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101. Immunomodulatory Effects Of Coccidiostats In Broiler Chicks

by Fraaz Mahmood | Muhammed Akram Muneer | Manzoor | Muhammed Naeem | Faculty of Veterinary Sciences.

Material type: book Book; Format: print ; Literary form: not fiction Publisher: 1991Dissertation note: This study indicated that Amprolium and Clopidol (Coyden 25) when used at recommended dosage levels (6.25 gm of pure drug/50 kg of feed & 25 gin of premix/50 kg of feed respectively) did not interfere with the body weight gain of birds; did not have adverse effects on weights of lymphoid organs such as bursa of Fabricius, spleen, thymus, liver; did not interfere with the development of serum antibody in vaccinated or vaccinated and challenged birds; their medication in feed had beneficial effects on serum antibody development; did not result in higher post-challenge mortality of vaccinated birds as compared to the non-medicated vaccinated control birds. The injection to baby chicks on first 4 consecutive post-hatching days with a known immunosuppressive agent (Cyclophosphamide) resulted in lower body weights, destruction of the bursa of Fabricius, poor antibody response of birds to vaccination against NDV, and very high post-challenge mortality, upon challenge with a virulent strain of NDV. The weight gain studies indicated that vaccinated and non-vaccinated birds on Amprolium and Clopidol medicated feeds had non-significantly higher body wegh ts that those on non-mothcateii ration at 42 days of age. Oopiclo) (Coyden 25), at recommended dosage level, had more beneficial effects on the body weights than the Amprolium. These studies further indicated that vaccinated birds kept on Clopidol medicated feed had significantly higher serum antibody titres on day 42 than the vaccinated non-medicated control birds. The serum antibody titres of vaccinated birds on Clopidol medicated feed were significantly higher than those fed Amprolium at recommended dosage levels. From the results of this study it is concluded that Clopidol and Amprolium are not immunosuppressive drugs when used at recommended dosage levels. They rather have beneficial effects on growth 1)erforr1arIce and immune response of birds. However, there is a need for further investigations. Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 0256,T] (1).

102. Sero-Epidemiology Of Leptospirosis In Buffaloes In Sargodha Division

by Muzaffar Ahmad, Gondal | Ata-Ur-Rehman Rizvi | Muhammed | Muhammed Akram Muneer | Faculty of Veterinary Sciences.

Material type: book Book; Format: print ; Literary form: not fiction Publisher: 1992Dissertation note: Leptospirosis is an infectious disease of domestic animals and man. In dairy animals leptospiral infection may produce reproductive disorders, abortion, repeat breeding, mastitis and infertility. Etiological agent has more than 180 distinct pathogenic serovars which can be classified into 18 serogroups. On the basis of serological evidence of leptospirosis, a study was carried out to find the incidence, magnitude and serological distribution of leptospira interrogans in Sargodha division. Out of 713 total serum samples, 301, 157, 147 and 108 were collected from Sargodha, Khushab, Bhakkar and Mianwali districts respectively. These serum samples were of aborted, mastitis infected, healthy pregnant and non pregnant, sterile, repeat breeding and male (service, plough and traction) buffaloes. All the samples were subjected to Rapid Macroscopic Agglutination Test (RMAT). This test was performed both for initial screening and for the identification of leptospiral serovars of positive animals against eleven antigens used. So it is necessary to control the veneral disease in dairy animals as the evidence suggests that the disease may cause great economic losses to the livestock. Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 0257,T] (1).

103. Studies On The Bacterial Etiology Of Metritis In Buffaloes And Cows And In-Vitro-Antibioitic Sensitivity Of The Isolates

by Idrees Ali Zahid | Muhammed Akram Muneer | Muhammed Naeem | Tufail | Faculty of Veterinary Sciences.

Material type: book Book; Format: print ; Literary form: not fiction Publisher: 1983Dissertation note: Abstract Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 0259,T] (1).

104. A Study On The Incidence And Tyhpes Of Salmonella Infection In Sparrows

by Anjum Anwar | Ata_ur-Rehman | Muhammed Naeem | Tufail | Faculty of Veterinary Sciences.

Material type: book Book; Format: print ; Literary form: not fiction Publisher: 1984Dissertation note: In the present study a total number of 100 sparrows were studied for the isolation of Salmonella organisms. The internal organs like spleen, liver, intestine and lymph node were removed from the birds and cultured on enrichment and selective media for isolation of Salmonellae. The isolates were confirmed by biochemical and serological tests. Three species of genus Salmonella namely Salmonella typhimurium, Salmonella pullorurn and Salmonella gallijiarum were isolated, the relative % of each species being 3%, 6%, and 20% respectively. The presence of Salmonella typhimurium in sparrows was of great public health significance, while the two latter species were of great importance for the poultry industry. Further work on a much large scale, was recommended Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 0268,T] (1).

105. Sero-Epidemiology Of Rinderpest & Bovine Viral Diarrhea (Mucosal Disease) In Sheep And Goats

by Amjad Hassain | Muhammed Amin Sheikh | Manzoor | Muhammed Akram Muneer | Faculty of Veterinary Sciences.

Material type: book Book; Format: print ; Literary form: not fiction Publisher: 1992Dissertation note: The present study was conducted to find out the prevalence of rinderpest and bovine viral diarrhea virus antibodies in the sera of sheep and goats. For this purpose, 1000 serum samples were randomly collected from four different sources. The samples were distributed uniformly from each species i,e.. sheep and goats from all the four sources. Agar gel-immunodiffusion (PGID) test was employed for the investigations. The results of the study revealed that overall 4.2% sheep sera were having rinderpest viurs antibodies while 1.6% sheep sera were possessing antibodies to bovine viral diarrhea virus. Goat sera tested demonstrated that 2.4% were having rinderpest virus antibodies whereas only 1.0% were possessing antibodies against bovine viral diarrhea virus. It is observed that there is higher prevalence rate of rinderpest virus and bovine viral diarrhea virus antibodies in sheep as compared to goats. The findings of this project revealed a moderate exposure, of sheep and goat population surveyed, to the pathogens of both the diseases. However further research is suggested for realistic determination of the role of sheep and goats in epidemiology of these menaces and the resultant revival of the control measures.. Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 0285,T] (1).

106. Bacteriological Study Of Enteritis In Broiler Breeders In And Around Lahore

by Imtiaz ul Haq | Muhammed Naeem | Mubasher | Muhammed Ajmal | Faculty of Veterinary Sciences.

Material type: book Book; Format: print ; Literary form: not fiction Publisher: 1993Dissertation note: Abstract Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 0286,T] (1).

107. Seerological Incidence Of Avian Infectious Bronchitis In Broiler In Lahore

by Talha Farooq | Ata-Ur-Rehman Rizvi | Asif Rabbani | Muhammed Naeem | Faculty of Veterinary Sciences.

Material type: book Book; Format: print ; Literary form: not fiction Publisher: 1986Dissertation note: Avian Infectious Bronchitis (AIB) is an important disease of chickens affecting birds of all ages, both sexes and, all breeds. The disease is more severe in broilers. It occurs .in two clinical forms i.e. the respiratory form and the reproductive form. In the first form of disease the mortality is an important factor, while in the latter form the reproductive tract and reproduction of birds are affected. The economic significance of Avjan Infectious Bronchitis lies in the fact that it causes moderate to heavy mortality and marked drop in egg production, increased number of small size, misshaped, and poor quality eggs; low hatchability, death in shell and early chick mortality. The present work was planned to investigate the serological incidence of Avian Infectious Bronchiti and to have a knowledge about the important serotypes provlent in Pakistan. The sera of 200 broilers from various broiler markets and poultry farms of Lahore was tested against 4 serotypes of Aviari Infectious Bronchitis virus i.e; 1assachusets, Connecticut, Arkansas and JMK using haemsgglutination inhibition test. The work has shown that Avjan Infectious - ronchitis is present in broilers in and around Lahore, as antibodies against three important serotypes i.e. Massachusetts, Connecticut and Arkansas were detected in 11.5% sera of 200 tested birds. Further work on large scale using birds from different parts of the country is recommended to determine the exact status of this disease in Pakistan. Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 0287,T] (1).

108. Toxigenic Properties Of Staphylococcus Aureus From Human And Animal Origin

by Tayyaba Rashid | Ata-Ur-Rehman Rizvi | Manzoor | Muhammed Ajmal | Faculty of Veterinary Sciences.

Material type: book Book; Format: print ; Literary form: not fiction Publisher: 1984Dissertation note: A total number of hundred strains of Staphylococcus aureus including 50 human and 50 horse wounds strains, were isolated on Staphylococcus medium No.110. The isolated strains were maintained on nutrient agar slants. The strains of Staphylococcus aureus were examined for the production of coagulase, fibrinolysin, alpha haemolysin,beta haemolysin and delta toxin. The isolated strains were coagulase positive but a variable coagulase activity against the plasma of human, sheep and rabbit. Human plasma gave better results than rabbit and sheep plasma. brinolytic activity of Stapylococcus aureus was tested in oxalated plasma of human, sheep and rabbit. Strains isolated from human surgical wounds were found to be more fibrinolytic as compared to horse isolates. Human and rabbit plasma were a better indicators for checking fibrinolytic activity. None of the isolated strains showed fibrinolytic activity against sheep plasma. The isolates of Stphlococcus aureus were cultured for alpha haernolysin production in nutrient broth culture. Alpha toxin was purified and its haemolysin activity was determined qualitatively and quantitatively against human, sheep and rabbit erythrocytes. Maximum haemolytic activity was observed against rabbit erythrocytes. Out of hundred strains, sixty-eight produced alpha haemolysin including 45 from human and 23 from horse wounds. The isolates of Staphylococcus aureus were cultured in semi-solid Heart infusion agar for the production of eta haemolysin. This toxin was purified and its haemolytic activity was determined qualitatively and quantitatively against human, sheep and rabbit erythrocytes. Naximum haemolytic activity was observed against sheep erythrocytes. Out of the hundred strains, beta haemolysin was produced by sixty-two strains including 15 from human and 47 from horses. The isolates of Staphylococcus aureus were cultured in Brain Heart infusion agar for .the production of delta toxin. This toxin was purified and its haernolytic activity was observed qualitatively and quantitatively against human, sheep and rabbit erythrocytes. Maximum haemolytic activity of dlta toxin was observed against human erythrocytes. Out of the hundred strains, seventy-one produced delta toxin including 43 from human and 28 from horses. Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 0288,T] (1).

109. Study Of Dahi Microflora

by Khalid Naeem | Ata-Ur-Rehman Rizvi | Muhammed Akram Muneer | Tufail | Faculty of Veterinary Sciences.

Material type: book Book; Format: print ; Literary form: not fiction Publisher: 1982Dissertation note: One hundred and fifty three dahi samples, from Lahore Milk Plant (51) from various homes (51), and from the Lahore city market (51), were subjected to physical and bacteriological examination. The physiological analysis revealed that only 24% of Lahore milk plant dahi samples were of popular solid-uniform texture; however, 58% were having good aroma and desirable taste; 64% samples from home made dahi were also of good texture typical /acidic aroma sweet/mildly sour in taste. From market 65% were of firm texture, desirable flavour rind sweet/mildly sour in taste. The remaining samples were of poor quality viz, of watery tecture, sour or bitter in taste and alcoholic or yeasty in aroma. Total bacterial count was ranging tram 2 x 107- 1 x109 organisms per ml from Lahore Milk plant dahi, 2.5 x 107 -9.8 x 108 organisms per ml in home made dahi and 1.1x106-9.5x107 organisms per ml from market made dahi. The fat percentage aid pH values were 3.8 - 3.9% and 3.5 - 5.9 from Lahore Milk Plant dahi, 3.2 to 4.4% and 3.4 to 6.0 from home-made dahi and 2.5-4.3% snd 3.4-4.9 in market-made dahi, respectively. The number of samples showing various a types of organisms from Lahore Milk Plant made dahi are given below: Sterptococcus lactis (48 samples), Streptoccus thermophilus (47 samples), Lactobacillus acidophilus (45 samples), Lactobacillus bulgarious (35 samples), Leuconostoc citrovorum (10 samples) Escherichis coli (5 samples) Bacillus cereus (2 samples), Entrobacter aerogenes (2 samples), yeasts (2 samples) and moulds (1 samples) The number of samples showing different types of organisms from home made and market made dahi are detailed below: Streptococcus lactis (45 and 43 samples), Streptococcus thermophilus (45 and 30 samples), Streptococcus faecalis (7 & 12 samles), Staphylococcus suresu (2 and 5 samples), Lactobacillus acidophilus (35 & 25 samples), Lactobacillus casei (1&4 samples), Lactobacillus bulgaricus (40 & 48 samples) Leuconostoc citrovorum (12 and 15 samples), Escherichia coli (10 and samples), Enterobacter aerogenes (8 & 18 samples), Bacillus cereus (5 and 12 samples), yeasts (6&7 samples) and moulds (2&3 samples) respectively. Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 0289,T] (1).

110. A Study On The Incidence Of Glanders At Lahore

by Nasreen Niaz | Muhammed Yousaf Vaid | Altaf Hussain | Ata-Ur-Rehman Rizvi | Faculty of Veterinary Sciences.

Material type: book Book; Format: print ; Literary form: not fiction Publisher: 1977Dissertation note: Using P.P.D. mallein 200 horses from the Lahore S.P.C.A. Hospital were subjected to intradermal palpebra]. mallein test. One horse gave a positive result giving an over all percentage of 0.5 percent in the animals tested. The morphological, biochemical and pathogenic characteristics of the Pseudomonas mallei isolated erom this solitary positive case were studied and reported. Keeping in view the highly contagious nature of the disease and its communicability to man, measures for its diagnosis and eradication have been recommended. Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 0290,T] (1).

111. Effects Of Coccidiosis On Immune Response Of Broiler Chickens

by Farhat Nazir Awan | muhammed Naeem | Muhammed | Muhammed Akram Muneer | Faculty of Veterinary Sciences.

Material type: book Book; Format: print ; Literary form: not fiction Publisher: 1993Dissertation note: This study indicates that Eimeria tenella and Eimeria necatrix infection (50,000 sporulated oocysts\bird) interfere with the body weight gain of birds, have adverse effects on weights of lymphoid organs such as bursa of fabricius, spleen, thymus and liver, interfere with the development of serum antibody in vaccinated birds only, when the vaccination is done in the presence of organisms, does not interfere with the development of serum antibody in vaccinated challenged birds, results in high post cha1leige mortality of vaccinated birds as compared to the vaccinated control and vaccinated coccidiosis treated birds. The injection to baby chicks on 2nd, 3rd, 4th and 5th day post hatching with Cyclophosphamide resulted in lower body weight, destruction of the bursa of fabricius, poor antibody response of birds to vaccination against NDV and very high post challenge mortality upon challenge with a virulent strain of NDV. The weight gain studies inctkated that vaccinated and non- vaccinated coccidial infested birds and coccidiosis treated birds had significantly lower body weight than those of control\coccidiosis free birds at 50 days of age. Coccidial infection had adverse effects on the body weight gain. The study further indicated that vaccinated coccidial infested birds had significantly lower serum antibody titers on day 50 than the vaccinated control and vaccinated coccidiosis treated birds. The serum level of vaccinated coccidiosis treated birds and vaccinated control bird were on same level at day 50. From the results of this study it is concluded that coccidia are immunosuppressive agent but they suppress the growth performances and immune response of bird temporarily. However, when the birds recover from the infection, they attain their normal immune status. SUMMARY The birds that received oocysts of Eimeria tenella and Eimeria necatrix (50,000 sporulated oocysts\bird) and were not treated throughout the experimental period had lower weight gains than the coccidiosis treated cyclophosphamide treated and coccidiosis free\control birds. Coccidial infection adversely affected the weight of thyrnus, liver whereas bursa of fabricius and spleen had slight depression in their weight. Cyclophosphamide treatment of birds in early life resulted in bursal atrophy and slight depression of splenic weight. As compared to control and coccicliosis treated birds, the sera of NDV vaccinated coccidial infested birds had lower antibody titers on day 50. The post challenge sera of NDV vaccinated coccidial infected birds had higher antibody titers as compared to NDV vaccinated cyclophosphamide treated birds. The NDV vaccinated coccidial infested and NDV vaccinated cyclophosphamide treated birds had significant post virulent NDV challenge mortality, whereas the vaccinated control and vaccinated coccidiosis treated birds did not have any mortality following NDV challange. Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 0302,T] (1).

112. Studies On H.S.Oil Adjuvant Vaccine Prepared By Dense Culture Of Pasturella Multocida Robert Type-1 On Improved Culture Medium

by Kausar Tasneem | Muhammed Amin Sheikh | Manzoor | Muhammed Naeem | Faculty of Veterinary Sciences.

Material type: book Book; Format: print ; Literary form: not fiction Publisher: 1993Dissertation note: The present project was designed to develop HS oil adjuvant vaccine (CAy) on a special medium. A dense culture was prepared by enriching the routine nutrient broth medium, used for the production of alum-precipitated vaccine (APv) presently. It was concluded that various ingredients, including yeast extract, sucrose, trypticase, sodium bicarbonate, used in proper concentrations, certainly increase the number of bacterial population in the culture medium and help in attaining the requisite 2 mg dry weight of Pasteurella mnultocicla per dose of vaccine. Moreover the organism develops its full antigenic characteristics due to supply of these essentially required nutrients. Aeration of the culture medium is also essential for attaining the dense culture of the organism. Slight agitation was used to provide aeration to the bacteria. The emulsified vaccine was prepared with 15:10:1.5 parts of the bacterial suspension,liquid paraffin and lanolin. The emulsion on prepration, developed a white colour and adhered to clean glass surface evenly. The product proved to possess a long shelf life when maintained at room temperature. Mouse model was chosen to study the safety and potency of both the vaccines i.e. OAV and APV. The potency of both the vaccines was compared and calculated by a standard method of OSE and Muenstar (1968). Oil adjuvant vaccine gave better results of 5.2 log protection as compared to APV, where the log protection value came to 2 only. Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 0304,T] (1).

113. Immunogenic Studies On Temperature Resistant V4 Strain Of Newcastle Disease Virus

by Sakhawat Hussain, Shah | Sheikh Muhammed Amin | Manzoor | Muhammed Akram Muneer | Faculty of Veterinary Sciences.

Material type: book Book; Format: print ; Literary form: not fiction Publisher: 1993Dissertation note: This experiment was conducted to study the immunogenic response of '14 strain of NOV which was administered through different routes normaly practiced in Pakistan (eyedrop, drinking water, subcut and intramuscular) Birds in group A were vaccinated intraocularly on 7th day of age and then on 21st day of age they were again vaccinated subcutaneously with '14 strain of NOV . The GMT titer on 12nd day of their. age was 169 and they showed 757. survival when challenged with VVNDV. Group B was administered V4 strain of NDV in drinking water twice on 7th day of age and on 21st day of age. Their GMT HI titre on 42nd day was 104 .They showed 70%. protection percentage when challenged with virulent virus. Chicks of group C were vaccinated introcularly with V4 strain on 7th day of their age and intramuscularly on 21st day of their age with V4. Their sera when analysed on 42nd day of age indicated GMT HI titre of 181. They showed highest protection 807. when , Challenged with virulent virus. Group 0 was vaccinated intraocularlywith Mukteswar strain of MDV on 7th day again substaneously on 2lth day . Their GMT H.I titre was 194 on 42nd day of age. Challenged with VVNDV protected 85% birds. This study indicates that V4 strain of NOV induces higher H I titer and protection percentage when administered 1/rn than S/C and drinking water routes. However Mukteswar strain gives more HI titer and protection than V4 strain through S/C route. Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 0307,T] (1).

114. Studies On Avian Pasteurolosis, Characterization Of Isolates From Diseased Carrier Birds

by Tanveer Afzal | Sheikh Muhammed Amin | S Ata-ur-Rehman Rizvi | Faculty of Veterinary Sciences.

Material type: book Book; Format: print Publisher: 1992Dissertation note: A total of 1000 birds (600 diseased/dead and 400 healthy) were examined for the isolation of the Pasteurelia muitocida so as to have an idea about the incidence of fowl cholera in the poultry flocks (Broiler and Layer) and the percentage of the carriers for the organism maintiined in and around Lahore. Out of 600 diseased/dead birds examined 1% yielded Pasteurella inultocida. None of the 400 healthy birds proved carrier for organism. All the six isolates produced small, greyish, circular colonies on blood agar. The growth in the Triptic Soya agar appeared in the form of convex, entire edged, mucoid colonies having a diameter of ljim. There was not any growth on MacConkey agar. All the isolates fermented glucose, sucrose, mannose, mannitol, xylose and fructose with production of both, acid and gas. Likewise all the six isolates were positive for nitrate reduction, catalase/reduction, indole production H2sproduction nitrate reduction tests. None of the isolates was positive for gelatin liquification methyl red test, voges-Proskauer test, and urease production test. All the isolated organisms were non-motile. All the isolates proved pathogenic to mice. Antibitics including chloramphenicol, Gentamicin Furadantin, Streptomycin and Nalidixic acid were highly effective against all the isolated strains. However the isolates were insensitive to Tetracycline and Erythromycin. Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 0325,T] (1).

115. Serological Sruvey Of Brucellosis And Leptospirosis In Camels

by Anwar ul Haq | Muhammed Naeem | Muhammed | Muhammed Akram Muneer | Faculty of Veterinary Sciences.

Material type: book Book; Format: print ; Literary form: not fiction Publisher: 1993Dissertation note: The present study was carried out to determine the incidence of brucellosis and leptospirosis in camels. Five hundred serum samples of camels awaiting slaughter at Lahore abattoir were tested in laboratory by slide agglutination and standard tube agglutination tests. The slide agglutination test recorded a relatively higher prevalence of the disease than the standard tube agglutination test. Four leptospira serovars were used as antigen and positive results were obtained with L. pomona, L. icterohaemorrhagiae and L. australis. The serum samples having a leptospiral antibody titre of > 100 were considered as positive. The over-all prevalence of brucellosis in camel population was 4.2% by slide agglutination test and 3.6% by standard tube agglutination test. The overall incidence of brucellosis in male camels was found to be 3.4% and the female camels demonstrated a prevalence of 4.5%. The sera with standard tube agglutination titre of 1.40 and above were considered positive while those heaving a titre of 1:20 were located as doubtful. The overall prevalence of leptospirosis was 3.4% while it was 2.72% in male camples and 3.4% in female camples. Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 0326,T] (1).

116. Immunomodulatory Effects Of Vitamins On Stressed Broiler Chickens

by Isma Nazli Bashir | Muhammed Akram Muneer | Muhammed | Muhammed Amin Sheikh | Faculty of Veterinary Sciences.

Material type: book Book; Format: print ; Literary form: not fiction Publisher: 1993Dissertation note: The birds which received vitamin C (300 mg/kg of feed) had higher mean body weight than the birds which received vitamins B2, B6, 1312, cyclophosphamide and ration without vitamins. Vitamins B2, B6, B12 and C treatments did not affect the bursa of Fabricius, spleen, thymus or liver weights. Treatment of birds with cyclophosphamide in early life resulted in bursal atrophy and depression of splenic weights. Compared to Cyclophosphamide treated and ration without vitamins offered bird, the sera of NDV vaccinated birds kept on vitamins B2, B6, B12 and C had higher antibody titres on day 42. Amongst various treatment groups the highest haemagglutination-inhibition titre was recorded in Vitamin C treated birds. The post-challenge sera from NDV vaccinated birds [Group 1(vitmin B2 treated), II(vitamin B6 treated), III(vitamin B12 treated) & IV(vitamin C treated)] had higher antibody titre as compared to group V(cyclophosphamide injected) and VII(offered ration containing vitamins). The NDV vaccinated birds of groups Ib(vitaniin B2 treated), llb(vitamin &B6 treated), IIIb(vitamin B12 treated), IVb(vitamin C treated), VIb(offered ration containing vitamins) and VIIb(offered ration without vitamins) did not have any significant post virulent NDV challenge mortality. However, hundred per cent mortality in the birds of subgroups Ia(vitamin B2 treated), IIa(vitamin B6 treated), Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 0327,T] (1).

117. Comparative Evaluation Of Mukteswar Strain N.D. Vaccine With Losota And Clonel.Z.58 New Castle Disease Vaccine

by M.D.Mumtaz | Muhammed Naeem | Ata-Ur- Rehman Rizvi | Muhammed | Faculty of Veterinary Sciences.

Material type: book Book; Format: print ; Nature of contents: biography; Literary form: Publisher: 1993Dissertation note: New Castle disease still continues to he serious economic threat to poultry industry throughout the world due to its high morbidity and mortality rate. In Pakistan different vaccines are being used to control this disease. Now-a-days different N.D. vaccines are being imported and used on large scale in Pakistan without; knowing their immunogenic response. The present study with this project was conducted to evaluate the immunogenecity of our locally prepared Mukteswar strain of N. D. vaccine with imported Deivax Clone LZ 58 and Lasota strains of New Castle disease vaccines. To three groups "A", W. "C", comprising of 25 chicks each Nukteswar, 1,Z Clone 58 and Las toa ND vaccines were administered intramuscularly and group D was kept as unvaccinated control. Mukteswar ND vaccine gave high imanuanogenic response on day 14 (P.V) with Geomean HI titre of 438 which persisted on day 2i. LZ Clone 68 ND vaccine gave a Geomean HI Sitre of 362 on day 14 which also persisted on day 21. Laston vaccine gave a Geomean HI titre of antibodies on 14th day as 262 which persisted on day 21 (P. V) which was the lowest as compared to other two vaccines. All the three vaccines resisted challenge. Therefore it is observed from the above findings that Liukteswar strain of ND vaccine gave better results as compared to Clone and Lasota imported vaccines and their import on such large scale be stopped. Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 0333,T] (1).

118. Studies On The Anaerobic Flora Of The Camel Intestine

by Saeed Akhtar, Lodhi | Ata-Ur- Rehman Rizvi | Muhammed | Muhammed Naeem | Faculty of Veterinary Sciences.

Material type: book Book; Format: print ; Literary form: not fiction Publisher: 1993Dissertation note: The study was undertaken to determine the anaerobic intestinal flora of camel. Anaerobic organisms are a part of the normal flora of animal intestine. Under condition of stress and intestinal stasis bacteria multiply at a very rapid rate and produce intestinal disorders and other diseases. The sample of intestinal contents were collected from 100 apparently healthy camels slaughtered at Lahore abattoir. Anaerobic organisms belonging to different species were isolated from 55 out of 100 animals examined. Based upon morphological, colonial and biochemical characteristics these isolates were identified as clostridium perfingens 29 (29%) Clostridium sporogenese 10 (10%), Clostridium tetani 4 (4%), Clostridium chauvoei 2 (2%), Clostridium botulinum 3 (3%), Clostridium bifermentans 5 (5%), Clostridium septicum 2 (2%). Pathogenicity of the isolates was determined in mice and it was observed that 15% of the samples were pathogenic. Out of the different species isolated 38% clostriadium perfringens and 100% Clostridium tetani were found pathogenic. Pure culture of isolated organisms were Qbtained from liver, tissues and blood of the inoculated mice. Since clostridia possess the ability to invade the animal tissue under condition of stress it is suggested that proper prohylactic measures should be adopted to protect the animal from these diseases. High incidence of clostridia in slaughtered camel is alarming. Appropriate hygienic measures are needed to be adopted. A little literature is available on this topic and it requires a series of investigations to get a complete picture of anaerobic organisms present in gastro intestinal tract. Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 0338,T] (1).

119. Sero-Epidemiological Studies On Bovine Viral Diarrhoea In Buffaloes And Cattle At L.P.R.I. Bahadarnagar And Qadirabad

by Hameed Awan, A | Muhammed Ajmal | Sheikh Muhammed Amin | Faculty of Veterinary Sciences.

Material type: book Book; Format: print ; Literary form: not fiction Publisher: 1991Dissertation note: Serological examination of 1800 serum samples, consisting of 1242 sample, from apparently healthy cattle, and 558 samples from apparently healthy buffaloes, by agar-gel diffusion method, revealed that 181 samples were positive for antibodies against Bovine Virral Diarrhoea-Mucosal- Disease Virus giving an overall incidence of 10.087.. The incidence was higher in buffaloes (10.397.) as compared to cattle (9.907.). Sex based analysis of the data revealed that the incidence was higher in females (10.237.) as compared to males (9.307.) in both the species. The percentage of positive cases was higher in adult cattle (11.297.) as compared to young animals (7.207.). Similarly the age wise incidence of the disease in buffaloes was also found to be higher in adults (13.467.) than in young (3.127.). The occurence of antibodies against bovine viral diarrhoea-mucosal disease virus in apparently healthy unvaccinated animals in such a large number was indicative of the prevalance of the disese in Pakistan. Since the virus is capable of producing acute disease syndromes and subsequently causing heavy mortalities, it is suggested that it is high time that appropriate measures, to control the malady, be taken for saving the heavy losses in livestock sector due to this disease. Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 0341,T] (1).

120. Studies On The Aerobic Flora Of The Camel Intestine

by Jamshed Iqbal, Bhatti | Ata -Ur-Rehman Rizvi | Muhammed | Muhammed Naeem | Faculty of Veterinary Sciences.

Material type: book Book; Format: print ; Literary form: not fiction Publisher: 1992Dissertation note: The study as undertaken to determine the aerobic intestinal bacterial flora of camel in an attempt to understand the epidemiological role played by this animal in transmission of diseases to other animals and man. The sample of intestinal contents were collected from 100 apparently healthy camels slaughtered at Lahore abattoir. Each sample was processed through a series of enrichment, differential and selective media for effective primary isolation and identification of aerobic bacteria. The identification of isolates was further based upon their morpholgy and biochemical characteristics. The salmonellae were isolated from 287. and coliform organisms from 157. animals slaughtered respectively. The presence of salmonella in the faeces of 28% animals as highly alarming as it could triger up outbreaks of enteric infection in human beings. Aerobactor and Proteus species were found to be one precent which is not so alarming where as Shigella species as zero percent. Strict hygienic measures at the abattoir are recommended. Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 0342,T] (1).

121. Comparative Study On Ordinary Alum Precipitated And Special Alum Precipitated H.S Vaccine By Dense

by Sajjad Hussain | Dr. Ata-ur-rehman rizvi | Dr. Muhammad | Dr. Muhammad naeem | Faculty of Veterinary Sciences.

Material type: book Book; Format: print ; Nature of contents: biography; Literary form: Publisher: 1994Dissertation note: Abstract Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 0351,T] (1).

122. Factors Affecting Haemagglutination Activity Of Newcastle Disease Virus

by Monem Rizvi, Syed | Dr. Muhammad Akram Munir | Dr. Mian Mubasher Naeem | Faculty of Veterinary Sciences.

Material type: book Book; Format: print Publisher: 1993Dissertation note: While standardizing various components of haemagglutination (HA) test optimum results were obtained using phosphate buffer saline (PBS) as a diluent, 0.5 per cent red blood cells suspended in PBS as indicator, and by incubating the microtitration plates at 4C. While best Haemagglutination-Inhibition (HI) titers were obtained by using 4 HA Units of antigen and 60 minutes incubation period (time given for antigen-serum reaction). The HI test did not detect maternal antibodies in the serum of birds after 4 week of age. Initial vaccination of chicks at 7 days of age followed by a booster dose at 21 days of age, elicited a good immune response and protected the broilers against virulent NDV challenge at 49 days of age. Administration of a single dose of NDV vaccine at 7 day of age or three NDV vaccine doses, one for priming at 7 days of age, second for first boosting at 21 days of age and third as a second booster dose at 35 days of age were not recommended, as in first case the immunity was short lived and in second case birds were exposed to unnecessary stress. Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 0353,T] (1).

123. Sero-Epidemiological Study Of Brucellosis And Leptospirosis In Cattle And Buffaloes

by Arshad, M | Dr. Muhammad Akram Munir | Dr. Mohammad Naeem | Dr. Muhammad | Faculty of Veterinary Sciences.

Material type: book Book; Format: print Publisher: 1991Dissertation note: Serum samples were coil collected from 400 buffaloes & 400 cattle maintained at Livestock Production Research Institute Bahadurr.aqar Okara The serum samples were subjected to serological test to detect the presence of antibodies against brucellae and leptospirae.. An over all 7.75 percent animals were found to harbour the antibrucella antibodies. The incidence by R8PT was 5.75 percent & 6,5 percent in cattle and buffaloes respectively whereas 7.0 percent and 8.5 percent samples were found positive to brucellae in cattle and buffaloes respectively by SAT. The incidence of leptospirosis in cattle and buffaloes was recorded to he 9.75 percent and 10.0 percent respectively with an over all incidence of 9.38 percent. Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 0354,T] (1).

124. Comparative Efficacy Of Single And Booster Foot And Mouth Disease Vaccination In Buffaloes

by Amir, M | Dr. Atta-ur-Rehman Rizvi Chairman | Dr. Mohammad Amin Sheikh Nember | Faculty of Veterinary Sciences.

Material type: book Book; Format: print Publisher: 1991Dissertation note: The present study was conducted to determine the duration of immunity conferred in buffalo-calves by locally prepared cell culture (BHK-21 cell line) FMD vaccine both in response to single dose vaccination as well as to booster dose vaccination. The cell culture bivalent FMD vaccine, having 0 and Asia-I serotypes, was prepared on BHK-21 cell line and inactivated with forma-line. The virus was adsorbed on aluminium hydroxide gel. The virus culture having the titre not less than io6 TCID50 per ml was used for preparing the vaccine. Safety, sterility and potency of the vaccine was thoroughly checked before its use in the trial. Eighteen buffalo-calves, aged 1-2 years, were used in the experiment. Their freeness from FMD and susceptibility were tested by performing the serum neutralization test in cell culture, which indicated the absence of neutralizing antibodies in their sera against the vaccine virus types. Their faecal examination was negative for any internal parasite after deworming twice. Twelve buffalo-calves were vaccinated subcutaneously with the field dose i.e. 5 ml and 6 animals were re-vaccinated on 28th day of primary vaccination while other 6 buffalo-calves were left as unvaccinated control. The vaccinated animals showed slightly rise in temperature 'and developed a walnut size swellings at the sites of injection otherwise they looked to be healthy. Serum samples were collected at 0 day to 26th week from once vaccinated animals and upto 36th week from the booster vaccinated and control animals. Almost all the vaccinated animals developed antibodies against FMD on 1st week, but all the vaccinated animals developed protective levels of neutralizing antibodies against FMD on 2nd week of primary vaccination. The single dose vaccinated buffalo-calves maintained the protective level of antibodies upto 16 weeks while booster vaccinated animals remained protective for 24 weeks against both the vaccine virus types (0 and Asia-I), to which booster vaccination was done on 28th day of primary vaccination. It was concluded from this study that the buffalo-calves of this age group should be re-vaccinated after 18 weeks of primary vaccination to protect them for further 24 weeks against F'MD i.e. booster vaccination is must for scheduling at least the biannual vaccination. Subsequent re-vaccination will increase the time span for repeating the vaccination. Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 0355,T] (1).

125. Inter-Relationship Of Haemagglutination Inhibition (Hi) Titres Against Newcastle Disease Vaccine (Mukteswar Straom) Of Dam's Serum, Egg Yolk And Serum Of The Chick

by Masood ul Hasan Javed | Dr. Mohammad Naeem | Dr. Sheikh Mohammad Amin | Faculty of Veterinary Sciences.

Material type: book Book; Format: print Publisher: 1992Dissertation note: The studies were conducted to determine the inter-relationship of HI titres against Mukteswar strain of NDV in the serum of dam, egg yolk and serum of day-old chick. These studies, helped not only to find out an agreement between the results of HI test of dam, egg yolk and day-old chick, but also for the suitability of the egg yolk for monitoring the immune stauts of laying flock. Four spaced injections of NDV vaccine were given to the experimental birds. The birds which did not receive 4th vaccination were referred as un-vaccinated control. At 21st day post-vaccination1 the antibody titre in yolk was lower than serum but from third week onward, comparable results were obtained with both the samples. Haemagglutination inhibition titre of dam's serum was comparatively stable throughout the experiment where as HI titre of egg yolk slightly fluctuated. Yolk, pepared by chloroform extraction and low-speed centrifugation, performed well in HI test for NOV. Maternal antibody level in day-old chick was related to the titre in dam and egg yolk. The GMT-HI titre of day-old chick fluctuated nearly in the same pattern as GMT-HI titre of egg yolk. Overall it was observed that both egg yolk and day-old chick serum HI antibody titres were slightly lower or equal to dam's serum HI antibody titre and a definite inter- relationship is present among HI titres of dam's serum, egg yolk and day-old chick. The results of this study also proved the suitabilty of egg yolk for HI antibody determination to NOV. Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 0363,T] (1).

126. Studies On Contribution Of Sheep & Goats In The Epidemiology Of Haemorrhagic Septicaemia

by Masood Anjum | Dr. Muhammad Amin Sheikh | Dr. Haji Ahmad | Dr. Muhammad Naeem | Faculty of Veterinary Sciences.

Material type: book Book; Format: print ; Nature of contents: biography; Literary form: Publisher: 1994Dissertation note: A total of 500 animals (sheep 250, goat 250), of both sexes and different age groups were examined for harbouring Pasteurella multocida in their respiratory tracts. The samples from live animals were collected by sterile cotton swabs, gently passed in their nasal cavity. The slaughtered animal's laryngotracheal region were directly approached for collection of samples. Lungs showing pathological lesions were collected from fifty animals each of both species. Tryptic soya broth was used for primary isolation of organism. Only one goat yielded Pasteurella multocida which proved highly virulent both for rabbits and mice. The isolate fermented glucose, fructose, mannose, mannitol, sorbitol and saccharose producing acid only. A negative reaction was observed for arabinose, dulcitol, maltose, lactose, raffinose and salacin. The organism was positive for catalase, oxidase, indole production, nitrate reduction and hydrogen sulphide production tests. It gave a negative reaction for methyl red, voges proskauer, urease activity and gelatin liquefaction tests. The organism was found non-motile in hanging drop preparation. The organism was highly sensitive to ampiclox, cefazolin and velosef, moderately sensitive to cephalexin, slightly sensitive to tobramycin, cloxacillin and resistant to lincocin, erythrocin, amoxydillin, doxycillin and sulpha-methaxazol trimethoprim. Amongst the various disinfectants tested, the organism showed maximum susceptibility to sanitizer and poulphene, moderate sensitivity to saniguard and sanitec and resistance to phenyl, sanitol and phenol. The organism in infected faecal matter maintained its viability for 9 days in shady place, sunlight and at room temperature. At a controlled temperature of 32°C. with 75-80% humidity, the organism remained alive for 10 days. Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 0373,T] (1).

127. Studies On Haemorrhagic Septicaemia In Cattle With Particular Reference To Characterization Of Isolates From Clinically Normal & Infected Animals

by Uzma Majeed | Dr. Mohammad Amin Sheikh | Dr. Mohammad | Dr. Mohammad Akram Munir | Faculty of Veterinary Sciences.

Material type: book Book; Format: print Publisher: 1993Dissertation note: The present project was planned to characterize Pasteurella multocida isolates from apparently healthy carrier and infected cattle. A total of 500 animals (live 250 and slaughtered 250) of different age groups and both sexes were examined for the evidence of harbouring Pasteurella multocida in their respiratory tracts. The samples were collected from the live animals through a sterilized cotton swab passed in their nasal cavity. In slaughtered animals the cotton swabs were smeared directly to laryngeo-tracheal region approached from the cut part of the trachea. In infected animals citerated blood of live animals was processed for isolation of the organisms; whereas a long-bone was collected and processed for bacteriological examination in slaughtered/dead animals. The primary isolation of the organism was attempted in tryptic soya broth/tryptic soya agar: The identification of the isolated strains was carried out on the basis of their cultural characteristics on arious media, morphology and staining reaction, sugar fermentation and other biochemical tests. Of the 500 healthy animals examined for their carrier status, none proved positive for the Pasteurella multocida organism in their respiratory tracts. Of the 10 outbreaks investigated, only 6 cases yielded Pasteurella multocida strains which proved highly virulent both for rabbits and mice. All the six strains were quite uniform in their various characteristics. All fermented glucose, fructose, mannose, mannitol, sorbitol and sacharose, producing acid only and n gas. None of them fermented arabinose dulcitol maltose, lactose, raffinose and salicin. All the six strains gave a positive reaction for catalase, oxidase indole production, nitrate reduction and H2S production tests, and negative reaction for methyle red, voges prausker, urease activity and gelatin liquefaction tests. None of the strains exhibited motility examined through hanging drop technique. All the 10 outbreaks occurred during the rainy months of August and November. All the infected animals were in the age group of 1 to ½ years. The course of the disease was 1-2 days. The clinical signs observed included dullness, depression, inappetance, tympany and a high rise of temperature upto 106°F. The swelling of the throat, which of course developed at an advanced stage of the disease was also observed. In this study conducted on limited number of animals the role of carriers in epidemiology of haemorrhagic septicaemia was observed to be quite insignificant. The outbreaks of the disease occurred during summer/winter rainy seasons necessitating the prophylactic vaccination of our cattle and buffaloes before these period of the year Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 0375,T] (1).

128. Serosurveilance Of A Disease Complex In Commercial Broilers

by Hassan Rizvi, Syed | Dr. Muhammad Naeem | Dr. Muhammad | Dr. Muhammad Sheikh Amin | Faculty of Veterinary Sciences.

Material type: book Book; Format: print ; Literary form: not fiction Publisher: 1994Dissertation note: In this study 400 samples of blood obtained from different farms situated around Jaranwala, an important broiler raising area of Punjab, were examined serologically. The Newcastle disease virus titer in most cases were low and non protective against exposure to field strain. The birds had antibodies against pathogens such as Infectious bronchitis virus and Infectious bursal disease virus to which they had not received vaccine indicating the presence of field strain of these viruses in the area. Some of the birds at these farms had antibodies against Hycoplasma galliseplicum, Mycoplasnia svnoviae and Salmonella gallinarum. Poor hygienic conditions coupled with poor ventilation may lead to the rapid dissemination of these pathogens within a community of birds and cause severe economic problems. Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 0382,T] (1).

129. A Comparative Study On The Immunogenicity Of Sonicated Pasteurella Multocida And Formalized Broth Culture (Bacterin) Of Organism In Buffalo Calves

by Habib ur Rehman | Dr. Mohammad Amin Sheikh | Dr. Mubasher Saeed Mian | Dr. S.A.R. Rizvi | Faculty of Veterinary Sciences.

Material type: book Book; Format: print ; Literary form: not fiction Publisher: 1993Dissertation note: Abstract Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 0391,T] (1).

130. Comparative Seroprevalence Of Bovine Viral Diarrhoea In Local And Exotic Cattle Breeds At Different Government

by Liaqat Ali Khan | Dr. Muhammad Naeem | Dr. Syed Ata-ur-Rehman Rizvi | Faculty of Veterinary Sciences.

Material type: book Book; Format: print ; Literary form: not fiction Publisher: 1994Dissertation note: The project was designed to find out the prevalence of bovine viral diarrhoea BVD virus antibodies in the sera of local and exotic cattle breeds, randomly selected from four different sources. For this purpose one thousand serum samples were collected and agar gel diffusion technique was used for the detection of antibodies against BVD. The results of the study revealed that an overall 11.4% cattle population was having antibodies against BVD virus. The prevalence of the BVD in local breed was 14.4% while that of exotic breed was 8.4%. The prevalence rate of antibodies against BVDV was found higher in local cattle breeds as compared to exotic breeds. Various epidemiological factors were considered. Age of the animal was an important factor influencing the prevalence of disease. So regarding the age of the animal high prevalence rates were found in adult as compared to young animals. Maximum number of reactors were found in the adult age group. The finding of the survey revealed a moderate exposure in cattle population. The occurrence of antibodies against BVD virus in apparently healthy unvaccinated animals was indicative for prevalence of the disease in the country. Therefore it is suggested that a complete survey should be carried out for this problem throughout the country and appropriate control measures for the disease. Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 0392,T] (1).

131. Studies On The Bactgerial Causes Of Uterine Infection In Buffaloes And Cows With Special Refernce To Corynebacterium

by Asif Suleman Sahi | Dr. S.A.R. Rizvi | Dr. M. Amin Sh | Dr. Mubasher Saeed Mian | Faculty of Veterinary Sciences.

Material type: book Book; Format: print ; Literary form: not fiction Publisher: 1993Dissertation note: A total of 200 samples of uterine discharge comprising 171 buffaloes and 29 cows showing signs of endometritis were included in this study. The material was subjected to bacteriological examination. Monoinfection was seen in case of 164 animals (141 buffaloes and 23 cows) while in case of 17 animals, mixed infection was revealed. The relative incidence of different organisms in cows and buffaloes was calculated. Of 29 cows suffering from endometritis, 25 proved to be bacteriologically positive while of 171 samples from buffaloes suffering from endometritis 141 cases were positive due to specific organisms. The incidence of different species of bacteria was Staphylococcus aureus 19.48 percent, Streptococcus pyogenes 7.79 percent, Streptocoçç bovis 4.32 percent, Corynebacteri urn pyogenes 23.33 percent, Corynebacterium bovis 5.19 percent, Escherichia cc ll 12.98 percent, Proteus vulgaris 9.52 percent, Pseudomonas aeruginosa 4.32 percent, Bacillus cereus 7.79 percent and Bacillus megaterium 5.19 percent. Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 0393,T] (1).

132. A Study On The Effect Of Organo Phosphate Insecticide (Neguvon) On Immune Response In Broiler Chickens

by Shoaib Ahmad | Dr. Muhammad Naeem | Dr. Muhammad Naeem | Dr. Shakil | Faculty of Veterinary Sciences.

Material type: book Book; Format: print ; Literary form: not fiction Publisher: 1994Dissertation note: Neguvon, an Organophosphate insecticide at a dose of 50mg or 100mg per kg of feed for varrying period of time administered to the birds, interfered with the development of serum antibodies in vaccinated and challenged birds. Neguvon had adverse effects on weights of lymphoid organs such as bursa of fabricius, spleen and thymus. It decreased the live body weights gain and dressed eviserated weights of birds. Neguvon had not beneficial effects on serum antibodies development. It resulted in higher postchallenged mortality of medicated vaccinated birds as compared to vaccinated control birds. So Neguvon is immunosuppressive insecticide when fed at subtoxic dosage levels. Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 0400,T] (1).

133. Comparative Efficacy Of Infectious Bursal Disease Vaccines In Broiler Chickens

by Tahir Waheed Khan | Dr. Muhammad Amin Sheikh | Dr. Khushi Muhammad | Dr. Muhammad | Faculty of Veterinary Sciences.

Material type: book Book; Format: print Publisher: 1995Dissertation note: The present study was carried out to know the comparative efficacy of different IBD vaccines including Rhone Merleux, Solvay, TAD and CVS in broiler chickens. The evaluation was based on the immune response developed against the vaccine concerned and its assessment through agar gel precipitation test (AGPT) and indirect haemagglutination (IHA) test. All the birds prior to their vaccination were examined for the presence of passive immunity, both through AGPT and IHA. AGPT could only detect 60-80% birds for maternal immunity, whereas IHA showed the presence of this immunity in all the experimental birds. All the vaccinated groups were examined for their immune response on 7th, 14th and 21st day post-vaccination. Both AGPT and H-IA showed the decline in immunity on 7th day post-vaccination and then a gradual increase in titres occurred at 14th day of vaccination. The titres attained their peak on 21st day post-vaccination. With AGPT on 21st day post-vaccination the birds for various vaccines gave precipitin lines respectively as 76, 89, 93 and 100 per cent, for Rhone Merieux, Solvay,TAD and CVS vaccines. With IHA the highest titres obtained on 21st day post- vaccination was 1:128 for each vaccine, however, the number of birds giving this titre varied being only one bird for Rhone Merleux, Solvay , TAD and 3 birds from CVS. Nevertheless, the next best titre obtained was 1:64 and the number of birds giving this titre was 2, Nil, 2 and 8 birds from Rhone Merieux, Solvay, TAD and CVS. The predominant number of birds, vaccinated against each vaccine developed a titre of 1:16 observed at 14th day and 21st day post- vaccination. The challenge infection results showed that birds with lilA titres of upto 1:4 developed severe lesions on their bursae, and other parts of the body, alongwith giving less BBR values. In this way the better IHA titre gave protection to the birds against a challenge infection. All the four vaccines gave identical results for their efficacy against the IBDV infection, however, CVS vaccinated birds developed highest titres in greater number. Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 0419,T] (1).

134. Phagocytic Potential Of Chicken Peritoneal Macrophages To Pasteurella Multocida

by Saima Dil | Dr. Muhammad Amin Sheikh | Dr. Khushi Muhammad | Dr. Shakil | Faculty of Veterinary Sciences.

Material type: book Book; Format: print Publisher: 1995Dissertation note: In this study phagocytic potential/activity of chicken peritoneal macrophages to P. multocida was determined. Macrophages were collected by injecting Sephadex G 75 Sintraperitoneally. Peritoneal exudate cells were collected on 24, 48 and 72 hours post Sephadex G-75 injection. By differential counting macrophages were found to be 70- 80% while the remaining 20-30% cells comprised lymphocytes and heterophils. There was no difference in percentage of macrophages on 24 hours, by single and double dose of Sephadex G-75 but on 72 hours post Sephadexc G-75 injection, percentage of macrophages was a little high by double dose. Both capsulated and non-capsulated forms of P. multocida were chosen for examining phagocytic activity of the chicken peritoneal macrophages and the opsonizing role of the inactivated, normal and hyper immune sera. The capsulated P. multocida was phagocytosed less efficiently in the presence of hyperimmune and : normal sera then the non capsulated organisms. However, as against the latter, the former did not at all respond to the phagocytosing attempts of the macrophages, in the presence of the inactivated serum. Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 0449,T] (1).

135. Titration Of Infectious Bursal Disease Virus In Different Organs Of Gumboro Infected Birds And Embryonated Hen

by Saeed Anwar, M | Dr. Muhammad Naeem | Dr. Haji Ahmad | Dr. Khushi Muhammad | Faculty of Veterinary Sciences.

Material type: book Book; Format: print ; Literary form: not fiction Publisher: 1995Dissertation note: Infectious bursal disease virus (IBDV) was quantitated in different organs of the infected birds and in different parts of the experimentally inoculated embryonated hen eggs through agar gel precipitation technique (AGPT). The AGPT was standardized in the laboratory using known hyperimmune sera against IBDV antigen. The concentration of the agar, antibody and antigen are important factors for the development of precipitation line. Moreover, only gel containing noble agar in distilled water is important for diffusion of the antigen/antibody, while either of the other reagents such as sodium chloride, phenol crystal and sodium azide are presumably added to inhibit the microbial growth. The serum from birds on 14 days post first bost showed 294.1 ACPT titers, while egg yolk from these bird on 30-45 days post first boost were having 68.6 AGPT titers. Postmortem examination showed the lesions In liver,Kidney, spleen, intestine and bursa fabricius. It was observed that only bursa of fabricius showed detectable level (1:4 to 1:16) of IBD virus titers. Similarly, chorioaflantoic membrane of the inoculated egg showed 1:4 AGPT titers. From this study it was concluded that AGPT is a crude but highly reliable test for qualitative and quantitative study of IBDV antigen or antibodies. Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 0458,T] (1).

136. Effects Of Clopidol And Lasalocid (Avatec) (Coccidiostats) On The Immunity Of Broiler Chicks Vaccinated

by Umer Farooq, M | Dr. Syed Ata-ur-Rehman Rizvi | Dr. Khalid | Dr. Muhammad Akram Munir | Faculty of Veterinary Sciences.

Material type: book Book; Format: print Publisher: 1994Dissertation note: The birds that received Avatec at recommended dosage levels had higher body weight than the Clopidol medicated, Cyclophosphamide treated or untreated control birds. Both Avatec and Clopidol treatments did not adversely affect the weights of bursa of Fabricius, spleen, thymus and liver of birds. Cyclophosphamide treatment of birds in early life resulted in.bursal atrophy and slight depression of splenic weight gain. Avatec and Clopidol were immuno-stimulants and birds eating medicated rations had higher antibody titres as compared to control birds. The NDV vaccinated birds on Avatec and Clopidol medicated rations and those on non-medicated rations resisted challenge with a virulent ND virus, while the non-vaccinated birds of any treatment group and vaccine free control could not withstand this challenge. Conclusions This study indicated that Clopidol and Avatec, when used at recommended dosage levels (25 gm of Premix/50 kg of feed and 6.25 gm of pure drugl5O kg of feed respectively) did not interfere with the development of birds; did not have any adverse effects on weights of lymphoid organs such as bursa of Fabricius, spleen, thymus, liver; did not interfere with the development of humoral immunity in vaccinated birds. Their medication in feed rather produced beneficial effects on serum, weight gain and antibody production. The injection of Cyclophosphamide resulted in lower body weights, destruction of the bursa of Fabricius, poor antibody response of birds to vaccination against NDV, and very high post-challenge mortality. The weight gain studies indicated that vaccinated and non- vaccinated birds on Clopidol and Avatec medicated feeds had non- significantly higher body weights that those on non-medicated ration at 56 days of age. Avatec at recommended dosage level, had more beneficial effects on the body weights than the Clopidol. These studies further indicated that vaccinated birds kept on Avatec medicated feed had significantly higher serum antibody titres on day 56 than the vaccinated non-medicated control birds. From the results of this study it is concluded that Avatec and Clopidol are not immuno-suppressive drugs when used at recommended dosage levels. They rather have beneficial effects on growth performance and immune response of birds. However, there is a need for further investigations. Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 0459,T] (1).

137. Immune Response Of Broilers Treated With Amprolium And Chloramphenicol

by Rakhshanda Perveen Cheema | Dr. Muhammad Akram Muneer | Dr. Haji Ahmad | Dr. Muhammad Naeem | Faculty of Veterinary Sciences.

Material type: book Book; Format: print Publisher: 1994Dissertation note: The birds that received arnprolium at recommended dosage levels had higher mean body weight than the chioramphenicol medicated, cyclophosphamide treated or untreated control birds. Arnprolium treatment did not adversely affect the weight of bursa of Fabricius, spleen, thymus and liver of birds. Chioramphenicol treatment slightly depressed the weight of bursa of Fabricius and thymus. Cyclophosphamide treatment of birds in early life resulted in bursal atrophy and slight depression of splenic weight. As compared to Cyclophosphamide treated and non-rnedicated control birds, the sera of NDV vaccinated birds fed Amprolium had higher antibody titres on day 42. The sera of chioramphenicol treated NDV vaccinated birds had lower antibody titres as compared to non-medicated control birds on day 42. The post-challenge sera of NDV vaccinated birds fed Amprolium also had higher antibody titre as compared to NDV vaccinated cyclophosphamide and chioramphenicol treated birds. The NDV vaccinated chioramphenicol treated and NDV vaccinated cyclophosphamide treated had high post NDV challenge mortality and the NDV vaccinated birds on amproliurn medicated rations and those on non-medicated rations did not have any significant post NDV challenge mortality. Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 0460,T] (1).

138. Effects Of Live Mycoplasma Gallisepticum Vaccine On Broiler Chicks

by Mumtaz Baig, M | Dr. Muhammad Akram Munir | Dr. Muhammad Naeem | Dr. Shakeel | Faculty of Veterinary Sciences.

Material type: book Book; Format: print Publisher: 1995Dissertation note: This study indicated that live Mycoplasma gallisepticurn vaccine when administered to the chickens vaccinated with Newcastle vaccination had immunosuppressive effects. Live Mycoplasma gallisepticum vaccine partially interfered with the development of serum antibodies against NDV in vaccinated chickens. However, when live MG vaccine is done alone in the chickens it gives good serum antibody titres. rube injection to baby chicks on first 4 consecutive post hatching days with cyclophosphaniide resulted in lower body weights, poor FCR, destruction of the bursa of fabricius, poor antibody response of birds to vaccinations against MG and ND. The weight gain and FCR studies. indicated that the birds which were vaccinated either against live MG or NDV had significantly higher body weights and FCR values than those vaccinated both against MG and NDV. These studies further indicate that the birds vaccinated against live MG and ND had significantly lower serum antibody titres on day 48 than the birds which were vaccinated against either live MG or NDV. From the results of this study it was concluded that F-strain MG vaccination effective the growth performance and feed conversion efficacy of broiler chicks. The live MG vaccination also interfered in the development of immune response (antibody titers) against Newcastle disease virus. Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 0464,T] (1).

139. Immunomodulatory Effects Of Amprolium 20% And Sulphaquinoxaline In Broilers Chickens

by Nighat Yasmeen | Dr. Muhammad Akram Muneer | Dr. Mohammad | Sh. Muhammad Amin | Faculty of Veterinary Sciences.

Material type: book Book; Format: print ; Literary form: not fiction Publisher: 1994Dissertation note: This study indicated that Amprolium 20% (Amidiostat) when used at recommended dosage levels (0.5 Kg/ton of feed did not interfere with the body weight gains of birds; did not have adverse effects on weights of lymphoid organs such as bursa of Fabricius, spleen, thymus, liver; did not interfere with the development of serum antibody in vaccinated or non-vaccinated and challenged birds; Amprolium 20% medication in feed had beneficial effects on serum antibody development; did not result in higher post-challenge mortality of vaccinated birds as compared to the non-medicated vaccinated control birds. however Sulphaquinoxaline when used at recommended dosage level (125 gm/ton of feed) did partially interfere with the weight of lymphoid organs such as bursa of Fabricius, spleen, thymus, liver and also interfere with the development of serum antibody in vaccinated or non vaccinated and challenged birds. The injection to baby chicks on first 4 consecutive post- hatching days with cyclophosphamide resulted in lower body weights, destruction of the bursa of Fabricius, poor antibody response of birds to vaccination against ND, and very high post-challenge mortality, UOfl challenge with virulent NDV. The weight gain studies indicated that vaccinated and non-vaccinated birds on Amprolium 20% and suiphaquinoxaline medicated feeds had non- significantly higher body weights than those on non-medicated ration at 42 days of age. Amproliurn 20%, at recommended dosage level, had more beneficial effects on the body weights than the suiphaquinoxaline. These studies further indicated that vaccinated birds kept on Amprolium 20% medicated feed had significantly higher serum antibody titres on (lay 42 than the vaccinated non-medicated control birds. The serum antibody titres of vaccinated birds on Amprolium 20% medicated feed were significantly higher thai-i those fed sulphaquinoxaline at recommended dosage levels. From the results of this study it is concluded that long term use of Suiphaquinoxaline at recommended dosage levels moderately suppress the immune system of the birds. It is also observed that Amprolium 20% (Amidiostat) is not immunosuppressive drug when used at recommended dosage levels. It has rather beneficial effects on growth performance and immune response of birds. However there is a need for further investigations. Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 0466,T] (1).

140. Epidemiological Studies N Mastitis In Buffaloes & Cattle In And Around Lahore

by Khurram Nawaz Qazi | Dr. Syed A.R. Rizvi | Dr. M. Amin Sheikh | Dr. Shakeel A | Faculty of Veterinary Sciences.

Material type: book Book; Format: print ; Literary form: not fiction Publisher: 1996Dissertation note: Research studies were conducted to investigate some epidemiological aspects of bovine mastitis in and around Lahore. A total of 45 small livestock units/herds were surveyed and epidemiological data was collected from 4000 bovine population on prescribed proforina. Bacteriological examination was aiso performed on 1000 milk samples after presumptive screening with modified california mastitis test (C.M.T.). Analysis of the data showed, the herd incidence rate of 88.88 per cent and the disease incidence rate of 8.33 per cent (lactating animals) during this project. CMT on 1000 quarter milk samples showed 14.3% incidence of subclinical mastitis and 10.6% animals were positive bacteriologically. Relative incidence of acute, subacute and chronic forms of disease was 38.33, 43.90 and 13.37 per cent, respectively. Quarter infection rate was 33.40 per cent in affected buffaloes and 10.36 per cent in infected cattle. It was significantly higher in hind than in fore quarters in buffaloes. All the breeds of buffaloes and cattle maintained in the area were reported to be affected occasionally during the lactation. Age and lactation wise distribution of rnastitis cases varied in different age and lactation groups; being highest in 6-8 years of age group 42.93% and 4-6 lactation (39.45%). Number of cases were higher (53.63%) during early stage of lactation than in middle (21.97%) and (24.4%) late stages. High milk yielding group 12-14 litres daily was more prone to the disease. Disease was reported to cause 30.26 per cent decrease in milk production of affected animals. Udders/teats of 4.0 per cent animals had history of surgical manipulation. Housing on pakka floor (48.9%) incidence was observed to have some association with the disease. Of the 1000 milk samples 143 were found positive by C.M.T.and 106 samples yielded 171 isolates of different species; 86 Staphylococcus aureus, 9 Staphylococcus epiderinides, 30 Streptococcus agalactiae, 17 Streptococcus dysagalactiae, 11 Bacillus cereus, 10 Escherichia co/i, 5 Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Antobiotic sensitivity of the isolates showed that they were sensitive in descending order to Gentamycin, Chlortetracyline, Sul;fonamide (Tribrissin), Chloramphanicol, Ampicilline, Tylosine. Penicilline & Tetracycline. Out of 86 isolates of Staphylococcus aureus 60 were penicillin resistant of which 23 produced penicillinase. In order to reduce the huge economic losses in terms of milk reduction (30.26% ), the findings of this project are hoped to guide for the control of disease at subclinical stage on a large scale. However, additional studies are suggested for the epidemiology of this disease. Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 0467,T] (1).

141. Yolk And Serum: Detection Of Antibodies To Various Infectious Bronchitis Virus Strains Of Chickens

by Nadeem Ibrahim, M | Dr. Muhammad Akram Munir | Dr. Haji Ahmad | Dr. Muhammad Naeem | Faculty of Veterinary Sciences.

Material type: book Book; Format: print ; Literary form: not fiction Publisher: 1995Dissertation note: A total of 1318 blood samples and 290 egg samples were analyzed for the presence of antibodies to various strains of avian infectious bronchitis virus (AIBV). For this purpose broiler breeder, commercial layer, and layer breeder farms located in various geographical regions of the provinces of the Punjab and North West Frontier Province (NWFP) were visited, and flock histories in terms of production performances, growth patterns arid IB disease prevalence, were recorded) Attempts were made to sample only those farms which had experienced high morbidity, low production and mortality in the past growing or laying flocks housed at such farms. Samples from acute phase of illness and convalescent period were collected where ever possible. It was observed that there was a general trend to house and rear multiple age groups at the same time, the poultry farms were located at a very close distances from each other and were either not following any proper vaccination programmes or were not using any IBV vaccines. The seroprevalence of 1BV antibodies in unvaccinated flocks was more in areas where poultry farms were located in clusters or had developed into poultry estates In case of commercial layers, layer breeder and broiler breeder birds their misshapen and normal eggs were also collected for detection of antibodies to various strains/types of IBV. The serum and egg-yolk samples were analyzed using haernagglutination and haemagglutination-inhibition tests.This study indicated the presence of antibodies to various AIBV types such as Massachusettes-41 (M41), D-274 and D-1466. It was further observed that the breeder and commercial flocks which did not receive any killed or live IBV vaccination had significant levels of humoral and yolk antibodies indicating that various types of IBV were circulating in the poultry flocks in various areas of the Punjab and NWFP. The flocks indicating low egg production and quality; respiratory distress, and poor feed conversion ratios did suffer from the attack of some IBV strain(s) as they also had quite significant levels of humoral/yolk IBV antibodies) Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 0477,T] (1).

142. Role Of Maternally Derived Antibodies In Protection Against Infectious Bursal Disease Virus.

by Sameera Akhtar | Dr. Muhammad Akram Muneer | Dr. Haji Ahmed | Dr. Muhammad Naeem | Faculty of Veterinary Sciences.

Material type: book Book; Format: print Publisher: 1996Dissertation note: This project was designed to study the role of maternally derived antibody in protection against IBD and efficacy of immunization with live and killed IBDV vaccines. A total of 250 day old chicks were divided into five groups i.e. groups A, B, C, D and E, each group having equal number of chicks. Group A was non-treated control for the study of the decay rate of maternal antibodies. The chickens of groups, B, C and D were vaccinated with live, killed and combination of live and killed IBDV vaccines. All the chicks were vaccinated with NDV vaccines except group E which was kept as negative control. There was no interference in the IBDV and NDV in the development of immunity. The birds showed the presence of passive immunity, both through AGPT and IHA tests. Maternal antibody was detectable only through AGPT. The IHA indicated the presence of immunity in all the birds upto day 14th. It was further observed that the birds having maternal Ab titres against IBDV (upto a titre of 5.27) also resisted the experimental challenged with the CVS-6). All the vaccinated groups indicated the immune responses post vaccination. Both the AGP and IHA tests detected decline in immunity on 7th day post-vaccination and then a gradual increase in titres at 14th day. The titres were at the peak after day 28 post booster vaccination. The results of challenge indicated that the birds having antibody titre (GMT=68.39) against IBDV resisted the IBDV challenge. Typical clinical signs of IBD were noted. The bursa was odematous and double in size. The spleen and thymus were slightly enlarged. Statistical analysis of lymphoid organ body weight ratio's of spleen, bursa and thymus indicated a significant differences in the vaccinated and control chickens. Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 0480,T] (1).

143. Characterization And Antibiotic Sensitivity Of Pasteurella Multocida Isolates From The Field Cases Of Haemorrhagic Septicaemia In Buffloes Of Punjab

by Puran Das | Dr. Muhammed Amin Sheikh | Dr. Syed Ata-Ur-Rehman Rizvi | Faculty of Veterinary Sciences.

Material type: book Book; Format: print ; Literary form: not fiction Publisher: 1996Dissertation note: The research project accomplished was primarily concerned with the isolation and characterization of P. multocida strains involved in field outbreaks of HS in buffaloes of Punjab Province of Pakistan. In addition, isolates were also examined for their sensitivity to various antibiotics and suipha drugs. Isolation attempts, made both on blood samples of live diseased animals and long bones of the dead/slaughtered animals, yielded 10 strains of the organism, solely from the long bones. All the strains of P. inultocida isolated were uniform in their sugar fermentation and other biochemical reactions, giving a positive reaction for glucose, fructose, mannose, mannitol, sucrose, sorbitol and xylose, producing acid only and no gas. Like wise a positive reaction was also recorded for catalase, oxidase, indole production, nitrate reduction and H2S production tests. All the strains were however, unable to ferment arabinose, inositol, lactose, maltose, salicin, dulcitol and raffinose sugars and were negative for methyl red, voges proskauer, urease activity and gelatin liquefaction tests. All the isolates of P. multocida were serologically identified as Roberts type I. All the isolates proved highly pathogenic both to rabbits and mice alike. The antibiotic sensitivity results against 10 field strains and one reference strain of P. inultocida showed amoxicillin to be the most effective antibiotic. The rest of the antibiotics, placed in accordance with their effectivity, in descending order are ampicillin, chloramphenicol, norfloxicin, kanamycin, gentamycin, oxytetracycline and sulphamethaxazole + trimethoprim. None of the antibiotics except amoxicillin, was able to display equal effectivity against all the 11 strains of P. multocida examined. Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 0486,T] (1).

144. Studies On Efficacy Of Alum Precipitated Haemorrhagic Septicaemia Vaccine (Bacterin)

by Saeed ul Hassan Khan | Dr. muhammed Amin Sheikh | Dr. Muhammed Khushi Muhammed | Faculty of Veterinary Sciences.

Material type: book Book; Format: print ; Literary form: not fiction Publisher: 1996Dissertation note: The research project undertaken concerned efficacy of alum precipitated HS vaccine (bacterin). conducted on buffaloes maintained at Livestock Production Research Institute (LPRJ) Bahadurnagar, Okara. Primarily the study was aimed at examining the efficacy of three different dosage levels of the vaccine comprising 1 mg, 1.5 mg and 2mg dry weights of the bacteria, tried on animals of different body weights. In addition, the immunopotentiating effects of levamisole, on HS vaccine, were also studied on one of the groups of experimental animals. The best results were those given by 2mg dry weight of the organism, observed in animals weighing 600 kg or above, with a GMT value of 48.5 observed on day 42nd post-vaccination. The second best result was of the dose carrying 1.5 mg dry weight of the organism. Unfortunately the young animals having a body weight of 60-80kg did not give a response worthy of some concrete conclusion against all three aforesaid doses of the vaccine which was thought to be due to some sort of ill effects of their substandard health status on the immune response. Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 0487,T] (1).

145. Physicochemical Factors Effecting The Survival Of Egg Drop Syndrome Virus

by Akif Masood | Atta-ur-Rehman Rizvi | Dr. Muhammed Shakeel akhtar Khan | Faculty of Veterinary Sciences.

Material type: book Book; Format: print ; Literary form: not fiction Publisher: 1997Dissertation note: About 417 duck eggs were collected from a duck farm. These eggs were incubated at 37oC in automatic incubator for 10 days. At the 11th day the eggs were candled to confirm the fertility of eggs, either they are embryonated or not. Fertile eggs were then be inoculated with the physically and chemically treated EDS-76 virus which have already been treated and stored in plastic vials at -20oC. About 0.1 ml of the sample was inoculated per egg. Four eggs were set for each of the factor i.e physical and chemical. The physical factors were temperature, pH and U.V light. The current project was conducted to study the survival of EDS virus when it was subject to various physical and chemical factor. As far as the physical factors were concerned it was observed that at different temperatures i,e -2oC, +4C°, 331::0 and 37C°. The virus survived at each temperature far 35 days and the same virus survived at 56C° for 90 minutes. AS far as the pH was concerned it was examined that EDS virus remained viable at pH 1,47,10,13 for 24 hours. Following exposure of virus to WY light it was observed that EDS virus servived for 45 minutes. Similairly, the results of chemical factors showed that formalin of 0.067. could not inactivate the virus but 0.12% and o.24x formalin solution killed the virus in time from 6 to 24 hours. Losan with 0.5%., 1.0%. and 1.5%. killed the EDS virus in 15, 30 and 45 minutes respectively. The results of this endeavor show that the formalin and Losan in other words chemical like these should be one of the options for farmers to disinfect their sheds to prevent the occurrence of infection from EDS virus. Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 0500,T] (1).

146. Effect Of Maternal Antibodies On Antigenic Response Of Broiler Birds To Infectious Bursal Disease (228-E strain) Virus Vaccine

by Sajid Afzal, M | Dr. Muhammad Akram Munir | Dr. Atta-ur Rehman Rizvi | Dr. Haji Ahmad | Faculty of Veterinary Sciences.

Material type: book Book; Format: print Publisher: 1997Dissertation note: This project was designed to study the effect of maternal antibodies on the antigenic response of birds to infectious bursal disease virus (288-E strain) vaccine and to study the duration of maternal antibody against IBDV in broiler. A total of one hundred forty chicks were randomly divided into eight groups i.e. A, B, C, 1), E, F, G and H. All the birds in groups A, B, C, U, E and F were vaccinated against IBDV. The birds in groups 0 and H were unvaccinated controls. However, the groups were IBDV vaccinated according to different schedules. The presence of IBDV maternal antibodies was tested through agar gel precipitation test, and the maternal antibodies to IBDV were observable upto day 14 of the life of chicks. All the IBDV vaccinated birds exhibited immune response to the vaccine and their response was detectable through AGPT. Antibodies were detectable on 7th day post vaccination and the responses increased upto 14th day post vaccination. The antibody titres were at peak in all the groups between 28th to 35th day of age. These findings indicate that maternal antibody waned away between second and third week of life. The mean±standard error values of groups A, B, C, D, E, F, G and H on day 35, were 28.33±8.56, 41.66±12.99, 43.33±11.70, 31.66±13.21, 41.66±12.56, 45.0±14.29, 26.66±11.94 and 26.66±11.94, respectively. The serologic and challenge infection study indicates that the vaccinated birds were immune against IBDV. Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 0515,T] (1).

147. Physicochemical Factors Effecting The Survival Of Newcastle Disease Virus

by Rizwan Qayyum | Dr. Muhammad Naeem | Dr. asif Rabbani | Prof. Dr. S.A.R. Rizvi | Faculty of Veterinary Sciences.

Material type: book Book; Format: print ; Literary form: not fiction Publisher: 1997Dissertation note: For this research project, about 305 fresh fertile hen eggs were obtained from Veterinary Research Institute, Lahore. These eggs after cleaning were incubated at 37°C in automatic incubator for 11 days. At the 11th day, candling was done to confirm the fertility of eggs, either they are embryonated or not,. Eggs found dead at the time of candling were discarded. Fertile eggs 305 in number were inoculated with physically and chemically treated mesogenic strain of Newcastle disease virus which had already been treated and stored in plastic vials at -20°C. Each egg was inoculated with about 0.lnil of the treated viral sample. Four eggs were set for each of the factor for each time period. Four eggs were kept control in each factor in which viral suspension without physical or chemical treatment was inoculated. The project was designed to study the effect of physical and chemical factors on the survival of Newcastle disease virus. The physical factors were temperature, p11 and UV light and chemical factors included five disinfectants like Formaline, Iosan, Phenol Aldekol and Bromosept (QAC). It was noted that at 56°C temperature virus lost its haemagglutinating activity after 45 minutes, but survived this temperature at 15 and 30 minutes exposure. It was observed that virus survived at pH 4 and 9 for 6, 12, 18 and 24 hrs but was killed at pH 1 and 13 for all the said time periods. After exposing virus to UV light, it was examined that Newcastle disease virus survived at UV light exposure for 45 minutes. As far as the chemical factors were concerned, the results showed that 0.48% concentration of formalin inactivated virus in 30 minutes but not in 15 minutes. Other two concentrations i.e. 0.12% and 0.24% could not inactivate the virus. Phenol and Bromosept showed good antiviral activity against ND virus. 0.4% and 0.6% concentrations of Phenol inactivated the virus within 15 minutes but virus retained its HA activity at 0.2% phenol concentrations for 15, 30 and 45 minutes. The virus survived at 0.1% Bromosept concentration for 45 minutes and at 0.5% concentration for 15 minutes time but its haemagglutinating property was lost at 0.5% concentration in 30 minutes and at 1% concentration, the virus was killed within 15 minutes time. 0.1% concentration of Aldekol could not inactivate the virus in 15, 30 or 45 minutes. At its 0.5% concentration virus was inactivated after 45 minutes exposure but not at 15 and 30 minutes. However 1% Aldekol inactivated virus after 30 minutes but not within 15 minutes time. losan with 0.5% and 1.0% concentrations killed the mesogenic strain of Newcastle disease virus in 15, 30 and 45 minutes respectively. So the results of this study show that losan shows excellent antiviral activity against ND virus and is the best for disinfection of this virus at the farm. Bromosept (QAC) and Phenol should be the other two options for farmers to disinfect their sheds and hatcheries to minimize the chances of infection from Newcastle disease virus. Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 0519,T] (1).

148. A Study On The Effect Of Synthetic Pyrethroid Insecticide Talstar (Bifenthrim) On Immune Response In Broiler Chicken

by Fida Hussain | Prof. Dr. A.R. Rizvi | Dr. Muhammad Naeem | Prof. Dr. Rashid | Faculty of Veterinary Sciences.

Material type: book Book; Format: print Publisher: 1995Dissertation note: Abstract Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 0520,T] (1).

149. Standardisation Of Indirect Haemagglutination Test For Monitoring Infectious Bursal Disease Virus

by Sajid Mahmood | Dr. Muhammad Akram Muneer | Dr. Hajid | Dr. Khushi Muhammad | Faculty of Veterinary Sciences.

Material type: book Book; Format: print ; Nature of contents: biography; Literary form: Publisher: 1997Dissertation note: Indirect haemagglutination (IHA) test was standardized and evaluated to moniter antibodies against infectious bursal disease (IBD). It was observed that oil based vaccine prepared from bursae of fäbricius of infected birds, induced a high level of antibody which were detected by agar gel precipitation test (AGPT). It was recorded Chat tannic acid, glutaraldehyde and chromium chloride had 0.0000781, 0.003906 and 0.0001562 per cent subagglutinating dilutions in normal saline solution (pH 7.2) respectively while 0.000001220, 0.0156 and 0.0025 subagglutinating dilution of the coupling agents were found in phasphate buffered saline (pH 7.2), respectively. Indirect. haemagglutination test is sensitive and specific serological technique to study infectious bursal disease. However, antigen dilution to sensitize erythrocytes, source of erythrocytes, chemical nature of diluent, interaction temperature and time, nature and concentration of coupling agent coated erythrocytes and antiserum against IBD, had influenced the sensitivity of IHA test. Ten percent antigen for sensitizing sheep erythrocytes, incubation temperature of 37°C for 10 minutes for antigen, tannic acid (0.005%) and erythroéyte interaction, freshly prepared sensitized erythrocytes and normal saline solution (pH 7.2) as diluent were found suitable for detecting maximum titre of anti-IBD antibodies through the IHA. Moreover it was observed that the standardized IHA proportionally showed reduction in the titre on dilution of serum. The antibody titre in the IHA was the well having serum dilution, showing resistance to bleed (flow) on tilting the plate for 5 seconds. The final results of antibody titre were achieved within 120 minutes post processing of the samples. Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 0529,T] (1).

150. In Vitro Studies On The Effects Of Physico Chemical Factors On The Survival Of Mycoplasma Capri

by Abid Akbar, M | Dr. Muhammad Naeem | Dr. Muhammad | Dr. Muhammad Amin Sheikh | Faculty of Veterinary Sciences.

Material type: book Book; Format: print Publisher: 1997Dissertation note: The physical factors under study were pH and temperature. It was observed that at p11 6.5, 7.5 and 8.5, although the growth of the organism took placed but the growth was best achieved at pH 6.5 with 30% absorbance measured by turbidometery. As far as the temperature is concerned, growth at different temperatures i.e. at room temperature (30°C), at incubator temperature (37°C), at refrigerator temperature (4°C) with respect to various sources of serum i.e. horse, cattle, buffalo, sheep and allontoic fluid, were tested and it was observed that at room temperature the growth was best in media containing buffalo serum 25% absorbance, respectively. At incubator temperature the growth of ycoplasnja pj was good enough with media containing cattle, buffalo and sheep serum, giving 25%, 32% and 33%, absorbance respectively and even at refrigerator temperatvye the growth of the said organism was available with media containing cattle serum, buffalo serum, sheep serum and allontoic fluid, giving 9%, 12%, 11.5% and 9% absorbance respectively. The results of chemical factors showed that the survival and growth of Mycoplasma capri was best attained at these serum sources i.e. horse, cattle and buffalo giving 28%, 26% and 29.5% absorbance, respectively. The effect of different concentrtions of horse serum i.e. 5%, 15% and 20% on ithe growth of the organism depicted that 15% concentration level is good for its growth and survival, giving 31.5% absorbance. Various disinfectants i.e. Formaline, Phenol, Beloran-500 (Ciba), Detol (Reckitt & Colman) were tested for disinfection against the said organism revealed that 1% solution of Formaline, 1% solution of Phenol, 0.5% solution of Beloran-500 and 4% solution of Detol effectively killed the bacteria. Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 0531,T] (1).



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