Copmparative Study Of Buffalo And Cow Milk As An Extender For The Semen Of Cattle & Buffalo Bulls.
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Publisher: 1970 Dissertation note: The present study was conducted to determine the effect of buffalo milk versus cow milk on the longevity of buffalo and cow bulls semens. Two buffalo and two cow bulls were used for collection of semens. These bulls were 3-9 years of age and were maintained under similar conditions at Artificial Insemination Centre, College of Animal Husbandry, Lahore. The milk used was obtained form the same cow and buffalo throughout the study. A total of 16 samples were collected from the four bulls.Physical and Microscopical examinations were conducted to evaluate the semen and samples with 4 or above mass motility were used in the experiment. Two fractions of each extender (buffalo and cow milk) were made. First was heat treated at 90 o c but not homogenized and second was heated at 82.2o c and homogenized. The glycerol in 10 and 20% ratio was added to the diluents alongwith 1000 units of penicillin and 1 mg. of streptomycin per ml. of extended semen. The dilutions were made in 1:10, 1:20 and 1:30 extensions of both buffalo and cow-bull semen in both extenders. The semen was preserved at 5oC in the refrigerator, and observations were made on each day at even hours, for 7 days.
The data so collected were subjected to the analysis of variance, statistically and mean motility rates were also calculated to determine the comparative effects of cow milk and buffalo milk on the preservation of cow-bull and buffalo-bull semen. The study revealed:-
1. That the semen was preserved comparatively better in heat treated milk than homogenized milk both in buffalo and cow milk. This was due to the difference in heating temperature and durations in both treatments.
2. Each buffalo bull's and cow Bull's extended semen with 10% glycerol gave significantly higher motility than with 20% glycerol in both milk (buffalo and cow).
3. The motility percentage was preserved better with high concentrations of sperms than with lower concentrations. The dilution ratio in 1:10 indicated the better results than the other two extensions of 1:20 and 1:30.
4. The cow-bull semen was preserved better in both the extenders for the longer period of time than buffalo-bull semen. However the semen was preserved significantly better in buffalo milk than in cow milk.
5. That in fluid semen extension the use of buffalo milk is recommended in field for future and determination of its effects on conception rates is open for further research.
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Effect Of Additional Pructose On The Longevity Of Buffalo & Sahiwal Bull Semen
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Publisher: 1970 Dissertation note: The present study was conducted to determine the effect of additional fructose on the longevity of buffalo and Sahiwal bull semen. Two buffalo-bulls and two Sahiwal-bulls of 3 to 9 year of age were selected for the collection of semen. These bulls were stationed at the Artificial Insemination Section of College of Animal Husbandry, Lahore, under identical environmental conditions. A total of 16 samples of semen were collected for the four bulls. BY physical and microscopical examination, samples with four or above mass motility were selected for experiment. Heated homogenized whole-buffalo-milk was used as an extender.Fructose was added in different fractions to the milk (extender) prior to semen extension. Ten percent glycerol alongwith 0.5 mg. of Streptomycin and 500 units of Penicillin per ml. of the extender were also added to each sample.
During the study, data were collected in 1:20, 1:30 fructose per 100 ml. of the extender to evaluate the effect of fructose on the longevity of semen. The data were analysed by analysis of variance, and Duncan's Multiple Range Test was also applied to determine the effect of fructose.
The Studies revealed that:-
1. The semen samples with additional fructose were significantly of higher quality than that of the samples without fructose.
2. With an increase in the fructose level alongwith extension rate, there was an increase in the longevity of the spermatozoa.
3. Sahiwal bull semen could be preserved over a longer period as compared to that of buffalo bull.
4. On motility basis, 1:40 extension with 2000 mg. of additional fructose per 100 ml. of the extender could safely be used for five and six days in case of buffalo and Sahiwal bull semen respectively. Fructose treated semen is further recommended for field trials with a view to determine actual fertility percentage.
5. The fructose had a significant effect on the longevity of semen both the buffalo and Sahiwal bull semen.
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Non-Return Versus Actual Conception Rate In Cows And Buffaloes For Predicting Fertility Of Bulls In Artifical Insemination
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Publisher: 1970 Dissertation note: The present study was conducted to determine the non-return versus actual conception rate in buffaloes and Cows for predicting fertility rate of Bulls. For this purpose 6 Buffalo and 10 Cow Bulls (5 Red Sindhi and 5 Sahiwal) were selected from the Bulls of different breeds and species maintained at the Artificial Insemination Section, College of Animal Husbandry, Lahore.
During the period from 1955 to 1970 Artifical Insemination were carried out in buffaloes and Cows with good qualities semen of these selected bulls maintained at the Centre. All the semen samples were checked for physical and microscopic examinations. Extension of semen was made in Milk Glycerol Extenders containing pencillin and streptomycin and preserved from 3 to 4 days in refrigerator at 5oC. All Inseminations were mostly carried out by Intra-cervical methods and only one ml of extended semen was used.
In the present study data for first inseminations in the buffaloes and cows of selected bulls were only considered. All the non-return rate were compiled on the basis of 30, 60, 90, 120, 60-90 and 90-120 days intervals with the Ist service. The results of actual conception rate for first insemination were also considered for comparison. The data were analysed by the analysis of variance and Duncan's Multiple Range test was also applied to find out the results. The studies revealed that:
The non-return percentages between species (Buffalo and cow) fpr first insemination of different intervals were found to be significant except at 90 days interval. Similarly the non-return percentages among different specie for first inseminations were found significant.
The differences in non-return percentages for different breeds (Buffalo Red Sindhi and Sahiwal) for first insemination at 30,60,90,120 and 60-90 days intervals were found non significant but at 90-120 days interval were significant.
Highly significant differentes in non-return percentages were observed between bulls of Sahiwal Breed. It was significant between bulls of buffalo breed, while non significant differences were found between bulls of Red Sindhi breed.
The actual conception percentage for inseminations in Buffalo Bulls was lower as compared to cow bulls,but the conception rate for Sahiwal bulls was obtained higher than with Red Sindhi Bulls.
Highly significant differences were obtained in conception rate on the basis of non-return as compared to actual pregnancy test.
Significantly lower conception rates were recorded with natural service as compared to that obtained with artificial insemination.
Based on the results of this study, it may be concluded that more reliance can be placed on the conception rates based on non-return percentages at 120 days interval or above.
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A Comparative Investigation Of The Nutritive Value Of Various Commercially Available Fish Meals In Broiler Feeding
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Publisher: 1970 Dissertation note: Two experimens, one of growth and feed efficiency and the other for determination of metabolizable energy were conducted on broiler chicks. Three fish meals of 55, 45 and 40 grades prepared by M/S. Pak primco Ltd. Karachi were evaluated for their nutritive values. The control ration was supplemented with meat meal at the same level.
An 8 week growth trial was conducted and broiler chicks fed on experimental rations A, B, C, and D gained average daily weight of 18.88, 18.07, 17.59 and 18.25 grams respectively. Feed efficiency for rations A, B, C and D was 3.18, 3.27, 3.36 and 3.22 respectively. When weight gain and feed efficiency data was subjected to analysis of variance, no significant difference was observed.
In the second experiment of one week duration, metabolizable energy value of experimental rations was determined. Nine week old male chicks of equal weights were maintained in battery cages in groups of two. Three groups were fed on each experimental ration. Method of total collection of excreta was adopted. Uncorrected and corrected metabolizable energy values of rations A, B, C and D per gram were calculated and found to be 3.74, 3.35, 3.20 and 3.37 Calories in the former case and 3.50, 3.12 and 3.12 Calories in the latter case on statistical analysis highly significant differences were seen between rations A--B, A--C and A--D, while non significant differences were observed between B-C, B-D and C-D rations.
Chicks fed on rations A, B, C and D metabolized nitrogen at the rate of 28.41, 28.48, 24.89 and 30.39 milligrams per gram of diet. Significant difference at 5 percent level was observed between rations D-C, because of high protein and low mineral contents of ration D than ration C.
Following conclusions can be drawn from the present research study:-
1. All three fish meals used, possessed high nutritive value.
2. Sun curing may be a satisfactory process of drying fish meals and does not deteriorate the quality of fish meals for poultry feeding.
3. Fish meal of lowest grade gave comparable results in growth, feed efficiency and metabolizable energy values with meat meal and the latter can be completely replaced without effecting the biological value of rations.
4. Complete replacement of meat meal with fih meal of lower quality will decrease the feed cost by 15-20 percent as the latter is available at approximately half of the price of meat meal.
5. Fish meals used at 7 percent level did not give any fishy odour to the meat of broilers.
6. More research work is required to evaluate various fish meals preferably at lower levels.
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Study On Performance Of Broilers Under Different Intensities (Wattages) Of Light And Illuminated Feeders
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Publisher: 1988 Dissertation note: The study was aimed to find out the effect of different light intensities (wattages) on weight gain, feed consumption feed conversion ratio, dressing percentage, mortality and abnormalities in broiler chicks. 120, one day old chicks were selected and divided randomly in four groups of 30 chicks each. The following light treatments were provided to the chicks of the Groups A,B,C and D. (A) 40 watt bulb at night and natural day light (B) 25 watt bulb at night and natural day light (C) 15 watt bulb at night and natural day light (D) Spot-lighted feeders with 5 watt bulb at night and natural day light. Each chick was given 0.8 sq. ft. floor space. Feeding and watering were provided ad.lib. under indentical managemental conditions.
Weekly data starting from 4th week onwards revealed that at 4th week of age there wa non-significant difference in weight gain, feed consumption and feed convertion ratio among the four treatment groups. Significant differences in weight gai and feed conversion ratio and non-significant differences in feed consumption were noticed among the groups at 8th week of age.
The results indicate that birds of Group A due to more activities under high wattage gained least weight i.e. 1.6937 Kg and sonsumed more feed i.e. 4.8017 Kg and showed poorest feed conversion ratio i.eo 2.84 as compared to the birds of rest of three groups, i.e. B, C and D. The birds of Group B gained less weight i.e. 1.7343 Kg, consumed more feed i.e. 4.7983 Kg and showed poorer feed conversion ratio i.e. 2.77 than the birds of Group C and D. The birds of Group C gained less weight, i.e. 1.8293 Kg consumed more feed i.e. 4.6733 Kg and showed poor feed conversion ratio i.e. 2.55 when compared with the birds of Group D but showed better performance tha the birds of Group A and B. The birds of Group D gained significantly more weight (P<0.05) i.e. 1.8567 Kg, at low feed intake i.e. 4.6510 Kg and showed significantly better feed conversion ratio (P<0.05) i.e. 2.50 as compared to the birds of Group A and B, as the light intensity (wattage) available to the birds of Group D was very low, hence there was less activity due to less movement, as compared to Group A,B and C. Therefore, the birds of Group D converted more available energy into weight gain and showed best performance as compared to other three groups i.e. A, B and C.
Dressing percentage recorded after 8th week of age was 61.85% 62.24% 62.86% and 63.11% for Group A, B, C and D respectively. A non-significant difference was observed among all the groups.
There was no mortality throughout the experimental period and apparently no considerable abnormality was observed.
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Study On The Effect Of Artificial Insemination On Fertiligy And Hatchability Of Eggs In Poultry
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Publisher: 1983 Dissertation note: The main objective of this research was to examine the possibility of using skimmed milk and whole milk as diluents of fowl semen under the local environment. The research was carried out on 56 weeks old hens at the poultry Research Institute, Rawalpindi. The birds were trap nested in individual cages and cages were arranged in three tiers. The birds were exposed to 16L: 8D. Feed and water were available at all times. Study was executed in two phases.
In the first series of trials, skimmed milk was used in five different dilutions comprising 1:5, 1:10, 1:15, 1:20 and 1:25 undiluted semen (Treatment A) served as control group. The experiment was repeated four times to remove any experimental error and to minimize variability between the trials. The hatchability of eggs was maximum in the control group, and it was observed to be statistically significant (P<0.01) than all other competitive treatments. The skimmed milk dilutions gave poor hatchability although hatchability increased with the reduction in the dilution ratio.
The second phase of trials consisted of two trials and each trial had three treatments, i.e. undiluted semen (A), skimmed milk dilution 1:2 (B) and whole milk dilution 1:2 (C), treatment B was included in the trials to make the skimmed milk studies comprehensive and to compare it with the whole milk as diluents of chicken semen. The hatchability of eggs in treatment A and C was substantially higher than the skimmed milk group (Treatment B).
The number of infertile eggs in the skimmed milk group was very high and it was significantly (P<0.01) more than all other treatments. This higher infertility could e ascribed to old age of the birds and high temperature (above 40oC) of summer season. This might, therefore, be concluded that the whole milk proved satisfactory diluents of fowl semen while pure skimmed milk gave poor hatchability.
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Incidence Of Gastro Intestinal Nematode Parasites Of Sheep Slaughtered In Municial Corporation Abattoir Lahore
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Publisher: 1973 Dissertation note: 1. 500 sheep guts ware examined during autumn, winter ad spring, The animals were brought from Lahore Silalkot, Jhelum, Rawalpindi, Sargodha, Lyallpur, Multan, Bahawalpur Peshawrr, Murree ad Kaghan districts, The parasites recorded ware Trichuris Ovis Haemonchus countortus, Oespharostomum venulosum, Oestphagostomum columbianum, Ostertagia circumcincta, Skrajabinems ovis, Bunostomum trigonocephalum, Trichostrongylus axei, Trichostrongylus vitrius and Chabertia ovina .
2, The changes in worm burden of different parasites varied according to changes in the weather, the overall percentage infection showed a gradual decrease from October, 1969 to February, 1970 sad a rise in March and April, 1970,
3. Trichostrongylus axei, Trichostronglys vitrinus, and Chabertia ovina were recovered from only those sheep which were slaughtered 4uring spring and the number of parasites was low,
4, The average percentage infection of Trichostrongyulus axei and Trichostrongylus vitrinus was 0,2% a4 0,4% respectively.
5. 38.4% cases of Trichuris ovis were recorded,
6. No male of Skrjubinema ovis could be found in any of the samples that were examined.
7. Of the total guts examined, 375 (75%) were found to be infected with one or more species of parasites.
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A Study On The Normal Blood Picture Of Buffaloes In Lahore
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Publisher: 1973 Dissertation note: Abstract
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Effect Of Mating Ratio And Age On Fertility And Hatchability In Japanese Quails (Coturnix Coturnix Japonica)
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Publisher: 1997 Dissertation note: The present project was planed to study the effect of mating ratio and age on fertility and hatchability in Japanese quails.
The production of fertile eggs was found to relate to the number of males present in a flock. Fertility and hatchability of eggs was directly influenced by sex ratio and age of birds. However, very little information in this regard is available.
One hundred and seventy four males and four hundred twenty six females quails of 4 weeks age were purchased from the local market. They were divided into five equal mating groups i.e. A, B, C, D and E comprising 120 quails in each group. Each group was further divided into 2 sub groups i.e. Al, A2, Bi, B2, Cl, C2, Dl, D2 and El, E2. The mating ratio of males and females in the respective groups was 1:1, 1:2, 1:3, 1:4 and 1:5. Birds were reared for a period of two weeks i.e. 5-6 weeks of age under similar environments on floor, then they were transferred to battery cages and were kept there upto the age of 16 weeks.
To assess the ideal parental age for optimal fertility and hatchability, hatching eggs from a single hatch breeding flock between 7 and 16 weeks of age were set twice in a week The mean hatching performance of the eggs set during 7 to 8, 9 to 10, 11 to 12, 13 to 14 and 15 to 16 weeks of age were recorded separately.
The unhatched eggs were opened on the day 18 and examined
macroscopically to identify the infertile eggs, embryonic mortality, fertility and hatchability of fertile eggs set were calculated.
Identical environmental and managemental conditions were provided to all the experimental birds. They were fed on commerca1 ration -libitum. Clean and fresh water was made available at all times. Light was provided 24 h during rearing time and 16 h during breeding period. Standard rearing, breeding and hatching management procedures were followed throughout the study period.
The following data was recorded:
Weight of birds at the start of experiment, Feed consumption, Average body weightlbirds on weekly basis, Feed conversion ratio, Mortality if any, Fertility percentage and Hatchability percentage.
The data collected was statistically analysed using 5 x 5
The quail chicks at 4 weeks age weighed on an average 98 gm/bird and within a period of two weeks rearing gained on an average a body weight of 134.1 gm/bird. The weight gradually increased with age. The final body weight at the age week 16, under ratio 1:1, 1:2, 1:3, 1:4 and 1:5 was 130.5, 186.5, 188.0, 189.5, 191.5 and 193.5 gm respectively, the overall mean value being 189.8 gm/bird.
The difference in average weight/bird in various groups has been due to the difference in the number of females. The females weighed heavier than the males consequently the groups having smaller number of females were lighter in weight than the groups having higher number of females.
The percentage weekly increase in body weight was 37.6, 12.76 and 8.27% at age weeks 7, 8 and 9 respectively. Further increase in body weight from age week 10 to 16, ranged between 0.9 and 4.7. The rearing of Japanese quail beyond age weeks 8 or 9 for meat purposes will not be economical. The egg fertility was the highest at age weeks 13-14 (80.73%) followed by 15-16 (72.34%) 11-12 (7 1.12%), 9-10 (63.57%) and 7-8 weeks (56-20%), all being statistically different from one another. The mating ratio (1:1 to 1:5) showed statistically significant effect on egg fertility, which ranged between 58.16 to
8 1.12%, the maximum being at mating ratio of 1:2 and the minimum at 1:5.
The mating ratio and age have been found to have significant effect on egg hatchability, it was maximum at age weeks 13-14 (67.46%) and the minimum at age weeks 7-8 (41-23%). Similarly mating ratio 1:2 resulted in the maximum (66.08) and mating ratio 1:5 showed the minimum (48.73%) egg hatchability.
The results of present study have led to the conclusion that egg fertility and hatchability were highest at age week 13-14 and at mating ratio 1:2.
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A Survellance On Managemental Problems Of Layer Farms In And Around Lahore District
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Publisher: 1999 Dissertation note: A survey of randomly selected 50 layer farms was conducted in and around Lahore district. Data regarding farming structure, location and dimension of sheds/farms, feed and feeding, watering, labour management, lighting schedule, equipments, litter management, biosecurity and sanitation, vaccines and vaccination, health cover after disease outbreak, deworming, culling, environment control, egg production; storage and marketing, molting, availability of extension services, sale of old birds, record keeping and economics were collected through a questionnaire by interviewing individual farmers/supervisors.
The results showed that almost literate people were doing layer business. Most of farms comprised more than one shed but the capacity was not fully utilized. The farms were located at a reasonable distance both from Lahore and main road. Almost all sheds were constructed in right direction and dimensions. Mostly commercial feeds were in use and storage facility was present at most of farms with a proper storage period. Almost all farmers had water from hand pumps and dunkey pumps which had numerous problems like E. ç2jj, salts like sodium chloride and nitrates etc. Automatic drinkers were mostly in use and frequency of filling water tank was more in summer. Nominal wages were given to labour with no special reward and criteria of selecting labour was honesty, hardwork and experience. Lighting period at most of farms was according to company's schedule. Plastic and steel equipments were mostly used and brooding was done by coal and electric brooders alongwith karosine oil stoves. Rice husk and saw dust were litter materials commonly used, however, rice husk was found to be slightly more common. Practices of biosecurity and sanitation were not followed as required. Generally, vaccines had their origin from private companies and found to have reasonable results. Mortality rate was comparatively high due to unsatisfactory managemental practices. Cost of mdication was also higher due to repeated attacks of diseases. Deworming have found to be a routine practice and had good effect on production. Culling was not practiced properly due to lack of technical know how. Environment extremes both heat and cold were observed to be the major problems in layer production. Egg production at most of farms and practices of collection and marketing were found better. Molting was still not a common practice however most of those who did it, found molting beneficial and economical. Extension services were mainly provided by private sector. Record keeping was commonly practiced. It was concluded that there were lot of managemental problems at the farms which resulted into poor production as compared to the advanced world.
SUGGESTIONS AND RECOMMENDATIONS
1. Latest information regarding management and production should be disseminated to the farmers through launching of short term training courses/programmes.
2. Field technical staff should be offered refresher courses in order to be in touch with new diagnostic techniques.
3. Horizontal transmission of diseases can be reduced by following strict biosecurity measures including regular disinfection of farms, equipments and litter. Foot baths should be made available by each farmer.
4. Provision of required temperature and humidity is prerequisite in attaining maximum egg production. Provision of constant environment can be made through the use of cooling and heating systems.
5. Good quality feed at reasonable prices is now the need of the hour. Government should give subsidies on import of required ingredients as well as legislation should be done to bound feed manufacturers to give quality feed.
6. Most of farmers are facing many problems due to low quality water. This can be reduced by guiding farmers for regular chlorination and disinfection.
7. Vaccines and medicines available in the market are both of low quality and expensive. This needs special check on importers and manufacturers.
8. Farmers should be encouraged to shift on cages instead of deep litter system in order to enhance labour efficiency and production.
9 . Cleaning of dirty eggs should be adopted by every farmer to limit the entrance of disease producing germs in the eggs to avoid health hazards to humans.
10. Medicine withdrawal time is a crucial topic which is absolutely ignored by our farmers, resulting antibiotics resistance in humans. Legislation should be made upon it.
11. Egg marketing should be based on grading. Larger eggs should have more prices than smaller ones so that farmers could get proper profit of their product.
12. Government should encourage the establishment of egg processing and storage plants in order to limit the difference of demand and supply of eggs throughout the year.
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A Study On The Surveillance Of Management Related Problems In Broiler Farms Of Lahore District
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Publisher: 1999 Dissertation note: A survey was conducted to collect the data from 150 randomly selected broiler farms, through a questionnaire to evaluate the surveiling management related problems and present status of broiler farms of Lahore district. It was observed that of the total 150 respondents 4.6% were found to be illiterate whereas majority of the farmers i.e. 58.7% were of below matric education level. 46.7% farmers took broiler farming as part time business. 57.33% farmers had no agriculture land and 42.67% had their own land.
Most of the farmers (52.%) kept single shed only and maximum number of farms (46.7%) were raising 2001-5000 birds with their current strength of 50%. Of the total farms, 60 (40%) farms were rented and 90 (60%) farmers had their own farms.
It was noticed that 63.34% farms were located within the range of 25-40 kms of Lahore city and 94.67% farms had a main road facility within 5 km of range. At 14.66% farms boundry walls were present. It was also observed that there was no trend of homernix and automatic feeding in broiler farming. It was found that 87.3% farmers purchased feed on credit, 70.67% farmers practiced ad-libitum feeding programme and 61.3% farmers stored feed inside the sheds.
It was seen that at 8.57% farms proper water storage facility was not available. E. coli was observed at 42.0% farms and 9.3% farmers were using manual waterers. It was also revealed from the data that out of 150 farms 16.0% were using tubelights, 68.7% used bulbs whereas 15.3% were using lanterns, gas lamps etc. due to nonavailability at their farms. It was seen majority of farmers (89.3%) used wood and/or coal brooder during brooding.
It was observed that 48.8% farmers used rice husk, 30% saw dust, whereas 28.7% were of in favour of using sand in summer season, but there was no use of sand in winter season. Most of the farmers (82.7%) were aware of racking and change of litter material and 62.7% farmers used litter material from 1-2".
At all farms there was a strong labourer interaction, no labour disinfection was practiced. There was no restriction to farm visitors and at 8% farms other livestock was also present. At all farms vaccination was done by feed company vaccinators and role of private manifactured vaccines was observed to be 86.67%. It was noted that 49.3% farmers received 98-99% A grade chicks, whereas 92.67% farmers took help of middlemen in marketing of their birds.
Gumboro ranked first in prevalence of disease with a percentage of 52% and most of the farmers (64.1%) had mortality percentage ranging from 6-15%. It was find out that 83.33% farm labourers had charges in a range of 2001-2500 rupees and 82.6% labourers were raising from 1600-2500 birds. It was also found that 75.33% farmers had feeding cost from 65-70%. It was also evident that 86% farmers had vaccine and medication cost upto 5 rupees per bird. It was noted that almost at all the farms technical services were provided by the Technical staff of Feed Mills, Hatcheries and Pharmaceutical companies.
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Relationship Between Live Body Weight And Body Measurement S In Kajli Sheep
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Publisher: 2010 Dissertation note: The present study was conducted at Livestock Experiment Station Khizrabad (Sargodha). Khizrabad is a small town of tehsil Bhalwal district Sargodha. The objective of the study was to fing out or develop the relationship between live body weight and body measurements in Kajli sheep. The sheep were arranged in nine age groups, A 0-3, B 4-6, C 7-9, D10-12, E= 13-15, F16-18, G 19-21, H 22-24 and 1 above 24 months. Group A, B, C, and D were further divided into sub groups (Male & Female), where as the groups E, F, G, H and I comprised of Ewes only. Body weights were taken using digital weighing scale and measurements of body height at wither, body length, heart girth, head length, head width, rump length and rump width with the help of measuring tape graduated with inches. Data on 788 female! 120 male and total of 908 observations of different age groups of sheep were collected. The mean height at wither (Inches) of Kajli sheep in nine age groups (0-3, 4-6, 7-9, 10-12, 13-15, 16-18, 19-21, 22-24 and above 24 months of age) was found to be 19.34 ± 1.36 (Overall), 19.33 ± 1.33 (female), 19.52 ± 1.26 (male), 20.42 ± 1.04 (Overall), 20.54 ± 1.01 (female), 20.25 ± 1.11 (male), 21.59 ± 0.90 (Overall), 21.84 ± 0.97 (female), 21.38 ± 0.78 (male), 23.55 ± 1.00 (Overall), 23.76 ± 0.84 (female), 22.58 ± 1.14 (male), 27.34 ± 1.25, 28.57 ± 0.92, 28.49 ± 1.39, 29.30 ± 1.01 and 29.57 ±1.30. The mean body length (Inches) in Kajli sheep in nine age group was noted to be 17.76 ± 1.44 (Overall), 17.76 ± 1.21 (female), 17.92 ± 1.48 (male), 20.18 ± 1.26 (Overall), 20.54 ± 1.32 (female), 19.68 ± 1.03 (male), 20.72 ± 1.22 (Overall), 20.54 ± 0.94 (female), 20.86 ± 1.40 (male), 22.23 ± 0.88 (Overall), 22.44 ± 0.72 (female), 21.30 ± 0.94 (male), 26.51 ± 1.36, 27.95 ±1.21, 27.77 ± 1.59, 28.65 ± 1.41 and 29.16 ±1.3. The mean heart girth (Inches) for all age groups was 18.64 ± 1.46 (Overall), 18.70 ± 1.46 (female), 18.69 ± 1.37 (male), 20.94 ± 1.20 (Overall), 21.21 ± 0.94 (female), 20.57 ± 1.45 (male), 21.63 ± 1.06 (Overall), 21.59 ± 0.99 (female), 21.67 ± 1.12 (male), 23.46 ± 1.82 (Overall), 23.66 ± 1.87 (female), 22.55 ± 1.28 (male), 29.33 ± 1.95, 30.61 ±1.12, 31.48 ± 1.68, 32.42 ± 1.43 and 33.33 ±1.64 respectively. The mean head length (Inches) of Kajli sheep recorded in nine age groups was 7.55 ± 0.53 (Overall), 7.48 ± 0.55 (female), 7.68 ± 0.48 (male), 7.74 ± 0.53 (Overall), 7.64 ± 0.40 (female), 2.77 ± 0.20 (male), 8.02 ± 0.48 (Overall), 7.96 ± 0.42 (female), 8.07 ± 0.53 (male), 9.36 ± 0.82 (Overall), v.47 ± 0.81 (female), 8.88 ± 0.75 (male), 11.48 ± 0.65, 12.08 ± 0.77, 12.06 ± 0.71, 12.12± 0.77 and 12.52 ± 0.54 respectively. The mean head width (Inches) for all age groups was 2.70 ± 0.19 (Overall), 2.71 ± 0.19 (female), 2.69 ± 0.18 (male), 2.76 ± 0.19 (Overall), 2.75 ± 0.19 (female), 2.77 ± 0.20 (male), 2.83 ± 0.15 (Overall), 2.80 ± 0.15 (female), 2.86 ± 0.15 (male), 2.70 ± 0.20 (Overall), 2.71 ± 0.20 (female), 2.66 ± 0.21 (male), 3.23 ± 0.17, 3.44 ± 0.21, 3.23 ± 0.29, 3.22 ± 0.16 and 3.39 ± 0.23 respectively. The mean rump length (Inches) for all age groups was 3.82 ± 0.33 (Overall), 3.89 ± 0.29 (female), 3.74 ± 0.36 (male), 3.98 ± 0.19 (Overall), 4.02 ± 0.17 (female), 3.93 ± 0.21 (male), 4.03 ± 0.24 (Overall), 4.11 ± 0.32 (female), 3.97 ± 0.11 (male), 4.58 ± 0.21 (Overall), 4.61 ± 0.14 (female), 4.40 ± 0.34 (male), 5.49 ± 0.42, 5.68 ± 0.44, 5.79 ± 0.41, 5.85 ± 0.40 and 6.00 ± 0.41 respectively. The mean rump width (Inches) for all age groups was 6.03 ± 0.51 (Overall), 6.01 ± 0.50 (female), 6.04 ± 0.53 (male), 6.69 ± 0.35 (Overall), 6.66 ± 0.25 (female), 6.75 ± 0.47 (male), 6.89 ± 0.41 (Overall), 6.74 ± 0.43 (female), 7.02 ± 0.35 (male), 7.52 ± 0.24 (Overall), 7.56 ± 0.16 (female), 7.33 ± 0.42 (male), 8.18 ± 0.53, 8.98 ± 0.80, 8.73 ± 0.63, 9.06 ± 0.72 and 9.06 ± 0.65. The mean body weight (Kg) for all age groups was observed as 8.69 ± 1.56 (Overall), 8.68 ± 1.46 (female), 8.83 ± 1.63 (male), 12.27 ±1.36 (Overall), 12.42 ± 1.19 (female), 12.05 ± 1.59 (male), 13.25 ± 0.94 (Overall), 13.30 ± 1.01 (female), 13.22 ± 0.90 (male), 16.35 ± 1.85 (Overall), 16.63 ± 1.83. (female), 15.10 ± 1.38 (male), 31.84 ± 3.12, 37.18 ± 3.10, 38.03 ± 3.46, 41.97 ± 3.42 and 44.51 ±4.30, respectively.
The correlation between body weight and height at wither, body length, heart girth, head length, head width, rump length and rump width of group A were 0.698, 0.659, 0.829, 0.435, 0.287, 0.275 and 0.388, respectively, for females were 0.623, 0.582, 0.793, 0.453, 0.234, 0.258 and 0.297, respectively, while for male were 0.746, 0.689, 0.861, 0.342, 0.238, 0.283 and 0.489, respectively. For group B the correlation between body weight and height at wither, body length, heart girth, head length, head width, rump length and rump width were 0.737, 0.731, 0.845, 0.340, 0.250, 0.484 and 0.482, respectively. Correlation for female of group B were 0.714, 0.801, 0.760, 0.040, 0.094, 0.081 and 0.242, respectively, while for male were 0.757, 0.708, 0.910, 0.607, 0.431, 0.798 and 0.666, respectively. The correlation for group C were 0.315, 0.400, 0.300, 0.090, 0.05 1-0.180 and 0.004, respectively, for females were 0.362, 0.328, 0.354, 0.388, 0.078, 0.077 and 0.060, respectively, while for male were 0.262, 0.481, 0.263, 0.118, 0.047, 0.072 and 0.026, respectively. The correlation for group D were 0.906, 0.892, 0.778, 0.919, 0.703, 0.466 and 0.718, respectively, for females were 0.926, 0.912, 0.749, 0.908, 0.860, 0.333 and 0.768, respectively, while for male were 0.913, 0.912, 0.896, 0.956, 0.933, 0.740 and 0.835, respectively. The correlations for group E were 0.416, 0.305, 0.555, 0.361, 0.220, 0.452 and 0.448, respectively. The correlations for group F were 0.337, 0.612, 0.467, 0.493, 0.282, 0.357 and 0.690, respectively. The correlations for group G were 0.342, 0.3 18, 0.2 10, 0.397, 0.323, 0.427 and 0.199, respectively. The correlations for group H were 0.376, 0.055, 0.231, 0.126, 0.144, 0.360 and 0.187, respectively. The correlations for group I were 0.286, 0.184, 0.534, 0.117, 0.143, 0.158 and 0.270, respectively. It was found during the study that body weight was highly correlated with body measurements in Kajli sheep of all age groups. The height at wither, body length and heart girth were observed to be significantly correlated with body weight. During the present investigation males were heavier and longer than females in all age groups. Similarly the heart girth as well as height at wither were also bigger in males than those of females.
It was concluded that body measurements had high correlation with body weight indicating that body measurements can be used for estimation of body weight in the field where scales are not usually available. These may also be used as selection criteria. However, further research is needed to investigate the relationship between the body weight and linear body measurements in other breeds of sheep, goats and other livestock breeds of the country.
Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [ Call number: 1088,T] (1).
Study Of Livestock Health Issues And Availability Of Veterinary Services To Pastoral Herds Of Northern Pakistan
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Publisher: 2011 Dissertation note: Pastoralists contribute great contribution in the economy of the developing world providing food and employment to peoples. In Pakistan pastoralism is also present and the pastoralists having their livestock keeping mobile through all the year upland and lowland. The goal of this research study has been to assess the major health problems in market oriented Livestock development. Although the feed resource and grazing land are quite enough, the research that was carried out in Narran valley reveals of how widespread the diseases are the health problems of livestock. The study indicates Narran valley has a high livestock population, which plays a substantial role in the livelihood of the farmers. In general, livestock is the most important unit of the Agricultural Community in both the market and the households' level. Unfortunately, animal productivity is very low in the area there are many reasons for this, among which is the major obstacle of widespread animal health problems and veterinary services availability. The diseases reported in the herds are the CCPP, FMD, Brucellosis, Small Pox, Liver flukes, Hemorrhagic Septicemia, Enterotoxaemia, GID, Tympany, and PPR. These diseases cause heavy economic losses in their herds every year. The veterinary services for the land less pastoralists were not available where their herds were settled. For this research a survey was conducted to get the perceptions of the pastoralists and the veterinary services providers. Questionnaires were made for the pastoralists and veterinary services providers.
Results of this study lead to development of a policy for the landless herder's livestock. This was a useful study on the livestock health issues and veterinary services, as no other study has been carried out in Pakistan for the livestock of land less transhumant herders. Additionally this study can become the basis for further research in their livestock.
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Genetic Evaluation Of Teddy Goats In Pakistan
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Publisher: 2012 Dissertation note: Data available on 20455 kidding and performance records of 5545 Teddy goats and progeny of 406 sires maintained as separate flocks at three different locations i,e (I) Livestock Experiment Station Rakh Ghulaman, District Bakkhar (1983-2008) (II) Livestock Experiment Station, Rakh Khariewala District Layyah (1971-2008) and (III) Livestock Experiment Station Chak Katora, District Bahawalpur (1975-2008) Punjab, Pakistan were analyzed for documenting both genetic and environmental sources which influence growth and reproductive traits. Breeding values of sires and does were estimated and genetic and phenotypic trends for various performance traits were drawn. The data was analyzed using the GLM procedure (General Linear Models) of the Statistical Analysis Systems (SAS, 2004) to study the influence of environmental sources of variation on various growth and reproductive traits. The genetic parameter estimation was done using REML procedure fitting an Individual Animal Model. Estimates of breeding values for various performance traits were also calculated by using BLUP. For these purposes WOMBAT software was used.
The Least squares means for Age at first service, Age at first kidding, Weight at first service, weight at first kidding, services per conception, service period, kidding interval, birth weight, weaning weight, weight at six months, weight at nine months, yearling weight, pre-weaning daily gain, post-weaning daily gain at six months, post-weaning daily gain at nine months and post-weaning daily gain at twelve months the least squares means were 245.65±0.73 days, 14.07±0.01 kg, 394.14±0.76 days, 18.06±0 kg, 1.24±0.004, 153.58±0.73 days, 327.53±1.12 days, 1.66±0.03 kg, 9.59±0.01 kg, 11.70±0.02 kg, 16.69±0.02 kg, 21.03±0.03 kg, 70.21±0.16 grams, 31.39±0.08 grams, 45.25±0.03 grams and 45.95±0.02 grams, respectively. The percentage of single births was 43 percent, while multiple births were 57 percent. The sex ratio was 51:49 males and females.
Year, sex, flock, and type of birth were main sources of variation on all the growth traits. The influence of season of birth was significant on yearling weight; however its effect on weight at six and nine months was non-significant. A significant influence of (p<0.01) birth and weaning weight was noticed on weight at 6, 9, 12 months and on post-weaning daily gain at 6,9 and 12 months. A significant effect (p<0.01) of year, birth weight and weight at service were observed on age of does at first service, while the seasonal and flock effect on the trait was non-significant. The influential environmental sources of variation on weight of does at first service were year, season and age at first service(p<0.01). A significant effect (p<0.01) of year, season, type, age and weight at service on age and weight at first kidding was noticed. The influence of year of service, flock, age and weight at service on services per conception was significant (p<0.01); however, effect of season of service on the trait was non-significant. A highly significant effect (p<0.01) of year and season of service, services per conception and weight at service were observed on service period. A significant effect (p<0.01) of year and season on kidding interval was noticed. The effect of flock was non-significant on the trait, however, age and weight at kidding had a significant effect (p<0.05) on the service period and kidding interval.
The heritability estimates for birth weight, weaning weight, weight at six, nine and twelve (yearling) months, pre-weaning daily gain, post-weaning daily gain at six, post-weaning daily gain at nine, post-weaning daily gain at nine, post-weaning daily gain at twelve months, age at first service, weight at first service, age at first kidding, weight at first kidding, services per conception, service period and kidding interval were 0.28±0.23, 0.23±0.32, 0.19±0.42, 0.09±0.01 and 0.12±0.01, 0.21±0.32, 0.17±0.42, 0.12±0.02, 0.15±0.01, 0.19±0.22, 0.21±0.01, 0.19±0.04, 0.20±0.04, 0.07±0.01, 0.06±0.05 and 0.05±0.03, respectively. The repeatability estimates for birth weight, weaning weight, services per conception, service period and kidding interval were 0.53±0.02, 0.38±0.01, 0.02±0.05, 0.01±0.04 and 0.05±0.03, respectively.
The estimates of genetic, Phenotypic and environmental correlations between birth weight and other growth traits were; weaning weight 0.61, 0.20 and 0.19, with weight at six months 0.39, 0.24 and 0.23, with weight at nine months 0.25, 0.38 and 0.36, with yearling weight 0.29, -0.01 and -0.02 and with pre-weaning daily gain 0.55, 0.31 and 0.29, respectively, while corresponding values for correlations between weaning weight and other growth traits were; with weight at six months 0.29, 0.19 and 0.17, with weight at nine months 0.23, 0.27 and 0.25, with yearling weight 0.45, 0.29 and 0.27 and with pre-weaning daily gain 0.97, 0.68 and 0.65, respectively, while the corresponding values for these correlations between weight at six months and other growth traits were; with weight at nine months 0.71, 0.27 and 0.25 with yearling weight 0.64, 0.21 and 0.19 and with pre-weaning daily gain were 0.31, 0.33, 0.31, respectively. The values for these correlations between weight at nine months and other traits were; with yearling weight 0.79, 0.23 and 0.21, with pre-weaning daily gain 0.25, 0.39 and 0.37, with post-weaning daily gain at six months 0.72, 0.81 and 0.79, respectively, while the estimates of these three correlations between yearling weight and other traits were; with pre-weaning daily gain 0.47, 0.41 and 0.42 and with post-weaning daily gain at six months 0.65, 0.10 and 0.08, while the corresponding values between pre-weaning daily gain and other traits were; with post-weaning gain at six months were 0.34, 0.15 and 0.13, with post-weaning gain at nine months 0.22, 0.13 and 0.12 and with post-weaning daily gain at twelve months were 0.54, 0.17 and 0.14, respectively.
The estimates of genetic, Phenotypic and environmental correlations between age at first serviceand other traits were; with weight at first service 0.22, 0.79 and 0.76, with age at first kidding 0.76, 0.97 and 0.91 and with weight at first kidding 0.34, 0.14 and 0.11, respectively, while the corresponding values for these correlations between weight at first service and other traits were; with age at first kidding 0.39, 0.81 and 0.80, with weight at first kidding 0.35, 0.22 and 0.21 and with weight at first kidding 0.82, 0.18 and 0.16, respectively.
Analysis of pedigree records for coefficient of inbreeding revealed that number of animals being 4465 (42.61 percent) with an average inbreeding of 2.43 percent and the highest level being 46.48 percent. The number of non-inbred animals was 6014 (57.39%). Out of the total of 406 sires used 23 were found inbred having an average inbreeding coefficient of 3.125 percent. Most frequent value for this category of animals was zero. The highest number of animals 1531 (14.61 percent) had an inbreeding percentage between 0.1 to 3.125, while only 104 animals (0.99 percent) were found with inbreeding of more than 25 percent. Most of the growth traits were statistically better in non-inbreds as compared to inbreds except yearling weight and post-weaning weight gain at twelve months, in which the means of both the traits were similar in both the groups. Among reproductive traits, age at first serviceand kidding, services per conception, service period and kidding interval were also statistically better in non-inbreds as compared to inbreds, while weight at first service and kidding interval were similar in both the groups.
The ranges for estimated breeding values for different traits were, birth weight (-0.18 to 0.08 kg), weaning weight (-0.61 to 0.40 kg), weight at six months (-0.27 to 0.11 kg), weight at nine months, (-0.07 to 0.09 kg), yearling weight (-0.12 to 0.18 kg), pre-weaning daily gain (-0.30 to 1.20 grams), post-weaning daily gain at 6 months (-0.74 to 1.27 grams), post-weaning daily gain at 9 months (-0.32 to 0.57 grams), post-weaning daily gain at 12 months (-1.08 to 1.57 grams), age at first service(-43.23 to 58.06 days), weight at first service (-0.55 to 1.07 kg), age at first kidding (-53.31 to 48.34 days), weight at first kidding (-1.19 to 3.50 kg), services per conception (-0.18 to 0.16), service period (-7.07 to 9.80 days) and kidding interval (-13.23 to 20.89 days), respectively. The genetic trend in both birth weight and weaning weight showed an increasing trend during the period of study, while the genetic trend in weight at six, nine and twelve (yearling) months had no significant trend and fluctuated in the vicinity of zero.
It is envisaged from the present study that over the 34 years period selection remained ineffective to bring the desired changes and it will remain so if random use of breeding animals is practiced. The possible use of ineffective selection could be unavailability of efficient techniques for the evaluation of animals and incorrect performance recording etc. It is therefore, necessary to correct all these discrepancies by taking corrective measures as discussed above. The following corrective measures may be a first step towards a goal oriented breeding policy.
1. The animals kept mainly for producing meat, the single most important factor is reproductive rate, which contributes to the efficiency of production (Shelton 1978). The most striking feature of sheep and goat enterprise is the ability to breed, off-season. Teddy goat is a non-seasonal breeder as kidding was observed throughout year with 36%, 19%, 25% and 20% kiddings recorded during spring, summer, autumn and winter, respectively, therefore a controlled breeding programme being practiced at times (as was observed during the present study at all the three stations) should not be advocated in any form at all and the desirable trait of non-seasonality should be the main pillar of a meat goat enterprise.
2. Although a higher percentage of abortions (70%) was observed in summer months but the percentage of dead births and mortality was almost equally distributed throughout the year, which indicates that better management of the flock during extremes of weather will results in less abortions and reduced mortality.
3. The high percentage of multiple births (57%) as against single births (43%) in teddy goats found in present study has backing of several studies, which showed that although there was slow growth rate in multiple births, yet they performed better by producing more total weight of kid weaned. Therefore prolificacy becomes a very important reproductive criteria and therefore emphasis should be selection of those animals with higher percentage of multiple births.
4. Environmental effects on productive and reproductive traits were significant; therefore through better management there are ample chances of improvement in these traits.
5. Low to medium heritability was recorded in all the growth traits, which offers scope for genetic selection.
6. Selection of animals to be the parents of future flock must be based on EBVs of growth traits.
7. Reproductive performance in present study was more than satisfactory. Early maturity which has been the main characteristic of Teddy breed was better as compared to many other breeds of the tropics (Beetal, Kamori, Jamunapari and Sirohi). Teddy goats were efficient than other breeds of the region when the means of the other reproductive traits like services per conception, service period and kidding interval were taken into consideration, however, room for improvement is still there.
8. Inbreeding in present study showed some increasing trend during the last five years and the percentage of animals kept on increasing during the last decade, therefore to control inbreeding a breeding plan with introduction of new blood from time to time is of utmost importance.
Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [ Call number: 1582,T] (1).
Characterization Of Linear Type Traits In Nili Rivei Buffaloes Of Pakistan
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Publisher: 2013 Dissertation note: The present study on conformation recording of Nili Ravi buffaloes was planned because there was lack of studies on this aspect of Nili Ravi buffaloes. The main objective of the study was to document and characterize linear type traits in Nili Ravi buffaloes so that the buffaloes with proper body characteristics could be identified for selection and breeding programs. Nili Ravi buffalo herds maintained at Livestock Experiment Station Bhunikey, Pattoki, distt. Kasur, Livestock Experiment Station, Chack Katora distt. Bahawalpur, Livestock Experiment Station Haroonabad distt. Bahawalnagar, Livestock Experiment Station Khushab, distt. Khushab, Livestock Experiment Station Rakh Ghulaman distt. Bhakhar and some private breeders were utilized in this study.
The guidelines for conformational recording of dairy cattle provided by the International Committee for Animal Recording (ICAR) were followed in this study. A total of 437 milking buffaloes were scored for linear type traits on a scale of 1-9. First scoring was performed within 15 to 90 days of calving and then each after about 90 days interval.
Genetic parameters viz. heritabilities, phenotypic and genetic correlations were estimated using Best Linear Unbiased Prediction (BLUP) evaluation techniques. Influencing factors such as age of the buffalo at scoring, stage of lactation, parity, herd and season of scoring were included in the model. Individual Animal Model was fitted under Restricted Maximum Likelihood (REML) Procedure. Data were analysed using the mixed model procedure of the Statistical Analysis Systems. Genetic parameters were estimated fitting an Individual Animal Model using the ASREML set of computer programs.
A total of 1180 records on different linear type traits and body measurements were generated over a scoring period of 2 years. Most of the average values for linear type traits were seen to fall under the intermediate category of 4-6. The means±SD for different linear type traits were found as 5.07±1.35, 5.23±2.35, 5.41±1.45, 5.76±0.98, 6.73±1.53, 4.91±1.85, 4.99±0.88, 4.99±0.90, 5.39±2.13, 4.78±1.1, 5.36±1.56, 4.91±1.84, 5.76±1.67, 3.58±0.88, 5.66±2.24, 6.42±0.88, 4.88±0.69, 4.92±1.08, 4.87±0.84, 5.34±1.79, 4.76±1.78, 5.97±0.94, 5.04±2.488, 5.15±1.65 and 6.44±1.03 for stature, chest width, body depth, angularity, rump angle, rump width, rear legs set, rear legs rear view, foot angle , fore udder attachment, rear udder height, central ligament, udder depth, front teat placement, teat length, rear teat placement, locomotion, body condition score, top line, bone structure, rear udder width, udder balance, teat thickness, thurl width, and temperament, respectively.
A highly significant effect of herd was observed on all of the linear type traits (P< 0.0001). Effect of stage of lactation was found to be highly significant for udder conformation related traits. Parity was observed as a highly significant source of variation for some of the body traits including stature, body depth, body condition score and bone structure. However most of the udder related traits were affected by this factor. A non significant effect of parity was observed on chest width, angularity, rump angle, rump width, central ligament, locomotion, top line, udder balance, thurl width and temperament. A highly significant effect of season of scoring was observed on chest width, angularity, rump angle, rear legs set, rear legs rear view, locomotion and thurl width among body traits. However, stature, body depth, body condition score, top line, bone structure and temperament were not affected by season of scoring. Udder conformation traits including fore udder attachment, rear udder height, central ligament, rear udder width, and udder balance were affected by the season of scoring, however rest of the udder traits including udder depth, front teat placement, teat length, rear teat placement and teat thickness were not significantly different in different seasons.
Significant linear effect of age of the buffalo at scoring was seen on most of the linear type traits. including stature, body depth, rear legs set, rear legs rear view, foot angle, fore udder attachment, rear udder height, central ligament, udder depth, teat length, body condition score, bone structure, rear udder width, teat thickness and thurl width. However, chest width, angularity, rump angle, rump width, front teat placement, rear teat placement, locomotion, top line, udder balance and temperament were not affected by linear effect of age. Quadratic effect of age was found as significant on most of the linear type traits except chest width, angularity, rump width, front teat placement, rear teat placement, locomotion, udder balance and temperament.
Univariate heritability estimates of linear type traits were observed as for stature, 0.36±0.092; chest width, 0.10±0.081; body depth, 0.32±0.081; angularity, 0.06±0.071; rump angle, 0.15±0.071; rump width, 0.38±0.092; rear legs set, 0.02±0.07; rear legs rear view, 0.08±0.07; foot angle, 0.09±0.07; fore udder attachment, 0.21±0.07; rear udder height, 0.09±0.07; central ligament, 0.09±0.09; udder depth, 0.10±0.091; front teat placement, 0.11±0.091; teat length, 0.08±0.091; rear teat placement, 0.11±0.081; locomotion, 0.06±0.06; body condition score, 0.14±0.091; top line, 0.03±0.05; bone structure, 0.09±0.09; rear udder width, 0.15±0.09;
udder balance, 0.16±0.07; teat thickness, 0.22±0.091; thurl width, 0.31±0.09 and temperament, 0.14±0.07, respectively.
Some important positive phenotypic correlations of linear type traits with 305 days milk yield were observed as 0.18±0.04 for body depth, 0.15±0.04 for rump angle, 0.13±0.04 for rump width, 0.30±0.04 for rear udder height, 0.43±0.03 for central ligament, 0.16±0.03 for rear teat placement and 0.19±0.04 for rear udder width. Rest of the phenotypic correlations were very low. Considerable negative phenotypic correlations included -0.16±035 for body condition score, -0.15±0.04 for top line, -0.16±0.03 for front teat placement, -0.14±0.04 for udder depth and -0.26±0.04 for fore udder attachment.
Most of the linear type traits showed positive but low genetic correlation with 305 days milk yield including 0.140±0.0001 with stature, 0.210±0.0001 with body depth, 0.11±0.0001 with rump angle, 0.19±0.0002 with rump width, 0.14±0.0001 with rear udder height, 0.20±0.000001 with central ligament, 0.14±0.0000001 with rear teat placement, 0.13±0.0001 with rear udder width, 0.14±0.0000001 with udder balance, 0.09±0.0001 with thurl width and 0.12±0.0000001 with temperament.
Phenotypic and genetic correlations of most the linear type traits with score day milk yield were generally higher than with 305 days milk yield. Phenotypic correlations with score day milk yield were observed as 0.09±0.03 for stature, -0.21±0.03 for chest width, -0.05±0.04 for body depth, -0.17±0.03 for angularity, -0.12±0.03 for rump angle, -0.16±0.05 for rump width, -0.32±0.03 for rear legs set, -0.16±0.04 for rear legs rear view, -0.22±0.03 for foot angle, -0.34±0.03 for fore udder attachment, -0.16±0.04 for rear udder height, -0.16±0.04 for central ligament, -0.25±0.03 for udder depth, 0.06±0.04 for front teat placement, 0.008±0.03 for teat length, -0.19±0.04 for rear teat placement, -0.15±0.04 for locomotion, -0.22±0.03 for body condition score, -0.35±0.03 for top line, -0.08±0.04 for bone structure, -0.17±0.05 for rear udder width, -0.18±0.04 for udder balance, -0.20±0.03 for teat thickness, -0.11±0.04 for thurl width and -0.11±0.05 for temperament, respectively.
Genetic correlations with score day milk yield were observed as 0.57±0.05 for stature, 0.09±0.02 for chest width, 0.31±0.04 for body depth, 0.06±0.02 for angularity, 0.15±0.03 for rump angle, 0.30±0.05 for rump width, 0.04±0.02 for rear legs set, 0.06±0.01 for rear legs rear view, 0.06±0.02 for foot angle, 0.10±0.02 for fore udder attachment, 0.18±0.03 for rear udder height, 0.12±0.02 for central ligament, 0.18±0.02 for udder depth, 0.60±0.06 for front teat placement, 0.23±0.03 for teat length, 0.07±0.01 for rear teat placement, 0.021±0.02 for locomotion, 0.12±0.02 for body condition score, 0.08±0.02 for top line, 0.08±0.03 for bone structure, 0.19±0.04 for rear udder width, 0.19±0.03 for udder balance, 0.095±0.02 for teat thickness, 0.12±0.02 for thurl width and 0.27±0.05 for temperament, respectively.
Among body measurements, head related measurements included head length, horn diameter at base, length and width of ear and poll width and their average values were found as 54.13±3.48, 18.65±2.06, 29.5±2.12 and 18.66±1.22, and 30.95±2.35 cm, respectively. Average values for neck length and neck circumference were observed as 53.32±4.56 and 95.77±8.58 cm, respectively.
The height and length of body was measured at different body points and average values were found as 139.56±6.29 cm for horizontal body length, 154.01±7.61 cm for diagonal body length, 135.77±4.4 cm for height at sacrum, 132.04±4.57 cm for height at withers, 130.77±4.61 cm for height at 6th rib position, 126.34±4.51 cm for height at last rib position, 128.89±4.83 cm for height at hook bone and 118.81±4.45 cm for height at pin bone.
The average values for heart girth, paunch girth, sprung at 6th rib position and sprung at last rib position were resulted as 194.46±10.31, 238.52±13.96, 45.15±4.48 and 68.72±5.2 cm, respectively. Mean estimates for top wedge area, front wedge area and side wedge area were obtained as 3152.79±309.53, 1030.17±136.34 and 3105.07±345.26 cm2, respectively. The length of tail and its diameter at base was measured and its value averaged 103.51±12.55 and 22.41±2.005 cm, respectively. Average values of skin thickness at neck, ribs, belly and tail region were found as 4.16±1.16, 5.85±1.36, 7.34±1.49 and 1.71±0.55 mm, respectively. Mean values for some other traits included 43.52±2.582 cm for rump length, 3.12±0.56 cm for heel depth and 523.13±81.63 kg for body weight. It was observed that herd was a significant source of variation for all body measurement traits. Age of the buffalo at classification was a significant source of variation for all of the body measurements except horn diameter at base, poll width, tail length, skin thickness at tail and height at hook bone.
Most of the body measurements have been found to be lowly to moderately heritable in the current study. Heritability estimates for various body measurements were observed as 0.16±0.09 for horn diameter at base, 0.38±0.04 for ear length, 0.06±0.09 for ear width, 0.25±0.091 for head length, 0.14±0.09 for poll width, 0.03±0.06 for neck circumference, 0.05±0.07 for neck length, 0.05±0.09 for body length, 0.05±0.09 for diagonal body length, 0.41±0.09 for tail length, 0.28±0.091 for tail diameter at base, 0.04±0.09 for skin thickness at neck, 0.02±0.09 for skin thickness at ribs, 0.10±0.09 for skin thickness at belly, 0.07±0.08 for skin thickness at tail, 0.11±0.09 for height at sacrum, 0.28±0.09 for height at withers, 0.22±0.092 for height at 6th rib position, 0.25±0.092 for height at last rib position, 0.18±0.091 for height at hook bone, 0.07±0.08 for height at pin bone, 0.04±0.06 for sprung at 6th rib position, 0.07±0.06 for sprung at last rib position, 0.13±0.09 for heart girth, 0.05±0.09 for paunch girth, 0.11±0.09 for top wedge area, 0.05±0.06 for front wedge area, 0.16±0.07 for side wedge area, 0.13±0.08 for rump length, 0.02±0.06 for heel depth and 0.33±0.07 for body weight.
Phenotypic correlations of 305 days milk yield with various body measurements were in low range. Positive phenotypic correlations ranged from 0.02±0.04 for sprung at 6th rib position to 0.17±0.05 for ear length. Some of the important body measurements have positive phenotypic correlation with 305 days milk yield as 0.15±0.04 for head length, 0.04±0.04 for diagonal body length, 0.04±0.02 for height at withers, 0.11±0.03 for height at sacrum, 0.11±0.04 for sprung at last rib position, 0.04±0.04 for heart girth, 0.08±0.03 for rump length and 0.07±0.03 for body weight. Negative phenotypic correlations with 305 days milk yield ranged from -0.03±0.03 for side wedge area to -0.25±0.03 for horn diameter at base. Some important negative phenotypic correlations included -0.25±0.03 for horn diameter at base, -0.04±0.04 for neck circumference, -0.12±0.03 for skin thickness at neck and -0.08±0.03 for front wedge area.
Positive phenotypic correlation with score day milk yield included 0.09±0.05 for body weight, 0.07±0.002 for rump length, 0.09±0.003 for sprung at last rib position, 0.09±0.005 for height at hook bone, 0.08±0.02 for height at sacrum. Rest of all the traits were low in correlation with milk yield. Negative phenotypic correlation with score day milk yield included horn diameter at base as -0.15±0.02 and heel depth as -0.13±0.04. Rest of all negative phenotypic correlations were very low.
Positive genetic correlations of 305 days milk yield varied from 0.02±0.002 for ear width to 0.23±0.02 for side wedge area. Some important body measurements have positive genetic correlation values as 0.121±0.000001 for head length, 0.162±0.000001 for diagonal body length, 0.080±0.000001 for height at withers, 0.15±0.000001 for height at sacrum, 0.15±0.000001 for sprung at last rib position, 0.14±0.0005 for heart girth and 0.16±0.007 for body weight. Negative genetic correlation for this trait was observed only for skin thickness at neck region as -0.16±0001.
About 40 traits regarding udder and teat measurements before and after milking were analysed. Average values for udder length, width, height, depth and circumference before milking were found as 52.65±6.87, 53.52±6.19, 54.34±4.99, 18.76±3.87, and 77.05±11.69 cm, respectively while the corresponding values for the same traits after milking were found as 47.08±6.57, 48.15±5.79, 55.39±5.15, 18.11±4.11 and 67.04±8.11 cm, respectively. Teat impression distances between front teats, rear teats, fore and rear teats from right side and fore and rear teats from left side were found as 12.46±3.01, 7.01±1.91, 8.08±1.8 and 7.71±1.75 cm, respectively. Pre stimulation and after milking teat characteristics were found as 12.93±3.12 and 11.71±2.83 cm for distance between front teats; 7.48±1.93 and 6.61±1.58 cm for distance between hind teats; 8.34±1.91 and 7.54±1.60 cm for distance between fore and hind teats of right side; 8.004±1.95 and 7.17±1.60 cm for distance between fore and hind teats of left side; 10.19±2.17 and 9.057±1.50 for diameter of fore right teat; 10.92±2.45 and 9.611±1.66 cm for diameter of rear right teat; 10.33±2.11 and 9.33±1.45 cm for diameter of fore left teat; 11.25±2.54 and 9.937±1.76 cm for diameter of rear left teat; 10.71±2.63 and 11.2±2.39 cm, for teat length of fore right teat; 13.05±3.27 and 13.13±3.03 for teat length of rear right teat; 11.09±2.71 and 11.88±2.61 cm for teat length fore left teat and 13.75±3.04 and 14.47±2.99 for teat length of rear left teat, respectively.
All of the udder conformation traits before and after milking were highly significantly different in different herds (P<0.0001). Stage of lactation was found to be highly significant source of variation (P<0.0001) for before milking udder length, before milking udder height, average before milking udder circumference, after milking udder length, after milking average udder circumference, teat impression distance between fore, between rear and between fore and rear teats on both sides. However, before milking average udder width, before milking udder depth, after milking average udder width, after milking udder height and after milking udder depth were not affected by this factor.
All of the above mentioned traits were significantly affected by parity except after milking udder depth and teat impression distance between fore teats and between rear teats.
Season of scoring significantly affected before milking udder length (P<0.01), before milking average udder width (P<0.05), before milking average udder circumference (P<0.01), after milking average udder width (P<0.01), after milking average udder circumference (P<0.0001), teat impression distance between fore and hind teats of left side (P<0.05). Rest of all the traits were not significantly different in different seasons.
Most of the udder traits were significantly affected by linear and quadratic effect of age of the buffalo at classification. Herd was a significant source of variation for all teat related traits recorded at pre stimulation before milking time. Stage of lactation significantly affected pre stimulation distance between front teats, pre stimulation distance between hind teats, pre stimulation distance between fore and hind teats on right and left side, pre stimulation diameter of fore right teat, pre stimulation teat length of fore right teat, pre stimulation teat length of rear right teat, pre stimulation teat length of fore left and rear left teat. However, pre stimulation diameter of rear right teat, pre stimulation diameter of fore left teat and pre stimulation diameter of rear left teat were not affected by this factor. All of these parameters were affected by parity except pre stimulation distance between hind teats and pre stimulation teat length of fore left teat. Similarly all of these traits were affected by season of scoring except pre stimulation distance between fore, between hind, between right and between left teats.
All of teat characteristics after milking were significantly affected by herd. Stage of lactation significantly affected after milking distance between fore and hind teats of right side (P<0.05), after milking teat length of fore right and rear right teat (P<0.01), after milking teat length of fore left teat (P<0.05) and rear left teat (P<0.0001). Rest of all traits after milking were not affected by stage of lactation. Most of the teat parameters after milking were significantly affected by parity except after milking distance between front and between rear teats, after milking teat length of rear right teat and after milking teat length of fore left teat. Distances among teats after milking and after milking diameter of rear left teat were not significantly affected by season. Rest of all traits were significantly affected by this factor.
Heritability estimates for before milking udder length, average udder width, udder height, udder depth and average udder circumference were found as 0.08±0.07, 0.22±0.08, 0.22±0.09, 0.05±0.06 and 0.21±0.07, respectively. The corresponding values after milking for these traits were observed as 0.14±0.07, 0.20±0.08, 0.09±0.08, 0.02±0.08 and 0.09±0.07, respectively.
Heritability estimates for before milking and after milking teat characteristics were found as 0.11±0.09 and 0.15±0.09 for distance between front teats; 0.03±0.06 and 0.03±0.07 for distance between hind teats; 0.32±0.09 and 0.06±0.07 for distance between fore and hind teats of right side; 0.16±0.08 and 00.09±0.07 for distance between fore and hind teats of left side; 0.21±0.08 and 0.11±0.08 for diameter of fore right teat; 0.05±0.05 and 0.02±0.05 for diameter of rear right teat; 0.19±0.08 and 0.25±0.09 for diameter of fore left teat; 0.07±0.06 and 0.03±0.07 for diameter of rear left teat; 0.12±0.06 and 0.08±0.06 for teat length of fore right teat; 0.02±0.05 and 0.11±0.07 for teat length of rear right teat; 0.29±0.09 and 0.29±0.092 for teat length of fore left teat and 0.14±0.08 and 0.08±0.07 for teat length of rear left teat, respectively.
Phenotypic correlations of before and after milking udder length, average udder width, udder height, udder depth and average udder circumference with 305 days milk yield were found as 0.29±0.04 and 0.18±0.04; 0.30±0.04 and 0.33±0.04; -0.26±0.03 and -0.20±0.03; 0.07±0.04 and 0.06±0.05 and 0.18±0.04 and 0.14±0.04, respectively. Corresponding values in the same order for genetic correlations were observed as 0.17±0.0002 and 0.21±0.0003; 0.33±0.0002 and 0.19±0.0003; -0.29±0003 and -0.34±0003; 0.10±0.0001 and 0.07±0.0001 and 0.28±0.0004 and 0.23±0.0003, respectively.
Phenotypic correlations of before and after milking udder length, average udder width, udder height, udder depth and average udder circumference with score day milk yield were found as 0.29±0.03 and -0.18±0.02; -0.32±0.02 and 0.17±0.01, -0.38±0.001 and -0.20±0.002, 0.28±0.01 and -0.04±0.04 and 0.21±0.04 and -0.15±0.04, respectively.
Phenotypic correlations for pre stimulation and after milking teat characteristics with 305 days milk yield were found as 0.19±0.03 and 0.07±0.03 for distance between front teats; 0.20±0.04 and 0.20±0.04 for distance between hind teats; 0.21±0.03 and 0.21±0.03 for distance between fore and hind teats of right side; 0.18±0.03 and 0.18±0.03 for distance between fore and hind teats of left side; 0.07±0.03 and 0.27±0.04 for diameter of fore right teat; -0.04±0.03 and 0.14±0.04 for diameter of rear right teat; -0.03±0.04 and 0.20±0.04 for diameter of fore left teat; -0.02±0.04 and 0.20±0.03 for diameter of rear left teat; 0.24±0.03 and 0.28±0.03, for teat length of fore right teat; -0.13±0.03 and -0.009±0.04 for teat length of rear right teat; 0.01±0.02 and 0.12±0.03 for teat length fore left teat and 0.06±0.03 and 0.22±0.03 for teat length of rear left teat, respectively.
Genetic correlations for pre stimulation and after milking teat characteristics with 305 days milk yield were found as 0.22±0.0002 and 0.12±0.0003 for distance between front teats; 0.26±0.0001 and 0.13±0.0001 for distance between hind teats; 0.11±0.0001 and 0.09±0.0001 for distance between fore and hind teats of right side; 0.10±0.0001 and 0.07±0.0001 for distance between fore and hind teats of left side; 0.11±0.0001 and 0.11±0.0001 for diameter of fore right teat; 0.09±0.0002 and 0.16±0.0001 for diameter of rear right teat; 0.001±0.000001 and 0.001±0.0001 for diameter of fore left teat; 0.001±0.000001 and 0.001±0.0001 for diameter of rear left teat; 0.080±0.00001 and 0.11±0.0001 for teat length of fore right teat; 0.07±0.000001 and 0.001±0.0002 for teat length of rear right teat; 0.003±0.000001 and 0.003±0.0003 for teat length fore left teat and 0.003±0.000001 and 0.002±0.0002 for teat length of rear left teat, respectively.
Phenotypic correlations for pre stimulation and after milking teat characteristics with score day milk yield were found as -0.37±0.02 and -0.48±0.03 for distance between front teats; 0.04±0.04 and 0.06±0.04 for distance between hind teats; 0.04±0.04 and 0.03±0.04 for distance between fore and hind teats of right side; 0.03±0.039 and 0.08±0.04 for distance between fore and hind teats of left side; -0.33±0.03 and -0.16±0.04 for diameter of fore right teat; -0.46±0.03 and -0.26±0.04 for diameter of rear right teat; -0.41±0.03 and -0.24±0.04 for diameter of fore left teat; -0.30±0.03 and -0.28±0.04 for diameter of rear left teat; -0.43±0.03 and -0.49±0.03 for teat length of fore right teat; -0.36±0.02 and -0.47±0.02 for teat length of rear right teat; -0.41±0.034 and -0.43±0.03 for teat length fore left teat and -0.28±0.021 and -0.53±0.02 for teat length of rear left teat, respectively.
Genetic correlations for before and after milking teat characteristics with score day milk yield were found as 0.13±0.016 and 0.15±0.02 for distance between front teats; 0.30±0.04 and 0.40±0.05 for distance between hind teats; 0.19±0.05 and 0.38±0.05 for distance between fore and hind teats of right side; 0.32±0.06 and 0.44±0.06 for distance between fore and hind teats of left side; 0.22±0.03 and 0.27±0.04 for diameter of fore right teat; 0.16±0.02 and 0.23±0.03 for diameter of rear right teat; 0.15±0.02 and 0.22±0.03 for diameter of fore left teat; 0.11±0.02 and 0.24±0.03 for diameter of rear left teat; 0.19±0.02 and 0.17±0.02 for teat length of fore right teat; 0.075±0.01 and 0.07±0.01 for teat length of rear right teat; 0.27±0.029 and 0.27±0.03 for teat length of fore left teat and 0.10±0.01 and 0.08±0.01 for teat length of rear left teat, respectively.
Least squares means for various performance traits were found as 7.02±2.46 for score day milk yield, 1801.61±624.59 for lactation milk yield, 2074.1±360.85 for 305 days milk yield, 2149.09±680.59 for best milk yield, 272±69 for lactation length, 408.553±203.63 for preceeding dry period, 1762.05±305.97 for age at first calving, 477.68±64.53 for weight at first calving, 110±33 for age at scoring in months, 523.133±81.63 for weight at scoring in Kg.
Most of the phenotypic studies on Nili Ravi breed are limited to recording only few body measurements. In order to explore the physical features of this breed, linear scoring system needs to be adopted which is based on measurement of certain specific parts of body as per international standards according to the ICAR guidelines. However, some of the linear scores developed for dairy cattle breeds do not fit for this breed and harmonization of certain trait definitions is needed even for the linear score system for this breed. The following points are important regarding linear scoring system for Nili Ravi buffaloes:
" In case of rump angle, the score ranging as 1-3 which refers to higher pin bone than hook bone is not present in Nili Ravi buffaloes. The score for central ligament ranging as 1-3 which refers to convex floor of udder has not been observed in this breed. The position of front teat placement as inside of quarter scoring as 7-9 has not been observed in Nili Ravi buffaloes. The position of rear teat placement as outside of quarter scoring as 1-3 has not been observed in Nili Ravi buffaloes. The score for top line ranging as 8-9 which represents a back bent upwards has not been observed in this breed. The score of 1 and 2 which represents a rear udder deeper than the fore udder has also not been observed in the present study. A higher temperament score indicates that buffaloes tend to be excited especially at the time of milking and handling. This behaviour of buffaloes needs to be improved through selection and breeding.
" A highly significant effect of herd was observed on all of the linear type traits. Effect of stage of lactation was found to be highly significant for udder conformation related traits including fore udder attachment, rear udder height, central ligament, udder depth, teat length and rear udder width. Most of the udder related traits were affected by parity such as fore udder attachment, rear udder height, udder depth, teat length, rear udder width and teat thickness. significant effect of parity was observed on chest width, angularity, rump angle, rump width, top line, thurl width, and temperament.
" Initiation of conformation recording in public and private sector and use of selective and planned breeding will be helpful for the improvement in milk yield and to bring uniformity in body features of Nili Ravi buffaloes.
" Scoring in first parity should be adopted as in later parities adjustment for age and parity will be needed.
" Differences among herds for most of the traits suggest that performance can be improved by exploiting genetic potential through selection and breeding. Heritability estimates for most of the linear type traits were found as higher than the reported values available in literature. The reasons might be due to species differences and relatively small data set as well as incomplete pedigree records. Even then the results might be considered for inclusion of some of the linear type traits in selection programs. Keeping in view that this is a preliminary study on genetic aspects of linear type traits in Nili Ravi buffaloes, further studies and research with larger data set is needed to explore linear type traits and to validate the findings of the current study.
" A positive genetic correlation of stature with milk yield suggest that taller and heavier buffaloes produced more milk and selection for taller buffaloes may result in improved milk yield but the efficiency of milk yield must be studied before making indirect selection for milk yield through stature. Negative phenotypic correlation of chest width with score day milk yield suggested that buffaloes with wider chest are relatively less efficient in milk production. Further studies are needed with larger data set to verify the results. A considerable positive genetic correlation between body depth and milk yield suggest that body depth may be considered for indirect selection of higher milk yield in Nili Ravi buffaloes. Considerable genetic correlation with milk yield suggest that rump width is important in this breed of buffaloes and can be used for indirect selection for improved milk yield. A considerable negative phenotypic correlation of fore udder attachment with milk yield is important however negligible genetic correlation suggest that fore udder attachment is independent of milk producing genes and separate selection for each trait should be considered keeping in view heritability of the trait in Nili Ravi buffaloes. A positive genetic correlation of rear udder height with milk yield suggested that selection for this trait might be helpful for improved milk yield in Nili Ravi buffaloes. Genetic correlation of teat length with score day milk yield is considerable in the current study but very low with 305 days milk yield. The findings of current study suggested that rear teat placemen has a considerable genetic correlation with milk yield and can be used for indirect selection for better milk yield. The results of current study are not in agreement with most of the reports in the literature regarding correlation of BCS with milk yield. Further research is needed to verify positive genetic correlation of BCS with milk yield before using BCS as selection criterion for milk yield in Nili Ravi buffaloes. Due to negative phenotypic correlation of body condition score with milk yield, an optimal score of below average ranging from 4 to 5 may be recommended. A positive genetic correlation of rear udder width with milk yield suggested that some of the same genes are controlling milk yield and rear udder width and indirect selection for improved milk yield is possible through selection for rear udder width in Nili Ravi buffaloes. This genetic correlation with milk yield is considerable but further studies are needed before the udder balance could be included for selection program in Nili Ravi buffaloes.
" Current study indicated that teat thickness is not genetically important with negligible correlation with milk yield in Nili Ravi buffaloes but negative phenotypic correlation is considerable and buffaloes with thinner teats are suitable for more milk production. A low but positive genetic correlation of thurl width with milk yield provides a scope for further studies to explore this trait in Nili Ravi buffaloes. Further studies are needed with relatively larger data set to explore temperament and verify its relationship with milk yield in this breed of buffaloes. Generally, the least squares means for most of the body measurements were found in the normal range and were in agreement with most of the reports in literature.
" Comparatively higher body weight was observed than the reports available for Nili Ravi buffaloes. One of the reason for this might be relatively better supply of feed and fodder during the course of study and also the records pertaining to 3rd and latter parities were more in number than the records on younger buffaloes. The top and side wedge area are almost similar with less variation showing that Nili Ravi buffaloes are relatively more wedge shaped.
" Most of the body measurements were affected by the herd and age factors but the effect of parity, stage of lactation and season of scoring was variable for different traits and showed not very clear trend. Body weight was affected by all the factors studied in the current investigation. Most of the body measurements have been found to be moderately to highly heritable in the current study. Overall range of heritability estimates for body measurements was found as 0.08±0.09 to 0.92±0.00.
" Skin thickness has been found under the genetic control and can be improved through selection and breeding keeping in view its importance and demand in the leather industry and also its correlation with milk yield.
" Diagonal body length in the current study has shown a low but positive genetic correlation with milk yield and this trait might be considered in the selection program for Nili Ravi buffaloes. The negative genetic correlation of skin thickness in the neck region with 305 days milk yield is important and advocates the thinking of farmers about the negative correlation of skin thickness with milk yield. Genetic correlation of heart girth with milk yield although not very high but seems to be important and can be considered for indirect selection for milk yield through heart girth measurement. A reasonable genetic correlation of body weight with milk yield suggested that this trait should be considered in the selection program for improved milk yield in Nili Ravi buffaloes.
" Udder colour has not been found important. Buffaloes with pendulous udders have produced more milk. The possible reason for this more milk is that such buffaloes were recorded in latter parities and age of those buffaloes was high and the size of their udder was large. The frequency of buffaloes with such type of udder is only 8%. Buffaloes with such type of pendulous udders are more prone to udder and teat injuries and mastitis and their life time production is less. Thick and lengthy teats have been observed in this breed and the reason might be due to hand milking and direct suckling of cows by the calves.
" Most of the udder traits were significantly affected by herd, parity, stage of lactation and age of the buffaloes at classification. Most of the udder measurements have been found highly heritable and this provides a good scope for improvement of these traits through selection and breeding. A general decrease in the distance between fore, rear and fore and rear teats on both sides was observed after milking. This indicated that the distance measured after milking was a good indicator of actual distance between teats of this breed irrespective of stage of lactation. Udder length, width, udder circumference and height either recorded before milking or after milking have been found genetically correlated with milk yield and they should be considered for selection decisions in Nili Ravi buffaloes. A reasonable positive genetic correlation of distance between fore and between rear teats suggested that this distance is important for milk yield and should be considered for selection in Nili Ravi buffaloes. The results of present study suggest that teat diameter is not genetically much important for milk yield and the reason of thick teats is due to hand milking and direct suckling by the calves.
" Teat distance between front teat, between rear teat, diameter of fore right and rear right teat and teat length of fore right teat have shown low but not negligible genetic correlations with milk yield and should be given some importance in making selection decisions in Nili Ravi buffaloes.
" Brown colour buffaloes have not been observed in this study because such animals at Govt. livestock farms are culled at an early age, however farmers think that such type of buffaloes are better milk yielder and they like and demand such animals, development and conservation of these animals is advocated at experimental level to study their potential.
" Further research is needed to evaluate visual image analysis system as a tool for quick and more accurate conformation recording.
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Effect Of Yeast Supplementation On Growth Performance In Non-Descript Male Cattle Calves In Summer
Material type: Book ; Literary form:
Publisher: 2014 Dissertation note: Livestock plays an important role in the economy of Pakistan. There are about 72 million heads of large ruminants, playing a vital role in rural economy of country,providing meat and milk to the masses. Withthe increase in human population, meat and milk demands are increasing. Thereis a majorcontribution of beef in total meat productionand cattle have a major share in total beef production. The meager feed resources are major factor for compromised growth performance of our livestock. Feed additives are feed ingredients of non-nutritive nature that stimulate growth, improve efficiency of feed utilization, and also beneficial for health. Products that improve feed efficiency are particularly important because feed costs are a major expense in animal production.
Yeast is aunicellular eukaryotic organism much different from bacteria. Among yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiaespecies are important and currently well accepted in ruminant feed. Incorporation of yeast (Saccharomyces cervesiae) culture to animal feed has become a common practice in ruminant feed. Many yeast culture based products have been shown to affect dry matter intake, stabilizing rumen pH and digestibility of different nutrients (Callaway and Martin, 1997).
The main purpose of suchadditives in ruminant feed is to prevent rumen flora disorders and disturbances. The inclusion of yeast increases consumption of dry matter, utilization of fiber, increase in average daily gain and yeast cells, and also increases absorption of phosphorus, magnesium, calcium, copper, potassium, zinc and manganese.
Due to the greaterconcerns with antibiotics and other growth stimulants in the animal feed industry, research of other feed additives, such as direct-fed microbial (DFM), has increased.DFMs are naturally occurring living microorganisms which are supplemented to enhance microbial population of rumen, and to stabilize rumen PH. DFMare frequently used in milk replacers for gastrointestinal health, welfare, as well as improving average daily gain, daily dry matter intake, and feed efficiency. Practice of these supplements in calves as a preventative measure has increased from 13.1% to 20% from 1996 to 2007 in USA (USDA, 2008).
Basic rumen studies shows that yeast apparently does not affect the digestibility, it only alters the degradation curve causing reduction in lag phase before digestion commences, thereby increasing the rate of degradation (Williams et al. 1991). It was also observed that inclusion of yeast may increase cellulolytic microorganisms in rumen. Birkelo and Berg (1994) observed that a yeast culture additive improved performance of yearling cattle fed corn-based finishing diets containing less than 10% roughage.Similarly, yeast addition was found to improve rumen fermentation by enhancing the bacterial population, soultimately increase the growth of ruminants (Beauchemin et al. 2003).Yeast culture addition increasedaily dry matter intake and average daily gain (Cole et al. 1992; Mir and Mir, 1994).
According to Blake et al. (1993) and Girard et al. (1997) yeast culture noticeably increase the cellulolytic activities of rumen microorganisms in such a way that they increase their total numbers, improve fiber digestion, decrease lactate accumulation, lessen the concentration of oxygen in rumen fluid and improve utilization of starch supplied in the feeding ration. In this way they influence (inhibit) the rate of volatile fatty acids production and, thus, increase the permanency of rumen environment and improve the intensity of digestion. Yeast culture has also directly enhanced rumen fungi, which may improve fiber digestion (Chaucheryaset al. 1995).
Yeast culture addition impact on ruminal lactic acid metabolism; prevent the accumulation of lactic acid in the rumen when they are fed on yeast supplementation. Sullivan and Martin (1999) described that yeast culture supplementation improved the utilization of lactate and digestion of cellulose. Yeast culture may improve ruminal fermentation because they are able to diminish excess oxygen (Newbold, 1996).So they provide optimal environment for fermentation. They amplified the number of rumen protozoa and NDF digestion in calves fed straw-based diets (Plata et al. 1994). Yeast culture has also been revealed to encourage acetogenic bacteria in the occurrence of methanogens (Chaucheryaset al. 1995), which may result in more effective ruminal fermentation.
The effect of altered doses of yeast (S. cerevisiae) (0, 3, 6 and 12 g of yeast/day respectively) on the lactating performance of Holstein dairy cows was described by Nikkhah et al. (2004). They concluded that the live yeast(LY) had a favorable effect on the rumen health. Other available data indicated that in the rumen fluid of animals receiving supplements of LY the total content of volatile fatty acids , the percentage of propionic acid (Sullivan and Martin, 1999), acetic acid were enhanced (Nursoy and Baytok, 2003) and the total numbers of ruminal bacteria were also significantly increased (Sune, 1998; Alshaikh et al. 2002; Kamra et al. 2002).
The positive effect of yeast may be due to increased dry matter intake reported byWohlt et al. (1991) and Williams et al. (1991).The increase in average daily gain and other productive parameters can be the function of increased dry matter intake and outflow rate of digested material from rumen. The dietary supplementation of yeast culture showed significant increase in degradability of roughage in 6 h (P<0.05) after live yeast addition(Ando et al. (2004).Moreover it is stated that yeast also contribute in maintaining rumen pH, reducing the risk of acidosis, improve rumen metabolism by stabilizing anaerobic rumen environment. It also regulates the digestibility approach, a positive influence on feed efficiency. It also maintains balance of ruminal ammonia concentration,improve feed efficiency in young calves and ultimately increase daily gain in cattle calves. The yeast supplementation in ruminant diets is being practiced at commercial herds both beef and dairy, especially where high concentrate rations are in use.
Based on the existing knowledge of live yeast supplementation and the inadequateinformation on the supplemental use of yeast in calves feedand effects on growth performance, under local conditions, the objective of present study was to determine the effects of yeast supplementation in non-descript male cattle calves on growth.
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Farm Animals and the Environment
Edition: 1st Material type: Book Publisher: UK: Oxford University Press; 1992
Availability: Items available for loan: Pattoki Library [ Call number: 636.089 Phillips 13762 1st 1992 Livestock] (1).
Basic Animal Nutrition and Feeding / 4th ed
Edition: 4th ed. Material type: Book Publisher: USA: Wiley; 1995
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Milk Production and Proccesing
Edition: 1st ed. Material type: Book ; Literary form:
Publisher: India : Daya Publishing House, 2008
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Modern Livestock and Poultry Production /
Edition: 5th ed. Material type: Book ; Format:
Publisher: USA: Thomson Delmar Learning, 1995
Availability: Items available for loan: Pattoki Library [ Call number: 636 Gillespie 16338 5th 1997 L.Production] (1).