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1. Phylogenetic Analysis Of Major Fresh Water Carps Of Pakistan Through DNA Barcoding

by Madeeha Awan (2012-VA-650) | Dr. Ali Raza Awan | Dr.Sehrish Firyal | Dr. Muhammad Tayyab.

Material type: book Book; Literary form: not fiction Publisher: 2014Dissertation note: Pakistan is bestowed with the land of geological and topographic diversity. The ecological variation is uniformly reflected in all water lands of the country. Pakistan has significantly huge natural inland water resources in the form of ocean, rivers, networks of canals and lakes (Mirza and Rafique 1994). The country is blessed with one of the largest freshwater resources in the world correspondingly large number of freshwater living vertebrates is available from which fishes are quite significant considering the ecological balance and its consumption as food. It is one of the food sources which solely provide all the essential nutrients, minerals and high quality protein which is not common from other food items (Muhammad Rafique 2007). Out of 33,100 fish species identified worldwide as per Fish Base organization report published in April 2015 ( Out of 233 (indigenous and exotic) freshwater fish species, 78 economically important indigenous fish species are available in the water bodies of the Pakistan. According to this report fishes are the largest vertebrate group, constituting about 50% of all vertebrate species. Systematically fishes are widely spread in nature, ranging from prehistoric jawless fishes to cartilaginous fishes and also from old to current day bony fishes. The taxonomic placement of these fishes shows their belonging to class Actinopterygii, sub-class Teleostei, 3 cohorts, 6 superorders, 13 orders, 30 families and 86 genera (Rafique 2007; Rafique and Khan 2012). Demand of fish is increasing day by day not only being the naturally available source of food rather the health benefits associated with its consumption. This necessitates to develop a more efficient and sustainable system to increase their growth. DNA based technologies are being competently employed in aquaculture production fields for pedigree information. Introduction 2 Moreover, tagging each fish individually is not an easy task so these DNA based methods help in avoiding intrusion of environmental factors which may result from raising fish families in separate reservoirs (Martinez 2007). Fish identification has been traditionally based on phenotypic features. However, due to high multiplicity and morphological similarity, in many cases, fish at its different developmental stages are hard to be identified by relying only on morphological characteristics (Victor et al. 2009). For phylogenetic studies of the animals the use of mt-DNA is very common and reliable compared to nuclear DNA due to its high evaluation capabilities, which results in gathering of differences even between closely related species (Moore 1995; Mindell et al. 1997).“Bar-coding gap" is the name given to the property that is inter-specific variation in this region is markedly higher than intra-specific variability (Hebert et al. 2003). Approximately each and every animal contain 13 protein-coding genes (PCGs) as an essential component of their mt-genome (mitochondrial genome), which helps in encoding of several proteins responsible for the oxidative phosphorylation machinery (Richly A et al. 2004, Song H et al. 2008). Being maternally inherited, mt-DNA is better as compared to genomic DNA such as quick evolution, less exposure to recombination, high copy number, high conservation, little duplications and negligible intergenic regions (Waugh J 2007, Xu J 2005). Clonal inheritance is the main property which makes it more worthy and suitable marker in comparison with other available molecular bio-diversity tools (Galtier et al. 2009). DNA barcoding is one of the taxonomic tools. It is being used to distinguish animal species based on the small segment of their genome such as mitochondrial DNA, designated as an identification tag or barcode of particular species (Herbert et al. 2003). Identification of species using DNA barcoding is quite debatable. Still many researchers consider it as a reliable Introduction 3 basic tool to ascertain the genetic characterization of diverse eukaryotic species, especially after establishment of the Consortium for the Barcode of Life (CBOL) in 2004 [http: //www.]. Ideally DNA barcoding should provide quick, reliable and cost effective species identification, even to those user who has little or negligible knowledge of taxonomy (Herbert et al. 2003, Hajibabaei M et al. 2005, Herbert et al. 2005). Identification of unknown source is possible by using distance based tree which can be created by comparing unidentified sequences against retrieved known sequences of different species (Hebert et al. 2003, 2004a, 2004b). DNA barcoding identification system has been recognized universally as standardized method to recognize species and unveil their genetic diversity (Herbert et al. 2003; Herbert et al. 2004). The ideal DNA barcoding is robust, with conserved, universal primer binding sites, reliable DNA amplification and sequencing. From whole mitochondrial genome, Cytb (Cytochrome b) is considered as one of the most promising gene due to its function and structure, even it is composed of both conserved and rapidly evolving regions which are more related to evolutionary studies (Farias et al. 2001). To identify unknown or ambiguous species it is considered more reliable as it contain sequences which provide the specific information about particular species (Parson W et al. 2000a, 2000b). It is also one of the most useful genetic marker to identify the linkage within families and genera (Meyer 1994; Teletchea 2009). Cytb gene is involved in comparative studies which results in development of new classification schemes and been used to assign a genus to a newly described species as well as improve the understanding of evolutionary relationships of genra (Castresana 2001). Introduction 4 One of the core objectives of this study is to identify and classify four freshwater indigenous fish species of Pakistan, which includes Labeo rohita (Rohu), Labeo calbasu (Calbans), Catla catla (Thalla) and Cirrhinus mrigala (Mori) using Cytb gene. Morphologically, Labeo rohita shows compressed body with convex dorsal profile while mouth bears a pair of barbells and fins are gray and orange in color. Catla catla shows compressed body with broad head. Mouth is wide with thick lower lip. Labeo Calbasu`s dorsal profile is more convex than that of abdomen and two pairs of barbells are present on fringed upper lip. Cirrhinus mrigala has elongated and streamlined body shape which is grayish and silver in color (Bhuiyan AL 1964; Rahman AK 1989). All of these species are found in freshwater bodies mostly lakes, rivers and ponds except Labeo calbasu which is a bottom dweller. These fishes are harvested by using rod and line or by using nets (Talwar PK and Jhingran AG 1991). These fishes are known as major carps and economically very important for the country due to their high consumption as food. These fishes are also used for fish farming due to their greater muscle mass thus also possess very high commercial value for fish farming business. Another objective of this study is to resolve the taxonomic anomalies related to above mentioned species. Selling of fish meat in mislabeled packaging is a serious issue now days. Most commonly Hypophthalmichthys molitrix (silver carp) and Ctenopharyngodon idella (grass carp) are sold under the label of Labeo rohita. DNA barcoding is also helpful in detecting such fraudulent mislabeling. It would be the first study in Pakistan to genetically characterize commercially important fish species. It would help scientists to know about their phylogenetic and taxonomic status and also assist fish fanciers to genuinely identify their species of interest. Identification of fish species is also important for conservation of biodiversity as it helps in preservation and Introduction 5 identification of endangered species by generating their barcodes from even minimal evidence available. This study has paved the way for molecular biologists to study taxonomic ambiguities at sub species level using SNP (Single nucleotide polymorphism) based identifying marker. Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 2207-T] (1).

2. Polymorphisms Of Bovine Tumor Necrosis Factor Alpha Gene And Its Association With Mastitis In Sahiwal Cows

by Huma Sattar (2013-VA-03) | Dr. Sehrish Firyal | Dr. Ali Raza Awan | Dr. Muhammad Tayyab.

Material type: book Book; Literary form: not fiction Publisher: 2015Dissertation note: Mastitis is one of the shocking maladies of milch animals causing high production losses to livestock industry of Pakistan (Kenyanjui et al. 2011). It is an inflammatory condition of udder; represent a major problem in dairy cow management. It is one of the most common and frequent disease of dairy industry. Producers suffer a huge loss due to veterinary treatment costs and necessary culling of the infected animals. It negatively affects the milk production, quality of milk, and farm economics (Fourichon et al. 2005). Increasing the disease resistance among dairy cattle is therefore desirable because without controlling mastitis, the national goals of developing dairy farming on commercial and scientific lines and production of wholesome milk which conforms to the standards of WTO Accord would remain elusive. Mastitis is inflammation of udder that caused by physiological and metabolical changes (Schalm and Noorlander 1957). There are two main types of mastitis; clinical mastitis (characterized by classical symptoms i.e., swelling of udder, redness, clumps and clots in milk etc) and sub-clinical mastitis (not show any symptoms, Milk appear normal, udder appear normal) (Schrick et al. 2001). Mastitis is ranked as a top disease of dairy herds (Rinaldi et al. 2010). This mammary gland infection caused by pathogenic micro organisms such as Staphylococcus aureus, Streptococcus uberis, and Esherichia coli in the mammary gland (Heringstad et al. 2000). India, China and United States are the larger producer of milk and Pakistan is on forth number in milk yield. Pakistan almost produces 36.5 million tons of milk yeild per year (Cady et al. 1983).The Sahiwal breed is well known among for its superior dairy qualities (Barker et al. 1998). Both cross and pure breed Sahiwal cows have high milk production rate (Khan et al. 2013). It is very difficult to comprehend this disease because numerous environmental and genetic factors are involved in the origin and development of mastitis (Bradley 2002; Carvajal et al. 2013). Susceptibility and resistance to mastitis is a complex trait influenced by genetic variation of animals. Among these variations, the polymorphisms in immunity genes are principal key factors in defensive mechanism of mammary gland (Ibeagha-Awemu et al. 2008). The mammary gland tissue is protected by immune system by two defense system; innate and acquired immunity. Innate immunity response by the host is a quick response of bacterial defense system (Mesquita et al. 2012). Innate system is a rapid and effective mechanism that activated on recognition of antigen (Akira et al. 2006). Innate immune system is activated when specific pattern recognition receptors (PRR) that are present on the surfaces which are attach to the specific pathogen (Shuster et al. 1996). PRR are presnt on leucocytes in milk and on the epithelial cells lining of udder. It is reported that T- lymphocyte subset i.e., CD4+, CD8+ and ɤδT are present in infected bovine mammary glands. (Goldammer et al. 2004; Strandberg et al. 2005). Innate defense (nonspecific) of the mammary gland is stimulated by the physical barrier such as teat end, natural killer (NK) cells, neutrophils, macrophages and certain other soluble factors. The teat cannals are considering the main line of defense. Microorganisms enter from teat canal in milk. The main roles of teat sphincter muscles are to remain orifice close so that bacteria cannot enter. This teat canal also lined with keratin, whose estrified and non estified fatty acid function as bacteriostatics that provide protection and play role to eliminate bacteria causing mastitis (Oviedo-Boyso et al. 2007). If a pathogen is not eliminated by the physical barrier, the acquired immune system is triggered. In comparison, this system is much faster than other immune response. The memory response is significantly stronger, long durable and more efficient to kill the pathogen. The acquired immune system (memory response) have ability to differentiate self or nonself cells and produce antibodies only against antigens through membrane bound protein called major histocompatibility complex (MHC) molecules. Specific immune system activate only when antigens bind with an MHC that is present on the surface of certain cells, this process is referred as antigen presentation. Recognition of pathogenic factors for elimination is mediated by macrophages, several lymphoid, and immunoglobulins (Ig) or antibodies (Sordillo and Streicher 2002). The most acute responding macrophages and T-cell cytokines are TNF-α, LTF, IL1, IL6, IL8, and IFN-ɤ present in intramammary infection in cows. These genes play important role in improvement of immunity to mastitis (Burton and Erskine 2003). Tumor necrosis factor alpha is main pro-inflammatory adipokine that is part of systematic immune defense. The main function of TNF-α gene is responsible for proliferation, differentiation and activity of many immune system cells; B lymphocytes, NK (natural killer). It also induces the production and release of many other cytokines (Wojdak Maksymiec et al. 2013) and also enhances the chemotactic and phagocytic effects of immune response. TNF-α gene contains four exons and three introns that are present on chromosome BTA23q22 (Bannerman 2009; Moyes et al. 2009). TNF-α is a member of a group of cytokines that stimulate the specific immune system. TNF consist of 212 amino acid arranged in stable homotrimers (Kriegler et al. 1988; Tang et al. 1996). The 17-kilodalton (kDa) TNF protomers are composed of two β-pleated sheets and β-strands, joined together antiparallel (Tang et al. 1996). TNF-α is a component of natural protection systems of humans and animals. Milk gives nourishment and disease resistance to the new born. Various cellular and soluble immune components are important for protecting the mammary gland from infectious diseases like mastitis. Mastitis affects one third of all dairy cows and cost the dairy industry about 2 million dollars annually (National Mastitis Council (1996). Dairy cattle are especially susceptible to mastitis due to diminished mammary gland defense mechanisms (Sordillo and Streicher 2002). TNF-α is not only produced by activation of macrophages, but also other cell types such as CD4+ lymphocytes, NK cells, neutrophils, mast cells, eosinophils, and neurons. Large amounts of TNF are released in response to lipopolysaccharide, other bacterial products, and Interleukin-1 (IL-1).TNF-α stimulates the proliferation, differentiation and activity of many immune system cells; B lymphocytes, NK (natural killer). TNF-α induces the release of many other cytokines (Wojdak-Maksymiec and Mikolajczyk 2012). TNF-α also enhance the chemotactic and phagocytic effects of immune response. . The present study is designed to determine the genetic polymorphism in exon 4 of TNF-α gene of mastitic cows and its association resistance and susceptibility towards mastitis. Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 2224-T] (1).

3. Sequence Analysis Of Mitochondrial Atpase 8/6 Gene Variants In Equine

by Kashif Hameed Anjum (2012-VA-905) | Dr. Asif Nadeem | Mr.Maryam Javed | Dr. Muhammad Tayyab.

Material type: book Book; Literary form: not fiction Publisher: 2014Dissertation note: Human has been using horses for doing different jobs like transportation, hunts, carrying loads, warfare and sports (Zhang et al. 2012). In Pakistan, horses and donkeys are mostly used for transportation whilehorses are also used for racing and playing games like polo.There are two main types of horses:Equuscaballusare domesticated horses and Equusferus are the wild horses. There are more than 300 breeds of horses in the world today (Barbara and Dafydd, 2007). The horse population is estimated as 0.32 million and has been decreasing over the years in Pakistan. Main breeds of horses that are found all over the Pakistan are Kajlan, Kakka, Balochi, Morna, Shien, Anmol, Makra, Pak-thoroughbred,Heerzaiand Waziri (Khan, 2004). Seventy percent of the population earns living from the land. Agriculture contributes nearly 21% to gross domestic product and generates 43% of all jobs. Over 30 million people in rural areas derive their livelihood from livestock production. The number of impoverished communities moving from the country to find work in Pakistan’s towns and cities is rising. Many of these people rely on working equine animals to earn a living. Nuclear and mitochondrial genomes are frequently used in animal genetic research. Nuclear genomeis generally a huge and complicated molecule and is not well studied in many species. However mitochondrial DNA being small sized and having high mutation rate is used frequently for the purpose of genetic research (Stanley et al. 1994). Characteristic of having fast evolution rate as compared to nuclear DNA makes mitochondrial genes a good tool for genetic studies (Avise, 1994). Several studies have investigated the genetic relationship among horse and donkey breeds using mitochondrial sequences as a marker for breed characterization and phylogenetic. Each mitochondrion contains its own circular DNA, replication, transcription and translation machinery and serves as semi-autonomous organelle. Mitochondria perform so many important functions in our body like metabolism(oxidative phosphorylation), apoptosis and aging(Weinberg, 2007). The advent ofpolymerase chain reaction and direct sequencing techniques with the use of mtDNA as a phylogenetic marker has been extended to much greater levels of phylogenetic inclusiveness (Zardoya and Meyer,1996). The special features of mtDNAi-e,lack of introns, maternal inheritance, absence of recombination events and haploidy have made it the most common type of sequence information used to estimate phylogenies among both closely and distantly related texa(Meyer, 1993). Four of the five mitochondrial respiratory chain complexes, namely C1, C3, C4 and C5 (ATP synthase) contain subunits encoded by mitochondrial DNA (Kadenbach, 2012). ATP synthase (Complex5) functions to make ATP that is used by the cell (Von et al. 2009). ATP synthasecomprisesan integral membrane cylindrical, the F0 particle and a peripheral matrix-facing F1 particle, the catalytic ATP synthase domain (Boyer, 1997). All aerobically respiring organisms possess ATP synthase enzymes and are located inthe cell membrane in prokaryotes, the mitochondrial inner membrane in eukaryotes and the chloroplast thylakoid membrane (Ackerman and Tzagoloff, 2005). This enzyme is responsible for the final step of oxidative phosphorylation. The protons move down their concentration gradient from inter membrane space to matrix through F0 particle while F1particleuses the energy provided by influx of these protons and converts ADP molecule into ATP. ATPase 6 and ATPase 8 proteins are components of F0 particle where they play direct role in maintaining the structure and function of ATP synthase (complex 5). All five subunits of F1 and most of the F0 subunits are nuclear encoded(Collinson et al. 1996). Only two proteins i-e, ATPase 6 and ATPase 8 are encoded by mtDNA (Boyer, 1993). The present study is designed to investigate the diversity and phylogenetic analysis of Thoroughbred Pakistani horse and donkey breeds on the basis of ATPase 6 and ATPase 8 genes. Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 2236-T] (1).

4. Application Of Microsatellite Markers For Genetic Diversity Analysis Of Endangered Punjab Urial (Ovis Orientalis Punjabiensis) In Pakistan

by Anam Aftab (2012-VA-534) | Dr.Tanveer Hussian | Dr. Wasim Shehzad | Dr. Muhammad Tayyab .

Material type: book Book; Literary form: not fiction Publisher: 2014Dissertation note: Biological diversity is now recognized as common concern of mankind and genetic diversity is the major driver of variation within and across breeds, which helps populations to adapt to environmental changes. There is very little importance is given to conserve wild sheep in previous years and its genetic diversity is decreasing day by day. Every now and then breeds are being haunted for crossing to some other imported breed without attempting to see if such efforts will be sustainable. For any breed development efforts thus, available genetic resources need to be characterized both at phenotypic and genetic levels (Khan et al. 2007). Among the three levels of Biodiversity, one is Genetic variation which is suggested bythe International Union forNatureconservation (IUCN) for preservation (Mc Neely et al. 1990). The reason for it is that firstly; genetic diversity favors the changes as the environment changes and secondly; it prevents inbreeding depression (Reed and Frankham 2003). In this way genetic diversity increase the survival status and increase fitness of individuals. Among many other wild animals present in Pakistan, there are 6 to 9 species of wild sheep (Ovis orientalis) are present which have different color and size of their winter neck ruff of males, saddle patches and horns color. Urial is a picture of Marco Polo in texture and hue. In Pakistan, ladakh urial, Blanford urialand Punjab urial are found in Gilget, Baluchistan and Punjab respectively. The discrepancy lies in the color of ruff among these 3 sub species (Roberts, 1977). Urial is among those precious wild animals that were hunted severely for trophy and other purposes in the past, that’s why included in red list of IUCN in vulnerable category (IUCN 2000). Punjab Urial (A type of wild sheep – Ovis vignei punjabiensis) belongs to family bovidae which is the large family consisting of 140 species (Glazko et al. 2011) is facing serious threat of extinction in Pakistan is a medium-sized wild sheep which is included in IUCN red list of endangered animals (IUCN 2002). Urial is inhabitant in Western Central Asianregion stretching from northeast side of Iran and west side of Kazakhstan to Balochistan (Pakistan) and Ladakh regions of North India. The local name of Urial is Shapo, Arkar and Gad. Reddish-brown outstretched pelt that achromatizes during the winter is one of the distinct traits of urial (Aleem 1977; Schaller 1977). Urial is gregarious and sexually dimorphic as males are called rams and females as eves (Awan 2001). Male have weightof 40 kgand have large spiralled horns having height of 80 to 100 cm and females have comparatively less weight and height of 25 kg and 12 cm respectively and have uncurled horns.Females give birth to 1 or 2lambs in recent days of April (Awan, 2001). Males have a black ruff expanded from the neck to the trunk and notably longer horns. Table 1.1:Some physical features of the Punjab Urial (Awan et al. 2001) Features Urial Body weight 40 kg male; 25 kg female Shoulder size 31-35 inches or 80-90 cm Horn size 39 inches or 80-100 cm long male; 12 cm long female Urial are found in moderate to very arid habitats, especially grasslands including agricultural fields and woodland areas (Valdez, 1982). Urial is herbivorous and eats grasses, shrubs and grains. The patch of salt range of Pakistan which fall in the area of Pind Dadan Khan, Choa Saidan Shah and Kallar Kahar is considered like a paradise on earth for the wild fauna. The fascinating hills of these areas are covered with thick trees and different wild plants are also the sanctuary of urial. Table 1.2: The details of these sub species in IUCN list of endangered mammals (IUCN 2002). Subspecies Citation in IUCN list Ovis vegnei blanfordi VUC 1 Appendix ll Ovis vegnei punjabienses ENA1cde,c1+2a Appendix ll Ovis vegnei vegnei VUC 1 Appendix ll In Pakistan, Punjab Urial dispersed throughout the Kala Chitta and Salt Range in a very little number(Hess et al, 1997). The Afghan Urial inhabits Baluchistan, Khyber Pakhtunkhwa, and Sindh Provinces. In Chitral District, little segregated populations of Ladakh urial are stillextensively distributed near the west bank of the Kunar river from Chitral southwards to Drosh. Ladakh Urial existence at the east bank of Kunar river and north of Chitral are not proved (Malik 1987). Total population estimate of urial is recorded by conducting several surveys. Reasonably 2,500 to 3,000 urial existsin Baluchistan (Hess et al. 1997). In 1993 the overall population assessment of Northern Areas was four hundred to five hundred Urial (Rasool 1999). In Pakistan, there were seemingly less than 600 Ladakh urial (Hess et al. 1997;NWFP 1992; Schaller 1971, 1977) but the number of urial decreased to 200 to 300 urial in all over northern areas (Rasool 1999). Based on the facts mentioned above there is dire need to conserve the Urial population in the country. The urial is one the precious fauna of Pakistan and provides us with wool and meat (fat, flesh or any eatable part). It is also important in economic way and in maintaining of ecosystem balance. In the beginning, sheep were reared for meat, milk and skin (Ensminger and parker, 1986). After 3500 B.C. men learnt to spin wool and so used wool in textile industry (Smith et al. 1997). So, because of increasing world population, there is great demand of these products and increasing day by day. That’s why we have to conserve is natural resource of Pakistan.Habitat fragmentationleads to the risk of exaggerated genetic drift and inbreeding in isolated population. So, there is need to save urial from these threats by enforcement of law and conserving it for future. In all over the euchromatic genome Microsatellite markers are present. These markers are highly polymorphic (Ellegren 2000; Schlotterer 2000).A lots of polymorphic microsatellites have been analyzed in ruminants like domesticsheep, cattle etc. (de Gortari et al. 1997,1998 ;Hayes et al.1996; Jenkings et al. 1997) aiding the use of these in parentage testing.   Microsatellite markers are among the most reliable molecular markers for genetic characterization studies in animal species (Sunnucks, 2001) and are simple sequence repeats (SSRs) of 1-6 base pairs, repeated tandemly in coding as well as noncoding portion of DNA in prokaryotes and eukaryotes (Weber and May, 1989; Toth et al., 2000). Microsatellite markers have often used for genetic diversity studies because they areabundant, unbiased, widely distribution all over the DNA, highly polymorphic, easy in assessment like genotyping of these markers (Canon etal. 2001).Microsatellite markers aid in genetic differentiation and conservation studies (Peter et al. 2007;Rendo et al. 2004; Arranz et al. 2001).These are considered very useful markers for assessment of genetic diversity, parentage confirmation, genome mapping, disease research population genetic studies and conservation genetics. These are also reported to be efficient enough to identify within and among breed differentiation and population sub structuring in cattle (Glowatzki-Mullis et al. 1995; Ciampolini et al. 1995; Garcia-Moreno et al. 1996; Jarne and Lagoda, 1996; MacHugh et al. 1998).Therefore the conservation activities are very important to save Punjab Urial from extinction and the study is designed to explore its genetic diversity. Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 2261-T] (1).

5. Genetic Association Study Of Apolipoprotein A-V (Apoa5) And Sortilin (Sort1) Genes With Risk Of Coronary Artery Disease

by Irfan Basharat (2012-VA-802) | Dr. Akhtar Ali | Dr. Wasim Shehzad | Dr. Muhammad Tayyab.

Material type: book Book; Literary form: not fiction Publisher: 2015Dissertation note: In developed countries cardiovascular disorders are prominent cause of death. One third deaths in the world are due to cardiovascular disorders. Among cardiovascular disorders coronary artery disease responsible for one in five deaths in USA. Its main reason is the lipids values particularly cholesterol and triglycerides in the blood. An estimation made by WHO indicated that 9 million people die per year due to hypercholesterolemia. 100 blood samples were collected from patients of coronary artery disease and from normal patients with no myocardial history. Allele specific primers for SORT1 gene and APOA5 genes were designed using Primer 3 software web facility. Genomic DNA will be amplified by PCR then genotyping will be carried out and DNA will also be sequenced. Hardy-Weinberg principle and Fisher Exact test were used to assess the allele frequency and significant variations from results When patient of MI and normal group were genotyped and sequenced we find out that there are 34 AA homozygous, 1 GG homozygous and 12 heterozygous persons in case of APOA5. The SORT1 person shows 24 GG homozygous and 3 AA homozygous and 13 heterozygous persons. Our study shows a definite association between APOA5 and SORT1 with respect to MI disease persons. This study shows a significant association of single nucleotide polymorphism in APOA5 and SORT1 genes with coronary artery disease. Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 2326-T] (1).

6. Comparison Of Antifungal Activity Of Human Salivary Histatin Between Diabetic And Nondiabetic Individuals

by Farid-Ul-Haq (2013-VA-555) | Prof. Dr. Tahir Yaqub | Dr. Ali Raza Awan | Dr. Muhammad Tayyab.

Material type: book Book; Literary form: not fiction Publisher: 2015Dissertation note: Histatins are antimicrobial proteins found in human saliva. These proteins have also been observed to have the ability to aid in wound healing in various organisms. The genes HTN1 and HTN3 have been studied to govern these proteins. Histatin proteins have a vast array of antimicrobial properties. While a fungus, Candida albicans or C. albicans is a part of the human normal gut flora, it is a threat to people who have a compromised immune system. An overgrowth of the fungi belonging to the Candida family leads to candidiasis in humans, and oral candidiasis has been reported to a large extent namely in diabetic patients. The antifungal activity of histatin proteins laid the basis of the current research work. In this study, the antifungal activity of saliva from a total of 64 healthy and diabetic human samples against Candida albicans has been evaluated. The samples of both healthy and diabetic human samples belong from different age ranges: 15-25, 25-35, 35-45 and 45-55 years in order to change in antifungal activity with respect to age of an individual. Antifungal activity was observed through both agar well and agar disk diffusion methods, with agar disk diffusion methods showing positive results. According to the outcomes of this study at least 120μL of healthy saliva sample is required to create a zone of inhibition. Saliva from diabetic individuals showed no antifungal results. This occurrence led to the next part of this study involving amplification of HTN3 gene. The nucleotide sequences of both healthy and diabetic individuals were compared together and showed that the absence of antifungal activity in diabetic individuals might have reasons other than a genetic one, according to this study. The results observed from the present study indicate that healthy human saliva possesses antifungal activity against Candida albicans. In accordance Summary 39 to these results, the naturally occurring antimicrobial activity of histatin proteins present in human saliva can have immense use in the field of medicine. Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 2341-T] (1).

7. Genetic Effect Of Cholesteryl Ester Transfer Protein (Cetp) Gene In Coronary Heart Disease Patients

by Zakiya Bano (2013-VA-554) | Dr. Akhtar Ali | Dr. Waseem Shehzad | Dr. Muhammad Tayyab.

Material type: book Book; Literary form: not fiction Publisher: 2015Dissertation note: Cholesteryl ester transfer protein (CETP) gene takes part with certain reverse cholesterol transport (RCT) pathway for the excess amount of accumulated lipid in peripheral tissues. The variations in this gene due to missense mutations on different exonic, intronic or on promoter regions alter CETP activity as well as impair the RCT pathway. By which, lipid metabolism also effects and causes atherosclerosis in vessels which trigger the blockage of blood flow and induces the imbalance for the supply of oxygen to the heart. So this atherosclerosis directly involves in addition of risk factor for coronary heart disease. Preferable study was made to highlight effect of CETP gene at molecular level by comparing control group with the selected patients having coronary heart disease. This study was appreciably made possible by targeting two reported polymorphisms, one in the intron 1 region Taq IB (rs708272) and on exon 14 region I405V (rs5882) of this CETP gene. The study was relatively speculated by the extraction of genomic DNA from all selected blood samples. By selecting two primers, certain segments were amplified for both rs708272 and rs5882 polymorphisms. Analysis of allelic frequencies distribution was calculated by Hardy Weinberg Equilibrium which showed no significance among control and CHD group and there was no association was analyzed in our population by using Fisher’s Exact Test. This is because of small number of samples studied in our population. But maximize concentrations of lipid parameters such as TC, LDL and TG with minimum variation in HDL-C concentration in CHD group as compared to control group that showed the effect of these polymorphisms on the activity of CETP gene with coronary heart disease. These determined missense mutations in CETP gene was helpful molecular tool for the screening purpose in coronary heart disease patients. Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 2345-T] (1).

8. Genetic Identification And Molecular Classification Of Sub-Family Phasianinae Of Pakistani Bird Species Through Dna Barcoding

by Maryem Hussain (2008-VA-349) | Dr. Ali Raza Awan | Dr. Sehrish Firyal | Dr. Muhammad Tayyab.

Material type: book Book; Literary form: not fiction Publisher: 2015Dissertation note: DNA barcoding is a precise technique that uses molecular genetics tools for accurate identification, categorizing, relating and separating the phylogenies of species. Being a small sized genome and agile enough to show rapid mutation, mtDNA has been used as a pertinent marker of molecular biodiversity.The aim of this study was to develop DNA barcode for genetic characterization and classification of Sub-family Phasianinaeof Pakistani bird species. Theyhave not been genetically identified yet in Pakistan. It includes birds like domestic chicken(Gallus gallusdomesticus), aseel chicken(Gallus gallusdomesticus strain),blue peafowl(Pavo cristatus), green peafowl (Pavo muticus), white peafowl (Pavo cristatus leuticus), Kalij pheasant (Lophura leucomelanos),monal pheasant (Lophophorus impejanus),koklass pheasant(Purcrasia macrolopha), ring necked pheasant (Phasianus colchicus), Tragopan (Tragopan melanocepals) andred junglefowl (Gallus gallus). These birds are considered an important part of an ecosystembecause they play a significant role in seed dissemination, pollination of plants and disease spread which are the basic constituents of an ecosystem. They are used for food, hunting and entertainment purposes. Mitochondrial geneCytochrome c oxidase subunit 1 (CO1)of 500bps was used as a marker for identification at specie level.Genomic DNA was extracted by each blood and tissue sample of eleven bird species (33 samples). Amplification of CO1 gene was a done by using a universal set of primers (BIRDF1 and BIRDR1)containing region of almost 750 bps (Hebert et al. 2003).Amplicons were purified and sequenced Sanger sequencing method (Sanger et al. 1977). Forward and reverse sequences were analyzed using softwaresEMBOSS merger,ClustalW, BioEdit and nBLAST. Phylogenetic analysis of selected bird species was done. Each sequence was aligned with its reference sequences of CO1 gene present on NCBI. Every nucleotide position which did not align with the reference sequence was studied to identify SNPs. Fixation index (FST) were used to measure species diversity within a same sub population relative to that found in the entire population. Consensus sequences (500bps) generated was used to construct their phylogenetic tree to see their evolutionary relationship with other bird species. All species showed their closest linkage with their respective species. Pakistani population of peafowl and chicken species showed the close relation with same sequences generated in China. Tranopans showed its closest linkage with T. temminckii. In conclusion, seven species ofPhasianinaesub-family of Pakistani bird species was genetically characterized first time in Pakistan by using CO1 as a barcode. It proves that DNA barcoding is an efficient and accurate molecular tool for species identifica¬tion and phylogenetic implication. This study leads to establish a DNA Data Bank that helped scientists to investigate the biodiversity, taxonomic classification, specie identification, in forensic purposes and to study the genetic and phenotypic evolution of these species. DNA barcoding through CO1 gene works as a functional tool for detectingmeat mislabeling and preventing illegitimate trade. This study has established foundations for molecular biologists to study taxonomic uncertainties at sub species level using SNP based identifying marker. It helps in preservation and identification of endangered species by generating their barcodes from even minimal evidence available. Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 2376-T] (1).

9. Molecular Characterization of Pakistani Common Leopard

by Muhammad Usman Ijaz (2012-VA-908) | Dr. Sehrish Firyal | Dr. Ali Raza Awan | Dr. Muhammad Tayyab.

Material type: book Book; Literary form: not fiction Publisher: 2015Dissertation note: CD not available. Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 2379-T] (1).

10. Genetic Effect Of Interferon Gamma On Bovine Resistance Against Mycobecterium Bovis

by Syed Ahmed Raza Rizvi (2012-VA-819) | Dr. Maryam Javed | Dr. Tanveer Hussain | Dr. Muhammad Tayyab.

Material type: book Book; Literary form: not fiction Publisher: 2015Dissertation note: Bovine tuberculosis is a disease caused by the species included in the Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex. IFN-GAMMA are a family of conserved innate immune recognition receptors that trigger adaptive immune responses. IFN-GAMMA play an important role in host defense against mycobacteria, especially by mediating the response to mycobacterial triacylated lipopeptides. The objective of this study is the identification of single nucleotide polymorphisms within the coding region of IFN-GAMMA gene to evaluate its potential for enhanced the resistance to bovine tuberculosis in Nili-Ravi buffalo breed. Fifty blood samples of Nili-Ravi breed were collected from UVAS Pattoki Campus, Research Farm B and Buffalo Research Institute (BRI) Pattoki. Inorganic method was used for DNA extraction, for amplification of the coding region of IFN-GAMMA gene PCR (Polymerase Chain Reaction) was used using specially designed primers and the PCR products were sequenced through Sanger’s Chain Termination method. For the analysis and alignment of sequencing the results obtained after sequencing were analyzed and aligned using the CLUSTAL W and BLAST software. After all these analysis Ten SNPs were identified in the coding region of IFNG mentioned in table. The Eight SNPs identified in the coding region of INTERFERON GAMMA were in this order P1 C>T, P2 T>C, P3 T>C, P4 T>C, P5 T>C, P6 C >T, P7 T>C, and P8 C >T. The one SNP found in the current research is in compliance with the (Sun et al. 2012) research on INTERFERON GAMMA hence Nine SNPs found in the current research are novel in Nili Ravi buffalo. Research on IFN-GAMMA hence Seven SNPs found in the current research are novel in Nili Ravi buffalo. The SNPs in the exonic region that is P1 C>T, P2 T>C, P3 T>C, P4 T>C, P5 T>C, P6 C >T, P7 T>C, P8 C >T, among them four were transitions and four were transversion . Population genetic analysis and allelic distribution at all loci was analyzed using Summary 57 POPGENE 32 software indicated that at [P3=0.354539>0.05] , [P5=0.365524>0.05]followed the assumptions of the Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium indicating that the alleles were randomly distributed throughout the population, no migration had occurred, no bottlenecks happened and population remained large in numbers. This Non-significant and obeying HWE, so can be potential marker for genetic selection. At [P1= 0.000032< 0.05], [P2=0.038766< 0.05] and [P7=000394< 0.05] the probability value below 0.05 indicated that population at these polymorphic sites was not obeying Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium. This indicated that at these positions alleles were not equally distributed in population. It can be concluded from my research that the SNPs identified in the current research may also hold potential for marker-assisted breeding programs, with the aim of breeding more BTB-resistant animals and herds within both the national farms and the private sector. Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 2419-T] (1).

11. Lactoferrin Gene Polymorphism in Dairy Cattle

by Syeda Iqra Aiman Bukhari (2009-VA-556) | Dr. Sehrish Firyal | Dr. Ali Raza Awan | Dr. Muhammad Tayyab.

Material type: book Book; Literary form: not fiction Publisher: 2015Dissertation note: Several factors militate against realizing the milk production potential of cows. Mastitis is the most costly and the prevalent production-limiting disease of dairy animals in Pakistan and elsewhere in the world. It is accompanied by elevated Somatic cell count (SCC) in the milk and estimated genetic correlation between SCC and mastitis ranges between 0.53-0.77. Susceptibility and resistance to mastitis is a complex trait and influenced by genetic variation of animals. Among these variations, the polymorphism in Lactoferrin gene (LTF) plays an important role in the immune response to mastitis. Polymorphism in intron 6 of LTF gene is associated with mastitis susceptibility and resistance. It is a potential candidate gene for imparting resistance mastitis in dairy cows. The present study was designed for the identification of polymorphism in LTF gene associated with mastitis. Milk and blood samples were collected from 20 Sahiwal cows having clinical and subclinical mastitis. SCC of milk samples was performed using serial dilutions. 10 normal Sahiwal cows as control were included in present study. DNA was extracted from blood using organic extraction and kit method followed by DNA quantification. Amplification of LTF gene was designed by using already reported primers obtained from NCBI. LTF gene was amplified and sequenced to get the full length sequence of this gene. Comparative analysis of the resulted sequences using NCBI BLAST was done. Outcomes: The results obtained from polymorphisms in LTF gene can play an important role for selection of mastitis resistant and susceptible dairy cows. This can be useful in selective breeding of cattle for enhanced immune response, as a tool to improve inherent animal health, which ultimately can lay the foundations to contain the magnitude of economic loss due to mastitis. Develop a biological response modifier that will promote a sustained immunity of the mammary teat and protect the gland from invading pathogens. Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 2416-T] (1).

12. Molecular Phylogeny And Diversity Analysis Of Bovidae (Boselaphus Tragocamelus, Antilope Cervicapra) And Cervidae (Axis Axis, Axis Porcinus) In Pakistan

by Ghulam Abbas (2011-VA-748) | Dr. Asif Nadeem | Prof. Dr. Mansoor Ellahi Babar | Dr. Muhammad Tayyab.

Material type: book Book; Literary form: not fiction Publisher: 2016Dissertation note: Many species of mammals have declined within the past two centuries due to human caused disturbances and the unsustainable use of natural resources. Molecular methods have an important role in phylogeny and diversity analysis. The present study was designed for diversity analysis of Boselaphus tragocamelus & Antelope cervicapra (Bovidae) and Axis axis & Axis porcinus (Cervidae) family in Pakistan. A total of 25 samples from each of the four species were collected from different parks, zoos and natural habitats. DNA was extracted, PCR primers were designed and cytochrome-b, cytochrome-c gene and d-loop regions were amplified by PCR. PCR products were sequenced bi-directionally by Big DyeTM Terminator. Bioinformatics tools, Blast 2 sequences, Clustal-W, MEGA-6, Bioconductor in “R” were applied for analysis. The clustering of the samples indicates that each species contains less within-population genetic variability. Same pattern was observed when sequence of three genes was combined and MDS plot was constructed. Phylogenetic analysis of the gene sequences revealed that each species comprised a clade that is clearly distinct from the clade comprised of other species of deer selected for this study. Finding of this study indicated that these species of deer have significant genetic variations among-species that differentiate them from each other. This is the first report from our region. The information of selected species of deer is prerequisite for designing effective strategy in future conservation practices. However further genomic investigations should be carried out at larger scale. Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 2560-T] (1).

13. Identification Of Genetic Variants In The Low Density Lipoprotein Receptor Gene Causing Familial Hypercholesterolemia And Its Sequence Homology With Mus Musculus

by Ameer Hassan (2014-VA-504) | Dr. Wasim Shehzad | Dr. Muhammad Yasir Zahoor | Dr. Muhammad Tayyab.

Material type: book Book; Literary form: not fiction Publisher: 2016Dissertation note: Familial hypercholesterolemia (FH) is caused by mutations in the genes coding for the low-density lipoprotein receptor (LDLR), apolipoprotein B-100, or proprotein convertase subtilisin/kexin type 9 (PCSK9). In this study, a molecular analysis of LDLR gene was performed in 20 unrelated patients from Pakistan. All patients were clinically diagnosed with definite or possible hypercholesterolemia according to a uniform protocol and internationally accepted WHO criteria. Preferable study was made to highlight the Genetic variation in Exon 4 of LDLR gene associated with defective catabolism of cholesterol effecting lipid metabolism which results in Familial Hypercholesterolemia. The extraction of genomic DNA was done from all selected blood samples. By selecting primers they were synthesized and optimized on extracted DNA samples. PCR product was sequenced and aligned. Mutations in the LDLR gene and its sequenced homology with Mus musculus were analyzed. We didn’t found any polymorphisms in the LDLR gene exon 4. So we concluded that there is no association between SNPs and increased levels of cholesterol in Pakistani population. More research should be carried out in Pakistan by increasing the sample size and considering the other regions of LDLR gene. This study will help the early detection and treatment of such cases and may ultimately reduce the incidence of mortality due to myocardial infarction. Apart from diagnosis, we also suggest it will be a potential therapeutic strategy to manage FH. Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 2538-T] (1).

14. Polymorphism Analysis Within Tata-Box Of Bovine Lactoferrin Gene And Its Association With Mastitis In Sahiwal Cows

by Kashmala Haroon (2014-VA-04) | Dr. Sehrish Firyal | Dr. Immad Rashid | Dr. Muhammad Tayyab.

Material type: book Book; Literary form: not fiction Publisher: 2016Dissertation note: Mastitis is one of the most important diseases in dairy cows throughout the world, and is responsible for significant economic losses to the dairy industry especially in Pakistan. Several factors are responsible for this disease and about 20% bovines are suffering with this disease. Mastitis susceptibility and resistance is influenced by genetic variation of animals. Variations to polymorphisms in LF gene assume critical part of the immune response to mastitis. Polymorphism within LF gene may influence immune response to the mastitis in bovines. Recent study shows that promoter region of LF gene is highly polymorphic among bovines. Present study was planned to identify polymorphism analysis within TATA-box of bovine LF gene and its association with mastitis. Multiple blood samples were collected from Sahiwal cows having clinical and sub-clinical mastitis. 10 samples were collected as a control. DNA extraction was done by organic extraction method and then quantification was done by Nanodrop. Amplification and sequencing was performed to get desire sequence of the gene. Comparative study of obtained sequence results were analyzed by using NCBI blast. Bioinformatics analysis was done with the help CLUSTAL W and BioEdit softwares. Two novels and one reported SNPs were discovered within TATA-box of LF gene that might be having strong genetic association with mastitis in Sahiwal cows. This gene is strong candidate gene to differentiate between mastitis susceptible and resistant Sahiwal cows. Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 2584-T] (1).

15. Study On Polymorphism Of Promoter Region Of Bovine Lactoferrin Gene And Its Relation With Mastitis In Nili Ravi Buffalo

by Muhammad Asim (2012-VA-636) | Dr. Sehrish Firyal | Dr. Muhammad Yasir Zahoor | Dr. Muhammad Tayyab.

Material type: book Book; Literary form: not fiction Publisher: 2017Dissertation note: Dairy animals in Pakistan and worldwide are facing most persistent and economically affecting disease mastitis. Only a healthy buffalo can produce good quality milk of physiologically normal composition. Mammary gland inflammation due to mastitis badly affects the quantity and quality of milk and this causes big loss to dairy industry. Even province Punjab bears economic losses of 240 million per annum due to mastitis. Susceptibility and resistance to mastitis is affected by the variation in immunity genes. Among immunity genes Lactoferrin (LF) have important role in immune defense system and perform antibacterial, antiviral and anti-inflammatory function. LF is found in most of body fluids like, milk, blood, tear, saliva, bile and mucous. Polymorphism in promoter region of Lactoferrin gene is associated with mastitis susceptibility and resistance. For screening of the mastitis susceptibility and resistance of dairy buffaloes, LF is a potential candidate gene. The present study was designed for the identification of polymorphism in LF gene associated with mastitis. Blood samples from 20 Nili Ravi buffalos having clinical and subclinical mastitis were selected. Blood samples of normal Nili Ravi buffalos were also collected. DNA was extracted; specific primers for amplification of LF gene were designed with Primer-3 software by using already reported sequence on NCBI. Amplification of LF gene performed by PCR and sequenced the amplicon. A comparative analysis of sequence result was performed by using NCBI BLAST. BioEdit software was used to perform multiple sequence alignment. Comparison analysis of LF gene promoter region shows multiple mutations in in clinical and subclinical as compare to reported sequence (accession no. EF650854) at NCBI. While normal samples sequence results are similar to reference data. These results show LF is a candidate gene for mastitis resistance. Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 2923-T] (1).

16. Genetic Evolution And Development Of Recombinant Vaccine Against Newcastle Disease For Chicken In Pakistan

by Abdul Wajid (2009-VA-705) | Dr. Muhammad Wasim | Prof. Dr. Tahir Yaqub | Dr. Muhammad Tayyab.

Material type: book Book; Format: print ; Literary form: not fiction Publisher: 2017Dissertation note: Newcastle disease (ND) is one of the most contagious diseases of poultry worldwide. The disease is endemic in Pakistan and recurrent outbreaks have been reported in commercial poultry flocks, domestic pet and migratory birds since 1963 an inception of commercial poultry farming in the country. Disease surveillance is necessary to determine the incidence of the disease as well as to identify the etiological agent of the disease status in the region. The analysis of the field data provides a clue for the higher authorities to take steps for the remedy of the devastating outbreak. A virulent form of Newcastle disease virus caused an outbreak in the northern region of Pakistan during the mid of 2011. The virus was identified as a virulent viscerotropic vvNDV and characterize, belonging to the sub genotype VIIi. However, the virus of this genotype is still circulating in the field though the intensity of the strain to succumb the chickens to cause mortality does not exist. The particular thing in this genotype was its susceptibility to other avian species like pheasants, peafowls, ducks turkeys, peacocks, sparrows and parakeets. As this genotype is circulating since 2011 2016 and still spill over in these avian species. Thus for the last five years (2011-16), 3500 healthy, diseased and dead chickens, pheasants, peacocks, turkeys, peafowls, ducks, sparrows, exotic parakeets, rosy-faced parrots, pigeons, and partridges from 750 different locations s were monitored. Samples were collected from the Northern region of the country Punjab, Khyber Pakhtoonkhawa, Azad Kashmir, including Gilgit,Baltitssan and from Southern region, Karachi, Hyderabad , Mirpursakro and other small cities where the poultry farms are located. The samples were collected by the local veterinarians, poultry Assistants and Animal health practitioners who assist during the surveillance program. Samples were also collected from the farmers who brought their birds for inspection in the lab with the details of the 141 farm. Mostly sampling was done where there was reports of NDV outbreak, tissues were collected usually the trachea, spleen and brain, moreover, the pharyngeal and cloacal swabs not only from the infected birds but also from the healthy birds were collected to assess the virus shedding in the flock. Blood samples were also collected (1% of the birds at farm), for serum collection to assess the immune status of the flock using Haemagglutination Inhibition (HI) test and Enzyme linked immunosorbant assay (ELISA). The Survey Form meet the international standard was filled for each farm for recording the information required to find the diagnostic clue as well as the molecular characterization of the isolates. Pool of five pharyngeal swabs were processed after the passage into 9-day old chicken embryonated eggs and confirming the positive HA test and then confirmed by real time PCR (RT-PCR). In addition, sera were tested against NDV by HI and ELISA tests. The targeted samples were sequenced by complete fusion gene and whole genome using 22 pairs of overlapping primers. The observations indicated that the commercial broiler industry is highly susceptible to virulent NDV and confirmed by data available in the laboratory in the survey form. Contrary to that a little is known regarding the maintenance and enzootic trends of vNDV infection level in domestic and wild birds. Poor strategy of the use of vaccines and vaccination as well as the existence of virulent form of NDV in the domestic and pet birds indicate a possibility of the root cause of the ND eruption in the developing countries. A continuous isolation of virulent viruses of the panzootic Newcastle disease virus of sub-genotype VIIi since (2011-2016 from commercial chickens and from various other avian species in the country provide evidence for the existence of epidemiological links intermingling of the strain among them. Therefore, to avoid the huge economical losses in the commercial poultry the second largest industry in Pakistan, their close proximity should be strictly avoided. The mass vaccination of the poultry flocks is in practice in all commercial 142 poultry farms in Pakistan. However, the use and availability of a reliable and standard vaccine, as well as the correct usage of vaccine dose of the live attenuated LaSota vaccine are the key factors to improve their efficacy in the field. Minor outbreaks have been occurring in the field even though a severe outbreak was occurred in 2011-12 collapsed the poultry industry with other pet and wild birds. To minimize the continuity of these minor outbreaks in the field for long time there is a need for more effective vaccine to control the particular genotype of the ND virus. In the present study, DNA vaccine was developed using the SFR-55 NDV strain antigens, in the form of fusion (F) and hemagglutinin-neuroaminidase (HN), namely pcDNA3.1-F and pcDNA3.1-HN. In vitro expression of both genes construct was assessed by reversetranscriptase- PCR (RT-PCR) and western blotting. In the trial an inactivated oil-based emulsion vaccine was prepared using the field strain SFR-55 and compare with the commercial vaccine LaSota strain commonly used by the poultry industry. Birds were divided into six groups, the first two groups were immunized with pcDNA3.1-F and pcDNA3.1-HN alone respectively and third group with was vaccinated with both antigens pcDNA3.1-F+HN. The other two groups were immunized with inactivated (wvSFR-55) and LaSota vaccines as described above, the last group was injected with empty vector as control. The birds were immunized twice at 14 and 21 days of age intramuscularly (DNA vaccine), subcutaneous and eye-drop by inactivated and LaSota vaccines respectively. The birds were challenged with live virulent NDV strain using a dose of 10,000 ELD50/0.1ml per chicken. Results indicate that Inactivated and LaSota vaccines provided high protection (>80%), as compared to pcDNA3.1-F, pcDNA3.1-HN, pcDNA3.1- F+HN gave 70%, 75% and 20% respectively. There was 100% mortality in control chickens. The administration of two vectors expressing F and HN antigens induced high immune response, and provide protection than when used separately. However, the groups immunized with 143 pcDNA3.1-F, pcDNA3.1-F+HN and inactivated vaccine resulted in lower amount of virulent virus shed after challenge when compared to the group immunized with standard LaSota. In summary, the co-administration of both NDV glycoprotein antigens increased protection than use separately. DNA-based vaccine can be used safely to reduce mortality and most importantly lower the risk of virus transmission due to decreased level of virulent virus shedding. Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 2910-T] (1).

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