Comparative Study On The Performance Of Male And Female Parent Meat Lines With Commercial Broilers Of Hubbard
Material type: Book ; Format:
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Publisher: 1996 Dissertation note: The present study was planned to compare male and female progeny of the opposite male and female grand parent meat line breeders of Hubbard strains with commercial broiler chicks of the same strain.
The objective of the study was to ascertain the genetic potential for the growth of these three different lines and their use as a commercial broilers.
The following observations were recorded for the each strain:
1. Mean feed consumption.
2. Mean weekly body weight.
3. Mean feed efficiency.
4. Mean dressing percentage
5. Mortality (if any)
6. Economics of meat production.
All the three groups i.e. A, B and C were reared in the brooder batteries under optimal environmental conditions. Same rations (starter and finisher) were fed to all the groups.
The statistical analysis of data revealed that feed consumption and body weight were higher in group B having female chicks of the male (sire) line of Hubbard strain, and non significant differences were observed in feed efficiency and dressing percentage among the groups.
The economic evaluation of all the three groups for meat production showed that the birds of group B having female chicks of male grand parent line proved to be the most economical.
Recommendations: Male and female progeny of the opposite male and female grand parent lines can be used as commercial broilers.
Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [ Call number: 0484,T] (1).
Study On The Effect Of Different Methods Of Minimizing Heat Stress On The Performance Of Broilers
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Publisher: 1997 Dissertation note: The present study was planned to compare desert cooler, water sprinkling and false ceiling and to investigate their effects on performance of broilers during heat stress. Two hundred and forty, one day-old broiler chicks were procured from local market. They were divided into four groups i.e. A, B, C and D. Each group was Further subdivided into three replicates. Each group was reared sepnrnJv in di ITorent, pens. Feed and wiLer were provided Rd 1ibitun. The duration of experimental period was 6 weeks. rFreatn1(it.Is viz desert cooler, water sprinkling, false ceiling and
control were allotted to groups B, C, D and A respectively. The treatments were used from 3rd week of age to onward in the respective groups. Data regarding temperature, humidity, weight gain, feed consumption and feed conversion were recorded and daily average was calculated each week.
The data obtained showed that all the treatments (desert cooler, water sprinkling, and False ceiling) had a effect (P < 0.05) on temperature, with highest cooling efficiency in the birds kept in desert cooler, followed by water sprinkling treatment and false ceiling
Only desert cooler and water sprinkling treatments caused higher(P <0.05) relative humidity than either false ceiling treatment or control group. Although all the treatments showed a difference (P<0.05), group B (desert cooler) had the highest weight gain with maximum feed consumption i.e. 2047.78 g and 4740.74 g followed by group C (water sprinkling) 1857.36 g and 4261.26 g and D (false ceiling) 1443.97 g and 3248.37 g. The poorest weight gain and feed consumption was observed in control group i.e. 1154.35 g and 2487.28 g. Feed conversion ratio (FCR) of control group was better (P < 0.05) than the experimental groups, while no significant difference was observed among the experimental groups. No significant difference was also observed in the dressing percentages of all the groups. There was no mortality in any group throughout the duration of this project. Economics studies suggested that water sprinkling treatment was most. economical, followed by desert cooler treatment, while false ceiling treatment was the most expensive treatment, which cost even more than the control group.
On the basis of results obtained it could be suggested that desert cooler was the best method for minimizing the heal stress Followed by water sprinkling and false ceiling.
Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [ Call number: 0522,T] (1).
Comparative Study On The Performance Of Ross-1 And Avian Male And Female Parent Meat Lines With Commercial Broiler
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Publisher: 1997 Dissertation note: This experiment was designed to compare different male and female progeny of the opposite male and female grand parent meat line breeders of ROSS-I and AVIAN strains with commercial broiler chicks of the same strains.
The objective of the experiment was to ascertain the genetic potential for the growth of these different lines of strains and their use as a commercial broiler.
The following observations were recorded on; Average feed consumption, Average weekly body weight gain, Average feed efficiency, Average dressing percentage, Mortality (if any) and Economics of meat production.
A total of 180 one -day old chicks purchased from local market were divided into six groups i.e. A having male chicks of female grand parent meat line of Ross-I strain, B having female chicks of male grand parent meat line of Ross strain, C having commercial broiler chicks of Ross strain, D having male chicks of female grand parent meat line of Avian strain, E having female chicks of male grand parent line of Avian strain and F having commercial broiler chicks of Avian strain. Chicks were reared for a period of 42 days (6 weeks) under identical managemental conditions. Same rations (Starter and Finisher) were fed to all the groups.
The results indicated that there was difference (P<0.01) in feed consumption among various groups. Group E containing female chicks of the male grand parent line of Avian strain consumed highest feed (3997 gms) during 0-42 days. It was also noted that weight gain amongst all the groups from 0 to 42 days was different (P<0.01). Highest weight gain was recorded in group E having female chicks of the male grand parent meat line of Avian strain.
The FCR of groups A, B, C, D, E and F during starter and during finisher phase was difference (P<0.05). However, the efficiency of feed utilization was highest in group E. Dressing percentage of different groups was not different (P> 0.05).
The economic evaluation of all the six groups for meat production showed that the birds of group E having female chicks of male grand parent line of Avian strain proved to be the most economical whereas birds of groups B having females of male grand parent line of Ross strain proved 2nd during grading.
The overall picture of the trail reveals that male and female progeny of the opposite male and female grand parent lines can be used as commercial broilers.
Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [ Call number: 0525,T] (1).
Effect Of Water Restriction On The Conmsistency Of Droppings And On Subsequesnt Performance Of Broilers
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Publisher: 1997 Dissertation note: Spoilage of water and watery droppings are major factors responsible for the accumulation of excessive moisture in the poultry houses. This moisture will be deposited into the litter. Resultantly the litter becomes too wet, which in turn creates managemental problems and economic losses to the industry. Watery droppings are produced, when birds consume water beyond their metabolic requirements, because excretion of water with the faeces is almost directly proportional to the intake of water. The present study was designed to overcome this problem by restricting the water to the birds and to investigate its effects on the consistency of droppings, weight, gain, feed consumption, FCR, water intake, water: feed ratio, mortality and haematologi cal parameters.
The experiment was carried out at Poultry Experimental Station, College of Veterinary Sciences, Lahore for a period of 6 weeks i.e. from 30-10-1996 to 10-12-1996. One hundred and eighty, one day old "Hubbard" broiler chicks were randomly divided into 6 groups i.e. A, B, C, D, E and F, comprising 30 chicks in each. Each group was further sub-divided into 3 replicates. These groups were given water in such a way that group NA" was offered full water and the rest of the groups were given 95, 90, 85, 80 and 75% respectively of the requirement. All the groups were reared in battery brooders under optimum environmental and managemental conditions. Same rations (starter and finisher) were fed to them. The source of water was also the same throughout the trial. They were vaccinated according to the recommended standard schedule.
From second week, onwards, moisture contents of the faeces were estimated on weekly basis. It was examined that each increment of water deprivation resulted in drier faeces and lower Water: feed ratio than the control. Statistically differences (P<0.01) of weight gain, moisture contents of the excreta, FCR, water: feed ratio and blood values were recorded among the groups. The best performance was evaluated in group C and the poorest in group F. Waler stresses did not affect mortality, only 3 birds died during the whole study. Feed consumptions was found to be non-significant. Commercially these results will be helpful in controlling watery dropping, without lowering meat production, saving of water, labour and sewerage cost in poultry operations.
Excreta moisture can be minimized from 1.6 to 5.2% without affecting production and economics.
It is recornmenj, that water consumption can be reduced from 5% to 10% in a relatively cooler environment during starter and finisher phase. Reducting the water intake 15% or more had deleterious effect on the performance of broilers.
Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [ Call number: 0530,T] (1).
Effect Of Mating Ratio And Age On Fertility And Hatchability In Japanese Quails (Coturnix Coturnix Japonica)
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Publisher: 1997 Dissertation note: The present project was planed to study the effect of mating ratio and age on fertility and hatchability in Japanese quails.
The production of fertile eggs was found to relate to the number of males present in a flock. Fertility and hatchability of eggs was directly influenced by sex ratio and age of birds. However, very little information in this regard is available.
One hundred and seventy four males and four hundred twenty six females quails of 4 weeks age were purchased from the local market. They were divided into five equal mating groups i.e. A, B, C, D and E comprising 120 quails in each group. Each group was further divided into 2 sub groups i.e. Al, A2, Bi, B2, Cl, C2, Dl, D2 and El, E2. The mating ratio of males and females in the respective groups was 1:1, 1:2, 1:3, 1:4 and 1:5. Birds were reared for a period of two weeks i.e. 5-6 weeks of age under similar environments on floor, then they were transferred to battery cages and were kept there upto the age of 16 weeks.
To assess the ideal parental age for optimal fertility and hatchability, hatching eggs from a single hatch breeding flock between 7 and 16 weeks of age were set twice in a week The mean hatching performance of the eggs set during 7 to 8, 9 to 10, 11 to 12, 13 to 14 and 15 to 16 weeks of age were recorded separately.
The unhatched eggs were opened on the day 18 and examined
macroscopically to identify the infertile eggs, embryonic mortality, fertility and hatchability of fertile eggs set were calculated.
Identical environmental and managemental conditions were provided to all the experimental birds. They were fed on commerca1 ration -libitum. Clean and fresh water was made available at all times. Light was provided 24 h during rearing time and 16 h during breeding period. Standard rearing, breeding and hatching management procedures were followed throughout the study period.
The following data was recorded:
Weight of birds at the start of experiment, Feed consumption, Average body weightlbirds on weekly basis, Feed conversion ratio, Mortality if any, Fertility percentage and Hatchability percentage.
The data collected was statistically analysed using 5 x 5
The quail chicks at 4 weeks age weighed on an average 98 gm/bird and within a period of two weeks rearing gained on an average a body weight of 134.1 gm/bird. The weight gradually increased with age. The final body weight at the age week 16, under ratio 1:1, 1:2, 1:3, 1:4 and 1:5 was 130.5, 186.5, 188.0, 189.5, 191.5 and 193.5 gm respectively, the overall mean value being 189.8 gm/bird.
The difference in average weight/bird in various groups has been due to the difference in the number of females. The females weighed heavier than the males consequently the groups having smaller number of females were lighter in weight than the groups having higher number of females.
The percentage weekly increase in body weight was 37.6, 12.76 and 8.27% at age weeks 7, 8 and 9 respectively. Further increase in body weight from age week 10 to 16, ranged between 0.9 and 4.7. The rearing of Japanese quail beyond age weeks 8 or 9 for meat purposes will not be economical. The egg fertility was the highest at age weeks 13-14 (80.73%) followed by 15-16 (72.34%) 11-12 (7 1.12%), 9-10 (63.57%) and 7-8 weeks (56-20%), all being statistically different from one another. The mating ratio (1:1 to 1:5) showed statistically significant effect on egg fertility, which ranged between 58.16 to
8 1.12%, the maximum being at mating ratio of 1:2 and the minimum at 1:5.
The mating ratio and age have been found to have significant effect on egg hatchability, it was maximum at age weeks 13-14 (67.46%) and the minimum at age weeks 7-8 (41-23%). Similarly mating ratio 1:2 resulted in the maximum (66.08) and mating ratio 1:5 showed the minimum (48.73%) egg hatchability.
The results of present study have led to the conclusion that egg fertility and hatchability were highest at age week 13-14 and at mating ratio 1:2.
Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [ Call number: 0537,T] (1).
Effect Of Group Size On Growth Performncl Of Nili Ravi Buffalo Calves During Winter Months
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; Literary form:
Publisher: 2007 Dissertation note: The study was performed to investigate the effect of group size on growth performance of Nih Ravi buffalo calves during winter months. For this purpose, 39 weaned calves were reared in different group sizes. Group A having single calf, group B having four number of calves, and group C having eight number of calves, with three replicates in each group .Space was provided 16 square feet per calf, while manger length 18 inch per animal for a period of 12 weeks (24 November2006 to 15 February2007). During this period it was observed that ambient temperature ranged from 14°C to 17°C and relative humidity (RH) 59 to 64 %. Green fodder was offered adlibitum and concentrate
@ 1% of body weight. During the experimental period, the following parameters were recorded i.e., daily feed intake, weekly weight gain, weekly feed efficiency, daily water consumption ,rumination, fortnightly body measurement, rectal temperature twice daily, respiration at morning, incidence of diarrhea and respiratory illness. The data indicated that calves in group C showed significantly (P<0.05) more weight gain, increased feed intake increased body measurement and the higher percentage of respiratory illness when compared with all other groups .Where as no difference in water consumption, daily rectal temperature, respiration, feed efficiency, rumination and diarrhea between the groups A, B and C was observed. This study clearly indicated that the overall performance of group C, having eight numbers of calves is better than that of others A, having single calf and B, having four numbers of calves. The calves assessed in term of increased time spend in eating of fodder / concentrates with increased dry matter consumption, full social interaction and greater access to space in group housing reflects better welfare as compared to that in individual housing and calves kept in groups of more than four calves preferable from health and growth perspective.
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Performance Of Lactating Beetal Goats Fed Diiferent Levels Of Concentrate Supplement Under Intensive Feeding
Material type: Book ; Format:
Publisher: 2008 Dissertation note: Feeding management experiment was conducted during winter at Small Ruminants Training and Research Centre, UVAS, Pattoki on sixteen lactating Beetal goats divided into four groups four in each according to RCBD arrangement kept under tie stall intensive management for a period of thirteen weeks. Group A was given ad libitum roughages only (control), while groups B, C and D were given ad-libitum roughages and concentrate @ 0.5, 1.0 and 1.5 % of body weight, respectively. The data on daily DM1, milk production and composition, weight gain, blood bio-chemistry, feed efficiency and milk production economics was collected and analyzed. Concentrate ration prepared for feeding to goats was having 17.41, 83.26 and 71 % Crude protein, Dry matter and Total Digestible Nutrients, respectively.
The Beetal goats fed on Ti, T2, T3 and T4 consumed daily 1.144±0.005, 1.322±0.005, 1.467±0.005 and 1.604±0.005 kg dry matter, respectively. Statistically significant (P<0.0 1) differences between treatments were observed. Highest milk production per day (771.34±5.54 ml) was recorded in T2, followed by T4, T3 and Ti. Statistically significant (P<0.01) differences in milk production between treatments were noted. The fortnightly weight gain in goats was 1.17±0.16, 1.16±0.19, 1.37±0.17 and 1.62±0.17 kg in treatment 1, 2, 3 and 4, respectively. Statistically analyzed data showed non significant (P>0.05) differences between treatments. The milk analysis performed in the milk testing laboratory of Animal Product Technology Department and goats kept on treatments Ti, T2, T3 and T4 showed milk fat contents of 4.65±0.13, 4.29±0.13, 4.42±0.13 and 4.67±0.13. SNF % in goats was 6.36±0.30, 7.47±0.30, 7.05±0.30 and 6.46±0.30, respectively. Non significant (P>0.05) differences in fat and SNF contents between treatments were observed.
Blood sample were analyzed for "albumin, total protein, triglyceride, urea, blood
glucose and cholesterol in the WTO quality control laboratory UVAS, Lahore. The blood albumen contents were 2.56±0.20, 2.38±0.20, 2.89±0.20 and 3.01±0.20 g/dl in goats on treatment 1, 2, 3 and 4, respectively. Total Protein values were 8.25±0.19, 8.24±0.19, 8.11±0.19 and 7.80±0.19 g/dl and Triglyceride were 12.23±0.49, 15.00±0.49, 15.00±0.49 and 16.03±0.49 mg/dl in goats on treatment 1, 2, 3 and 4, respectively. Mean Urea level was 1.35±0.04, 1.32±0.04, 1.36±0.04 and 1.45±0.04 mg/dl, mean Glucose level was 23.42±1.82, 30.28±1.82, 59.59±1.82 and 61.52±1.82 mg/dl and Cholesterol level was
74.91±3.17, 93.66±3.17, 88.26±3.17 and 110.81±3.l7mg/di in treatment 1, 2, 3 and 4, respectively.
Feed efficiency was highest (0.59) in goats on Ti, followed by T2 (0.58), T3
(0.49) and T4 (0.46). The goats fed on T2 showed highest gross margin of RS. 9.17/litre of milk produced followed by Ti (RS. 8.98), T3 (RS. 7.51) and T4 (RS. 7.93).
It was concluded that different levels of concentrate supplementation improved the milk yield in lactating goats; however, the effect of supplementation on milk composition was non-significant. During winter season better performance of Beetal goats can be attained in terms of increased milk production, improved gross margin and more economically on 0.5 % concentrate supplementation in combination with roughage feeding.
Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [ Call number: 1007,T] (1).
Evalution Of Berseem Hay Based Total Mixed Ration In Nili-Ravi Buffalo Calves
Material type: Book ; Format:
Publisher: 2008 Dissertation note: The feeding management experiment was conducted to investigate the performance of Nili-Ravi Buffalo calves raised on different levels of Berseem hay and
concentrates at Buffalo Research Institute, Pattoki. Twenty four (24) buffalo calves of approximately same age (7-8 month) and body weight (77 kg) were randomly divided
into four groups' six calves in each. The calves were kept in individual stalls and fed for 12 weeks on Berseem hay based Total Mixed Rations (TMR) having Berseern hay only (A), Berseern hay: concentrate ratio of 70:30 (B), Berseem hay: concentrate ratio of 50:50 (C) and diet D: Berseem hay: concentrate ratio (30:70). The data on Daily feed intake, weekly weight gain, feed analysis, feed digestibility, feed efficiency and comparative economics were recorded, analyzed and interpreted in the manuscript.
The mean daily DM1 on treatment A, B, C and D were 503±0.16, 3.94±0.16, 3.67±0.12 and 3.12±0.11 kg, respectively. Daily DM1 showed increasing trend as the proportion of berseem hay was increased in the diets. DM1 was statistically highly significant (P< 0.01) between treatments. The mean wejght gain of calves on weekly bases was 2.48±0.13, 3.30±0,13, 3.89±0.l7and 4.46±0.21 kg for treatment A, B, C and D, respectively. The calves showed an increasing trend in weekly weight gain with the increase in the proportion of concentrate in the diets. The weight gain data also showed a highly significant (P< 0.01) difference between treatments and weeks.
The feed efficiency of the diets in different treatments was calculated considering the amount of feed consumed per unit of weight gain on dry matter basis. Mean feed consumption per kg of weight gain was 14.21±2.24, 8.37±1.04, 6.60±0.57 and 4.90±0.40 kg for calves on treatment A, B, C and D, respectively. The diet D having inclusion of 70 % concentrate was found highly efficient and diet A having 100 % berseem hay was least efficient to cnvert it into one kg gain.
The comparative economics calculation of feeding experiment showed that the calves on treatment D were able to produce highest daily gross margin of Rs. 40.75 followed by treatment C (Rs. 28.25), treatment B (Rs. 19) and on treatment A (Rs. 2.25/calf/day), respectively. The calves showed an increasing trend in daily gross margin as the proportion of concentrate was increased in the diets and decreased with the increase in the level of Berseem hay in the diets.
The mean dry matter digestibility of the treatment A, B, C and D was 72.9 1±4.15, 78.79±2.15, 79.09±3.75, and 78.85±1.68 percent and mean crude protein digestibilities were 74.45±3.64, 73.51±4.62, 74.06±2.68 and 73.86±3.71 percent and mean ash digestibility vlues were 44.72±7.15, 45.35±4.16, 45.64±6.89, and 44.6 1±2.95 percent, respectively. Statistically non-significant differences were found in DM, CP and ASI I digestibility between treatments.
On the basis the findings in the experiment it is concluded that the most efficient and economical feeding proportion of Berseem hay and concentrate is 30:70 on dry matter basis. It is suggested that Berseem hay and concentrate proportion of 30:70 is desirable to achieve higher growth rate. A ratio of 50:50 of Berseem hay and concentrate also resulted in handsome weight gain but it was relatively less efficient than treatment D (30:70). For fattening purposes in Nili-Ravi buffalo calves these combinations can be used according to the availability and prevailing prices of Berseem hay and concentrate.
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Genetic Characterization Of Pakistani Buffalo Breeds By Mitochondrial D-Loop And Microsatellite Analyses
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Publisher: 2008 Dissertation note: Pakistan has various dairy breeds of buffalo and cattle, but the genetic data of different buffalo breeds like Nih, Ravi, Nihi-Ravi, Kundi and Azakheli is lacking which need to be established for their genetic characterization. Blood samples of unrelated true representatives of all breeds were collected from their respective home tracts i.e Nih Ravi (LPRI Bahadarnagar, Okara, BRI Pattoki, Rakh Dera Chahi, Lahore); Nih (Pakpatan,
Minchnabad, Arifwala, Hasilpur); Ravi (Kamahia, Tandlianwala); Kundi (Tandojam, Tando Muhammad Khan, Dadu) and Azakheli (Directorate of Livestock Research & Development Station Surezai, Peshawar and Matta, Swat). DNA was extracted with the use of standard protocol and amplification of the mitochondrial D-loop region was done with specific primers in Molecular Cytogenetics and Genomics Laboratory in the department of Livestock Production. Sequencing of amplified portion of mt DNA D-loop was done. Sequences were analyzed with the help of software blast2sequence. Single Nucleotide Polymorphisms (SNPs) were identified and comparison of 52 mitochondrial DNA haplotypes of all buffalo breeds was done. Genetic distance and identity between five buffalo breeds were calculated and phylogenetic tree was constructed using BioEdit and MEGA 4.1 softwares showing the relationships between different haplotypes. Domestication events were also observed through network analysis. For further confirmation of the genetic structure of buffalo breeds 8 dye labeled microsatehhite markers (recommended by ISAG) were used and genotyping was done. Results were analyzed with the help of different softwares. Genetic diversity, Allele frequencies, observed and expected homozygosity and heterozygosity, Hardy Weinberg equilibrium, F-Statistics and Gene Flow for all Loci, population's dendogram, Neis genetic identity and genetic distance/ diversity was calculated. This work provided the genetic data which is very helpful for determining the genetic diversity of buffalo population, breed identification, animal forensic and paternity cases and making effective breeding policies and conservational activities in future.
Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [ Call number: 1114,T] (1).
Feeding Management For Optimum Growth, Reproduction And First Lactation Performance In Sahiwal Heifers
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Publisher: 2010 Dissertation note: Sahiwal is well known dairy cattle breed in the tropical and subtropical regions of world for its excellent heat and tick resistance. The value of adequate nutrition and management of replacement heifers is mostly overlooked and production losses linked with slow growth rate are not entirely realized. Efficient utilization of nutrients like energy during pre pubertal and gestation periods is needful for melioration. The study included two experiments. The aim in first experiment was to investigate the effect of varying dietary energy levels on pre pubertal growth and age at puberty in Sahiwal heifers. Twenty Sahiwal heifers (Age = 12 ± 2 month and avg. wt = 125 kg) were assigned to four dietary treatments having five animals on each treatment. Isonitrogenous (CP=13.7%) diets having varying energy levels, viz; A=100% (Control), B=88%, C=112% and D=124% of NRC recommended level for small breed non bred heifers were fed to the respective groups until onset of puberty.
Dry matter and protein intakes were not influenced by varying dietary energy levels during pre pubertal period. However, metabolizable energy (ME) 124% of NRC recommendation enhanced average daily gain (ADG) up to 571±15 g/d which was higher than all other dietary energy levels, whereas it was similar between ME 100% and ME 112% (442±11 and 450±05 g/d, respectively) but lower in ME 88% (397±07 g/d). The improvement in ADG of heifers fed ME 124% of NRC might be attributed to availability of excess energy nutrient for heifers to fulfill not only maintenance requirements but also to grow and develop body reserves. Provision of extra dietary energy improved efficiency of diets which might be attributed to availability of surplus dietary energy enabling heifers to convert feed into live body mass more efficiently. The 13 to 18 months of age was found optimum time period to have significantly highest ADG in Sahiwal heifers. This might be attributed to propitious physiological conditions under which heifers grow at faster rate.
The optimum increase in body structures (Body length, height and heart girth) was achieved in ME 124% of NRC recommendations. The phase from 13 to 18 months of age was found optimum possessing significantly highest values of increase in body length and heart girth, whereas phase from 19 months to age at puberty was optimum to achieve significantly highest body height. The optimum increase in heart girth during first two phases (13 to 19 months of age) might be attributed to relatively faster muscle growth in body than bone growth. The digestibility percentages of nutrients (DM, CP, NDF and ADF) were not influenced by different dietary energy levels. No influence of dietary energy levels on digestibility of nutrients in the present study might be attributed to best adaptability of Sahiwal heifers to utilize diets even with low energy under local environment.
Similarly, age at puberty was also not affected by dietary treatments and overall average was 833 ± 10 days. The optimum performance in terms of age at puberty at lower dietary energy level might be attributed to lesser energy requirements of Sahiwal under tropical and subtropical environment condition as elaborated by NRC (2000) that maintenance energy requirements of Bos indicus breeds including Sahiwal are about 10% lower. The similar pattern of influence was observed in serum progesterone concentration. The average of progesterone detected during a month before puberty was 0.44±0.005 ng/mL and during a month after onset of puberty was 1.48 ± 0.03 ng/mL serums. The similar rogesterone concentration among dietary treatments might be attributed to similar age at puberty in Sahiwal heifers.
It is concluded from results of first experiment that higher dietary energy level (ME 124% of NRC) enhanced growth parameters and feed efficiency but reproductive performance of Sahiwal heifers in terms of age at puberty was optimum even at lower dietary energy level (ME 88% of NRC recommended level) under local environment conditions of Pakistan.
The aim in second experiment was to study the effect of feeding varying dietary energy levels during last trimester of pregnancy on 1st lactation performance in Sahiwal heifers. Five to six months pregnant Sahiwal heifers (n=16) were assigned four dietary treatments having four heifers on each treatment. Iso-nitrogenous (CP=14.1%) diets having varying energy levels, viz; A=100% (Control), B=88%, C=112% and D=124% percent of NRC recommended level for pregnant heifers were fed to the respective groups until calving. After calving, all heifers were fed a similar diet having CP (16.2%) and ME (1.72 Mcal/kg).
Dry matter and CP intakes were similar across the dietary treatments. Pre calving ADG was not different among heifers fed ME 112 and ME 124% (486 ± 13 and 497 ± 05 g/d, respectively) but higher than other diets, whereas it was also higher (444 ± 07 g/d) in ME 100% than 397 ± 08 g/day in ME 88% of NRC recommendation. Feed efficiency was similar between ME 124 and ME 112% but higher than other diets, whereas ME 100% was also more efficient than ME 88% of NRC recommendation. The higher feed efficiency in higher dietary energy levels might be attributed to availability of surplus dietary energy enabling heifers to convert feed into live body mass more efficiently. Better body score through higher pre calving dietary energy level might be attributed to availability of energy for animal in surplus to its requirements of maintenance and pregnancy. Higher level of energy at this stage enabled pregnant heifers to develop extra body reserves needed in early lactation period to fulfill high demand of lactogenesis. The similar birth weight of newly born calves might be attributed to the factor that needs of conceptus (growth of fetus, fetal membranes, uterus and mammary glands) are accorded high priority by the homeorhetic controls it transmits to the dam.
Extra energy levels beyond NRC recommendation during prepartum period were not advantageous to increase milk yield in 1st calf heifers. The performance of 1st calf heifers in terms of milk yield was only optimum through pre calving feeding according to NRC recommendations. The lesser milk yield in diets having higher energy levels than recommended by NRC might be attributed to more availability of mammary fat pad which may limit further parenchymal tissue development and consequently decrease milk yield during subsequent lactation. However, milk fat percentage increased as pre calving dietary energy level was increased, whereas milk protein, lactose and SNF percent among animals fed different experimental diets did not differ. It is concluded from results of second experiment that the optimal performance of pregnant Sahiwal heifers was achieved through provision of pre calving extra dietary energy (ME 112%) beyond the NRC recommendation but first lactation yield was found optimum in heifers fed diet having energy level as per recommendations of NRC.
Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [ Call number: 1230,T] (1).
Study Of Livestock Health Issues And Availability Of Veterinary Services To Pastoral Herds Of Northern Pakistan
Material type: Book ; Format:
Publisher: 2011 Dissertation note: Pastoralists contribute great contribution in the economy of the developing world providing food and employment to peoples. In Pakistan pastoralism is also present and the pastoralists having their livestock keeping mobile through all the year upland and lowland. The goal of this research study has been to assess the major health problems in market oriented Livestock development. Although the feed resource and grazing land are quite enough, the research that was carried out in Narran valley reveals of how widespread the diseases are the health problems of livestock. The study indicates Narran valley has a high livestock population, which plays a substantial role in the livelihood of the farmers. In general, livestock is the most important unit of the Agricultural Community in both the market and the households' level. Unfortunately, animal productivity is very low in the area there are many reasons for this, among which is the major obstacle of widespread animal health problems and veterinary services availability. The diseases reported in the herds are the CCPP, FMD, Brucellosis, Small Pox, Liver flukes, Hemorrhagic Septicemia, Enterotoxaemia, GID, Tympany, and PPR. These diseases cause heavy economic losses in their herds every year. The veterinary services for the land less pastoralists were not available where their herds were settled. For this research a survey was conducted to get the perceptions of the pastoralists and the veterinary services providers. Questionnaires were made for the pastoralists and veterinary services providers.
Results of this study lead to development of a policy for the landless herder's livestock. This was a useful study on the livestock health issues and veterinary services, as no other study has been carried out in Pakistan for the livestock of land less transhumant herders. Additionally this study can become the basis for further research in their livestock.
Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [ Call number: 1318,T] (1).
Genetic And Phenotypig Trends In Some Performance Traits Of Kajlli Sheep
Material type: Book ; Format:
Publisher: 2011 Dissertation note: Kajli sheep is one of the native breeds and is found in the irrigated areas of central Punjab
(Districts of Sargodha, Khushab, Gujrat, Mandi Baha-ud-Din, and Mianwali). Kajli sheep is
mostly raised for mutton, wool and occasionally for milk production. Wide variation exists in
various production and reproduction traits of Kajli sheep which indicates a great scope of
improvement in these traits of economic importance. Any program of breed improvement is
based on maximum exploitation of genetic variation. The potential of genetic improvement
largely depends on genetic variation of the trait and its relationship with the other traits.
Knowledge of heritability, repeatability and correlations among various traits is essential for
formulating efficient breeding plan and selection strategies. Objective of this study is to evaluate
the performance of a purebred flock of Kajli sheep maintained at Livestock Experimental Station
Khushab and Livestock Experimental Station Khizrabad (Sargodha). Data on performance traits
as Birth weight, Weaning weight, Yearling weight and Greasy fleece weight from 1994 to 2009
were collected, An effort was made to determine the effect of all environmental and non genetic
factors on the performance of animals. For this purpose LSMLMW computer program was used.
The genetic parameters i.e., heritability, and phenotypic and genetic correlations among various
traits will be estimated. The breeding values for different traits were estimated for comparative
ranking of animals. Phenotypic and genetic trend lines were drawn to assess the selection success
in previous generations of Kajli sheep. These analyses were done using DFREML computer soft
ware which is s pecially designed for the estimation of variance components. The information so
generated will ultimately be helpful in developing future breeding plans for genetic improvement
of Kajli sheep in Pakistan. The birth and weaning weight in this flock averaged 4.16±0.0Ikg and
18.70±0.08 kg whereas yearling weight was 37.52±0.06 kg. The pre weaning average daily gain
was 142.34±0.83 gms. Birth weight varied significantly due to years, season, sex, type of birth
and flock. Data showed non- significant interaction between sex and type of birth. Analysis of
variance revealed significant effect of year of birth and season of birth on weaning weight.
However, the difference due to sex is non-significant. Type of birth and age of the dam were
significant. Effect of weaning age of the lambs on weaning weight was also significant, whereas,
birth weight had a non significant effect (P<0.05) on weaning weight. The variation in body
weight due to year, sex, and season of birth were significant (P<0.05).Whereas, effect of flock
and type of birth were non- significant. Weaning age of the lambs and birth weight had a non
significant (P<0.05) effect on yearling weight whereas weaning weights of the lambs had
significant effects on the trait under consideration. The analysis of variance revealed that year
and season of birth and birth type showed significant effect on pre weaning average daily gain
while sex had non-significant effect on the trait. The regressions of weaning weight and birth
weight on pre weaning average daily gain were significant (P<O.OI). The estimates of heritability
for birth weight, weaning weight, yearling weight, pre-weaning average daily weight gain, and
greasy fleece weight were 0.054±0.019, 0.069±0.016, 0.015±0.020, 0.056±0.016, and
0.170±0.060 respectively. The low heritability estimates indicated the presence of less additive
genetic variance and large environmental variance. Hence, improvement in the traits through
selection may be limited. The estimated breeding values for Khizerabad farm were, for birth
weight from -0.205 to 0.164 kgs in males. The corresponding values were from -0.149 to 0.180
kgs in females. The estimated breeding value for weaning weight ranged from -1.029 to 1.822
kgs in males and corresponding values were from -1.205 to 1.555 kgs in females. The breeding
value estimated for yearling weight was -0.152 to 0.285kg in males and -0.159 to 0.224kg in
females. The estimated breeding value for pre weaning growth rate was -0.194 to 0.212 gms in
males and -0.174 to 2.00 gms in females, and for greasy fleece weight it was -0.247 to 0.708 kgs
and -0.429 to 0.575 kgs in males and females respectively. The estimated breeding values for
Khushab farm were, for birth weight from -0.157 to 0.173 kgs in males. The corresponding
values were from -0.148 to 0.145 kgs in females. The estimated breeding value for weaning
weight ranged from -1.478 to 0.284 kgs in males and corresponding values were from -0.976 to
1.923 kgs in females. The breeding value estimated for yearling weight was -0.198 to 0.176 in
males and -0.166 to 0.170 in females. The estimated breeding value for pre weaning growth rate
was -0.281 to 0.195 gms in males and -0.205 to 0.148 gms in females, and for greasy fleece
weight it was -0.380 to 0.706 kgs and -0.267 to 0.590 kgs in males and females respectively. The
estimated breeding values for sire in Khizerabad farm were, for birth weight ranged from -0.169
to 0.164 kgs. The estimated breeding value for weaning weight ranged from -1.029 to 1.694 kgs.
The breeding value estimated for yearling weight was -0.151 to 0.285 kgs. The estimated
breeding value for pre weaning growth rate was -0.190 to 0.212 gms, and for greasy fleece
weight it was -0.146 to 0.520 kgs. The estimated breeding values for sire in Khushab farm were,
for birth weight ranged from -0.157 to 0.173 kgs. The estimated breeding value for weaning
weight ranged from -1.478 to 2.846 kgs. The breeding value estimated for yearling weight was -
0.198 to 0.176 kgs. The estimated breeding value for pre weaning growth rate was -0.281 to
0.195 gms, and for greasy fleece weight it was -0.335 to 0.706 kgs. The genetic trends for birth
weight in Kajli sheep showed decreasing trend and phenotypic trend was fluctuating, whereas, the genetic
and phenotypic trend for weaning weight showed fluctuating trend. For yearling weight genetic and
phenotypic trend was also observed which show fluctuation, pre weaning growth rate also not statistic.
The phenotypic trend for greasy fleece yield showed little increasing trend.
Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [ Call number: 1345,T] (1).
Effect Of Recombinant Bovine Somatotropin Milk Production, Composition, Body Weight And Some Biochemical Parameters of Lactating Beetal Goats
Material type: Book ; Format:
; Literary form:
Publisher: 2011 Dissertation note: Pakistan is the third largest goat producing country in the world after China and India. According to the economic survey of Pakistan 2010-2011 the population of goats stood at 61.1 million and their population is increasing at the rate of more than 3% per annum. The study was designed to investigate the effect of Bovine Somatotropin on milk production, composition, and weight gain and biochemical parameters in lactating Beetal goats at Small Ruminant Training and Research Center at Ravi campus Patoki, University of Veterinary and Animal sciences Lahore, Pakistan. Fifteen lactating Beetal goats of almost same age, body weight, and parity were included in this study. The goats were divided into three group's i.e A, B &C. Five animals in each group according to the lactation stage, parity and milk yield. Group A was used as control group, while B & C were subcutaneously injected with 50 & 100 mg /week of rbST for 8 weeks.
The treatment of goats with rbST rapidly increased milk yield after the onset of treatment. Statistically there was significant difference among the treatment (p<0.05). Highest increase in milk yield (29 %) was observed in group C that was treated with 100 mg of rbST. Non significant difference was noted between 50 mg and 100 mg treatment groups. Milk samples were analyzed for, protein, lactose, ash, total solids and fat. However slight increase in milk protein, lactose, ash, total solids and fat (9.33, 10.42, 3.92, 3.22 and 8.81 %) was observed respectively. However statistically there was nn significant difference was observed among the treatments.
Body weight (BW) of the does was not significantly affected by rbST treatment. Highest increase in weight was observed in group B (1.53 %). Statistically non significant differences were observed between the treatments.
Blood plasma samples were analyzed for Total protein (g/dl), Albumin (g/dl), Globulin (g/dl), Glucose (mg/dl), Urea (mg/dl), Creatinine (mg/dl), Total bilirubin (mg/dl), Cholesterol (mg/dl). A slight increase in plasma protein, cholesterol, albumin, was observed during the treatment period. However statistically non significant difference was observed among them. Plasma glucose level increase significantly (P<0.05) during the experiment period. Highest increase in plasma glucose (92.14 %) was observed in treatment group B, while slight decrease in plasma creatinine, globulin, urea and total bilirubin was observed during the whole experiment period. However statistically there was non significant difference was observed among the treatments.
On the basis of above mentioned facts and figure it is concluded that 50 mg/wk dose of rbSt is efficacious in increasing milk yield without any adverse effect on lactating Beetal goats.
Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [ Call number: 1350,T] (1).
Correlatin Response Of Udder And Body Measurements As Affected By Age And Parity On Milk Contents And Yield In Nili- Ravi Buffaloesin Peri- Urban Areas of Lahore
Material type: Book ; Format:
; Literary form:
Publisher: 2011 Dissertation note: Buffalo (Bubalus bubalis) is diverse specie of domestic livestock and the utmost need of
modern dairy farms in developing countries especially where it is indigenous animal as in
Pakistan and India. To achieve and enhance the full genetic potential of the animal, first of all,
one must be able to select the animal which will seems to have good genetic for the dairy
production on the basis of phenotypic characters. As far as. selection of this animal. on the basis
of its milk producing unit i.e. udder conformation is concerned has not yet been conducted
precisely. Only animals are judged by traditional ways without scientific approach. The core
purpose of this study was to select Nili-Ravi dairy buffaloes on the basis of their phenotypic
features for commercial purpose. A total of 200 lactating ili-Ravi animals were measured in
and around peri-urban areas of Lahore. Out of 200 animals 4, 32, 63, 53, 34 and 14 were
belonging to first, second, third, fourth, fifth and Sixth lactations, respectively. The animals
found in different lactation stages. 47 (23.5%) were in first. 76 i.e. 38% were in second and
77(38.5%) were present in their third lactation stage. The mean and standard deviation of udder
length in first to sixth lactation were 57.0 3.05cm, 62.4 1.08cm, 63.6±0.98cm, 65.9±0.95 em,
66.1±1.17 ern and 62.7±2.41 em, respectively. Whereas, measurements of udder depth in
lactating Nili-Ravi buffaloes ranged in six lactations from 13.3±3.05 cm,10.7±0.37 ern. IO.8±0.20 em, 14.7±2.64cm. 11.11:0.22 ern andl0.5±0.40clll respectively .. Udder width of lactating buffaloes in first six parities was 23.9±0.6 cm, 28.0:1..3.2 em, 28.3 4.2 ern, 29.2±4.6 cm, 31.6± 3.2 ern and 30.7±1.3cm respectively. The size of milk vein in from parity one to six was 5.6±0.7 ern, 6.6±1.1 ern, 7.3±1.2 ern, 7.4±1.6 ern, 8.1±0.8 cm and 7.9±O.77 em respectively. The average udder length, udder depth. udder width and milk vein in all lactations were found to be 64.2±0.52cm, I 0.9±0.14 ern, 29.1 0.29cm and 7.4±0.1 ern respectively. Bowl shaped udder was found in 156 animals (78%), whereas only 39 out of 200 (19.5%) had round and only five animals got goaty shaped udders i.e.2.5%. The average teat length and teat diameter in all parities under study were 9.6±0.86 ern and 4.08±0.046 ern, respectively. Whereas, average distance between both fore teats was found 14.4±0.23cm. between rear teats 6.3±0.13cm and between fore and rear teats of right and left side were 6.4±0.13cm and 6.4±0.13cmrespectively. 89% (178/200) Nili- Ravi animals in the peri-urban areas of Lahore were found to have cylindrical shaped teats. Whereas only eight animals (4%) have bottle and fourteen animals (7%), was having funnel shaped teats. Average Heart Girth. Body Length and Body Height of lactating Nili-Ravi buffaloes were found to be 203.2'10.77 em, 147.3 0.71 em and 140.2± I.06cm. The mean distance between the two pin bones and hook bones of the body were 30.2±0.26 em and
56.9±0.32 em, whereas, mean body depth found in lactating Nili-Ravi buffaloes was 83.2±1.23 ern. The average scoring given to the different parts and overall body in the study were: Tail Head: 22.5±0.02; Ribs and Sacral region: 3.1±0.018; Angularity of Bones: 3.1±0.01; and Overall BCS: 2.9±0.0 17. The average fat%, protein%, SNF%, lactose% and solids (ash) % were 5.98±l.S, 3.3±O.2, 8.67±O.5, 4.58±O.3 and O.83±0.04 respectively.
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Comparative Performance Of Lohi Lambs Supplemented With Lucerne (Medicago Sativa) Hay And Pelleted Diets In Addition
Material type: Book ; Format:
; Literary form:
Publisher: 2011 Dissertation note: Animal feed resources are still deficient in total digestible nutrients (28.62 million tons)
and digestible protein (1.76 million tons). To meet the requirement of animal, there is need to
properly conserve the flush season growth of Rabi fodder like berseem and alfalfa in their
. different physical forms. Lucerne pallets are economical feed supplement to fulfill protein and
energy requirements of grazing lambs. Feeding management study was conducted to evaluate the
different physical forms of lucerne in eighteen extensive grazing male Lohi lambs having
approximately same body weight. Lambs were fed on individual basis on three experimental
diets designated as A, Band C having extensive grazing, chopped lucerne hay, Lucerne hay
pellets respectively. Each lamb was also given concentrate ration @ 0.5% of body weight on dry
matter basis. The data on daily feed intake, weekly gain, feed digestibility, feed efficiency and
economics was recorded. Samples of feed were analyzed by official method of analysis. Mean
daily dry matter intake of Lohi lambs kept on treatments A, B and C was 820.88 ± 13.22,905.19
± 13.83 and1010.24 ± 15.34 g, respectively. The dry matter intake difference was highly
significant (P< 0.001) between treatments and weight gain on daily bases in lambs was 82.89 ±
0.27, 91.74 ± 0.40 and 119.49 ± 0.44g in treatment A, B and C, respectively. Group C is highly
efficient consuming 8.49 kg dry matter for 1 kg of weight gain following group B consuming
9.86 kg dry matter for 1kg weight gain. Group A showed lower efficiency as it consumes 9.90kg
dry matter for one kg of weight gain. It was highly economical to feed Lucerne pellets with
grazing with a gross margin of Rs.13.75/animal/day followed by extensive grazing with a gross
margin of Rs.11.15/animal/day. Lowest gross margin of Rs.11.12/animal/day was shown by the
lambs kept on extensive grazing.
Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [ Call number: 1364,T] (1).
Sheep Breeding Options And Role Of Support Services For Landless Mobile Herders In Norther Pakistan
Material type: Book ; Format:
; Nature of contents: ; Literary form: Publisher: 2011 Dissertation note: Northern areas of Pakistan are blessed with countless natural resources. One of these resources is small ruminants including sheep and goat. This study was done on sheep population of up and low land areas. This study was designed to investigate the breeding practices followed, perceptions about different breeding strategies by the low and upland pastoralists and support services provided by the livestock promoting authorities (JABA research & experimental station and Local veterinarians). By the help of this study productive, economical and ecological adaptation characteristics of native (Kaghani), exotic (Rambouillet, Afghani) and crossed sheep breeds were also be examined. For this purpose three questionnaires were developed. First questionnaire were carry questions on current number, number in last year and relative proportion of different sheep breeds on breeding strategies, productive characteristics, ecological adaptation and economical characteristics of different pure and cross breeds of sheep. While the investigations on support services provided by the livestock promoting authorities (JABA research & experimental station and Local veterinarians) were covered in second questionnaire. Interviews were be conducted from the low and up land pastoralists for the data recording of first questionnaire, while data recording of third questionnaire was done by interviewing the livestock promoting authorities. Statistical analysis of all the data recorded was done by epi - info software.
The studied parameters presented by various breeds in this experiment elucidated the fact that Afghani breed could be regarded as most economical and successfully adapted breed of the Northern areas of Pakistan in respect of its market value, disease resistance, twining rate, age at puberty and meat quality. The Kaghani breed on the other hand was having an advantage of being native breed of the respective area as it presented one of the best disease resistant characters among the studied breeds; for the same reason, it was the most prevalent breed of the area. Ramboullite is an exotic breed introduced in the area from USA and was kept mostly for having a trait of better and high wool production though its poor disease resistance and low twinning rate renders it less economical. The crossbred animals were produced mostly as a result of deliberate cross between Kaghani and Ramboulette and the maximum heterosis results in many of the better characters, increased wool quantity and quality, increased disease resistance and accelerated twinning rates, to name some of them.
The present study can be concluded to rate Afghani sheep breed as most economical breed of the Northern areas of Pakistan. This study was lead to explore the breeding practices in sheep in northern areas and future breeding policies making in sheep. The investigators of this trial opine that the Afghani breed being most economical breed of the area be bred and reared on a priority basis with selective breeding and proper management of the parent herds. In context of the wool production and disease resistance, crossbred animals should be investigated in a number of future trials to determine the most productive combination of blood percentage of the two parent breeds, i.e. Kaghani and Ramboullette. In spite of all the measures to improve economical scenario of the mobile herders with reference to sheep production, the gene pool of each pure breed population, i.e. Afghani, Kaghani and Ramboulette, should be maintained via selective breeding to ensure the availability of the parent nucleus. All these healthy and economical practices can be propagated only by the effective and efficient provision of the extension and support services of the local area, implementation authorities and livestock business related institutions.
Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [ Call number: 1367,T] (1).
Feeding Behavior And Performance Of Sheep And Goats Under Various Feeding Management Systems
Material type: Book ; Format:
; Literary form:
Publisher: 2012 Dissertation note: Sheep and goats have been bestowed with the capacity of surviving under a variety of environmental conditions including the coastal region, plains and high mountains. The profitable small ruminants farming depend upon feeding and management systems because the feed cost is 70% in any livestock farming. In Pakistan, mostly people grazed ruminants on summer and winter fodders for maintenance and production requirements. Commercial livestock production demands a change in feeding with a trend for more efficient utilization of scarce feed resources. The proposed study was planned in to three experiments under a factorial arrangement to evaluate the growth performance of sheep and goats. In experiment one a study was first conducted to compare the voluntary intake and digestibility of janter (coriandrum sativum), guar (cyamopsis tetragonolba), cowpea (Vigna sinesis) in sheep and goats. For this purpose, 90 female animals (sheep n=45 and goats n = 45) were selected randomly and divided equally in, 6 groups representing each species under 2×3 factorial arrangements, Groups A,B ,C represented goats while group D,E,F represented sheep. Results showed that goats spent more time on eating than sheep while ruminating time was higher in sheep than goats. Drinking time was not different (P>0.05) among the species. Goats spent more time on playing and resting than sheep fed guar, cowpeas and jantar. Dry mater CP, NDF, ADF and GE intake was higher in sheep than goats fed guar, cowpeas and jantar. DMD and CP were higher in sheep than goats fed guar. NDF and ADF digestibility was similar in both species. Average daily weight gain, feed efficiency and cost of gain were similar in both the species. It is concluded that the jantar fodder in summer is most suitable fodder for sheep and goats compare to guar and Cowpea. In the second trial of the first phase study comparison of voluntary intake and digestibility maize (Zea mays), sorghum (Sorghum bicolor) and millet (Pennisetum americanum) in sheep and goats were compared. Statistical analyses showed that eating time was higher (P?0.05) in goats than sheep fed maize, millet and sorghum while, sheep spent more time on ruminating, drinking and standing than goats. Goats showed higher playing, resting and other activities than sheep fed maize, millet and sorghum. Dry matter CP, NDF and ADF intake was similar (P>0.05) in both the species fed maize, millet and sorghum. Dry matter digestibility was similar in sheep and goats fed maize, millet and sorghum. NDF digestibility was similar (P>0.05) in goat and sheep fed sorghum while this was different (P?0.05) when maize and millet were fed. ADF digestibility was similar (P>0.05) in goat and sheep. Average daily weight gain feed efficiency and cost of gain was not significant (P>0.05) among both the species fed maize, millet and sorghum. Results of the study showed that the non leguminous fodders during summer are equally preferred by both species. In second the phase voluntary feed intake and digestibility of berseem, (Trifolium alexandrium) lucerne, (Medicago Sativa), oats, (Avena Sativa) in female sheep and goats was studied. For this purpose, female animals (n=90) of sheep (n=45) and goats (n=45) were randomly selected and divided equally in six in a 2×3 factorial arrangement. Results showed that eating time was higher (P<0.05) in goats than sheep, while ruminating time was more in sheep than goats fed berseem lucerne and oats, whereas time spent on drinking was similar in both goats and sheep. Goats utilized less time in standing, higher (P<0.05) time in playing, resting and other activities than sheep fed maize, millet and sorghum. Crude protein intake was higher (P<0.05) in goats than sheep fed berseem and lucerne. DM intake was higher (P<0.05) in goats than in sheep fed berseem, while it was similar when fed lucerne and oats fodder. NDF, ADF and GE (M cal/d) intakes were higher (P<0.05) in goats than sheep fed berseem and lucerne fodder however it was similar in both the species fed on oats fodder. DM digestibility was similar (P>0.05) in sheep and goats fed berseem, lucerne and oats. CP digestibility was higher (P<0.05) in goats than in sheep fed berseem. When fed Lucerne and oats there was no significant difference (P>0.05) between goats and sheep.. NDF digestibility was higher (P<0.05) in goats than in sheep fed berseem. Average daily gain, feed efficiency and cost of gain/kg was non-significant (P>0.05) between goats and sheep fed berseem, lucern and oats. Results demonstrated that during winter the most suitable fodder for sheep and goats is lucerne fodder. In the second experiment the study was conducted to compare the performance of sheep and goats under various feeding management systems in which ninety female animals were selected and divided into six equal groups with three groups of each species (sheep n=45, goats n=45) under a 2×3 factorial arrangement. These were in extensive, semi-intensive and intensive feeding management systems. Dry matter intake was higher (P?0.05) (P<0.05) in sheep than goats kept under extensive, semi-intensive and intensive systems. Crude protein intake was significantly higher (P<0.05) in sheep than goats fed intensively. NDF and ADF intake was higher (P?0.05) (P<0.05) in sheep than in goats. Average daily weight gain was higher in sheep than goats on the extensive system followed by the semi-intensive system. Feed efficiency was similar in goats and sheep while the cost of gain per kg was more economical in sheep than goats. Results of study revealed that both species performed better on extensive feeding system than the other systems might be of natural grazing behavior. The third experiment of study was conducted to compare the performance of sheep and goats under the intensive management system. Sixty female animals (lambs n= 30 and kids n=30) were used. The animals were divided equally in four groups A and B representing lambs while C, D was for kids. Both species were allotted two treatments i.e. fodder ad libitum with concentrate supplement (240 grams/animal/day) and total mixed ration ad libitum under a 2×2 factorial arrangement. Results showed that DM, CP, NDF and ADF intakes were higher (P?0.05) in lambs than kids. Average daily weight gain was higher (P?0.05) in lambs than kids fed total mixed ration. Feed efficiency was higher (P?0.05) in kids than in lambs fed fodder plus supplement. Dry matter and CP digestibility was higher (P?0.05) in kids than lambs fed a total mixed ration. NDF digestibility was maximum (P?0.05) in lambs than kids fed the TMR, it was also higher in kids than in lambs when fed fodder plus the concentrate supplement. ADF digestibility was maximum (P?0.05) in lambs than in kids fed the total mixed ration. The performance of lambs was better on TMR while kids showed good results on fodder plus the concentrate supplementation.
Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [ Call number: 1503,T] (1).
Effect Of Yeast On Growth, Milk Yield And Its Composition In Beetal Goats
Material type: Book ; Format:
; Literary form:
Publisher: 2012 Dissertation note: During last few years, rate of the use of yeast in dairy animals feed had greatly been increased. The use of live yeast culture (Saccharomyces cerevisiae) in feed of ruminants and especially of goat is being used throughout the world. The effect of the live yeast culture (Saccharomyces cerevisiae) in vitro and in vivo conditions may vary widely. Yea-Sacc1026 is a live yeast culture which consists of Saccharomyces cerevisiae strain 1026, a yeast strain specially selected for its influence on animal performance. Yea-Sacc1026 is ideal for beef, dairy, calf and equine feeds. In the present study, eighteen lactating Beetal goats each having approximately same body weight and age, were selected from the flock. These goats were randomly divided into three groups A, B and C of six animals in each group. All the animals were offered similar concentrate ration @ 500gm/day to meet their daily requirements. Alltech's product "Yea Sacc" was added in the concentrate ration of lactating Beetal goats. In group Aeach goat was fed @500 gm concentrate ration (without treated with Yea Sacc) per day. In group B each goat was fed @ 500gm concentrate ration (treated with Yea Sacc @ 1.5 gm/goat) per day. In group C each goat was fed @ 500gm concentrate ration (treated with Yea Sacc @3gm/goat) per day. The effects of Yea Sacc on milk production, milk quality, weight gain and dry matter intake were evaluated.The mean milk production of goats treated with yeast in groups A, B and C were 0.6417 ± 0.067, 0.8600 ± 0.066and 1.0267± 0.146litters, respectively. The analysis of variance of experimental groups was significant between groups. The mean milk fat percentage of goats treated with yeast in groups A, B and C were 4.3133± 0.004, 4.4417± 0.010 and 4.5900± 0.042 % respectively. The analyses of variance of experimental groups were significant between groups. The mean milk protein percentage of goats treated with yeast in groups A, B and C were 3.1167± 0.014, 3.2783± 0.012 and 3.2867± 0.003%, respectively. The analysis of variance of experimental group are non significant between treated groups. The mean milk lactose percentage of goats treated with yeast in groups A, B and C were3.6083± 0.014, 3.6400± 0.006and 3.6583± 0.006%, respectively. The analyses of variance of experimental groups were significant between treated group and group A. The mean milk ash of goats treated with yeast in groups A, B and C were0.5100± 0.004, 0.5300± 0.004and 0.5483± 0.014 %, respectively. The analyses of variance of experimental groups were significant between the treated groups and group A. The mean milk total solid of goats treated with yeast in groups A, B and C were 11.5483± 0.018, 11.8983± 0.013and 12.0750± 0.005%, respectively. The analyses of variance of experimental groups were significant between group A and group C. The mean weight gain of goats treated with yeast in groups A, B and C were 0.218 ± 0.010, 0.285 ± 0.031 and 0.442 ± 0.019 kg, respectively. The analysis of variance of experimental group were significant between the treated groups and group A while non significant between group A and group B. The mean dry matter intake of goats treated with yeast in groups A, B and C were1.2133± 0.008, 1.2183± 0.012and 1.2383± 0.014%, respectively. In above experiment group C animals were fed 3 gm yeast had shown high milk production, fat %, protein %, lactose %, ash %, total solid %, weight (kg) and dry matter intake (kg) than other groups.
Data on milk yield, composition, growth rate and dry matter intake of Beetal goats were evaluated.
The data obtained was analysed through one way analysis of variances of (ANOVA) (Steel et al. 1997). The difference among treatment means were tested through least significance difference (L.S.D) (Steel et al, 1997).
Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [ Call number: 1527,T] (1).
Performance Evaluation of Male Cattle Calves Treated Via Injectable, Implant and Oral Growth Promoters Raised Under Intensive Production System.
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Publisher: 2013 Dissertation note: Growth hormone study were conducted to evaluate the growth performance, feed conversion ratio and economics of production of male cattle calves under intensive production system at Dairy Animals Training and Research Centre, Ravi Campus, Pattoki. Twenty (20) male cattle calves of approximately same age (20-21 months) and weight (220 kg) were divided into four groups i.e., A, B, C and D according to Completely Randomized Design (CRD) and each group had five calves. The calves on treatment 1 were as injected Bovine Somatotropic Hormone @ 500 mg/animal at 15 days interval, Zeranol was implanted @ 36mg/animal to the calves in group 2, calves in group 3 was on Harmonic Media M2 @ 500 mg/animal/day mixed in concentrate diet and the calves in group 4 was considered as control. The duration of experiment was 84 days. The calves belonging to all groups had free access to maize silage and concentrate with a ratio of 40:60 on dry matter basis. Concentrate ration was prepared using local feed stuffs and free access to Fresh and clean drinking water was ensured to calves. The calves were provided 15 days adjustment period.
The daily mean DMI/kg/day (gm) of calves in treatments 1, 2, 3 and 4 were 28.34±1.40, 29.52±0.55, 29.68±0.51 and 31.22±1.44 gms respectively. Statistically daily dry matter intake/kg/day was significant among treatment. Highest (31.22±1.44 gm) daily dry matter intake/kg/day was recorded in calves on Treatment 4, followed by 3, 2 and 1, respectively. The lowest dry matter intake/kg/day was observed in treatment 1 (Bovine Somatotropic Hormone Injectable).
Weekly weight gain of all the calves were recorded throughout the trial period. Statistically results showed significant differences among the treatments 1, 2, and 4. There was non- significant difference between treatments 1 and 3. Mean weight gain of calves on treatment 1, 2, 3 and 4 was 6.99±3.32, 6.06±1.83, 6.95±1.68 and 3.84±0.79 kg, respectively. Highest (6.99±3.32 kg) weekly weight gain was observed in treatment 1 (Bovine somatotropic hormone) followed by 3, 2 and 4, respectively. Lowest weekly weight gain was observed in calves on treatment 4 (Control).
Daily feed conversion ratio for each calf was recorded on daily basis in calves allocated to different treatments. Mean daily feed conversion ratio of calves on treatment 1, 2, 3 and 4 was11.09±7.71, 11.40±6.22, 9.71±4.50 and15.41±5.82, respectively. Statistically feed conversion ratio showed significant difference among treatments 1, 3 and 4. But non-significant difference was recorded between treatment 1 and 2. Highest (15.41±5.82 kg) weekly feed conversion ratio was observed in treatment 4 (control) followed by 2, 1 and 3 respectively. Lowest weekly feed conversion ratio was observed in animals of treatment 3 (M2 hormone). It means that treatment 3 showed best FCR and treatment 4 showed poorest FCR.
The data on variable costs involved during the experiment was recorded to calculate the economics of production (Profit) for each treatment. Gross margins regarding different treatments 1, 2, 3 and 4 were Rs. 3742.70±1830.51, 4413.75±1679.28, 1938.70±1394.22 and 404.15±508.07, respectively. Highest (Rs. 4413.75±1679.28) gross margin was observed in treatment 2 (Ralgro implant) followed by 1, 3 and 4, respectively. Lowest margin was observed in calves on treatment 4 (control).
On the basis of above mentioned results it is concluded that the growth promoters are helpful in fattening of calves as they improved growth performance, feed conversion ratio and better economics of production.
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Genetic Evaluation Of Teddy Goats In Pakistan
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Publisher: 2012 Dissertation note: Data available on 20455 kidding and performance records of 5545 Teddy goats and progeny of 406 sires maintained as separate flocks at three different locations i,e (I) Livestock Experiment Station Rakh Ghulaman, District Bakkhar (1983-2008) (II) Livestock Experiment Station, Rakh Khariewala District Layyah (1971-2008) and (III) Livestock Experiment Station Chak Katora, District Bahawalpur (1975-2008) Punjab, Pakistan were analyzed for documenting both genetic and environmental sources which influence growth and reproductive traits. Breeding values of sires and does were estimated and genetic and phenotypic trends for various performance traits were drawn. The data was analyzed using the GLM procedure (General Linear Models) of the Statistical Analysis Systems (SAS, 2004) to study the influence of environmental sources of variation on various growth and reproductive traits. The genetic parameter estimation was done using REML procedure fitting an Individual Animal Model. Estimates of breeding values for various performance traits were also calculated by using BLUP. For these purposes WOMBAT software was used.
The Least squares means for Age at first service, Age at first kidding, Weight at first service, weight at first kidding, services per conception, service period, kidding interval, birth weight, weaning weight, weight at six months, weight at nine months, yearling weight, pre-weaning daily gain, post-weaning daily gain at six months, post-weaning daily gain at nine months and post-weaning daily gain at twelve months the least squares means were 245.65±0.73 days, 14.07±0.01 kg, 394.14±0.76 days, 18.06±0 kg, 1.24±0.004, 153.58±0.73 days, 327.53±1.12 days, 1.66±0.03 kg, 9.59±0.01 kg, 11.70±0.02 kg, 16.69±0.02 kg, 21.03±0.03 kg, 70.21±0.16 grams, 31.39±0.08 grams, 45.25±0.03 grams and 45.95±0.02 grams, respectively. The percentage of single births was 43 percent, while multiple births were 57 percent. The sex ratio was 51:49 males and females.
Year, sex, flock, and type of birth were main sources of variation on all the growth traits. The influence of season of birth was significant on yearling weight; however its effect on weight at six and nine months was non-significant. A significant influence of (p<0.01) birth and weaning weight was noticed on weight at 6, 9, 12 months and on post-weaning daily gain at 6,9 and 12 months. A significant effect (p<0.01) of year, birth weight and weight at service were observed on age of does at first service, while the seasonal and flock effect on the trait was non-significant. The influential environmental sources of variation on weight of does at first service were year, season and age at first service(p<0.01). A significant effect (p<0.01) of year, season, type, age and weight at service on age and weight at first kidding was noticed. The influence of year of service, flock, age and weight at service on services per conception was significant (p<0.01); however, effect of season of service on the trait was non-significant. A highly significant effect (p<0.01) of year and season of service, services per conception and weight at service were observed on service period. A significant effect (p<0.01) of year and season on kidding interval was noticed. The effect of flock was non-significant on the trait, however, age and weight at kidding had a significant effect (p<0.05) on the service period and kidding interval.
The heritability estimates for birth weight, weaning weight, weight at six, nine and twelve (yearling) months, pre-weaning daily gain, post-weaning daily gain at six, post-weaning daily gain at nine, post-weaning daily gain at nine, post-weaning daily gain at twelve months, age at first service, weight at first service, age at first kidding, weight at first kidding, services per conception, service period and kidding interval were 0.28±0.23, 0.23±0.32, 0.19±0.42, 0.09±0.01 and 0.12±0.01, 0.21±0.32, 0.17±0.42, 0.12±0.02, 0.15±0.01, 0.19±0.22, 0.21±0.01, 0.19±0.04, 0.20±0.04, 0.07±0.01, 0.06±0.05 and 0.05±0.03, respectively. The repeatability estimates for birth weight, weaning weight, services per conception, service period and kidding interval were 0.53±0.02, 0.38±0.01, 0.02±0.05, 0.01±0.04 and 0.05±0.03, respectively.
The estimates of genetic, Phenotypic and environmental correlations between birth weight and other growth traits were; weaning weight 0.61, 0.20 and 0.19, with weight at six months 0.39, 0.24 and 0.23, with weight at nine months 0.25, 0.38 and 0.36, with yearling weight 0.29, -0.01 and -0.02 and with pre-weaning daily gain 0.55, 0.31 and 0.29, respectively, while corresponding values for correlations between weaning weight and other growth traits were; with weight at six months 0.29, 0.19 and 0.17, with weight at nine months 0.23, 0.27 and 0.25, with yearling weight 0.45, 0.29 and 0.27 and with pre-weaning daily gain 0.97, 0.68 and 0.65, respectively, while the corresponding values for these correlations between weight at six months and other growth traits were; with weight at nine months 0.71, 0.27 and 0.25 with yearling weight 0.64, 0.21 and 0.19 and with pre-weaning daily gain were 0.31, 0.33, 0.31, respectively. The values for these correlations between weight at nine months and other traits were; with yearling weight 0.79, 0.23 and 0.21, with pre-weaning daily gain 0.25, 0.39 and 0.37, with post-weaning daily gain at six months 0.72, 0.81 and 0.79, respectively, while the estimates of these three correlations between yearling weight and other traits were; with pre-weaning daily gain 0.47, 0.41 and 0.42 and with post-weaning daily gain at six months 0.65, 0.10 and 0.08, while the corresponding values between pre-weaning daily gain and other traits were; with post-weaning gain at six months were 0.34, 0.15 and 0.13, with post-weaning gain at nine months 0.22, 0.13 and 0.12 and with post-weaning daily gain at twelve months were 0.54, 0.17 and 0.14, respectively.
The estimates of genetic, Phenotypic and environmental correlations between age at first serviceand other traits were; with weight at first service 0.22, 0.79 and 0.76, with age at first kidding 0.76, 0.97 and 0.91 and with weight at first kidding 0.34, 0.14 and 0.11, respectively, while the corresponding values for these correlations between weight at first service and other traits were; with age at first kidding 0.39, 0.81 and 0.80, with weight at first kidding 0.35, 0.22 and 0.21 and with weight at first kidding 0.82, 0.18 and 0.16, respectively.
Analysis of pedigree records for coefficient of inbreeding revealed that number of animals being 4465 (42.61 percent) with an average inbreeding of 2.43 percent and the highest level being 46.48 percent. The number of non-inbred animals was 6014 (57.39%). Out of the total of 406 sires used 23 were found inbred having an average inbreeding coefficient of 3.125 percent. Most frequent value for this category of animals was zero. The highest number of animals 1531 (14.61 percent) had an inbreeding percentage between 0.1 to 3.125, while only 104 animals (0.99 percent) were found with inbreeding of more than 25 percent. Most of the growth traits were statistically better in non-inbreds as compared to inbreds except yearling weight and post-weaning weight gain at twelve months, in which the means of both the traits were similar in both the groups. Among reproductive traits, age at first serviceand kidding, services per conception, service period and kidding interval were also statistically better in non-inbreds as compared to inbreds, while weight at first service and kidding interval were similar in both the groups.
The ranges for estimated breeding values for different traits were, birth weight (-0.18 to 0.08 kg), weaning weight (-0.61 to 0.40 kg), weight at six months (-0.27 to 0.11 kg), weight at nine months, (-0.07 to 0.09 kg), yearling weight (-0.12 to 0.18 kg), pre-weaning daily gain (-0.30 to 1.20 grams), post-weaning daily gain at 6 months (-0.74 to 1.27 grams), post-weaning daily gain at 9 months (-0.32 to 0.57 grams), post-weaning daily gain at 12 months (-1.08 to 1.57 grams), age at first service(-43.23 to 58.06 days), weight at first service (-0.55 to 1.07 kg), age at first kidding (-53.31 to 48.34 days), weight at first kidding (-1.19 to 3.50 kg), services per conception (-0.18 to 0.16), service period (-7.07 to 9.80 days) and kidding interval (-13.23 to 20.89 days), respectively. The genetic trend in both birth weight and weaning weight showed an increasing trend during the period of study, while the genetic trend in weight at six, nine and twelve (yearling) months had no significant trend and fluctuated in the vicinity of zero.
It is envisaged from the present study that over the 34 years period selection remained ineffective to bring the desired changes and it will remain so if random use of breeding animals is practiced. The possible use of ineffective selection could be unavailability of efficient techniques for the evaluation of animals and incorrect performance recording etc. It is therefore, necessary to correct all these discrepancies by taking corrective measures as discussed above. The following corrective measures may be a first step towards a goal oriented breeding policy.
1. The animals kept mainly for producing meat, the single most important factor is reproductive rate, which contributes to the efficiency of production (Shelton 1978). The most striking feature of sheep and goat enterprise is the ability to breed, off-season. Teddy goat is a non-seasonal breeder as kidding was observed throughout year with 36%, 19%, 25% and 20% kiddings recorded during spring, summer, autumn and winter, respectively, therefore a controlled breeding programme being practiced at times (as was observed during the present study at all the three stations) should not be advocated in any form at all and the desirable trait of non-seasonality should be the main pillar of a meat goat enterprise.
2. Although a higher percentage of abortions (70%) was observed in summer months but the percentage of dead births and mortality was almost equally distributed throughout the year, which indicates that better management of the flock during extremes of weather will results in less abortions and reduced mortality.
3. The high percentage of multiple births (57%) as against single births (43%) in teddy goats found in present study has backing of several studies, which showed that although there was slow growth rate in multiple births, yet they performed better by producing more total weight of kid weaned. Therefore prolificacy becomes a very important reproductive criteria and therefore emphasis should be selection of those animals with higher percentage of multiple births.
4. Environmental effects on productive and reproductive traits were significant; therefore through better management there are ample chances of improvement in these traits.
5. Low to medium heritability was recorded in all the growth traits, which offers scope for genetic selection.
6. Selection of animals to be the parents of future flock must be based on EBVs of growth traits.
7. Reproductive performance in present study was more than satisfactory. Early maturity which has been the main characteristic of Teddy breed was better as compared to many other breeds of the tropics (Beetal, Kamori, Jamunapari and Sirohi). Teddy goats were efficient than other breeds of the region when the means of the other reproductive traits like services per conception, service period and kidding interval were taken into consideration, however, room for improvement is still there.
8. Inbreeding in present study showed some increasing trend during the last five years and the percentage of animals kept on increasing during the last decade, therefore to control inbreeding a breeding plan with introduction of new blood from time to time is of utmost importance.
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Phenotypic And Genetic Aspects Of Some Performance Traits Of Buchi Sheep In Pakistan
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Publisher: 2013 Dissertation note: Abstract
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Comparative Study On The Normal Social Behavior Of Nili Ravi Buffalo And Sahiwal Cattle Calves
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Publisher: 2013 Dissertation note: Abstract
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Effect Of Mannan Oligosaccharides On The Performance Of Neonatal Cross Bred Calves
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Publisher: 2013 Dissertation note: Abstract
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Cytogenetic Analysis Related To Infertity Problems In Buffalo In Pakistan
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Publisher: 2013 Dissertation note: Cytogenetics is a branch of genetics which deals with the study of the structure and function of the cell, especially the chromosomes. It includes routine analysis of chromosomes using different banding techniques and fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH). Chromosomes were first discovered in plant cells by Karl Wilhelm von Nägeli in 1842 and in animal (salamander) cells were described by Walther Flemmin, in 1882.
In 1964 IngemarGustavsson was the first who work on clinical cytogenetics in animals and found first 1/29 robertsonian translocation in cattle. Hundreds of abnormalities have been reported in past 50 years with clinical disorders. Some abnormalities include robertsonian translocation in captive Thai Gaur (Chaveerach et al. 2007), in Veitnamese cattle (Tanaka et al. 2000), pericentric inversion of chromosomes and chimeric karyotypes in cattle and buffalo, sex chromosomes reciprocal translocation including X;X translocation in Mehsana buffalo (Patel et al. 2006) and bovine freemartin syndrome. Livestock population have been extraordinarily improved in the last 40 years through cytogenetic screening (Ducos et al. 2008).
This study was carried out to optimize the protocol for lymphocyte culture, harvesting and slide preparation techniques for indigenous buffalo in local conditions and to document the incidence of chromosomal abnormalities leading to infertility problems in buffalo. Lymphocyte culture was used for the cytogenetic studies of indigenous buffalo. Procedure for lymphocyte and culture was standardized in Animal Genetic Lab, University of Veterinary and Animal Sciences, Ravi Campus. In blood cell culture incubation time will be 72 hours at 370C. Mitosis was induced through Phytohaemagglutinin. After incubation cells were arrested by colcimid. Slides were prepared for karyotyping and checking for the chromosomal abnormalities.
In this study 30 repeat breeder and anestrus animals along with 5 normal animals were used for chromosomal analysis. Good quality metaphase spreads were cytogenetically analyzed for chromosomal abnormalities (structural and numerical). Results of this study show that there is not any sex chromosome abnormalities and autosomal abnormality foundin the group of repeat breeders and anestrus animals.
All the standard procedures regarding cytogenetic culture, harvesting, slide preparation and staining were optimized in Animal Genetic Lab. Genus 3.2 Applied Imaging System software was used for karyotyping the animals.
We can conclude that cytogenetic analysis can play more effective role in the betterment of livestock. Through this technique we can screen out abnormal animals at very early stage.
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Characterization Of Linear Type Traits In Nili Rivei Buffaloes Of Pakistan
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Publisher: 2013 Dissertation note: The present study on conformation recording of Nili Ravi buffaloes was planned because there was lack of studies on this aspect of Nili Ravi buffaloes. The main objective of the study was to document and characterize linear type traits in Nili Ravi buffaloes so that the buffaloes with proper body characteristics could be identified for selection and breeding programs. Nili Ravi buffalo herds maintained at Livestock Experiment Station Bhunikey, Pattoki, distt. Kasur, Livestock Experiment Station, Chack Katora distt. Bahawalpur, Livestock Experiment Station Haroonabad distt. Bahawalnagar, Livestock Experiment Station Khushab, distt. Khushab, Livestock Experiment Station Rakh Ghulaman distt. Bhakhar and some private breeders were utilized in this study.
The guidelines for conformational recording of dairy cattle provided by the International Committee for Animal Recording (ICAR) were followed in this study. A total of 437 milking buffaloes were scored for linear type traits on a scale of 1-9. First scoring was performed within 15 to 90 days of calving and then each after about 90 days interval.
Genetic parameters viz. heritabilities, phenotypic and genetic correlations were estimated using Best Linear Unbiased Prediction (BLUP) evaluation techniques. Influencing factors such as age of the buffalo at scoring, stage of lactation, parity, herd and season of scoring were included in the model. Individual Animal Model was fitted under Restricted Maximum Likelihood (REML) Procedure. Data were analysed using the mixed model procedure of the Statistical Analysis Systems. Genetic parameters were estimated fitting an Individual Animal Model using the ASREML set of computer programs.
A total of 1180 records on different linear type traits and body measurements were generated over a scoring period of 2 years. Most of the average values for linear type traits were seen to fall under the intermediate category of 4-6. The means±SD for different linear type traits were found as 5.07±1.35, 5.23±2.35, 5.41±1.45, 5.76±0.98, 6.73±1.53, 4.91±1.85, 4.99±0.88, 4.99±0.90, 5.39±2.13, 4.78±1.1, 5.36±1.56, 4.91±1.84, 5.76±1.67, 3.58±0.88, 5.66±2.24, 6.42±0.88, 4.88±0.69, 4.92±1.08, 4.87±0.84, 5.34±1.79, 4.76±1.78, 5.97±0.94, 5.04±2.488, 5.15±1.65 and 6.44±1.03 for stature, chest width, body depth, angularity, rump angle, rump width, rear legs set, rear legs rear view, foot angle , fore udder attachment, rear udder height, central ligament, udder depth, front teat placement, teat length, rear teat placement, locomotion, body condition score, top line, bone structure, rear udder width, udder balance, teat thickness, thurl width, and temperament, respectively.
A highly significant effect of herd was observed on all of the linear type traits (P< 0.0001). Effect of stage of lactation was found to be highly significant for udder conformation related traits. Parity was observed as a highly significant source of variation for some of the body traits including stature, body depth, body condition score and bone structure. However most of the udder related traits were affected by this factor. A non significant effect of parity was observed on chest width, angularity, rump angle, rump width, central ligament, locomotion, top line, udder balance, thurl width and temperament. A highly significant effect of season of scoring was observed on chest width, angularity, rump angle, rear legs set, rear legs rear view, locomotion and thurl width among body traits. However, stature, body depth, body condition score, top line, bone structure and temperament were not affected by season of scoring. Udder conformation traits including fore udder attachment, rear udder height, central ligament, rear udder width, and udder balance were affected by the season of scoring, however rest of the udder traits including udder depth, front teat placement, teat length, rear teat placement and teat thickness were not significantly different in different seasons.
Significant linear effect of age of the buffalo at scoring was seen on most of the linear type traits. including stature, body depth, rear legs set, rear legs rear view, foot angle, fore udder attachment, rear udder height, central ligament, udder depth, teat length, body condition score, bone structure, rear udder width, teat thickness and thurl width. However, chest width, angularity, rump angle, rump width, front teat placement, rear teat placement, locomotion, top line, udder balance and temperament were not affected by linear effect of age. Quadratic effect of age was found as significant on most of the linear type traits except chest width, angularity, rump width, front teat placement, rear teat placement, locomotion, udder balance and temperament.
Univariate heritability estimates of linear type traits were observed as for stature, 0.36±0.092; chest width, 0.10±0.081; body depth, 0.32±0.081; angularity, 0.06±0.071; rump angle, 0.15±0.071; rump width, 0.38±0.092; rear legs set, 0.02±0.07; rear legs rear view, 0.08±0.07; foot angle, 0.09±0.07; fore udder attachment, 0.21±0.07; rear udder height, 0.09±0.07; central ligament, 0.09±0.09; udder depth, 0.10±0.091; front teat placement, 0.11±0.091; teat length, 0.08±0.091; rear teat placement, 0.11±0.081; locomotion, 0.06±0.06; body condition score, 0.14±0.091; top line, 0.03±0.05; bone structure, 0.09±0.09; rear udder width, 0.15±0.09;
udder balance, 0.16±0.07; teat thickness, 0.22±0.091; thurl width, 0.31±0.09 and temperament, 0.14±0.07, respectively.
Some important positive phenotypic correlations of linear type traits with 305 days milk yield were observed as 0.18±0.04 for body depth, 0.15±0.04 for rump angle, 0.13±0.04 for rump width, 0.30±0.04 for rear udder height, 0.43±0.03 for central ligament, 0.16±0.03 for rear teat placement and 0.19±0.04 for rear udder width. Rest of the phenotypic correlations were very low. Considerable negative phenotypic correlations included -0.16±035 for body condition score, -0.15±0.04 for top line, -0.16±0.03 for front teat placement, -0.14±0.04 for udder depth and -0.26±0.04 for fore udder attachment.
Most of the linear type traits showed positive but low genetic correlation with 305 days milk yield including 0.140±0.0001 with stature, 0.210±0.0001 with body depth, 0.11±0.0001 with rump angle, 0.19±0.0002 with rump width, 0.14±0.0001 with rear udder height, 0.20±0.000001 with central ligament, 0.14±0.0000001 with rear teat placement, 0.13±0.0001 with rear udder width, 0.14±0.0000001 with udder balance, 0.09±0.0001 with thurl width and 0.12±0.0000001 with temperament.
Phenotypic and genetic correlations of most the linear type traits with score day milk yield were generally higher than with 305 days milk yield. Phenotypic correlations with score day milk yield were observed as 0.09±0.03 for stature, -0.21±0.03 for chest width, -0.05±0.04 for body depth, -0.17±0.03 for angularity, -0.12±0.03 for rump angle, -0.16±0.05 for rump width, -0.32±0.03 for rear legs set, -0.16±0.04 for rear legs rear view, -0.22±0.03 for foot angle, -0.34±0.03 for fore udder attachment, -0.16±0.04 for rear udder height, -0.16±0.04 for central ligament, -0.25±0.03 for udder depth, 0.06±0.04 for front teat placement, 0.008±0.03 for teat length, -0.19±0.04 for rear teat placement, -0.15±0.04 for locomotion, -0.22±0.03 for body condition score, -0.35±0.03 for top line, -0.08±0.04 for bone structure, -0.17±0.05 for rear udder width, -0.18±0.04 for udder balance, -0.20±0.03 for teat thickness, -0.11±0.04 for thurl width and -0.11±0.05 for temperament, respectively.
Genetic correlations with score day milk yield were observed as 0.57±0.05 for stature, 0.09±0.02 for chest width, 0.31±0.04 for body depth, 0.06±0.02 for angularity, 0.15±0.03 for rump angle, 0.30±0.05 for rump width, 0.04±0.02 for rear legs set, 0.06±0.01 for rear legs rear view, 0.06±0.02 for foot angle, 0.10±0.02 for fore udder attachment, 0.18±0.03 for rear udder height, 0.12±0.02 for central ligament, 0.18±0.02 for udder depth, 0.60±0.06 for front teat placement, 0.23±0.03 for teat length, 0.07±0.01 for rear teat placement, 0.021±0.02 for locomotion, 0.12±0.02 for body condition score, 0.08±0.02 for top line, 0.08±0.03 for bone structure, 0.19±0.04 for rear udder width, 0.19±0.03 for udder balance, 0.095±0.02 for teat thickness, 0.12±0.02 for thurl width and 0.27±0.05 for temperament, respectively.
Among body measurements, head related measurements included head length, horn diameter at base, length and width of ear and poll width and their average values were found as 54.13±3.48, 18.65±2.06, 29.5±2.12 and 18.66±1.22, and 30.95±2.35 cm, respectively. Average values for neck length and neck circumference were observed as 53.32±4.56 and 95.77±8.58 cm, respectively.
The height and length of body was measured at different body points and average values were found as 139.56±6.29 cm for horizontal body length, 154.01±7.61 cm for diagonal body length, 135.77±4.4 cm for height at sacrum, 132.04±4.57 cm for height at withers, 130.77±4.61 cm for height at 6th rib position, 126.34±4.51 cm for height at last rib position, 128.89±4.83 cm for height at hook bone and 118.81±4.45 cm for height at pin bone.
The average values for heart girth, paunch girth, sprung at 6th rib position and sprung at last rib position were resulted as 194.46±10.31, 238.52±13.96, 45.15±4.48 and 68.72±5.2 cm, respectively. Mean estimates for top wedge area, front wedge area and side wedge area were obtained as 3152.79±309.53, 1030.17±136.34 and 3105.07±345.26 cm2, respectively. The length of tail and its diameter at base was measured and its value averaged 103.51±12.55 and 22.41±2.005 cm, respectively. Average values of skin thickness at neck, ribs, belly and tail region were found as 4.16±1.16, 5.85±1.36, 7.34±1.49 and 1.71±0.55 mm, respectively. Mean values for some other traits included 43.52±2.582 cm for rump length, 3.12±0.56 cm for heel depth and 523.13±81.63 kg for body weight. It was observed that herd was a significant source of variation for all body measurement traits. Age of the buffalo at classification was a significant source of variation for all of the body measurements except horn diameter at base, poll width, tail length, skin thickness at tail and height at hook bone.
Most of the body measurements have been found to be lowly to moderately heritable in the current study. Heritability estimates for various body measurements were observed as 0.16±0.09 for horn diameter at base, 0.38±0.04 for ear length, 0.06±0.09 for ear width, 0.25±0.091 for head length, 0.14±0.09 for poll width, 0.03±0.06 for neck circumference, 0.05±0.07 for neck length, 0.05±0.09 for body length, 0.05±0.09 for diagonal body length, 0.41±0.09 for tail length, 0.28±0.091 for tail diameter at base, 0.04±0.09 for skin thickness at neck, 0.02±0.09 for skin thickness at ribs, 0.10±0.09 for skin thickness at belly, 0.07±0.08 for skin thickness at tail, 0.11±0.09 for height at sacrum, 0.28±0.09 for height at withers, 0.22±0.092 for height at 6th rib position, 0.25±0.092 for height at last rib position, 0.18±0.091 for height at hook bone, 0.07±0.08 for height at pin bone, 0.04±0.06 for sprung at 6th rib position, 0.07±0.06 for sprung at last rib position, 0.13±0.09 for heart girth, 0.05±0.09 for paunch girth, 0.11±0.09 for top wedge area, 0.05±0.06 for front wedge area, 0.16±0.07 for side wedge area, 0.13±0.08 for rump length, 0.02±0.06 for heel depth and 0.33±0.07 for body weight.
Phenotypic correlations of 305 days milk yield with various body measurements were in low range. Positive phenotypic correlations ranged from 0.02±0.04 for sprung at 6th rib position to 0.17±0.05 for ear length. Some of the important body measurements have positive phenotypic correlation with 305 days milk yield as 0.15±0.04 for head length, 0.04±0.04 for diagonal body length, 0.04±0.02 for height at withers, 0.11±0.03 for height at sacrum, 0.11±0.04 for sprung at last rib position, 0.04±0.04 for heart girth, 0.08±0.03 for rump length and 0.07±0.03 for body weight. Negative phenotypic correlations with 305 days milk yield ranged from -0.03±0.03 for side wedge area to -0.25±0.03 for horn diameter at base. Some important negative phenotypic correlations included -0.25±0.03 for horn diameter at base, -0.04±0.04 for neck circumference, -0.12±0.03 for skin thickness at neck and -0.08±0.03 for front wedge area.
Positive phenotypic correlation with score day milk yield included 0.09±0.05 for body weight, 0.07±0.002 for rump length, 0.09±0.003 for sprung at last rib position, 0.09±0.005 for height at hook bone, 0.08±0.02 for height at sacrum. Rest of all the traits were low in correlation with milk yield. Negative phenotypic correlation with score day milk yield included horn diameter at base as -0.15±0.02 and heel depth as -0.13±0.04. Rest of all negative phenotypic correlations were very low.
Positive genetic correlations of 305 days milk yield varied from 0.02±0.002 for ear width to 0.23±0.02 for side wedge area. Some important body measurements have positive genetic correlation values as 0.121±0.000001 for head length, 0.162±0.000001 for diagonal body length, 0.080±0.000001 for height at withers, 0.15±0.000001 for height at sacrum, 0.15±0.000001 for sprung at last rib position, 0.14±0.0005 for heart girth and 0.16±0.007 for body weight. Negative genetic correlation for this trait was observed only for skin thickness at neck region as -0.16±0001.
About 40 traits regarding udder and teat measurements before and after milking were analysed. Average values for udder length, width, height, depth and circumference before milking were found as 52.65±6.87, 53.52±6.19, 54.34±4.99, 18.76±3.87, and 77.05±11.69 cm, respectively while the corresponding values for the same traits after milking were found as 47.08±6.57, 48.15±5.79, 55.39±5.15, 18.11±4.11 and 67.04±8.11 cm, respectively. Teat impression distances between front teats, rear teats, fore and rear teats from right side and fore and rear teats from left side were found as 12.46±3.01, 7.01±1.91, 8.08±1.8 and 7.71±1.75 cm, respectively. Pre stimulation and after milking teat characteristics were found as 12.93±3.12 and 11.71±2.83 cm for distance between front teats; 7.48±1.93 and 6.61±1.58 cm for distance between hind teats; 8.34±1.91 and 7.54±1.60 cm for distance between fore and hind teats of right side; 8.004±1.95 and 7.17±1.60 cm for distance between fore and hind teats of left side; 10.19±2.17 and 9.057±1.50 for diameter of fore right teat; 10.92±2.45 and 9.611±1.66 cm for diameter of rear right teat; 10.33±2.11 and 9.33±1.45 cm for diameter of fore left teat; 11.25±2.54 and 9.937±1.76 cm for diameter of rear left teat; 10.71±2.63 and 11.2±2.39 cm, for teat length of fore right teat; 13.05±3.27 and 13.13±3.03 for teat length of rear right teat; 11.09±2.71 and 11.88±2.61 cm for teat length fore left teat and 13.75±3.04 and 14.47±2.99 for teat length of rear left teat, respectively.
All of the udder conformation traits before and after milking were highly significantly different in different herds (P<0.0001). Stage of lactation was found to be highly significant source of variation (P<0.0001) for before milking udder length, before milking udder height, average before milking udder circumference, after milking udder length, after milking average udder circumference, teat impression distance between fore, between rear and between fore and rear teats on both sides. However, before milking average udder width, before milking udder depth, after milking average udder width, after milking udder height and after milking udder depth were not affected by this factor.
All of the above mentioned traits were significantly affected by parity except after milking udder depth and teat impression distance between fore teats and between rear teats.
Season of scoring significantly affected before milking udder length (P<0.01), before milking average udder width (P<0.05), before milking average udder circumference (P<0.01), after milking average udder width (P<0.01), after milking average udder circumference (P<0.0001), teat impression distance between fore and hind teats of left side (P<0.05). Rest of all the traits were not significantly different in different seasons.
Most of the udder traits were significantly affected by linear and quadratic effect of age of the buffalo at classification. Herd was a significant source of variation for all teat related traits recorded at pre stimulation before milking time. Stage of lactation significantly affected pre stimulation distance between front teats, pre stimulation distance between hind teats, pre stimulation distance between fore and hind teats on right and left side, pre stimulation diameter of fore right teat, pre stimulation teat length of fore right teat, pre stimulation teat length of rear right teat, pre stimulation teat length of fore left and rear left teat. However, pre stimulation diameter of rear right teat, pre stimulation diameter of fore left teat and pre stimulation diameter of rear left teat were not affected by this factor. All of these parameters were affected by parity except pre stimulation distance between hind teats and pre stimulation teat length of fore left teat. Similarly all of these traits were affected by season of scoring except pre stimulation distance between fore, between hind, between right and between left teats.
All of teat characteristics after milking were significantly affected by herd. Stage of lactation significantly affected after milking distance between fore and hind teats of right side (P<0.05), after milking teat length of fore right and rear right teat (P<0.01), after milking teat length of fore left teat (P<0.05) and rear left teat (P<0.0001). Rest of all traits after milking were not affected by stage of lactation. Most of the teat parameters after milking were significantly affected by parity except after milking distance between front and between rear teats, after milking teat length of rear right teat and after milking teat length of fore left teat. Distances among teats after milking and after milking diameter of rear left teat were not significantly affected by season. Rest of all traits were significantly affected by this factor.
Heritability estimates for before milking udder length, average udder width, udder height, udder depth and average udder circumference were found as 0.08±0.07, 0.22±0.08, 0.22±0.09, 0.05±0.06 and 0.21±0.07, respectively. The corresponding values after milking for these traits were observed as 0.14±0.07, 0.20±0.08, 0.09±0.08, 0.02±0.08 and 0.09±0.07, respectively.
Heritability estimates for before milking and after milking teat characteristics were found as 0.11±0.09 and 0.15±0.09 for distance between front teats; 0.03±0.06 and 0.03±0.07 for distance between hind teats; 0.32±0.09 and 0.06±0.07 for distance between fore and hind teats of right side; 0.16±0.08 and 00.09±0.07 for distance between fore and hind teats of left side; 0.21±0.08 and 0.11±0.08 for diameter of fore right teat; 0.05±0.05 and 0.02±0.05 for diameter of rear right teat; 0.19±0.08 and 0.25±0.09 for diameter of fore left teat; 0.07±0.06 and 0.03±0.07 for diameter of rear left teat; 0.12±0.06 and 0.08±0.06 for teat length of fore right teat; 0.02±0.05 and 0.11±0.07 for teat length of rear right teat; 0.29±0.09 and 0.29±0.092 for teat length of fore left teat and 0.14±0.08 and 0.08±0.07 for teat length of rear left teat, respectively.
Phenotypic correlations of before and after milking udder length, average udder width, udder height, udder depth and average udder circumference with 305 days milk yield were found as 0.29±0.04 and 0.18±0.04; 0.30±0.04 and 0.33±0.04; -0.26±0.03 and -0.20±0.03; 0.07±0.04 and 0.06±0.05 and 0.18±0.04 and 0.14±0.04, respectively. Corresponding values in the same order for genetic correlations were observed as 0.17±0.0002 and 0.21±0.0003; 0.33±0.0002 and 0.19±0.0003; -0.29±0003 and -0.34±0003; 0.10±0.0001 and 0.07±0.0001 and 0.28±0.0004 and 0.23±0.0003, respectively.
Phenotypic correlations of before and after milking udder length, average udder width, udder height, udder depth and average udder circumference with score day milk yield were found as 0.29±0.03 and -0.18±0.02; -0.32±0.02 and 0.17±0.01, -0.38±0.001 and -0.20±0.002, 0.28±0.01 and -0.04±0.04 and 0.21±0.04 and -0.15±0.04, respectively.
Phenotypic correlations for pre stimulation and after milking teat characteristics with 305 days milk yield were found as 0.19±0.03 and 0.07±0.03 for distance between front teats; 0.20±0.04 and 0.20±0.04 for distance between hind teats; 0.21±0.03 and 0.21±0.03 for distance between fore and hind teats of right side; 0.18±0.03 and 0.18±0.03 for distance between fore and hind teats of left side; 0.07±0.03 and 0.27±0.04 for diameter of fore right teat; -0.04±0.03 and 0.14±0.04 for diameter of rear right teat; -0.03±0.04 and 0.20±0.04 for diameter of fore left teat; -0.02±0.04 and 0.20±0.03 for diameter of rear left teat; 0.24±0.03 and 0.28±0.03, for teat length of fore right teat; -0.13±0.03 and -0.009±0.04 for teat length of rear right teat; 0.01±0.02 and 0.12±0.03 for teat length fore left teat and 0.06±0.03 and 0.22±0.03 for teat length of rear left teat, respectively.
Genetic correlations for pre stimulation and after milking teat characteristics with 305 days milk yield were found as 0.22±0.0002 and 0.12±0.0003 for distance between front teats; 0.26±0.0001 and 0.13±0.0001 for distance between hind teats; 0.11±0.0001 and 0.09±0.0001 for distance between fore and hind teats of right side; 0.10±0.0001 and 0.07±0.0001 for distance between fore and hind teats of left side; 0.11±0.0001 and 0.11±0.0001 for diameter of fore right teat; 0.09±0.0002 and 0.16±0.0001 for diameter of rear right teat; 0.001±0.000001 and 0.001±0.0001 for diameter of fore left teat; 0.001±0.000001 and 0.001±0.0001 for diameter of rear left teat; 0.080±0.00001 and 0.11±0.0001 for teat length of fore right teat; 0.07±0.000001 and 0.001±0.0002 for teat length of rear right teat; 0.003±0.000001 and 0.003±0.0003 for teat length fore left teat and 0.003±0.000001 and 0.002±0.0002 for teat length of rear left teat, respectively.
Phenotypic correlations for pre stimulation and after milking teat characteristics with score day milk yield were found as -0.37±0.02 and -0.48±0.03 for distance between front teats; 0.04±0.04 and 0.06±0.04 for distance between hind teats; 0.04±0.04 and 0.03±0.04 for distance between fore and hind teats of right side; 0.03±0.039 and 0.08±0.04 for distance between fore and hind teats of left side; -0.33±0.03 and -0.16±0.04 for diameter of fore right teat; -0.46±0.03 and -0.26±0.04 for diameter of rear right teat; -0.41±0.03 and -0.24±0.04 for diameter of fore left teat; -0.30±0.03 and -0.28±0.04 for diameter of rear left teat; -0.43±0.03 and -0.49±0.03 for teat length of fore right teat; -0.36±0.02 and -0.47±0.02 for teat length of rear right teat; -0.41±0.034 and -0.43±0.03 for teat length fore left teat and -0.28±0.021 and -0.53±0.02 for teat length of rear left teat, respectively.
Genetic correlations for before and after milking teat characteristics with score day milk yield were found as 0.13±0.016 and 0.15±0.02 for distance between front teats; 0.30±0.04 and 0.40±0.05 for distance between hind teats; 0.19±0.05 and 0.38±0.05 for distance between fore and hind teats of right side; 0.32±0.06 and 0.44±0.06 for distance between fore and hind teats of left side; 0.22±0.03 and 0.27±0.04 for diameter of fore right teat; 0.16±0.02 and 0.23±0.03 for diameter of rear right teat; 0.15±0.02 and 0.22±0.03 for diameter of fore left teat; 0.11±0.02 and 0.24±0.03 for diameter of rear left teat; 0.19±0.02 and 0.17±0.02 for teat length of fore right teat; 0.075±0.01 and 0.07±0.01 for teat length of rear right teat; 0.27±0.029 and 0.27±0.03 for teat length of fore left teat and 0.10±0.01 and 0.08±0.01 for teat length of rear left teat, respectively.
Least squares means for various performance traits were found as 7.02±2.46 for score day milk yield, 1801.61±624.59 for lactation milk yield, 2074.1±360.85 for 305 days milk yield, 2149.09±680.59 for best milk yield, 272±69 for lactation length, 408.553±203.63 for preceeding dry period, 1762.05±305.97 for age at first calving, 477.68±64.53 for weight at first calving, 110±33 for age at scoring in months, 523.133±81.63 for weight at scoring in Kg.
Most of the phenotypic studies on Nili Ravi breed are limited to recording only few body measurements. In order to explore the physical features of this breed, linear scoring system needs to be adopted which is based on measurement of certain specific parts of body as per international standards according to the ICAR guidelines. However, some of the linear scores developed for dairy cattle breeds do not fit for this breed and harmonization of certain trait definitions is needed even for the linear score system for this breed. The following points are important regarding linear scoring system for Nili Ravi buffaloes:
" In case of rump angle, the score ranging as 1-3 which refers to higher pin bone than hook bone is not present in Nili Ravi buffaloes. The score for central ligament ranging as 1-3 which refers to convex floor of udder has not been observed in this breed. The position of front teat placement as inside of quarter scoring as 7-9 has not been observed in Nili Ravi buffaloes. The position of rear teat placement as outside of quarter scoring as 1-3 has not been observed in Nili Ravi buffaloes. The score for top line ranging as 8-9 which represents a back bent upwards has not been observed in this breed. The score of 1 and 2 which represents a rear udder deeper than the fore udder has also not been observed in the present study. A higher temperament score indicates that buffaloes tend to be excited especially at the time of milking and handling. This behaviour of buffaloes needs to be improved through selection and breeding.
" A highly significant effect of herd was observed on all of the linear type traits. Effect of stage of lactation was found to be highly significant for udder conformation related traits including fore udder attachment, rear udder height, central ligament, udder depth, teat length and rear udder width. Most of the udder related traits were affected by parity such as fore udder attachment, rear udder height, udder depth, teat length, rear udder width and teat thickness. significant effect of parity was observed on chest width, angularity, rump angle, rump width, top line, thurl width, and temperament.
" Initiation of conformation recording in public and private sector and use of selective and planned breeding will be helpful for the improvement in milk yield and to bring uniformity in body features of Nili Ravi buffaloes.
" Scoring in first parity should be adopted as in later parities adjustment for age and parity will be needed.
" Differences among herds for most of the traits suggest that performance can be improved by exploiting genetic potential through selection and breeding. Heritability estimates for most of the linear type traits were found as higher than the reported values available in literature. The reasons might be due to species differences and relatively small data set as well as incomplete pedigree records. Even then the results might be considered for inclusion of some of the linear type traits in selection programs. Keeping in view that this is a preliminary study on genetic aspects of linear type traits in Nili Ravi buffaloes, further studies and research with larger data set is needed to explore linear type traits and to validate the findings of the current study.
" A positive genetic correlation of stature with milk yield suggest that taller and heavier buffaloes produced more milk and selection for taller buffaloes may result in improved milk yield but the efficiency of milk yield must be studied before making indirect selection for milk yield through stature. Negative phenotypic correlation of chest width with score day milk yield suggested that buffaloes with wider chest are relatively less efficient in milk production. Further studies are needed with larger data set to verify the results. A considerable positive genetic correlation between body depth and milk yield suggest that body depth may be considered for indirect selection of higher milk yield in Nili Ravi buffaloes. Considerable genetic correlation with milk yield suggest that rump width is important in this breed of buffaloes and can be used for indirect selection for improved milk yield. A considerable negative phenotypic correlation of fore udder attachment with milk yield is important however negligible genetic correlation suggest that fore udder attachment is independent of milk producing genes and separate selection for each trait should be considered keeping in view heritability of the trait in Nili Ravi buffaloes. A positive genetic correlation of rear udder height with milk yield suggested that selection for this trait might be helpful for improved milk yield in Nili Ravi buffaloes. Genetic correlation of teat length with score day milk yield is considerable in the current study but very low with 305 days milk yield. The findings of current study suggested that rear teat placemen has a considerable genetic correlation with milk yield and can be used for indirect selection for better milk yield. The results of current study are not in agreement with most of the reports in the literature regarding correlation of BCS with milk yield. Further research is needed to verify positive genetic correlation of BCS with milk yield before using BCS as selection criterion for milk yield in Nili Ravi buffaloes. Due to negative phenotypic correlation of body condition score with milk yield, an optimal score of below average ranging from 4 to 5 may be recommended. A positive genetic correlation of rear udder width with milk yield suggested that some of the same genes are controlling milk yield and rear udder width and indirect selection for improved milk yield is possible through selection for rear udder width in Nili Ravi buffaloes. This genetic correlation with milk yield is considerable but further studies are needed before the udder balance could be included for selection program in Nili Ravi buffaloes.
" Current study indicated that teat thickness is not genetically important with negligible correlation with milk yield in Nili Ravi buffaloes but negative phenotypic correlation is considerable and buffaloes with thinner teats are suitable for more milk production. A low but positive genetic correlation of thurl width with milk yield provides a scope for further studies to explore this trait in Nili Ravi buffaloes. Further studies are needed with relatively larger data set to explore temperament and verify its relationship with milk yield in this breed of buffaloes. Generally, the least squares means for most of the body measurements were found in the normal range and were in agreement with most of the reports in literature.
" Comparatively higher body weight was observed than the reports available for Nili Ravi buffaloes. One of the reason for this might be relatively better supply of feed and fodder during the course of study and also the records pertaining to 3rd and latter parities were more in number than the records on younger buffaloes. The top and side wedge area are almost similar with less variation showing that Nili Ravi buffaloes are relatively more wedge shaped.
" Most of the body measurements were affected by the herd and age factors but the effect of parity, stage of lactation and season of scoring was variable for different traits and showed not very clear trend. Body weight was affected by all the factors studied in the current investigation. Most of the body measurements have been found to be moderately to highly heritable in the current study. Overall range of heritability estimates for body measurements was found as 0.08±0.09 to 0.92±0.00.
" Skin thickness has been found under the genetic control and can be improved through selection and breeding keeping in view its importance and demand in the leather industry and also its correlation with milk yield.
" Diagonal body length in the current study has shown a low but positive genetic correlation with milk yield and this trait might be considered in the selection program for Nili Ravi buffaloes. The negative genetic correlation of skin thickness in the neck region with 305 days milk yield is important and advocates the thinking of farmers about the negative correlation of skin thickness with milk yield. Genetic correlation of heart girth with milk yield although not very high but seems to be important and can be considered for indirect selection for milk yield through heart girth measurement. A reasonable genetic correlation of body weight with milk yield suggested that this trait should be considered in the selection program for improved milk yield in Nili Ravi buffaloes.
" Udder colour has not been found important. Buffaloes with pendulous udders have produced more milk. The possible reason for this more milk is that such buffaloes were recorded in latter parities and age of those buffaloes was high and the size of their udder was large. The frequency of buffaloes with such type of udder is only 8%. Buffaloes with such type of pendulous udders are more prone to udder and teat injuries and mastitis and their life time production is less. Thick and lengthy teats have been observed in this breed and the reason might be due to hand milking and direct suckling of cows by the calves.
" Most of the udder traits were significantly affected by herd, parity, stage of lactation and age of the buffaloes at classification. Most of the udder measurements have been found highly heritable and this provides a good scope for improvement of these traits through selection and breeding. A general decrease in the distance between fore, rear and fore and rear teats on both sides was observed after milking. This indicated that the distance measured after milking was a good indicator of actual distance between teats of this breed irrespective of stage of lactation. Udder length, width, udder circumference and height either recorded before milking or after milking have been found genetically correlated with milk yield and they should be considered for selection decisions in Nili Ravi buffaloes. A reasonable positive genetic correlation of distance between fore and between rear teats suggested that this distance is important for milk yield and should be considered for selection in Nili Ravi buffaloes. The results of present study suggest that teat diameter is not genetically much important for milk yield and the reason of thick teats is due to hand milking and direct suckling by the calves.
" Teat distance between front teat, between rear teat, diameter of fore right and rear right teat and teat length of fore right teat have shown low but not negligible genetic correlations with milk yield and should be given some importance in making selection decisions in Nili Ravi buffaloes.
" Brown colour buffaloes have not been observed in this study because such animals at Govt. livestock farms are culled at an early age, however farmers think that such type of buffaloes are better milk yielder and they like and demand such animals, development and conservation of these animals is advocated at experimental level to study their potential.
" Further research is needed to evaluate visual image analysis system as a tool for quick and more accurate conformation recording.
Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [ Call number: 1708,T] (1).
Effect Of Bst On Mid Lactation Milk Production And Composition In Nili Ravi Buffaloes
Material type: Book ; Format:
; Literary form:
Publisher: 2013 Dissertation note: Background:Agriculture sector being the backbone of economy in Pakistan contributing 21 %to the GDP in which major share of livestock is 55.1 % in the agriculture value added and 11.6 % of the National GDP with an annual growth rate of 4 percent. Livestock wealth in Pakistan is comprised of cattle, buffalo, sheep, goat, camel and other animals. Buffaloes are contributing a major role in livestock sector of Pakistan with a population of 32.7 million heads producing 29,565 metric tons of milk. At present the demand of milk is increasing day by day in Pakistan but our production per animal is much alarming as compared to animal strength. Milk production enhancement through different techniques especiallymodern bio-technologies are thought to be important for the developing countries. Synthetic Bovine Somatotropic Hormone is one of bio-technological product which is helping researchers and scientists in increasing the production of animals. Response to milk yield is noticeable after the administration of Somatotropic hormone in all dairy breeds of different parity and genetic potential.
Hypothesis:Effective use of bio-technological products (bST) can enhance the buffalo milk production.
Methodology:Keeping in view the importance of bST administration for milk production a study was conducted to determine the effect of bST on dry matter intake, milk production, milk composition, blood metabolites, weight gain, feed efficiency and production economics in Nili-Ravi buffaloes at Buffalo Research Institute, Pattoki.
Twenty four early lactating buffaloes in 3rd and 4th lactation and approximately of same body weight were selected from the herd allocated to bST and control injected subcutaneously on fortnightly interval under Completely Randomized Design. Buffaloes were offered green fodder ad-libitum and concentrate was given @ 1 kg per 3 liter of milk produced. The daily dry matter intake, daily milk production (twice a day), fortnightly milk composition, weekly weight gain, hematology and bio-chemistry were collected and analyzed. Milk samples were analyzed using Lacti-check® in the laboratory of Dairy Technology Department, UVAS Ravi Campus Pattoki. Blood sampleswere taken from twelve buffaloes each by puncturing the jugular vein in 10 cc sterilized disposable syringes for hematology and bio-chemistry analyzed at WTO Quality Control Laboratory UVAS Lahore.
Statistical Design:The data obtained were statistically analyzed under Completely Randomized Design through one way analysis of variance. The difference among treatment means were tested through t-test.
Outcome:Mean daily DMI regarding green fodder and concentrate in Nili-Ravi buffaloes was higher than control. Mean daily DMI on overall basis in buffaloes under bST treatment was higher (14.291 ± 1.425 kg) as compared to control (13.651 ± 2.174 kg). The differences in daily dry matter intake of concentrate was significantly (P<0.05) different between treatments in Nili-Ravi buffaloes. Mean daily milk production was 8.739 ± 1.115 and 7.573 ± 1.562 lit in buffaloes on bST treatment and under control, respectively. Nili-Ravi buffaloes on bST treatment produced 15.397 % higher milk yield than under control. Significant (P<0.05) difference was recorded in daily milk production among treatments inNili-Ravi buffaloes.Mean daily milk production trend during different weeks in Nili-Ravi on bST treatment indicated increasing trend during the week 4 to 8 and then showed decreasing order during the weeks 9 to 13, respectively.Mean weekly weight gain of buffaloes under bST treatment was 0.321 ± 0.052 kg and 0.241 ± 0.067 kg under control.Mean feed efficiency values in Nili-Ravi buffaloes on bST were comparatively higher as compared to control.
Milk composition regarding solids not fat, fat and proteins showed significant (P<0.05) difference between treatments in Nili-Ravi buffaloes. Mean blood Hemoglobin, RBC, WBC and PCV in lactating Nili Ravi buffaloes on bST and control was 13.297 ± 0.344 10/dl, 7.510 ± 0.269 million/µL, 12.755 ± 0.284 thousand/µL and 33.577 ± 0.607 % and13.358 ± 0.328 10/dl, 7.428 ± 0.336 million/µL, 13.433 ± 2.686 thousand/µL and 33.858 ± 0.489 %, respectively. Mean blood glucose, cholesterol, total protein, urea, albumin and triglycerides in lactating Nili Ravi buffalo on bST and under control was 56.725 ± 1.720, 163.333 ± 3.498, 7.930 ± 0.262, 38.674 ± 2.205, 4.316 ± 0.327 and 42.429 ± 2.175 % and 57.200 ± 1.879, 161.250 ± 6.092, 7.905 ± 0.443, 37.093 ± 2.071, 4.075 ± 0.259 and 37.879 ± 2.407 %, respectively. Daily cost of milk production and income from milk sales per buffalo was Rs 267.333 and 211.830, and Rs 524.757 and 454.131 in Nili-Ravi buffaloes on bST and under control, respectively. Daily gross margin per buffalo under bST and control was Rs 257.423 and 242.301, respectively.
Conclusion: It is clear from the results that bST can be used in Nili-Ravi Buffaloes to boost milk production (upto 15 %) on economical basis in quantitative and qualitative manner.
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Comparative Productive And Reproductive Performance Of Beetal Goats In Accelerated And Annual Kidding Systems
Material type: Book ; Format:
; Literary form:
Publisher: 2013 Dissertation note: Three kiddings in two years or five kiddings in three years refers as accelerated kidding which is helpful to have more kids, helps to fetch higher market prices during off-season. This can also increase life time production in the form of meat, milk and fiber. High reproduction rate is the basiccondition to increase efficiency of production. Most of the goats do not follow seasonal breeding pattern and breed round the year resulting in management problems and high mortality during severe weather conditions. Accelerated kidding strategy is a viable option that affects the health and fertility of the flock. In the present investigation, three experiments were conducted at Small Ruminant Training and Research Centre (SRT&RC) Ravi Campus Pattoki, UVAS, Lahore. The experiment-I was about the initiation of estrus activity in anestrus Beetal goats during low breeding season. Twenty Beetal goats were selected from the existing flock, maintained at SRT&RC. These goats were divided randomly into 4 groups i.e. A, B, C and D having 5 animals in each group. Group A was treated as negative control by offering only green fodder, group B was provided flushing ration along with green fodder (control), group C was kept on green fodder along with hormone therapy of gonadotropin releasing hormone (GnRH) and prostagladin (PGF2?) while group D was provided with green fodder, flushing ration (600 gms/animal) and hormone therapy by providing GnRH and PGF2?. Hundred percent estrus induction was achieved in group B, C and D as compared to group A. The results revealed that fertility rate and kidding rate was high i.e. 80 and 60 percent among animals of B group while animals of control group had less fertility, kidding and gestation rate. The shortest gestation length was found in group B and C while triplet births were observed in goats of group D.
The experiment-II was regarding the initiation of estrus through buck effect in Beetal goats. This experiment was conducted in two phases. Phase 1 comprised two groups A and B for which estrus induction was done during pre-breeding (August) and normal breeding (September/October) season. Similarly, Phase 2 comprised two groups C and D in which estrus induction was done during post-breeding (December) and normal breeding (September/October) season. Different reproductive parameters like estrus, fertility percentage, were noted. The data regarding average birth weight (kg) and gestation length (days) were recorded. Estrus signs were maximum in group B while low in group C. However fertility rate was high in group A, instead of group B. Overall kidding percentage was higher in A group but the lowest in group D. The highest gestation length was observed in group D whereas the lowest value was found in group B. Average litter size was higher in group D as compared to A and B group, respectively.
The experiment-III was conducted to compare productive and reproductive performance of Beetal goats in accelerated and annual kidding systems. Total of 50 adult Beetal goats were divided into two groups viz. accelerated kidding and annual kidding having 25 animals each. The does were selected on the basis of their age, body size, weight and parity. Different breeding bucks were used for each group having similar size, weight and age. All the animals included in this study were fed according to national research council (NRC) nutrient requirements for goats (NRC, 1981). Flushing rations and estrus inducing hormones both were provided to the does of respective groups for preparation of breeding activity during out of season breeding. The annual kidding group was considered as the control group, while the does were bred every eight months for accelerated kidding. The offsprings produced by the pregnant does of 1st batch of both the groups were reared under similar managemental conditions up to maturity. Three crops were produced in accelerated kidding system as compared to two crops in annual kidding system. It was observed that more number of animals i.e. 17 out of 25 showed estrus signs as compared to annual kidding system where 15 animals showed estrus signs. There were non significant differences for number of services per conceptionin two crops under annual kidding groups. Higher percentage of estrus was observed in accelerated to annual kidding. Total number of kids produced in accelerated kidding system was 42 with an average 14 kids in three crops while 23 kids were produced in annual kidding system in two years. Average cost of concentrate was observed high in accelerated kidding system as compared to annual kidding system. Birth weight of kids produced in 3 different seasons i.e. March-April, October- November and June-July were found as 2.84, 2.91 and 2.98 kg. The overall results in term of reproductive efficiency, oestrus behavior and kidding percentage were better in accelerated group than annual kidding.
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Documenting Goat Production System In Two Agro-Ecological Regions Of Punjab
Material type: Book ; Format:
; Literary form:
Publisher: 2013 Dissertation note: Abstract
Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [ Call number: 1920,T] (1).
Effect Of Feeding Milk Replacer And Diet With Varying Levels Of Concention On Growth Puberty And First Lactation
Material type: Book ; Format:
; Literary form:
Publisher: 2013 Dissertation note: Abstract
Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [ Call number: 2160,T] (1).
Effect Of Feeding Frequency On The Growth Performance Of Lohi Lambs During Post Weaning Period
Material type: Book ; Literary form:
Publisher: 2015 Dissertation note: Thesis Submitted with Blank CD.
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Identification Of Variations In The Coding Region Of Myostatin Gene In Thalli And Pakkarakul Sheep Breeds Of The Punjab
Material type: Book ; Literary form:
Publisher: 2015 Dissertation note: In a developing country like Pakistan, livestock sector has a significant importance.
Meat is an important food component in human diet and its source varies from different
organisms like cattle, buffalo, camel, deer, sheep, goat, rabbit and chicken etc. Small
ruminants especially sheep, has a unique role in meat production, due to its feeding and
adaptive behavior. The myostatin (MSTN) gene is known as a candidate gene for
development and growth of livestock because it plays its major role in muscle growth.
Selection is an important tool to improve the meat production and thus enhance the economic
conditions of livestock farmers. For this purpose genetically characterization of meat type
animals, especially the indigenous sheep breeds is not common. The variations in the
myostatin gene have been extensively studied and reviewed in small and large ruminants in
the world but it has been scanty studied in sheep breeds of Pakistan. Thalli and Pak-Karakul
are well known sheep breeds present in Punjab, Pakistan. This study aims to characterize the
genetic variation in the myostatin gene in Thalli and Pak-Karakul sheep breeds.
In this research study, twenty adult animals of two different sheep breeds (Thalli and
Pak-Karakul) were selected from Small Ruminants Research and development Centre, Rakh
Khairewala, District Layyah, Pakistan. Five mL blood sample was collected from each
animal in a 15mL falcon tube containing anticoagulant. Primers were designed by using
Primerfox online software. Primers were optimized using specific protocol and PCR was
performed. DNA was extracted using modified inorganic method of Sambrook et al. (1989).
PCR was carried out using all primers and later sent for sequencing to 1stBase Laboratories,
Singapore. Molecular analysis was done using CodonCode Aligner and MEGA6 softwares.
Ten samples of each breed were sequenced to detect polymorphism in both Thalli and
Pak-Karakul sheep populations. Sequencing revealed G↓T transition at 3995 position in
genome (accession number, DQ530260.1) in Thalli and similar transition in Pak-Karakul at
the same position. In Thalli sheep 50 % of experimental animals were heterozygous, higher
level of heterozygosity makes it a potential candidate for higher growth rates. On the other
hand the Pak-Karakul sheep is medium weight breed and frequency of mutant allele was 0.2
or 20%. The observed heterozygous individuals were also with higher live body weights. The
gene frequency shows that this breed has medium potential for its body growth. The
information‟s so generated and further association studies in both breeds will be helpful in
devising breeding plans for increasing mutton production at national level.
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Productive And Physiological Performance Of Nili-Ravi Buffaloes Under Various Housing Management Practices During Summer
Material type: Book ; Literary form:
Publisher: 2014 Dissertation note: Back ground: Among various factors that are affecting buffalo productivity, heat stress is challenge for the dairy farmers of Pakistan since the geographical location of Pakistan is sub-tropic as it is situated 23.6 degree above the line of equator between Tropic of Cancer and Tropic of Capricorn and summer season prevail for long duration with high ambient temperature and relative humidity. Information on production potential of mature Nili-Ravi buffalo against hot-dry and hot-humid season and its adaptability to the sub-tropical conditions of central Punjab has not been documented before. In this regard, study is designed to understand the relationships of environmental stress with physiological, behavioral and production responses in Nili-Ravi buffaloes under different housing and cooling conditions.
Hypothesis: Developing and implementing housing and cooling systems to mitigate heat stress may decrease this effect but must be cost effective. To test these hypotheses, the proposed study was carried out at Buffalo Research Institute (BRI).
Methodology: Four experiments were conducted to evaluate the physiological, productive, serum biochemical and behavioral profile of mature Nili Ravi buffaloes under subtropical conditions, at BRI (Buffalo Research Institute), Pattoki. Experiments were conducted during proposed duration of March-April; May-June; July-August and September-October on various physiological and productive parameters. Lactating Nili Ravi buffaloes (n=20) were divided in to four groups with five animals in each group. Group A buffaloes were kept under roof shades
only (control). Group B was supplemented with yeast powder under roof shade; C group buffaloes were raised under ceiling fans and group D was treated with ceiling fans and showers.
During all summer periods, fans with showers (D) showed highest milk production followed by fans only (C), then control A and B have been similar for most of times. However, in early summer (March-April), the additional cost of supplement feed and cooling strategies was higher than revenue generated from increased milk. Cost per liter of milk produced was higher and thus marginal revenue was lower than expected. Whereas, shaded group A showed comparatively less milk production which was offset by low production cost as there were no additional costs of supplementing feed or cooling strategies.
In all other periods of mid-summer (hot-dry: May-June and hot-humid: July-August) and late summer (July-August), higher milk production was noticed in group D followed by group C despite additional costs of cooling strategies. Lower cost/ liter of milk were noticed as well as high marginal revenue. During these periods, fans were noticed as more effective strategy to alleviate thermal load compare to supplemental feed as cost per liter was high and marginal revenue was less in group B. Looks like feed additive may only be applicable in early summer compare to fans group but shaded group A had best performance in terms of cost per liter and revenue. Group D was found best followed by C in terms of lower cost per liter and high marginal revenue in mid and late summer.
Statistical Analysis: The recorded data was subjected to statistical analysis by using analysis of variance technique (ANOVA) under completely randomized design (CRD). The difference of means among treatment groups were determined by using Duncan Multiple Range Test (DMRT;
Steel et al., 1997) for the interpretation of results and portraying conclusions with the help of statistical software (Statistical packages for social sciences; SPSS).
Conclusion: However, it is noted that during March and April control group buffaloes performed better economically but they had lower production and higher physiological responses. Improved performance and health of animals under fans with or without showers did not produce enough marginal income to pay for the additional costs. Shaded group A showed comparatively less milk production which was offset by low production cost as there were no additional costs of supplementing feed or cooling strategies. Therefore, small scale farmers may use shade only for their buffaloes during early summer only but progressive farmers better go for shower and fans strategy since early summer as this approach works best throughout other periods of summer season. Since, the group D was found best followed by C in terms of lower cost per liter and high marginal revenue therefore, fans with showers would be a quite useful technique for progressive farmers and also necessary from animal’s health point of view. Also, small scale farmers may use fans to avoid drastic decrease in milk production and take maximum achievable measures according to their affordability during mid and later summer.
Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [ Call number: 2490-T] (1).
Study Of Factors Affecting Quality Of Silage As A Component Of Total Mixed Ration On Growth And Production Performance In Nili-Ravi Buffaloes
Material type: Book ; Literary form:
Publisher: 2016 Dissertation note: Silage production is at initial stages to be a part of animal agriculture in Pakistan. The lack of research on silage making and its benefits for livestock production under local conditions is an important factor for slow propagation of silage in our country. Under such scenario a multi-step study was conducted. At first, the effect of proper maturity stage for harvesting different fodders was investigated, and then the effects of silo type and silage additives were assessed on silage quality. In last part of the study the feeding trials were conducted on growing calves and lactating buffalo to evaluate the effect of silage feeding on growth and milk production respectively.
In all the three fodders i.e. oats, maize and sorghum, the full bloom stage for harvesting produced the best results regarding silage quality and fermentation characteristics. Although the trench silo produced best results regarding fermentation characteristics and silage quality, the expected operational cost and dry matter losses during face management for trench silo would make it harder for farmers to adopt. Under such circumstances, for long term use the bunkers would be a good choice for silage making with comparable silage quality as that of trench silo. Silage inoculants certainly improved the silage quality and it is highly recommended to use such additives for silage making and these additives are not that costly. Buffalo calves raised on fresh corn fodder and three different silages showed similar daily weight gain. Further growth trials on buffalo calves with varying levels of concentrate feeding along with silage are suggested to investigate silage feeding in calves. Corn silage fed lactating buffaloes had lower dry matter intake and total milk yield, but higher total solids as compared to fresh fodder feeding. The future studies of silage feeding compared to different inclusion levels of fresh and dry roughage sources would add further to explore the economic implications of silage feeding.
Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [ Call number: 2590-T] (1).