall the results variation is not significant. The little difference may be due to the fact that palm oil has density of 0.89 L/kg at 25 C while the density if canola oil is 0.91 L/kg on the same temperature. The density of all the formulations are comparable with the control emulsion S1. The results depicted that 'L" value was decreaseswith increase in the ratio of canola oil. Mean comparison for color "L" parameter showed that highest value for S1 which is 90.45 and least value for S8 which is 89.29. The variation is very slight but the palm oil based emulsions are slight whiter in the appearance.The mean value of a* is -0.285 ± 0.095 which shows a very little variation. The level of greenness decreases slightly as the ratio of the canola oil increases from S1 to S8. The degree of yellowness in the emulsion increases as the ratio of canola oil in increases in the emulsions. The mean value of b* is 2.94±0.27 which shows a slight variation as we go from S1 to S8. The sensory attributes scores obtained from sensory evaluation by trained panelists varies a lot. Addition of canola oil in place of palm oil significantly alters the flavor, After taste and over all acceptability of the tea made with tea whitener emulsions from S1 to S8, the scores are almost the same up to S4 as compared to control formulation S1 for all the attributes mentioned above. Score decreases from S5 to S8 which is definitely due to the addition of canola oil in the formulations. The sensory attributes like fat separation and color get the same scored almost for all the formulations. Flavor scores are almost the same up to S5 but the scores decreases significantly from S6 to S8, for the sensory attribute of "after taste" the formulations from S1 (standard) to S4 get good scores means the after taste if the S2, S3 and S4 are comparable to the control emulsion S1 while S5 to S8 get lower scores, For "overall acceptability" S2, S3 and S4 are nearly equivalent and good scores as compared to control formulation with 100 percent palm oil formulation with the mean value of 90±02 which gives a green signal that we can partially replace hydrogenated palm oil with canola oil. The formulation S5 get a little lower score as compared to control one. The formulations from S6 to S8 get lower scores in overall acceptability. Finally it is concluded that the formulation S4 is the one which can be replaced with the control emulsion S1 for making of tea which means 42.5 percent of the total fat in tea whitener can be replaced successfully with canola oil without compromising the physical, chemical and sensory properties of the tea. Recommendations The main aim of this project was to make a tea whitener which is based on healthier and heart friendly oil (canola oil) instead of palm oil. Canola oil has been used as a cooking oil and also in nutritional products like "Ensure Plus" and "Glucerna" due to its health friendly composition. The idea is drawn from the nutritional products compositions whose fat part is mostly consists of canola oil. In Pakistan, keeping in mind a very huge consumption of tea whitener of 01 billion annually according to my personal information. The production may be much higher as my information may be limited. Keeping in mind the annual production or consumption of liquid tea whitener in Pakistan, the delivery of more healthy oil to the consumers by incorporating it in the liquid tea whitener product seems to be a pretty good idea. It is not only the matter of incorporation of healthy canola oil but also the matter of replacement of saturated fatty acids rich palm oil. Keeping in mind the chemical, physical and sensory properties of tea whitener emulsions S4 with 42 percent canola oil of the oil phase gives similar physical, chemical and sensory properties when compared to control formulation tea whitener S1 with 100 percent palm oil as oil phase. Keeping in mind the composition of the canola oil, if tea whitener is made with 07 percent fat level, in case of S4 (The formulation with resemblance to control up to maximum canola oil extent) canola oil percentage if the total fat is 42.5 percent of the total fat, it will give 0.7 grams of omega-3 as ALA per 250 ml of the tea whitener which means that it will provide 2.8 grams of omega-3 per liter of tea whiteners which can help us to meet up to some extent the ADA recommendations which is 1.3 to 2.9 grams based on 2000 Kcal diet (ADA, 2007) The real challenge in the making of tea whitener formulations with different ratios of canola oil and palm oil is to make a successful emulsions without fat separation, thanks to HLB system for successful making of emulsions. Another challenge is to mask the after taste of the canola oil which can be prominent in the tea whitener, the after taste of canola oil is masked by milk flavor due to which the successful replacement of palm oil with canola oil up to 42 percent becomes possible. The purpose of the product development of making it a source of omega-3 was successfully met as the results shows the partial replacement of palm oil with canola oil is possible. From the present study it can be concluded that canola oil can be incorporated in liquid tea whitener up to the percentage of 42.5 percent of the total fat without any persistent change in chemical, physical and sensory properties of the tea whitener. The concluded value of omega-3 which it gives per 250 ml is 0.7 grams according to fatty acid profile given by ADA reports (ADA, 2007). They do not affect the taste or texture of the product. My study showed that the replacement of palm oil with canola oil up to 42.5 percent in tea whitener formulation was acceptable among consumers and also the tea whitener retained its quality and sensory properties after storage for 08 days at 04 C. The tea prepared from S4 has the same sensory properties as the tea made with the control formulation. It is recommended that canola oil based tea whitener should be a introduced in the market for creating awareness among the general population about the role of omega-3 n human health and threats of consuming saturated fatty acids. There are need of studies forefficacy of developed tea whitener whether it beneficially transmit the omega-3 to human body or not and what are the health benefits among the subjects. More research work is required to testify the product under UHT treatment to find out what are the changes in physical and chemical properties of the product up to 03 months, it's emulsion stability and it's sensory properties during and after 03 months of shelf life in tetra packaging. Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 1756,T] (1).

6. Preparation And Quality Evalution Of Low Fatyoghurt Containing Prebiotic Galacto-Oligosaccharide

by Awais Raza | Dr. Sanaullah Iqbal | Dr. Imran Javed | Dr. Muhammad Nasir.

Material type: book Book; Format: print ; Literary form: drama Publisher: 2013Dissertation note: Prebiotics are considered as selectively cultured food ingredients that impart typical improvements in the activity of the gastrointestinal micro flora that are beneficial to the host well-being and health e.g. Galacto-oligosaccharide (GOS), Fructo-oligosaccharides (FOS) and Inulin. These are different types of prebiotics used in food based product. During the last decade consideration for prebiotics in diet is getting popular due to their benefits for human health. The GOS were reported to be beneficial prebiotics for human health. Yoghurt is a fermented milk product, which is produced by the bacterial fermentation of milk. It is a rich source of calcium, protein and vitamin B-complex. Lactose-intolerant people can eat yoghurt without any harm as lactose is converted into lactic acid by the bacterial culture. Yoghurt is more nutritive then milk and possesses better digestibility. The benefit of yoghurt depends upon the presence of beneficial viable bacterial culture in adequate number. The bacterial cultures are used in the fermentation process to metabolize the lactose, secondly the proteolysis of protein for improving bioavailability and thirdly lactic acid bacteria for production of some B-complex vitamins and vitamin K. Yoghurt culture are responsible for the production of aromatic flavor compounds. In Pakistan manufacture of probiotic yoghurt and prebiotic yoghurt is not common and there is not consumer awareness for such kind of products. Therefore, this study was designed to develop prebiotic yoghurt from prebiotic milk and compare it with control yoghurt. First of all milk was pastuerised and then cool to 45°C. After that ?-galactosidase was added. Transgalactosylation was carried out at 45oC with 3 hr reaction time. Enzyme was denatured by applying heat and starter culture was inoculatedand 4-5 hours were given for fermentation. During storage the prepared control and prebiotic yoghurt was evaluated for its physiochemical analysis and sensory qualities. Mean values of fresh yoghurt and prebiotic yoghurt are presented in tables 4.4 to 4.8 show that lactose (1.44±0.03) while for fat, protein, pH and acidity (3.43±0.15), (4.2±0.1), (4.47±0.05) and (0.92±0.01) respectively. A panel of 10 judges evaluated the yoghurt samples for appearance, taste, color and overall acceptability on 15cm unstructured lines (15 = like extremely; 1 = dislike extremely). The sensory evaluation of the product at 0, 7, 14, 21 and 28 day was carried out in the Department of Food Science & Human Nutrition, University of Veterinary and Animal Sciences, Lahore. Fat, pH and ash contents were continuous decreased while protein, total solid and acidity values show continuous increase in of all treatments. All the results obtained were analyzed through Analysis of Variance Technique (ANOVA) by using Costat software. Prebiotic milk and prebiotic yoghurt can be prepared on industrial scale because it is highly acceptable. This could be a value added product in which we can produce prebiotic economically. Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 1790,T] (1).

7. Structural Modification Of Potato Starch To Monitor Its Post Prandial Glucose Response

by Sadaf Bashir | Dr. Zubair Farooq | Dr | Dr. Muhammad Nasir.

Material type: book Book; Format: print Publisher: 2014Dissertation note: Abstract Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 2114,T] (1).

8. Physico-Chemical Organoleptic Properties Microbiological Analysis And Effucacy Of Homenade And Market

by Asif Mushtaq | Dr. Sanullah Iqbal | Dr. Muhammad Nasir | Prof Dr.

Material type: book Book; Format: print Publisher: 2014Dissertation note: Abstract Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 2126,T] (1).

9. Determination Of Microbial Contaminants Of Canned Fruit Products Available In Local Markets Of Lahore Pakistan

by Muhammad Waseem Akram | Dr. Muhammad Nasir | Dr. Zubair Farooq | Prof. Dr. Aftab.

Material type: book Book; Format: print Publisher: 2014Dissertation note: Abstract Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 2143,T] (1).

10. Comparison Of Nutrient Profile And Organolepic Acceptability Of Various Steamed And Fried Indian And Chinese Carps

by Ahsan Khalid | Dr. Muhammad Nasir | Dr. Noor Khan | Dr. Saima.

Material type: book Book; Format: print ; Literary form: not fiction Publisher: 2014Dissertation note: Abstract Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 2174,T] (1).

11. Development Of Prebiotic Galacto - Oligosaccharide Enriched Buttermilk And Evaluation Of Its Storage Stability

by Hafsa Tahir (2012-VA-584) | Dr. Sanaullah Iqbal | Dr. Muhammad Nasir | Dr. Muhammad Nawaz.

Material type: book Book; Format: print ; Literary form: not fiction Publisher: 2014Dissertation note: Abstract Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 2181,T] (1).

12. Effect Of Lactic Acid Hot Water And Tap Water Spraying On Microbiological Load And Shelf Life Of Beef Carcasses

by Muhammad Usman Badar | Dr. Muhammad Nasir | Dr. Zubair Farooq | Dr.Nasir Ahmed.

Material type: book Book; Format: print ; Literary form: not fiction Publisher: 2014Dissertation note: Abstract Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 2184,T] (1).

13. Effect Of Different Heat Treatments On Antioxidant Activity Of Eggplant And Its Efficacy Study Dr. Sanaullah Iqbal

by Wajeeha Baig | Dr. Muhammad Nasir | Prof. Dr. Habib-ur-Rehman.

Material type: book Book; Literary form: not fiction Publisher: 2014Dissertation note: Eggplants (Solanum melongena L), are native to the South East Asian region and were first domesticated there over 4000 years ago. In fact, the eggplant’s true species name ‘‘Melongena’’ is an ancient name for eggplant in Sanskrit (Spurling, 2003). The color, size, and shape of the eggplant fruit vary significantly with the variety of cultivar. Eggplant is one of the most common vegetables that is grown and consumed all around the world (Nisha et al. 2009). Thomas Jefferson introduced eggplant to the United States in 1806. Even today, a prickly, white eggplant still grows in Jefferson’s preserved Vir-ginia Garden at Monticello (Filippone et al. 2009). Eggplant fruit contains ascorbic acid and phenolics e.g chlorogenic acid, flavonoids, acetylated chlorogenic acid isomers, hydroxycinnamic acid oxides conjugates caffeic acid ,both of which are powerful antioxidants (Vinson et al. 1998). Eggplant is commonly considered as a vegetable, but botanically it is categorized as a fruit. Eggplant fruit is ranked among the top ten vegetables in terms of oxygen radical absorbance capacity due to its high phenolic content (Cao et al. 1996). A comparative study of the antioxidant capacity of different varieties was recently reported by two separate groups of researchers (Huang et al. 2004; Nisha et al. 2009). Vegetables contain several hydrophilic and lipophilic antioxidant compounds and it is important to estimate the antioxidant activity using different methods. They may act together more effectively than singly because they function synergistically and are capable of quenching free radicals in both aqueous and lipid phases (Ohr et al. 2004; Trombino et al. 2004). Antioxidant components are micronutrients present in the diet that can delay or inhibit lipid oxidation, by inhibiting the initiation or propagation of oxidizing chain reactions, and are also involved in scavenging free radicals (Othman et al., 2007). Epidemiological studies have shown that high fruit and vegetable consumption has health benefits in the prevention of chronic diseases (Cheel et al., 2007). The influence of home cooking methods (boiling , pressure-cooking , frying ) on the antioxidant activity of vegetables has been evaluated in 20 vegetables, using different antioxidant activity assays (lipoperoxyl and hydroxyl radicals scavenging and TEAC). Artichoke was the only vegetable that kept its very high scavenging-lipoperoxyl radical capacity in all the cooking methods. The highest scavenging capacity were observed in cauliflower after boiling and microwaving , in pea after boiling , and in zucchini after boiling and frying. Beetroot, green bean, and garlic kept their antioxidant activity after most cooking treatments. Swiss chard and pepper lost OH (Enez –Monreal et al. 2009). In the case of boiling or pressure-cooking occurs lixiviation phenomenon that leads to a 64% loss of total carotenoids and a 49% loss of total phenolics (Bunea et al. 2008). The phenols enter the cooking water and complex phenol proteins are found, reducing drastically by 90% or more (Barroga et al. 1985: Rocha et al. 2007). Eggplant is one of most common vegetables consumed all around the world. The present study will evaluate the antioxidant potential of two different varieties of eggplant (long purple coloured big size, and rounded purple coloured small size) in terms of total phenolic content (TPC), 2,2,di-phenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH), superoxide radical scavenging activity, and total anthocyanin content. Extracts from purple colour small size eggplant demonstrated better antioxidant activities than the other samples which may be attributed to the higher phenolic and anthocyanin content since a linear relation was observed between the TPC and the antioxidant parameters (Nisha et al. 2009). There is comparison of among vegetables regarding to their antioxident capacity. Tab.1.1: Comparison of different vegetables with respect to their antioxidant capacity Vegetables Size Total antioxidant capacity Russet potato 1 whole 4,649 Artichoke Half cup 4,402 Small red bean Half cup 13,727 Eggplant 1 whole 4,035 Red kidney beans Half cup 6,000 In the present study , the focus is on the amount of the antioxidants in eggplant after the application of different heat treatments. As eggplant is good source of antioxidants, it has been observed from different studies that heat leaves adverse effect on nutritional status of fruits and vegetables. Pakistan is one of the countries who has good cultivation rate of eggplant. One hundered gram of fruit contains 0.7mg iron, 13.0mg sodium, 213.0mg potassium, 12.0mg calcium, 26.0mg phosphorus, 5.0mg ascorbic acid and provides 25.0 calories (Yousafi et al.2013). In world production ranking, Pakistan is at 20th position in the eggplant production. Pakistan produces 87,000 tons eggplant every year. Moreover, it has 0.2% sharing in world wide eggplant production. It is cultivated in 9,044 ha on the land of Pakistan (FAO, 2012). Hydrogen Peroxide is one of the most powerful oxidizers known -- stronger than chlorine, chlorine dioxide, and potassium permanganate. And through catalysis, (H2O2) can be converted into hydroxyl radicals (.OH) with reactivity second only to fluorine. Hydrogen Peroxide (H2O2) is a colourless liquid that resembles water in many respects. Its physical properties are very similar to those of water, except that it is 40% denser. The main difference between hydrogen peroxide and water, however, is in its chemical behaviour. The single bond between the two oxygen atoms is weak, so that H2O2 readily fragments into either H and HO2 or two OHs. Either way, the resulting species are free radicals, which means they are very reactive, and this makes H2O2 a very powerful oxidizing agent. For this reason it has been utilized in rocket propulsion, when it is used to oxidise the hydrazine fuel, liberating hot gases (steam and oxygen) which propel the rocket forward. When something acts as an oxidising agent is gains electrons (removing them from the oxidised species) (Ganie et al., 2009). For this purpose, this study has been designed to find out the appropriate method to cook eggplant at domestic level, so that maximum level of antioxidants could be obtained in our food, because antioxidants play a very important role in prevention of many chronic diseases. So, four different cooking methods i.e, grilling, cooking under pressure, boiling and deep frying has been selected for this study because these cooking methods are applied frequently at domestic level. Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 2191,T] (1).

14. Effect Of Oiling And Packaging On Shelf Life Of Eggs Stored At Two Different Temperatures

by Marium Munir (2008-VA-388) | Dr. Muhammad Nasir | Dr. Sanaullah Iqbal | Dr. Aftab Ahmad Anjum.

Material type: book Book; Literary form: not fiction Publisher: 2015Dissertation note: In Pakistan, poultry industry is playing a vital role in the economy of the country. As eggs are perishable so it must be handled with safety. It is imperative to handle and store the eggs at appropriate conditions. But improper storage of eggs is a problem in our country which affects its quality and there is chance of microbial contamination in eggs. Oiling and packaging has variable impact on shelf life of eggs at different storage temperatures (Matt et al. 2009).Raw eggs have many benefits, they contain essential nutrients for the brain, nerves, glands and hormones, they are nutritionally balanced. raw eggs also contain an abundance of other vital substances including protein, essential fatty acids along with niacin, riboflavin, biotin, choline, vitamins A, D and E, magnesium, potassium, phosphorous, manganese, iron, iodine, copper, zinc and Sulphur. Egg yolks are one of the few foods that contain vitamin D(Watkins, 2002). As eggs are perishable food stuff,so the purposes of present research work are to analyze the effect of oiling and packaging on shelf life of eggs at two different temperatures. For this a total of 864 eggs were collected. The four different treatments were applied along with two different temperatures. Each category was further divided into four treatment strategies (108 eggs in each strategy) i.e. eggs without any treatment, oil coated eggs, eggs packed (air-tight) in white polythene bags, oil coated eggs packed (air-tight) in white polythene bags.Eggs undergone each treatment strategy were analyzed for six parameter i.e. sensory evaluation, microbial load, Physical parameters (weight, pH, egg shell percentage and haugh unit) using 18 eggs for each further divided into three replicates (6 eggs for each replicate). All the eggs were stored for 1, 7, 14, 21, 28 and 35 days. Summary 76 Data was analyzed statistically by the 2- way ANOVA (Analysis of Variance) with 5% probability. Means was compared by DMR test.At the end of this study we were able to assess the shelf life of eggs with respect to their oiling, packaging and storage conditions. Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 2289-T] (1).

15. Evaluation Of Current Food Safety Practices At Various Food Establishments In Lahore

by Muhammad Shahbaz (2013-VA-600) | Dr. Muhammad Nasir | Dr. Zubair Farooq.

Material type: book Book; Literary form: not fiction Publisher: 2015Dissertation note: Food Safety is a scientific discipline describing handling, preparation and storage of foods in ways that prevent food borne illnesses. In present era there is much advancement in the process of product control and practices which are aimed to produce wholesome and safe food. Governments have imposed very strict quality and food safety assessment parameters for food establishments. All food establishments have not adopted practices to ensure food safety.In the present study the survey of 500 food establishments of Lahore were conducted to evaluate current food safety practices adopted by various food establishments. The evaluation was done by using structured questionnaire/checklist. The questionnaire/checklist detailed of food establishment, management and personnel, personal hygiene, establishment design and physical facilities, maintenance and sanitation of establishments, control of operations and consumer awareness with product information. SPSS version 16 was used for all data analyses. Descriptive statistics including frequencies, means, and standard deviations were calculated for all variables as appropriate.The project highlighted the situation of current food safety practices and gaps in implementation adopted by various food establishments in Lahore. Evidence from the literature suggests that majority of Pakistani foods are drastically implicated with contaminants. Food hygiene training as a means of improving food safety, strong consumer protection groups, awareness of food safety, and the right to acquire safe food, strict adherence to food laws, new legislation with changing food safety perspectives, and the recognition of this challenging problem by all stakeholders are some of the practical, systematic, and aggressive steps that can be taken to curtail the risk of microbiological and chemical foodborne diseases and to minimize the health consequences associated with the consumption of unsafe foods in Pakistan. Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 2331-T] (1).

16. Assessment Of Correlation Between Food Choices And Fertility Status In Females

by Tamkenat Mansoor (2013-VA-923) | Dr. Muhammad Nasir | Ms. Amina Chughtai | Mr. Muhammad Bilal.

Material type: book Book; Literary form: not fiction Publisher: 2015Dissertation note: The changing lifestyles and eating patterns have resulted in a number of fertility related problems, especially in females. Initially it was thought that only morbidly increased or decreased body weights were the causative factors in cases of infertility and sub fertility but it has been observed that a lot of women with normal body weight are also increasingly finding it difficult to conceive. Similarly obese and underweight women have also been seen to reproduce normally. Thus, in order to have a better understanding of the relationship between food and fertility we need to compare the eating patterns of fertile women with those of infertile ones. Various eating patterns are associated, either negatively or positively, with the fertility status of females. At least 50 fertile and 50 infertile females, attending the OPDs at health centers in Gujrat, during the time of 6 months or until the benchmark of 50 control and 50 cases is not achieved, will be recruited and interviewed through a proposed questionnaire. Other than Food frequency checklist, social, medical and sexual history of the females will also be included in the questionnaire. Filled questionnaires will be analyzed using Minitab. Comparisons will be made between the food choices of fertile and infertile group using t-test and other relevant tests. The results of the proposed study will help to assess the association between the eating patterns and fertility status of females and help the practitioners to educate and better assist their patients to conceive successfully. Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 2415-T] (1).

17. Evaluation Of Microbiological Quality Ofshawarma Sold By The Street Vendors Of Lahore

by Sana Adrees (2013-VA-896) | Dr. Zabair Farooq | Dr. Muhammad Nasir | Prof. Dr. Aftab Ahmed Anjum.

Material type: book Book; Literary form: not fiction Publisher: 2015Dissertation note: Food safety is a scientific discipline describes handling, preparation and storage of food that prevents food borne diseases.It includes a number of ways that must be followed to avoid potentially severe health hazards.The tracks within this line of thought are safety between the market and consumer. With the fast pace of life the consumption of fast food is going to increase day by day in Lahore. It is imperative to prepare food at good hygienic conditions because of its perishability. The usual thougt is that food should be safe in the market and the concern is safe delivery and preparation of food for the consumer. Microorganisms affecting food comes from natural micro flora or are introduced by manufacturing steps ranging from processing storage and distribution. In some cases these micro flora have no effect on the food and can be consumed without consequence, but those that are introduced during course of processing depending on type and level of contamination can spoil the food and cause food borne illnesses. Food can transmit diseases from one person to another as well as serve as growth medium for bacteria that can cause food poisonoing. In the developed countries there are standards for food, whereas in less developed countries the main issue is the availability of safe water supply which is one of the critical item. The present research work was undertaken to investigate the microbial count in shawarma which is a vended food. Samples collected from Anarkali,Wahdat road and Islampura showed high microbial count which shows contamination due to poor handling and hygienic conditions and improper storage conditionswhile the samples taken from Fortress, Gulberg having less microbial count as compared to these areas. High microbial load in street foods occur due to improper food handling, unhygienic food preparation and processing, cooking and storage at inappropriate temperature. Consumer, food vendors and all type people should be aware of food hygiene, public health, implications of consuming contaminated foods, causative diseases. Food safety rules and implementation of food regulatory laws in food preparation, serving and preservation should be strongly maintained to avoid contamination problems and food-borne diseases. Following points should be strongly observed and maintained for future work and further investigative study to improve the quality of shawarama. 1. Ensuring regular inspection and periodical check on these food preparation procedures. 2.Continuous lab test and analytical lab analysis to check the unwanted presence of any new harmful agents in these foods to ensure food safety for consumers. Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 2455-T] (1).

18. Evaluation Of Microbial Quality Of Burger Sold By Roadside Fast Food Centers In Various Regions Of Lahore

by Nimra Khalid (2013-VA-900) | Dr. Zubair Farooq | Dr. Muhammad Nasir | Prof. Dr. Aftab Ahmed Anjum.

Material type: book Book; Literary form: not fiction Publisher: 2015Dissertation note: Food safety actions need to cover the entire food chain, from production to consumption. The implementation of food safety include safety between industry and the market and then between the market and the consumer. In considering industry to market practices, food safety considerations include the origins of food including the practices relating to food labeling, food hygiene, food additives and pesticides residues, as well as policies for certification systems for foods. Food industry regarding safety issue is one of the most unseen areas of policy in developing countries, especially in Pakistan. As a result, food systems in these countries are not always as well controlled and comprehensive as in the mechanized world. This situation is exacerbated by an ever increasing population, rapid urbanization and, most importantly, a lack of the economic and practical resources needed to hold a sound food safety system. As a result, people in developing countries are continuously facing a wide range of potential food safety risks. Food borne illness is a disease caused by consuming contaminated food or drink.There are more than 250 known food borne diseases. Food can transmit disease from individual to individual as well as serve as a growth medium for bacteria that can cause food poisoning. Today, people try to save as much time as possible due to the requisite to cope with many tasks within restricted time. In many cases people who have busy schedule don’t have enough time to cook food therefore prefer to eat fast food like burger, shawarma, fries etc. from fast food centers. The present research was undertaken to investigate the microbial load of the chicken burger samples (n=96) collected aseptically from different regions of Lahore. Samples were collected in sterile plastic bags and analyzed for microbial load immediately after collection in Microbiology lab of University of Veterinary and Animal Sciences. Nutrient agar was used to perform Total Plate Count, Mackonkey Agar was used for total coliform count, Manitol salt agar was used to count Staphylococcus Aureus and SalmonellaShigella agar was used to detect Salmonella. The findings of the current study showed that samples taken multinational restaurant have less contamination than from local fast food centers. While among local fast food centers Liberty, Fortress, Anarkali and Akbarimandi have lesser microbial count than samples collected from Ichra, moon market, Mori gate. The difference in microbial load is due to improper food handling, processing, cooking and storage temperature, time and manufacturing practices of the food handlers. After conducting my research I concluded that following points should be strongly observed and maintained to improve the quality of chicken burger in local fast food centers • Ensuring regular inspection and periodical check on these food centers • Continuous lab test and analytical lab analysis to check the unwanted presence of any new harmful agents in these foods to ensure food safety for consumer. Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 2456-T] (1).

19. Nutritional, Microbiological And Organoleptic Evaluation Of Yoghurt Prepared From Goat-Buffalo Milk Blends

by Noor Haider (2009-VA-661) | Dr. Muhammad Nasir | Prof. Dr. Makhdoom Abdul Jabbar | Prof. Dr. Muhammad Abdullah.

Material type: book Book; Literary form: not fiction Publisher: 2011Dissertation note: Due to the high nutritional quality, goat milk is considered important daily food. But in our country, less usage of goat milk is due to lack of information about its basic nutrients and nutritional benefits, which provides less profit to the goat owners. Present study has been designed to prepare yoghurt from goat-buffalo milk blends for physico-chemical, nutritional and microbiological evaluation and to find out the best goat-buffalo milk blend for yoghurt preparation through organoleptic acceptability studies. Raw goat and buffalo milk was collected from University of Veterinary and Animal Sciences, Pattoki Campus, Pakistan and transferred to laboratory for analysis. After yoghurt preparation, chemical analysis was conducted for total solids, pH, ash content, lactose, cholesterol, protein, acidity and then physical analysis for viscosity and syneresis was conducted. Samples of yoghurt were microbiological analyzed for total viable count of Lactobacillus acidophilus, yeast, molds, coliforms by using different media. Yoghurt was also studied for sensory and nutritional evaluation after 0, 1, 3, 5, 7 and 9 days of storage at 4 °C. The data obtained was statistically evaluated through two way ANOVA by applying CRD. Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 2522-T] (1).

20. Effect Of Inulin Present In Chicory Roots On The Diabetes

by Saeed Ahmad (2009-VA-642) | Dr. Sana Ullah Iqbal | Dr. Muhammad Nasir | Dr. Saima Inayat.

Material type: book Book; Literary form: not fiction Publisher: 2016Dissertation note: Diabetes is metabolic disease in which there are high glucose levels over a long period of time. The principle symptoms of high glucose are expanded thirst, regular pee, and expanded craving. Diabetes is a disease that influences the way the body uses food from the blood. It is normally a hereditarily issue of digestion system, that is showed by the inability to tolerate carbohydrates and insulin inadequacy. In 2014 around 387 million individuals have diabetes the whole way across the world and 90% of the cases were of Type 2 diabetes which is equivalent to 8.3% of the grown-up population. This proportion was equivalent for both ladies and men. From years 2012 to 2014, it is evaluated that 1.5 to 4.9 million deaths each year was because of DM. The danger of death is twice with diabetes. The normal number of individuals with diabetes is 592 million by 2035 by this rate. With more than 16 million individuals America have some type of this disease (DM). 700,000 new instances of DM are analyzed each year. Diabetes is increasing at very high rate in Pakistan. There are nearly 7.1 million DM patients in Pakistan and it is also estimated that if DM continually develop at this rate then 11.4 million patients of diabetics will be there and Pakistan would rank 10th in the world in 2030. This study is designed due to this alarming rate of diabetes in our country. Inulin present in chicory roots may be used to optimize blood glucose level in diabetic patients. Total 20 diabetic participants aged 30 to 40 years, present in Lahore, were selected for this study in two groups with 10 each participants. Chicory root powder was used as a source of inulin. 60 Chicory roots was purchased from the market. Then cleaned from dirt and then it was dried with the help of oven at temperature 55˚c.Then this dried roots were grinded with the help of grinder machine. Two group were formed. One group was control group that used only allopathic medicines specifically for diabetes. Other group was inulin group that used chicory root powder. Inulin group used both chicory root powder and medicines 1st week of the study. This was done only to ensure no side effect of chicory root powder on the participants. Next week when there was no adverse effect then participants were advised to use half of the medicine along with the chicory root powder. Then after 13 days when glucose level of the participant was on the course then eliminated the medicines and told them to use only 10 grams of chicory root powder daily. Glucose level of these patients was tested daily by the glucometer for two weeks. Then after every 5 to 7 days for 3 months. Then at the end of this period HBA1C test was carried at the hospital laboratory. In this experimental trial, we investigated the effect chicory root supplementation especially inulin has on glucose level of type 2 diabetic patients. Our results showed that three months of chicory root supplementation significantly decreased blood glucose level. My study reveals that inulin as a fiber didn’t control the diabetes but have a little effect on the glucose intake in the blood due to its fibrous nature. Data showed that the inulin supplementation slightly reduce the glucose level in the blood. First week of the supplementation was along with medicines and data showed reduction in the glucose level of blood. At initial day the average random blood glucose level was 251.2 ± 60.1 mg/dl and after 7 days it was 220 ± 53.1 mg/dl and at the end of 90th day it was 195 ± 52.3 which shows that inulin has a reducing effect on the diabetes to some 61 extent. In this study we can conclude that inulin containing chicory roots has a positive effect on the reduction of glucose level of blood (p < 0.001). The patients that use 10 grams of chicory root powder constantly were able to lower their blood glucose level and HbA1c. But it cannot be used as a medicine replacement in diabetic patients because it does not control blood glucose level to the normal range. Future Recommendations: I recommend in future that effect of inulin on the diabetic patients should be checked in relation to amount of medicines given to the patients. Researchers should check that what happens when inulin is used with different amount of medicines in diabetic patients. And also what happens when different amount of inulin is given to diabetic patients along with same medicine. Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 2568-T] (1).

21. Comparison Of Response Of Oral Versus Injectible Vitamin D In Children Having Rickets

by Rabia Mazari (2014-VA-909) | Dr. Waqas Ahmad | Dr. Huma Imran | Dr. Muhammad Nasir | Dr. Muhammad Bilal.

Material type: book Book; Literary form: not fiction Publisher: 2016Dissertation note: Nutritional rickets is a common problem in Pakistan as highlighted in different studies. Nutritional rickets is a childhood bone disorder in which bones become soften and deformity occurs. The main cause of this rickets is lack of vitamin D. In Pakistan, the prevalence of vitamin D deficiency among children has been reported as 40%. Methodology consist of division of 2 groups (oral, injectable).A specific amount of doses (200,000 i.u) was given to both groups for about 3 months. All children were followed up for two more visits on thirty and ninety day. In the follow-up visits the children were subjected to clinical, biochemical and radiological examination and their findings were recorded. Anthropometric measurements included wide wrist frontal bossing, and head circumference etc. Biochemical findings included different test for serum calcium level, serum phosphorous level, serum alkaline phosphatase and 25 dehydroxyvitamin D. Radiological examination was consisting of X-Ray reports of wrist and knee. Analysis of Variance (ANOVA) was used. Means were compared for significance through LSD. Level of significance was defined as ≤ 0.05.Cohort software version Costat 6.303 was used for all statistical analysis. There were no undesirable side effects observed in either group of children and both oral and injectable forms of treatment were well-tolerated. The injectable route was little bit highly efficient than oral one as expected. But this difference in efficiency is not that much significant. Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 2742-T] (1).

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