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1. Polymorphisms Of Bovine Tumor Necrosis Factor Alpha Gene And Its Association With Mastitis In Sahiwal Cows

by Huma Sattar (2013-VA-03) | Dr. Sehrish Firyal | Dr. Ali Raza Awan | Dr. Muhammad Tayyab.

Material type: book Book; Literary form: not fiction Publisher: 2015Dissertation note: Mastitis is one of the shocking maladies of milch animals causing high production losses to livestock industry of Pakistan (Kenyanjui et al. 2011). It is an inflammatory condition of udder; represent a major problem in dairy cow management. It is one of the most common and frequent disease of dairy industry. Producers suffer a huge loss due to veterinary treatment costs and necessary culling of the infected animals. It negatively affects the milk production, quality of milk, and farm economics (Fourichon et al. 2005). Increasing the disease resistance among dairy cattle is therefore desirable because without controlling mastitis, the national goals of developing dairy farming on commercial and scientific lines and production of wholesome milk which conforms to the standards of WTO Accord would remain elusive. Mastitis is inflammation of udder that caused by physiological and metabolical changes (Schalm and Noorlander 1957). There are two main types of mastitis; clinical mastitis (characterized by classical symptoms i.e., swelling of udder, redness, clumps and clots in milk etc) and sub-clinical mastitis (not show any symptoms, Milk appear normal, udder appear normal) (Schrick et al. 2001). Mastitis is ranked as a top disease of dairy herds (Rinaldi et al. 2010). This mammary gland infection caused by pathogenic micro organisms such as Staphylococcus aureus, Streptococcus uberis, and Esherichia coli in the mammary gland (Heringstad et al. 2000). India, China and United States are the larger producer of milk and Pakistan is on forth number in milk yield. Pakistan almost produces 36.5 million tons of milk yeild per year (Cady et al. 1983).The Sahiwal breed is well known among for its superior dairy qualities (Barker et al. 1998). Both cross and pure breed Sahiwal cows have high milk production rate (Khan et al. 2013). It is very difficult to comprehend this disease because numerous environmental and genetic factors are involved in the origin and development of mastitis (Bradley 2002; Carvajal et al. 2013). Susceptibility and resistance to mastitis is a complex trait influenced by genetic variation of animals. Among these variations, the polymorphisms in immunity genes are principal key factors in defensive mechanism of mammary gland (Ibeagha-Awemu et al. 2008). The mammary gland tissue is protected by immune system by two defense system; innate and acquired immunity. Innate immunity response by the host is a quick response of bacterial defense system (Mesquita et al. 2012). Innate system is a rapid and effective mechanism that activated on recognition of antigen (Akira et al. 2006). Innate immune system is activated when specific pattern recognition receptors (PRR) that are present on the surfaces which are attach to the specific pathogen (Shuster et al. 1996). PRR are presnt on leucocytes in milk and on the epithelial cells lining of udder. It is reported that T- lymphocyte subset i.e., CD4+, CD8+ and ɤδT are present in infected bovine mammary glands. (Goldammer et al. 2004; Strandberg et al. 2005). Innate defense (nonspecific) of the mammary gland is stimulated by the physical barrier such as teat end, natural killer (NK) cells, neutrophils, macrophages and certain other soluble factors. The teat cannals are considering the main line of defense. Microorganisms enter from teat canal in milk. The main roles of teat sphincter muscles are to remain orifice close so that bacteria cannot enter. This teat canal also lined with keratin, whose estrified and non estified fatty acid function as bacteriostatics that provide protection and play role to eliminate bacteria causing mastitis (Oviedo-Boyso et al. 2007). If a pathogen is not eliminated by the physical barrier, the acquired immune system is triggered. In comparison, this system is much faster than other immune response. The memory response is significantly stronger, long durable and more efficient to kill the pathogen. The acquired immune system (memory response) have ability to differentiate self or nonself cells and produce antibodies only against antigens through membrane bound protein called major histocompatibility complex (MHC) molecules. Specific immune system activate only when antigens bind with an MHC that is present on the surface of certain cells, this process is referred as antigen presentation. Recognition of pathogenic factors for elimination is mediated by macrophages, several lymphoid, and immunoglobulins (Ig) or antibodies (Sordillo and Streicher 2002). The most acute responding macrophages and T-cell cytokines are TNF-α, LTF, IL1, IL6, IL8, and IFN-ɤ present in intramammary infection in cows. These genes play important role in improvement of immunity to mastitis (Burton and Erskine 2003). Tumor necrosis factor alpha is main pro-inflammatory adipokine that is part of systematic immune defense. The main function of TNF-α gene is responsible for proliferation, differentiation and activity of many immune system cells; B lymphocytes, NK (natural killer). It also induces the production and release of many other cytokines (Wojdak Maksymiec et al. 2013) and also enhances the chemotactic and phagocytic effects of immune response. TNF-α gene contains four exons and three introns that are present on chromosome BTA23q22 (Bannerman 2009; Moyes et al. 2009). TNF-α is a member of a group of cytokines that stimulate the specific immune system. TNF consist of 212 amino acid arranged in stable homotrimers (Kriegler et al. 1988; Tang et al. 1996). The 17-kilodalton (kDa) TNF protomers are composed of two β-pleated sheets and β-strands, joined together antiparallel (Tang et al. 1996). TNF-α is a component of natural protection systems of humans and animals. Milk gives nourishment and disease resistance to the new born. Various cellular and soluble immune components are important for protecting the mammary gland from infectious diseases like mastitis. Mastitis affects one third of all dairy cows and cost the dairy industry about 2 million dollars annually (National Mastitis Council (1996). Dairy cattle are especially susceptible to mastitis due to diminished mammary gland defense mechanisms (Sordillo and Streicher 2002). TNF-α is not only produced by activation of macrophages, but also other cell types such as CD4+ lymphocytes, NK cells, neutrophils, mast cells, eosinophils, and neurons. Large amounts of TNF are released in response to lipopolysaccharide, other bacterial products, and Interleukin-1 (IL-1).TNF-α stimulates the proliferation, differentiation and activity of many immune system cells; B lymphocytes, NK (natural killer). TNF-α induces the release of many other cytokines (Wojdak-Maksymiec and Mikolajczyk 2012). TNF-α also enhance the chemotactic and phagocytic effects of immune response. . The present study is designed to determine the genetic polymorphism in exon 4 of TNF-α gene of mastitic cows and its association resistance and susceptibility towards mastitis. Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 2224-T] (1).

2. Sequence Analysis Of Mitochondrial Atpase 8/6 Gene Variants In Equine

by Kashif Hameed Anjum (2012-VA-905) | Dr. Asif Nadeem | Mr.Maryam Javed | Dr. Muhammad Tayyab.

Material type: book Book; Literary form: not fiction Publisher: 2014Dissertation note: Human has been using horses for doing different jobs like transportation, hunts, carrying loads, warfare and sports (Zhang et al. 2012). In Pakistan, horses and donkeys are mostly used for transportation whilehorses are also used for racing and playing games like polo.There are two main types of horses:Equuscaballusare domesticated horses and Equusferus are the wild horses. There are more than 300 breeds of horses in the world today (Barbara and Dafydd, 2007). The horse population is estimated as 0.32 million and has been decreasing over the years in Pakistan. Main breeds of horses that are found all over the Pakistan are Kajlan, Kakka, Balochi, Morna, Shien, Anmol, Makra, Pak-thoroughbred,Heerzaiand Waziri (Khan, 2004). Seventy percent of the population earns living from the land. Agriculture contributes nearly 21% to gross domestic product and generates 43% of all jobs. Over 30 million people in rural areas derive their livelihood from livestock production. The number of impoverished communities moving from the country to find work in Pakistan’s towns and cities is rising. Many of these people rely on working equine animals to earn a living. Nuclear and mitochondrial genomes are frequently used in animal genetic research. Nuclear genomeis generally a huge and complicated molecule and is not well studied in many species. However mitochondrial DNA being small sized and having high mutation rate is used frequently for the purpose of genetic research (Stanley et al. 1994). Characteristic of having fast evolution rate as compared to nuclear DNA makes mitochondrial genes a good tool for genetic studies (Avise, 1994). Several studies have investigated the genetic relationship among horse and donkey breeds using mitochondrial sequences as a marker for breed characterization and phylogenetic. Each mitochondrion contains its own circular DNA, replication, transcription and translation machinery and serves as semi-autonomous organelle. Mitochondria perform so many important functions in our body like metabolism(oxidative phosphorylation), apoptosis and aging(Weinberg, 2007). The advent ofpolymerase chain reaction and direct sequencing techniques with the use of mtDNA as a phylogenetic marker has been extended to much greater levels of phylogenetic inclusiveness (Zardoya and Meyer,1996). The special features of mtDNAi-e,lack of introns, maternal inheritance, absence of recombination events and haploidy have made it the most common type of sequence information used to estimate phylogenies among both closely and distantly related texa(Meyer, 1993). Four of the five mitochondrial respiratory chain complexes, namely C1, C3, C4 and C5 (ATP synthase) contain subunits encoded by mitochondrial DNA (Kadenbach, 2012). ATP synthase (Complex5) functions to make ATP that is used by the cell (Von et al. 2009). ATP synthasecomprisesan integral membrane cylindrical, the F0 particle and a peripheral matrix-facing F1 particle, the catalytic ATP synthase domain (Boyer, 1997). All aerobically respiring organisms possess ATP synthase enzymes and are located inthe cell membrane in prokaryotes, the mitochondrial inner membrane in eukaryotes and the chloroplast thylakoid membrane (Ackerman and Tzagoloff, 2005). This enzyme is responsible for the final step of oxidative phosphorylation. The protons move down their concentration gradient from inter membrane space to matrix through F0 particle while F1particleuses the energy provided by influx of these protons and converts ADP molecule into ATP. ATPase 6 and ATPase 8 proteins are components of F0 particle where they play direct role in maintaining the structure and function of ATP synthase (complex 5). All five subunits of F1 and most of the F0 subunits are nuclear encoded(Collinson et al. 1996). Only two proteins i-e, ATPase 6 and ATPase 8 are encoded by mtDNA (Boyer, 1993). The present study is designed to investigate the diversity and phylogenetic analysis of Thoroughbred Pakistani horse and donkey breeds on the basis of ATPase 6 and ATPase 8 genes. Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 2236-T] (1).

3. Genetic Polymorphism Of Prss12 Gene Responsible For Cognitive Dysfunction And Its Homology Analysis With Canine

by Hafsa Amjad (2014-VA-776) | Dr. Muhammad Yasir Zahoor | Dr. Muhammad Imran | Mr. Shahid Abass.

Material type: book Book; Literary form: not fiction Publisher: 2016Dissertation note: Neurotrypsin a multi domain serine protease predominantly expressed in brain is considered to be involved in cognition by the establishment and maintenance of synapses in mammals. Mutations in PRSS12 gene have been reported for cognitive disability in Algerian family. In present study, DNA of 10 enrolled non-relative cognitive dysfunctioned patients was extracted through organic method. The normal individual samples of siblings and parents of relevant families was also included in this study as control. This amplification exon 7 of PRSS12 was done after designing primer by using Primer3 software. Exons was sequenced by using BigDye Terminator Cycle Sequencing Ready Kit(Perkin Elmer/ABI) and read in automated sequener, ABI Prism model 3730 (Perkin Elmer). No significant mutation was identified in affected individuals. Computational comparative sequence analysis tools were used for the nucleotide and amino acid sequences to predict the homology in PRSS12 gene among mammals of well-developed cognition. PROSITE domain database search was performed to determine domain organization and Phyre software was used to develop secondary structural features and 3D protein models and ReptroX for multiple sequence alignment of tertiary structures. Using the generated alignments highly conserved regions in primary and secondary structures of neurotrypsin in mammals were identified. Phylogenetic analysis indicated highest similarity of human PRSS12 with non-human primates (chimpanzee, orangutan and monkey) followed by Catecians, Felis, and Canine evolving from the same ancestor. The predicted domain architecture shows the neurotrypsin consisting of kringle domain, four scavenger receptor cysteine-rich CHAPTER 6 SUMMARY Summary 68 domains and a serine protease domain named trypsin. Whereas mouse consists of only three scavenger receptor cysteine-rich domain. Prediction and comparison of domains in mammals indicated that primates and catecians protein domains have high similarity with humans. Computational analysis by using animal models can aid in evolutionary studies and. understanding the role of neurotrypsin in cognition. Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 2498-T] (1).

4. Development Of Dna Based Diagnosis Of Theileriosis In Cattle And Its Specificity With Blood Smear Microscopy

by Uzma Sarwar (2014-VA-777) | Dr. Wasim Shehzad | Dr. M. Yasir Zahoor | Dr. Ali Ahmed Sheikh.

Material type: book Book; Literary form: not fiction Publisher: 2016Dissertation note: Theileria annulata and Theileria parva are intra-erythrocytic parasites which are responsible for causing tropical theileriosis and East Coast fever in cattle respectively. This parasite is transmitted by ticks to vertebrate host i.e. cattle. Currently used diagnostic methods for diagnosis of bovine theileriosis are clinical symptoms, peripheral blood smear microscopy and serological tests (IFAT and ELISA). Current study was conducted to compare the specificity and sensitivity of blood smear microscopy and PCR techniques to diagnose bovine theileriosis. This study is comparative as well as developmental in nature. Although peripheral blood smears microscopy is cost effective and quick method of diagnosis in case of high or moderate parasitaemia in blood. But the limitations associated with microscopy include false negative diagnosis in case of low parasitaemia in chronic and asymptomatic infection, morphological similarity of Theileria with other species of Plasmodium and Babesia. These limitations may lead to misdiagnose the infection due to which disease may remain unnoticed. PCR based method, developed in this study, and is found to be more specific and sensitive than conventional microscopy. Fifty blood samples were collected from September, 2015 to November, 2015. These samples were screened microscopically as well as with PCR for presence of Theileria. Nine samples were found to be positive microscopically but 18 samples were found positive by PCR. The results obtained from the study clearly show that PCR is more reliable, precise and sensitive assay for diagnosis of bovine theileriosis then microscopy. It is hoped that proposed method to diagnose Theileria will help to nullify the problems associated with microscopy. This will ultimately facilitate in the formulation of effective treatment control and vaccine development strategies. Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 2547-T] (1).

5. Molecular Exploration Of Zbed6 Gene For Growth Trait In Lohi Sheep

by Usman Sagheer (2014-VA-03) | Dr. Maryam Javed | Dr. Akhtar Ali | Prof. Dr. Tahir Yaqub.

Material type: book Book; Literary form: not fiction Publisher: 2016Dissertation note: ZBED6 gene is a central transcription factor. It is as a repressor of IGF2 (insulin-like growth factor II) interpretation in skeletal muscle myogenesis and development. It is essentially included in organism development, signaling, cell to cell collaboration, hepatic fibrosis, clathrin intervened endocytosis and tight intersection signaling falls. Chromatin immune precipitation (ChIP) sequencing utilizing C2C12 cells recognized around 2,500 ZBED6 binding locations in the genome, and the derived accord theme gave an immaculate match with the set up tying site in IGF2. Silencing of ZBED6 in myoblast cells influences IGF2 expression, wound healing, cell proliferation and myotube arrangement. Genes connected with ZBED6 binding sites demonstrated a very huge advancement for certain Gene Ontology groupings, including improvement and transcriptional regulation. Forty two blood samples were collected. DNA extraction was done by using organic extraction method. Primers for PCR amplification designed using Primer3 software. PCR products were sequenced and then analyzed by using BioEdit software. Expasy translational tool for translation and POPGENE 32 software for analysis of population genetics at all the loci were used. Using this software the overall allele frequency, heterozygosity, probability using Chi-square test and Likelihood ratio test and Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium, genotype distribution at all SNP position, summary of genetic variation statistics for all loci and association were calculated. After this, for the association one way ANOVA was performed. Single nucleotide polymorphism within ZBED6 could be potential candidate gene to be serving as genetic marker for the selection of animals with higher tendencies towards weight gain. Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 2539-T] (1).

6. Molecular Exploration Of Zinc Finger Bed-Type Containing 6 Gene For Growth Trait In Beetal Goat

by Kanwal Rashid (2014-VA-496) | Dr. Maryam Javed | Dr. Asif Nadeem | Dr. Abu Saeed Hashmi.

Material type: book Book; Literary form: not fiction Publisher: 2016Dissertation note: Zinc finger, BED-type containing 6 (ZBED6), is a novel transcription factor.It acts as a repressor of IGF2 transcription in skeletal muscle myogenesis and development. it is mainly involved in organism development, signaling, cell to cell interaction, hepatic fibrosis, clathrin mediated endocytosis and tight junction signaling cascades. Chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP) sequencing using C2C12 cells identified about 2,500 ZBED6 binding sites in the genome, and the deduced consensus motif gave a perfect match with the established binding site in Igf2. Silencing of Zbed6 in myoblast cells affect Igf2 expression, cell proliferation, wound healing, and myotube formation. Genes associated with ZBED6 binding sites showed a highly significant enrichment for certain Gene Ontology classifications, including development and transcriptional regulation.Functional and signaling assays of BED6 gene indicate its probable role in controlling growth traits in Goat. Blood samples (n = 40) were collected. Inorganic method of DNA extraction used. Primers for PCR amplification will be designed using Primer3 software. PCR products will be sequenced bi-directionally on ABI 3130XL Genetic analyzer. The results of sequencing were analyzed using CHROMAS software. Sequence alignment tools (blast 2)were used for SNPs identification. Difference between allele and genotype frequency of studied gene evaluated by chi square test, likelihood test and analysis was done by POPGENE and one way ANOVA.Novel Variations identified which have probable implementation in selection of superior goats with higher tendencies towards weight gain. Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 2554-T] (1).

7. Molecular Phylogeny And Diversity Analysis Of Bovidae (Boselaphus Tragocamelus, Antilope Cervicapra) And Cervidae (Axis Axis, Axis Porcinus) In Pakistan

by Ghulam Abbas (2011-VA-748) | Dr. Asif Nadeem | Prof. Dr. Mansoor Ellahi Babar | Dr. Muhammad Tayyab.

Material type: book Book; Literary form: not fiction Publisher: 2016Dissertation note: Many species of mammals have declined within the past two centuries due to human caused disturbances and the unsustainable use of natural resources. Molecular methods have an important role in phylogeny and diversity analysis. The present study was designed for diversity analysis of Boselaphus tragocamelus & Antelope cervicapra (Bovidae) and Axis axis & Axis porcinus (Cervidae) family in Pakistan. A total of 25 samples from each of the four species were collected from different parks, zoos and natural habitats. DNA was extracted, PCR primers were designed and cytochrome-b, cytochrome-c gene and d-loop regions were amplified by PCR. PCR products were sequenced bi-directionally by Big DyeTM Terminator. Bioinformatics tools, Blast 2 sequences, Clustal-W, MEGA-6, Bioconductor in “R” were applied for analysis. The clustering of the samples indicates that each species contains less within-population genetic variability. Same pattern was observed when sequence of three genes was combined and MDS plot was constructed. Phylogenetic analysis of the gene sequences revealed that each species comprised a clade that is clearly distinct from the clade comprised of other species of deer selected for this study. Finding of this study indicated that these species of deer have significant genetic variations among-species that differentiate them from each other. This is the first report from our region. The information of selected species of deer is prerequisite for designing effective strategy in future conservation practices. However further genomic investigations should be carried out at larger scale. Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 2560-T] (1).

8. Molecular Investigation Of Low Density Lipoprotein Receptor Gene Causing Familial Hypercholesterolemia And Its Evolutionary Relationship With Pan Troglodytes

by Rida Zainab (2014-VA-808) | Dr. Maryam Javed | Dr. Asif Nadeem | Prof. Dr. Tahir Yaqub.

Material type: book Book; Literary form: not fiction Publisher: 2016Dissertation note: Familial Hypercholesterolemia (FH) phenotype is related to improper metabolism of low density lipoproteins due to mutations in Low-density lipoprotein receptor (LDLR) gene with increased risk of ischemic heart disease. Genetic variants in LDLR gene are associated with defective catabolism of cholesterol effecting lipid metabolism which results in familial hypercholesterolemia. It occurs in both forms: Homozygous Familial Hypercholesterolemia and Heterozygous Familial Hypercholesterolemia. Patients having high cholesterol were identified by observing the values of their serum lipid profile test reports. Their detailed history was taken and blood samples from the identified patients of familial hypercholesterolemia were collected. DNA extraction was done by Organic method. Primers were synthesized and PCR was conducted using optimized recipe and conditions. PCR products were sequenced. Sequenced data was analyzed using Chromas or BioEdit software. BLAST was performed and sequences were aligned individually by comparing it to the reference sequence. This showed difference in any specific position of a mutated sequence against the reference sequence. CLUSTALW aligned all the sequences together in one time. Sequences were compared with reference sequence to detect the presence of any mutation or SNPs. SNPs were identified manually and the peaks were observed in order to determine if the genotype is heterozygous or homozygous. Statistical Analysis was done and any amino acid change due to the observed SNPs was determined by using Expasy Translate Tool. It was found that both the SNPs showed amino acid changes. In the end, homology analysis was done which showed that Homo sapiens had their LDLR gene closest to that of Gorilla gorilla gorilla. Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 2551-T] (1).

9. Identification And Expression Analysis Of Genes Involved In Obsessive Compulsive Disorder In Pakistani Population

by Javeria (2008-VA-627) | Prof. Dr. Masroor Ellahi Babar | Dr. Muhammad Wasim | Prof. Dr. Muhammad Abdullah.

Material type: book Book; Literary form: not fiction Publisher: 2016Dissertation note: The background of this study is that WHO reports that psychiatry disorders affect worldwide 0.8 to 2% population. Anxiety illnesses are a class of illness associated with unreasonable and disturbing sensation of fear and tension. There are several types of anxiety disorders, such as panic disorder, agoraphobia, specific phobia, social phobia, OCD. Obsessive-compulsive disorder is a chronic disabling condition. OCD is characterized by repetitive, intrusive thoughts, images, and impulses and by repetitive, ritualistic physical or mental acts performed to reduce the attendant anxiety. The severity of OCD depends on the amount obsessions and compulsions. The Yale-Brown Obsessive Compulsive Scale (Y-BOCS) is a reliable and consistent scoring system that can be used to categorize OCD. The major genes involve in OCD are SLC6A4, BDNF, SLC1A1 and COMT genes. The study was enrolled patients treated for OCD. Blood samples have been collected from the patients. DNA extracted from fresh blood. Primers were designed. Then DNA amplification have done by Bio-Rad thermal cycler. Then gel electrophoresis was done for PCR product quantification. PCR products precipitated and sequenced. SNPs were identified. Real-time quantitative RT-PCR was performed for each sample with TaqMan Universal PCR mastermix which showed down regulation of COMT gene in OCD patients in Pakistani population. The aim of this study was SNP identification in Pakistani Population in Obsessive Compulsive disorder and to analyze the gene expression of COMT gene involved in OCD in Pakistani Population. Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 2620-T] (1).

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