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51. Application Of Microsatellite Markers For Genetic Diversity Analysis Of Endangered Punjab Urial (Ovis Orientalis Punjabiensis) In Pakistan

by Anam Aftab (2012-VA-534) | Dr.Tanveer Hussian | Dr. Wasim Shehzad | Dr. Muhammad Tayyab .

Material type: book Book; Literary form: not fiction Publisher: 2014Dissertation note: Biological diversity is now recognized as common concern of mankind and genetic diversity is the major driver of variation within and across breeds, which helps populations to adapt to environmental changes. There is very little importance is given to conserve wild sheep in previous years and its genetic diversity is decreasing day by day. Every now and then breeds are being haunted for crossing to some other imported breed without attempting to see if such efforts will be sustainable. For any breed development efforts thus, available genetic resources need to be characterized both at phenotypic and genetic levels (Khan et al. 2007). Among the three levels of Biodiversity, one is Genetic variation which is suggested bythe International Union forNatureconservation (IUCN) for preservation (Mc Neely et al. 1990). The reason for it is that firstly; genetic diversity favors the changes as the environment changes and secondly; it prevents inbreeding depression (Reed and Frankham 2003). In this way genetic diversity increase the survival status and increase fitness of individuals. Among many other wild animals present in Pakistan, there are 6 to 9 species of wild sheep (Ovis orientalis) are present which have different color and size of their winter neck ruff of males, saddle patches and horns color. Urial is a picture of Marco Polo in texture and hue. In Pakistan, ladakh urial, Blanford urialand Punjab urial are found in Gilget, Baluchistan and Punjab respectively. The discrepancy lies in the color of ruff among these 3 sub species (Roberts, 1977). Urial is among those precious wild animals that were hunted severely for trophy and other purposes in the past, that’s why included in red list of IUCN in vulnerable category (IUCN 2000). Punjab Urial (A type of wild sheep – Ovis vignei punjabiensis) belongs to family bovidae which is the large family consisting of 140 species (Glazko et al. 2011) is facing serious threat of extinction in Pakistan is a medium-sized wild sheep which is included in IUCN red list of endangered animals (IUCN 2002). Urial is inhabitant in Western Central Asianregion stretching from northeast side of Iran and west side of Kazakhstan to Balochistan (Pakistan) and Ladakh regions of North India. The local name of Urial is Shapo, Arkar and Gad. Reddish-brown outstretched pelt that achromatizes during the winter is one of the distinct traits of urial (Aleem 1977; Schaller 1977). Urial is gregarious and sexually dimorphic as males are called rams and females as eves (Awan 2001). Male have weightof 40 kgand have large spiralled horns having height of 80 to 100 cm and females have comparatively less weight and height of 25 kg and 12 cm respectively and have uncurled horns.Females give birth to 1 or 2lambs in recent days of April (Awan, 2001). Males have a black ruff expanded from the neck to the trunk and notably longer horns. Table 1.1:Some physical features of the Punjab Urial (Awan et al. 2001) Features Urial Body weight 40 kg male; 25 kg female Shoulder size 31-35 inches or 80-90 cm Horn size 39 inches or 80-100 cm long male; 12 cm long female Urial are found in moderate to very arid habitats, especially grasslands including agricultural fields and woodland areas (Valdez, 1982). Urial is herbivorous and eats grasses, shrubs and grains. The patch of salt range of Pakistan which fall in the area of Pind Dadan Khan, Choa Saidan Shah and Kallar Kahar is considered like a paradise on earth for the wild fauna. The fascinating hills of these areas are covered with thick trees and different wild plants are also the sanctuary of urial. Table 1.2: The details of these sub species in IUCN list of endangered mammals (IUCN 2002). Subspecies Citation in IUCN list Ovis vegnei blanfordi VUC 1 Appendix ll Ovis vegnei punjabienses ENA1cde,c1+2a Appendix ll Ovis vegnei vegnei VUC 1 Appendix ll In Pakistan, Punjab Urial dispersed throughout the Kala Chitta and Salt Range in a very little number(Hess et al, 1997). The Afghan Urial inhabits Baluchistan, Khyber Pakhtunkhwa, and Sindh Provinces. In Chitral District, little segregated populations of Ladakh urial are stillextensively distributed near the west bank of the Kunar river from Chitral southwards to Drosh. Ladakh Urial existence at the east bank of Kunar river and north of Chitral are not proved (Malik 1987). Total population estimate of urial is recorded by conducting several surveys. Reasonably 2,500 to 3,000 urial existsin Baluchistan (Hess et al. 1997). In 1993 the overall population assessment of Northern Areas was four hundred to five hundred Urial (Rasool 1999). In Pakistan, there were seemingly less than 600 Ladakh urial (Hess et al. 1997;NWFP 1992; Schaller 1971, 1977) but the number of urial decreased to 200 to 300 urial in all over northern areas (Rasool 1999). Based on the facts mentioned above there is dire need to conserve the Urial population in the country. The urial is one the precious fauna of Pakistan and provides us with wool and meat (fat, flesh or any eatable part). It is also important in economic way and in maintaining of ecosystem balance. In the beginning, sheep were reared for meat, milk and skin (Ensminger and parker, 1986). After 3500 B.C. men learnt to spin wool and so used wool in textile industry (Smith et al. 1997). So, because of increasing world population, there is great demand of these products and increasing day by day. That’s why we have to conserve is natural resource of Pakistan.Habitat fragmentationleads to the risk of exaggerated genetic drift and inbreeding in isolated population. So, there is need to save urial from these threats by enforcement of law and conserving it for future. In all over the euchromatic genome Microsatellite markers are present. These markers are highly polymorphic (Ellegren 2000; Schlotterer 2000).A lots of polymorphic microsatellites have been analyzed in ruminants like domesticsheep, cattle etc. (de Gortari et al. 1997,1998 ;Hayes et al.1996; Jenkings et al. 1997) aiding the use of these in parentage testing.   Microsatellite markers are among the most reliable molecular markers for genetic characterization studies in animal species (Sunnucks, 2001) and are simple sequence repeats (SSRs) of 1-6 base pairs, repeated tandemly in coding as well as noncoding portion of DNA in prokaryotes and eukaryotes (Weber and May, 1989; Toth et al., 2000). Microsatellite markers have often used for genetic diversity studies because they areabundant, unbiased, widely distribution all over the DNA, highly polymorphic, easy in assessment like genotyping of these markers (Canon etal. 2001).Microsatellite markers aid in genetic differentiation and conservation studies (Peter et al. 2007;Rendo et al. 2004; Arranz et al. 2001).These are considered very useful markers for assessment of genetic diversity, parentage confirmation, genome mapping, disease research population genetic studies and conservation genetics. These are also reported to be efficient enough to identify within and among breed differentiation and population sub structuring in cattle (Glowatzki-Mullis et al. 1995; Ciampolini et al. 1995; Garcia-Moreno et al. 1996; Jarne and Lagoda, 1996; MacHugh et al. 1998).Therefore the conservation activities are very important to save Punjab Urial from extinction and the study is designed to explore its genetic diversity. Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 2261-T] (1).

52. Rnai :

by Hannon, Gregory J.

Edition: 1st ed.Material type: book Book Publisher: USA : Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory Press, 2003Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 572.88 Hannon 18211 1st 2003 Genetics] (1).

53. Development Of Dna Based Diagnosis Of Babesia Canis In Dogs And Its Specificity With Peripheral Blood Smear Microscopy

by Muhammad Awais (2009-VA-539) | Dr. WasimShehzad | Dr. M. YasirZahoor | Dr. M. Imran Rashid.

Material type: book Book; Literary form: not fiction Publisher: 2015Dissertation note: Babesia canis (B. canis) is an intra-erythrocytic parasite and it is responsible for canine babesiosis. Mainly ticks are responsible for its transmission to vertebrate host. Currently, there are three sub-species of B. canis has been identified i.e. B. caniscanis(B. c. canis), B. canis vogeli (B. c. vogeli)and B. canis rossi (B. c. rossi).Clinical presentation and severity of infection are markedly different for each sub-specie. Routinely used methods for the diagnosis of canine babesiosis include clinical presentation, host/vector specificity, blood smear microscopy and Immunological testing (IFAT and ELISA). In this study, blood smear microscopy and molecular based technique, PCR, were evaluated. This study has comparative as well as developmental nature.Peripheral blood smear microscopy is cost effective and quick method of diagnosis. But the limitations associated with microscopy include low parasitaemia in chronic and asymptomatic infection, morphological similarity of B. canis with other species of Plasmodium and Theileria. Furthermore, personal expertise in morphology based identification and slide preparation may also hamper the precise identification. These limitations may lead to misdiagnose the infection. PCR based method, developed in this study, found to be more specific and sensitive than conventional microscopy. Fifty blood samples were collected from September, 2014 to November, 2014. These samples were screened microscopically as well as with PCR. B. canis-like bodies were identified in forty-two (42) samples. But all (50) samples were found positive for B. canis¬via PCR. Sequencing results following PCR have shown that identified sub-specie is similar withB. c. vogeli(99%). This study clearly depict the likelihood of misdiagnosis with microscopy due to morphological similarities with other piroplasms. Therefore, PCR based methodology was found highly specific for B. canis and produced high throughput. Furthermore, sub-species differentiation is only possible with molecular based approach. As the described approach is found highly specific and sensitive than other conventional methods, therefore, it may aid in the development of clear canine babesiosis geographical distributional picture. Which ultimately help in the development of control and treatment strategies which may eradicate babesiosis. Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 2287-T] (1).

54. Seroprevalence And Molecular Detection Of Brucellosis In Hospitalized Patients With Clinical Manifestations Of Brucellosis

by Riffat Yousaf (2008-VA-342) | Dr. Wasim Shehzad | Prof. Dr.Tahir Yaqub | Dr. Haroon Akbar.

Material type: book Book; Literary form: not fiction Publisher: 2015Dissertation note: Brucella species are host specific facultative intracellular pathogens which cause brucellosis in both animals and humans. Brucellosis is one of the most common zoonotic diseases worldwide. In Pakistan, the incidence of brucellosis is increasing day by day due to lack of awareness of this deadly malady. It is transmitted from infected animals to humans who are in close contact with infected vaginal secretions, feces, blood, aborted fetus, or by consumption of unpasteurized milk and dairy products. Infection due to B. melitensis and B. abortus are mostly prevalent for brucellosis in human. Total 218 blood samples were collected in gel vacutainer tubes from hospitalized patients who were clinically manifested with brucellosis. Out of 218, 12 RBPT positive blood samples were collected in EDTA containing vacutainer tubes separately. Serum was isolated from all blood samples (without EDTA). These serum samples were first screened by Rose Bengal Plate Test (RBPT). DNA was extracted from all positive RBPT blood and serum samples and randomly selected negative RBPT serum samples. All extracted DNA (≤10ng/µL) were subjected to Brucella genus and two species specific (B. abortus and B. melitensis) Quantitative Real Time Polymerase Chain Reaction (qRT-PCR) assay. Furthermore, few selected extracted DNA (≥20ng/µL) from blood and serum samples were examined by genus and Multiplex specie specific PCR. The PCR products were electrophoresed on 2.5% agarose gel. Then selected products were sequenced by ABI 3130 XL sequencer. The data were analyzed by SPSS software using Chi square test. The present study helped to diagnose accurately and precisely brucellosis in clinical manifested patients, which is further helpful for devising the strategies to control this disease. Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 2286-T] (1).

55. Genetic Characterization Of Pakistani Wild Quails Using Mitochondrial Coi Gene

by Wajiha Shakil (2012-VA-817) | Dr. Ali Raza Awan | Dr. Muhammad Yasir Zahoor | Prof. Dr. Tahir Yaqub.

Material type: book Book; Literary form: not fiction Publisher: 2015Dissertation note: A latest taxonomic tool termed as DNA barcoding is being used to genetically characterize animals. DNA barcoding is helpful in determining evolutionary relationship among species. Being a small sized genome and agile enough to show rapid mutation, mtDNA has been used as a pertinent marker of molecular biodiversity. DNA barcode works as an efficient tool in food manufacturing industry, diet investigation, forensics analysis, preventing unlawful trade and felonious poaching. The aim of this study was to develop DNA barcode for genetic characterization of Pakistani wild quail. Pakistani wild quail is important due to its demand for eggs, meat production, experimental purposes and gaming as well. Japanese quail was also included in this study because this quail is excessively produced in Pakistani farms. Japanese quail is present throughout the year and is comparatively bigger in size than wild quail. It has longer lifespan; farmers can easily breed this species in farms. It is suitable in poultry due to better meat yield. COI gene (500bp) was used as a molecular marker for identification at species level. DNA was extracted from blood samples of ten wild quails (Coturnix coturnix and fifteen japanese quails (Coturnix japonica). Reported bird universal primers were used to amplify COI region from the extracted mtDNA samples using PCR. Amplicon were then sequenced by Sanger sequencing method (Sanger et al. 1977). Forward and reverse DNA Sequences were aligned with the reference sequence using nucleotide BLAST on NCBI to observe the dissimilarity among the sequences. Consensus sequences generated were used to construct their phylogenetic tree to see their evolutionary relationship with other bird species. Japanese quail which is thought to be domesticated from Japan, its Pakistani population showed close relation with sequences Summary 90 generated in Japan for this particular species. Pakistani wild quail species showed its closest linkage with C. coturnix. In conclusion, COI barcode proved as an authentic tool for species identification and phylogenetic inference of Pakistani wild and farm grown quails. Wild quail species has been characterized using partial COI gene sequences. This study has provided a specific genetic marker which can differentiate Japanese quail from wild quail at molecular level as most of the time both species are confused with each other. It can be helpful to the farmers and bird fanciers because they can select the birds of their choice correctly. This is the first study reporting DNA barcode of this Pakistani quail species. It would help researchers to study about phylogenetic and taxonomic status and also assist quail fanciers and quail farmers to unaffectedly identify their species of interest in farming. Identification of quail species is also important for conservation of biodiversity as it helps in preservation and identification of endangered species by generating their barcodes from even minimal evidence available. Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 2311-T] (1).

56. Genetic Association Study Of Apolipoprotein A-V (Apoa5) And Sortilin (Sort1) Genes With Risk Of Coronary Artery Disease

by Irfan Basharat (2012-VA-802) | Dr. Akhtar Ali | Dr. Wasim Shehzad | Dr. Muhammad Tayyab.

Material type: book Book; Literary form: not fiction Publisher: 2015Dissertation note: In developed countries cardiovascular disorders are prominent cause of death. One third deaths in the world are due to cardiovascular disorders. Among cardiovascular disorders coronary artery disease responsible for one in five deaths in USA. Its main reason is the lipids values particularly cholesterol and triglycerides in the blood. An estimation made by WHO indicated that 9 million people die per year due to hypercholesterolemia. 100 blood samples were collected from patients of coronary artery disease and from normal patients with no myocardial history. Allele specific primers for SORT1 gene and APOA5 genes were designed using Primer 3 software web facility. Genomic DNA will be amplified by PCR then genotyping will be carried out and DNA will also be sequenced. Hardy-Weinberg principle and Fisher Exact test were used to assess the allele frequency and significant variations from results When patient of MI and normal group were genotyped and sequenced we find out that there are 34 AA homozygous, 1 GG homozygous and 12 heterozygous persons in case of APOA5. The SORT1 person shows 24 GG homozygous and 3 AA homozygous and 13 heterozygous persons. Our study shows a definite association between APOA5 and SORT1 with respect to MI disease persons. This study shows a significant association of single nucleotide polymorphism in APOA5 and SORT1 genes with coronary artery disease. Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 2326-T] (1).

57. Mutation Analysis Of Alpha-Synuclein Gene In Patients With Parkinson Disease

by Iffat Aleem (2009-VA-566) | Dr. Asif Nadeem | Prof. Dr. Tahir Yaqub | Ms. Huma Mujahid.

Material type: book Book; Literary form: not fiction Publisher: 2015Dissertation note: Parkinson disease is a complex, heterogeneous and chronic neurodegenerative disorder with a cumulative prevalence of greater than one per thousand, caused by neuronal loss, mainly affecting dopaminergic neurons of the substantia nigra. Parkinson disease is an idiopathic disorder of the extra pyramidal system characterized by tremors. Genetic factors contribute to its complex pathogenesis. A functional repeat polymorphism in the α-synuclein (SNCA) gene promoter conveys susceptibility for Parkinson disease. The α-synuclein (SNCA) has been implicated in rare autosomal dominant forms of Parkinson disease. The mutations in α-synuclein were associated with severe disease progression and a typical physical signs, indicative of neuro degeneration extending beyond the substantia nigra. Mutation in α-synuclein gene may have association with dopaminergic neuronal loss in Parkinson disease. Blood samples were collected from Parkinson disease patients. DNA was extracted by organic method. Primers were designed using Primer3 software. Amplification of gene was done by Polymerase Chain Reaction. PCR products were sequenced bi-directionally on ABI 3130XL Genetic analyzer. Sequence alignment was performed for polymorphism identification. The analysis of identified polymorphism has been done by CHROMAS software. Sequences were aligned by BLAST tool of NCBI. The results of analysis showed that no mutation found in exonic region of α-synuclein (SNCA) gene in Pakistani individuals selected for this study. Any change in exonic region of α-synuclein (SNCA) gene is a rare cause of sporadic and familial Parkinson disease in different populations. Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 2325-T] (1).

58. Bioinformatics : A Practical Guide to the Analysis of Genes and Proteins

by Ouellette, Baxevanis.

Edition: 3rdMaterial type: book Book; Format: print Publisher: India: Wiley India Private Limited, 2011Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 572.86330285 Ouellette 28827 3rd 2011 Bioinformatics] (1).

59. Cell Biology, Genetics, Molecular Biology, Evolution and Ecology

by Verma, P.S.

Edition: 1st ed.Material type: book Book; Format: print Publisher: India : Chand (S.) & Co Ltd ,India, 2014Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 572.838 Verma 20165 1st 2014 Genetics] (2).

60. Polymorphism Of The Slc11a1 Gene Associated With Resistance To Bovine Tuberculosis.

by Qamar Raza Qadri (2009-VA-569) | Dr. Asif Nadeem | Dr. Tahir Yaqoob | Dr. Abu Saeed Hashmi.

Material type: book Book; Literary form: not fiction Publisher: 2015Dissertation note: Bovine Tuberculosis (bTB), caused by Mycobacterium Tuberculosis is a health threat to livestock. Information on genetic resistance or susceptibility because of polymorphisms of candidate genes could be used in making selection decisions. Solute carrier family 11 (protoncoupled divalent metal ion transporters), member 1 gene (SLC11A1), is a known candidate gene which is associated with natural resistance to infection by Mycobaterium spp in buffalo. Polymorphism in this gene can be studied for breeding disease resistance animals. Blood samples were collected from Nili Ravi buffalo breed of Pakistan. DNA was extracted by organic method. Primers were designed using Primer3 software. Amplification of gene was done by Polymerase Chain Reaction. PCR products were sequenced bi-directionally on ABI 3130XL Genetic analyzer. Sequence alignment was performed for polymorphism identification. The analysis of identified polymorphism has been done by CHROMAS software. Sequences were aligned by BLAST tool of NCBI. The results of analysis showed that no polymorphisms were identified in exonic region of gene. This might be due to less sample size. Genetics play important role in fighting against pathogens. Identifying the genes involved can lead to marker-assisted selection strategies. Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 2332-T] (1).

61. Identification Of Genetic Variations In Toll Like Receptor 1(Tlr-1) Gene To Evaluate Its Potential For Enhanced Resistance To Bovine Tuberculosis

by Shehar Bano (2013-VA-09) | Dr. Maryam Javed | Prof. Dr. Tahir Yaqub | Miss Huma Mujahid.

Material type: book Book; Format: print ; Literary form: not fiction Publisher: 2015Dissertation note: Bovine tuberculosis is a disease caused by the species included in the Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex. Toll-like receptors (TLRs) are a family of conserved innate immune recognition receptors that trigger adaptive immune responses. TLR1 play an important role in host defense against mycobacteria, especially by mediating the response to mycobacterial triacylated lipopeptides. The objective of this study is the identification of single nucleotide polymorphisms within the coding region of TLR1 gene to evaluate its potential for enhanced the resistance to bovine tuberculosis in Nili-Ravi buffalo breed. Fifty blood samples of Nili-Ravi breed were collected from UVAS Pattoki Campus, Research Farm B and Buffalo Research Institute (BRI) Pattoki. Inorganic method was used for DNA extraction, for amplification of the coding region of TLR1 gene PCR (Polymerase Chain Reaction) was used using specially designed primers and the PCR products were sequenced through Sanger’s Chain Termination method. For the analysis and alignment of sequencing the results obtained after sequencing were analyzed and aligned using the CLUSTAL W and BLAST software. After all these analysis Ten SNPs were identified in the coding region of TLR1 mentioned in table. The Ten SNPs identified in the coding region of TOLL LIKE RECEPTOR 1 were in this order P1 C>T, P2 T>C, P3 T>C, P4 T>C, P5 T>C, P6 C >T, P7 T>C, P8 C >T, P9 A>G and P10 A>G. The one SNP found in the current research is in compliance with the (Sun et al. 2012) research on TOLL LIKE RECEPTOR 1 hence Nine SNPs found in the current research are novel in Nili Ravi buffalo. The SNPs in the exonic region that is P1 C>T, P2 T>C, P3 T>C, P4 T>C, P5 T>C, P6 C >T, P7 T>C, P8 C >T, P9 A>G and P10 A>G were all transitions i.e. the conversion of purines to purines. Population genetic analysis and allelic distribution at all loci was analyzed using POPGENE 32 software indicated that at [P3=0.243009> 0.05] followed the assumptions of the Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium indicating that the alleles were randomly distributed throughout the population, no migration had occurred, no bottlenecks happened and population remained large in numbers.This Non-significant and obeying HWE, so can be potential marker for genetic selection.At [P1= 0.040418< 0.05], [P2=0.033603< 0.05], [P4=0.000649< 0.05], [P5=0.000262< 0.05], [P7=0.015112< 0.05] and [P9=0.000111< 0.05] the probability value below 0.05 indicated that population at these polymorphic sites was not obeying Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium. This indicated that at these positions alleles were not equally distributed in population. It can be concluded from my research that the SNPs identified in the current research may also hold potential for marker-assisted breeding programs, with the aim of breeding more BTB-resistant animals and herds within both the national farms and the private sector. Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 2335-T] (1).

62. Analysis Of Genetic Polymorphism In Exon 6 & 11 Of Glucosidase Beta Acid (Gba) Gene In Gaucher Diseased Patients From Punjab, Pakistan

by Aysha Arshad (2009-VA-571) | Dr. Muhammad Yasir Zahoor | Dr. Muhammad Imran | Dr. Imran Altaf.

Material type: book Book; Format: print ; Literary form: not fiction Publisher: 2015Dissertation note: Gaucher disease (GD) is amajor predominant heterogenic, inherited and metabolic lysosomal storage disorder. It is prompted by an alteration in glucosidase acid beta (GBA) gene. GBA gene encodes a 497 amino acid glucocerebrosidase enzyme. It is a lysosomal hydrolase, present in all mammalian cells membrane that carries the catalysis of complex ubiquitous sphingolipids called glucocerebrosides (GlcCer) into smaller and simpler molecules of sugar and ceramide. The human glucocereborside (GBA) gene is present in highly gene dense area on q arm of 21 chromosome and its fragment length is 7.8kb comprising of 11 exons. A pseudogene is also present in vicinity of GBA gene which shares 96% homology of sequence with functional gene. Genetic recombination and gene conversion among these two GBA genes are responsible for 10-20% GD mutations. >300 mutations of GBA have been described till 2014. GD has three different clinical forms depend on its heterogeneity. These are characterized by the age of onset and with or without the participation of CNS. In this study, 10 blood samples were collected of GD patients from repository at Molecular and Genomic Laboratory located at IBBT department, UVAS Lahore and from Children Hospital Lahore. DNA extraction was done by using organic method from blood samples. Amplification of GBA gene exons 1, 6 and 11 was performed using PCR. PCR products were sequenced using Sanger di-deoxy sequencing method. Different bioinformatics tools were applied for the sequence analysis of exon 1, 6 and 11. We found two variants of GBA gene. A deletion of CT nucleotide repeat in intron 1 was found. We also found a substitutional change of nucleotide T>A in intron 8. Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 2334-T] (1).

63. Comparison Of Antifungal Activity Of Human Salivary Histatin Between Diabetic And Nondiabetic Individuals

by Farid-Ul-Haq (2013-VA-555) | Prof. Dr. Tahir Yaqub | Dr. Ali Raza Awan | Dr. Muhammad Tayyab.

Material type: book Book; Literary form: not fiction Publisher: 2015Dissertation note: Histatins are antimicrobial proteins found in human saliva. These proteins have also been observed to have the ability to aid in wound healing in various organisms. The genes HTN1 and HTN3 have been studied to govern these proteins. Histatin proteins have a vast array of antimicrobial properties. While a fungus, Candida albicans or C. albicans is a part of the human normal gut flora, it is a threat to people who have a compromised immune system. An overgrowth of the fungi belonging to the Candida family leads to candidiasis in humans, and oral candidiasis has been reported to a large extent namely in diabetic patients. The antifungal activity of histatin proteins laid the basis of the current research work. In this study, the antifungal activity of saliva from a total of 64 healthy and diabetic human samples against Candida albicans has been evaluated. The samples of both healthy and diabetic human samples belong from different age ranges: 15-25, 25-35, 35-45 and 45-55 years in order to change in antifungal activity with respect to age of an individual. Antifungal activity was observed through both agar well and agar disk diffusion methods, with agar disk diffusion methods showing positive results. According to the outcomes of this study at least 120μL of healthy saliva sample is required to create a zone of inhibition. Saliva from diabetic individuals showed no antifungal results. This occurrence led to the next part of this study involving amplification of HTN3 gene. The nucleotide sequences of both healthy and diabetic individuals were compared together and showed that the absence of antifungal activity in diabetic individuals might have reasons other than a genetic one, according to this study. The results observed from the present study indicate that healthy human saliva possesses antifungal activity against Candida albicans. In accordance Summary 39 to these results, the naturally occurring antimicrobial activity of histatin proteins present in human saliva can have immense use in the field of medicine. Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 2341-T] (1).

64. Observation Of Antibacterialactivity Of Human Salivary Histatin Against Staphylococcus Aureus

by Rizwan Irshad (2013-VA-10) | Professor Dr. Tahir Yaqub | Dr. Muhammad Wasim | Dr. Nisar Ahmad.

Material type: book Book; Literary form: not fiction Publisher: 2015Dissertation note: The saliva contains numbers of proteins which act as antimicrobial agents and these peptides called as antimicrobial peptides. The saliva contains numerous antimicrobial peptides the main salivary peptide present in saliva is Histatin protein rich in Histidine amino acid. Histatin is only antimicrobial peptides present in primates like monkey chimpanzees and human. It’s also contain anti-fungal as well as anti-bacterial effect against staphylococcus aureus. In this study showed the effect of human salivary Histatin against staphylococcus aureus. Salivary Histatin may show antibacterial activity against Staphylococcus aureus with its efficiency having link to age, gender and diabetic status. Total sixty-four saliva sample will be collected on the basis of gender, age and presence of diabetic status. The antibacterial activity of saliva was observed against Staphylococcus aureus by disc-diffusion method. DNA was extracted and HTN1 gene was amplified using specific primer. This study was helpful in demonstrating antimicrobial ability of Histatin proteins present in human saliva. It also provide insight with regards to age, sex and/or immunocompromising ailment (in this case, diabetes) having an effect on the ability of these proteins, thus, opening new doors when it comes to combating fungal infections in both human and animal subjects. The HTN1 gene sequenced and BLAST results proof that variation in Histatin anti-bacterial property in diabetic patients and was not due to mutation in the nucleotide sequences of the decreases in salivary Histatin was due to other reason not due to mutation in these individuals. The age bases study HTN1 gene BLAST results was found 99% similarity with the other age groups. Summary 40 The statistical analysis of healthy people with age and zone of inhibition was found ANOVA P<0.000. The increases of age will decreases the salivary Histatin anti-bacterial properties. The optimum antibacterial activity was measured 2cm in diameter. The present results indicated that healthy human saliva possess antibacterial ability against Staphylococcus aureus. The results indicated that salivary Histatin can be novel tool as antimicrobial peptides of future medical field. Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 2342-T] (1).

65. Mutational Analysis Of Hepatitis C Virus Ns4b Gene Encoding Protein

by Faiza Nisar Bukhari (2013-VA-12) | Dr. Muhammad Imran | Dr. M.Yasir Zahoor | Dr. Abu Saeed Hashmi.

Material type: book Book; Literary form: not fiction Publisher: 2015Dissertation note: Hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection has an estimated global prevalence of 2%–3% with approximately 270 million infected people worldwide of which 10 million belongs to Pakistan. HCV is a positive-sense single-stranded RNA virus from the family of Flaviviridea. Its genome encodes 10 proteins including a 261 amino acids protein NS4B. NS4B is a non-structural protein that performs hyperphosphorylation of NS5A, transactivates interleukin 8 promotor, suppresses HCV translation and modulates the ER stress response. Mutation in NS4B encoding gene may be targeted to develop an effective vaccine against HCV before virus invasion in host immune system. Serum was collected from 20 patients who are infected with HCV. RNA was isolated from these samples to reverse-transcribe it into cDNA. This cDNA were PCR-amplified and amplicons were detected by UV light after their separation through agrose gel electrophoresis followed by seguencing of NS4B encoding gene. Variations in HCV NS4B gene was analyzed by using Mega 6 software and sequence 2 blast analysis NCBI tool. Protein modeling was performed with phyre 2, DIANNA tool and I-Tasser online server and quality of model and antigenicity was checked by Vaxajen V 2.0 and Epijen softwares. Conservative analysis and epitope mapping were performed by using Immune Epitope Database (IEDB). A systematic approach was employed for the prediction of potential epitopes in NS4B protein. Vaxijen V 2.0 was used to determine overall antigenicity of NS4B using cut off value of 0.4. Values above this threshold level show probable antigens in the protein. The topology of NS4B was determined by TMHMM server with the help of membrane topology data. Regions outside membrane and transmembrane were eradicated for epitopes prediction. T cell epitopes propred was used with proteosome cleavage site filter of 4% threshold. From the following data analysis 12 to 15 possible T-cell epitopes can be predicted; only these T cell epitopes were included in conservation analysis. The present study provides information about mutational changes in HCV protein NS4B and thus preliminary data for the development of vaccine against HCV. This can also lead to future prospects for diagnosis, treatment and prognosis of HCV. Hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection has an estimated global prevalence of 2%–3% with approximately 270 million infected people worldwide of which 10 million belongs to Pakistan. HCV is a positive-sense single-stranded RNA virus from the family of Flaviviridea. Its genome encodes 10 proteins including a 261 amino acids protein NS4B. NS4B is a non-structural protein that performs hyperphosphorylation of NS5A, transactivates interleukin 8 promotor, suppresses HCV translation and modulates the ER stress response. Mutation in NS4B encoding gene may be targeted to develop an effective vaccine against HCV before virus invasion in host immune system. Serum was collected from 20 patients who are infected with HCV. RNA was isolated from these samples to reverse-transcribe it into cDNA. This cDNA were PCR-amplified and amplicons were detected by UV light after their separation through agrose gel electrophoresis followed by seguencing of NS4B encoding gene. Variations in HCV NS4B gene was analyzed by using Mega 6 software and sequence 2 blast analysis NCBI tool. Protein modeling was performed with phyre 2, DIANNA tool and I-Tasser online server and quality of model and antigenicity was checked by Vaxajen V 2.0 and Epijen softwares. Conservative analysis and epitope mapping were performed by using Immune Epitope Database (IEDB). A systematic approach was employed for the prediction of potential epitopes in NS4B protein. Vaxijen V 2.0 was used to determine overall antigenicity of NS4B using cut off value of 0.4. Values above this threshold level show probable antigens in the protein. The topology of NS4B was determined by TMHMM server with the help of membrane topology data. Regions outside membrane and transmembrane were eradicated for epitopes prediction. T cell epitopes propred was used with proteosome cleavage site filter of 4% threshold. From the following data analysis 12 to 15 possible T-cell epitopes can be predicted; only these T cell epitopes were included in conservation analysis. The present study provides information about mutational changes in HCV protein NS4B and thus preliminary data for the development of vaccine against HCV. This can also lead to future prospects for diagnosis, treatment and prognosis of HCV. Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 2339-T] (1).

66. Study Of Genetic Polymorphism In Exon 7 And 9 Of Glucosidase Beta Acid (Gba) Gene In Gaucher Diseased Patients From Punjab, Pakistan

by Ayesha Khalid (2013-VA-07) | Dr. M. Yasir Zahoor | Dr. Sehrish Firyal | Mr. Tariq Mahmood.

Material type: book Book; Literary form: not fiction Publisher: 2015Dissertation note: Gaucher disease (GD) is an inborn metabolic disease transmitted through recessive pattern of inheritance and it is a pan-ethnic disease. It is the most common lysosomal storage disease caused by the deficiency of glucocerebrosidase (GCase), a lysosomal enzyme use in the degradation of macromolecules into simpler molecules. Glucosidase beta acid (GBA) gene encode glucocerebrosidase enzyme and mutations in this gene is responsible for glucocerebrosidase deficiency which results in an accumulation of unbroken glycolipids in those organs rich in monocyte-phagocyte immune system elements i.e. spleen, liver, bone marrow and leads to histological changes. GBA is located on chromosome 1q21 consisting of 11 exons and 10 introns having 7.8kb length. It is divided into three types (I, II and III) on the basis of neurological involvement. More than 300 mutations have been reported in GBA and cause the GD. The present study was performed in order to characterize GBA gene in GD patients from Punjab. Blood samples of 10 patients,enrolled in Children Hospital, Lahore, were taken from DNA repository of Molecular and Genomic Lab at IBBT, UVAS Lahore. The DNA was extracted using organic method. Next step was the amplification of extracted DNA using PCR. After it, the PCR product is purified and this purified PCR product was sent for sequencing. Sequencing of exon 4, 7 and 9 was done using dideoxy sequencing method. After applying different bioinformatics tool, it was found that there was no muttaion in these exons but a heterozygotic variation G>A was found in intron 8. This finging will help in demonstration of molecular pathogenesis of Gaucher disease. Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 2338-T] (1).

67. The Variability Analysis of The Gene Encoding HCV Non-Structural Protein NS2

by Abdul Rehman (2009-VA-546) | Dr. M. Imran | Dr. Muhammad Yasir Zahoor | Ms. Faiza Masood.

Material type: book Book; Literary form: not fiction Publisher: 2015Dissertation note: Theses submitted with blank cd. Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 2337-T] (1).

68. Antiviral Effect Of Human Saliva Against Avian Influenza Virus Strain H9n2

by Maryam Riaz (2008-VA-340) | Prof. Dr. Tahir Yaqub | Dr. Sehrish Firyal | Prof. Dr. Kamran Ashraf.

Material type: book Book; Literary form: not fiction Publisher: 2015Dissertation note: Saliva is an important body fluid that contains a complex array of proteins, peptides and various substances that help in maintaining the health of the oral cavity. Saliva exhibits a broad-spectrum of antiviral activity against enveloped viruses as it disrupts the viral membrane. Influenza is a common virus that has been diagnosed in humans and avian species due to AIV. This study has demonstrated the naturally occurring antiviral activity of human saliva against the H9N2 influenza virus that serves as a serious threat to poultry and has been shown to possess high zoonotic potential which can cause a new pandemic. In this study saliva samples from healthy individuals were taken and the natural antiviral ability of saliva was observed against AIV (Pk-UDL/01/08 H9N2) of calculated EID50 106.66. Inoculum prepared from saliva and H9N2 virus was injected in 9 days old embryonated eggs using CAS route and incubated at 37°C for 48 hours. A negative control (only saliva) and positive control (only virus inoculum) was also determined in the current study. The antiviral activity of saliva was observed through haemagglutination test. The HA test of harvested fluid showed that human saliva indeed possesses antiviral activity against H9N2 virus and can be used as a natural antiviral agent in medicine. Furthermore, the genomic DNA was extracted from the blood samples. HTN3 gene responsible for histatin production, was amplified using gene specific oligonucleotides. The obtained HTN3 gene sequences were analyzed using Chromas software. The sequence alignment showed 99% similarity to the available sequences in NCBI database and 100% similarity to each individual sample. To conclude, this study has demonstrated that human saliva possesses antiviral activity against H9N2 virus. The nucleotide sequence analysis from each sample CHAPTER 6 SUMMARY Summary 47 showed no particular change which shows that antiviral activity of glycoproteins present in saliva does not vary at a genetic level. This innate antiviral activity can open a new frontier when it comes to combating viral infections that have grown resistant to conventional drugs in both human and animal subjects. Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 2336-T] (1).

69. Molecular Biology of The Cell

by B. Kafmnaf.

Edition: 1stMaterial type: book Book; Format: print Publisher: India: Random Exports; 2013Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 574.875 Kafmnaf 27495 1st 2013 Genetics] (1).

70. Techniques in Molecular Biology

by Kumar, P.

Edition: 1stMaterial type: book Book; Format: print Publisher: India; Sarup & Son, 2006Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 571.31 Kumar 19740 1st 2006 Genetics] (1).

71. Genetic Effect Of Cholesteryl Ester Transfer Protein (Cetp) Gene In Coronary Heart Disease Patients

by Zakiya Bano (2013-VA-554) | Dr. Akhtar Ali | Dr. Waseem Shehzad | Dr. Muhammad Tayyab.

Material type: book Book; Literary form: not fiction Publisher: 2015Dissertation note: Cholesteryl ester transfer protein (CETP) gene takes part with certain reverse cholesterol transport (RCT) pathway for the excess amount of accumulated lipid in peripheral tissues. The variations in this gene due to missense mutations on different exonic, intronic or on promoter regions alter CETP activity as well as impair the RCT pathway. By which, lipid metabolism also effects and causes atherosclerosis in vessels which trigger the blockage of blood flow and induces the imbalance for the supply of oxygen to the heart. So this atherosclerosis directly involves in addition of risk factor for coronary heart disease. Preferable study was made to highlight effect of CETP gene at molecular level by comparing control group with the selected patients having coronary heart disease. This study was appreciably made possible by targeting two reported polymorphisms, one in the intron 1 region Taq IB (rs708272) and on exon 14 region I405V (rs5882) of this CETP gene. The study was relatively speculated by the extraction of genomic DNA from all selected blood samples. By selecting two primers, certain segments were amplified for both rs708272 and rs5882 polymorphisms. Analysis of allelic frequencies distribution was calculated by Hardy Weinberg Equilibrium which showed no significance among control and CHD group and there was no association was analyzed in our population by using Fisher’s Exact Test. This is because of small number of samples studied in our population. But maximize concentrations of lipid parameters such as TC, LDL and TG with minimum variation in HDL-C concentration in CHD group as compared to control group that showed the effect of these polymorphisms on the activity of CETP gene with coronary heart disease. These determined missense mutations in CETP gene was helpful molecular tool for the screening purpose in coronary heart disease patients. Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 2345-T] (1).

72. Mutational Analysis of CaSR in Calcium Nephrolithiasis Affected Pakistani Families

by Asad Tufail (2013-VA-558) | Dr. Muhammad Yasir Zahoor.

Material type: book Book; Literary form: not fiction Publisher: 2015Dissertation note: Thesis submitted with blank cd. Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 2343-T] (1).

73. Molecular Biology of The Cell / 5th ed

by Alberts, Bruce | Johnson, Alexa | Lewis, Ju | Raff, Ma | Roberts, K | Walter, P.

Edition: 5th ed.Material type: book Book; Format: print Publisher: USA: Garland Science, 2008Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 572.8 Alberts 24385 5th 2008 Genetics] (1). Checked out (1).

74. Mutational Screening Of The RB1 Gene In Pakistani Patients With Retinoblastoma

by Saeeda Kalsoom (2007-VA-555) | Dr. Muhammad Wasim) | Dr. Khushnooda Ramzan | Dr. Ali Raza Awan | Dr. Aftab Ahmad Anjum.

Material type: book Book; Literary form: not fiction Publisher: 2015Dissertation note: Retinoblastoma is a neonatal intraocular tumor caused by biallelic inactivation of RB1 gene. Rb patients and asymptomatic carriers undergo a series of clinical tests for diagnosis and tumor treatment. These clinical examinations prove to be expensive and time consuming. On the other hand if the proband’s RB1 gene mutation status is determined by genetic testing, it can prove as more significant and cost effective diagnostic methods. Secondly, only those asymptomatic or at risk carriers with the mutation, require clinical surveillance while those proven to be unaffected do not require additional clinical examinations. Furthermore early diagnosis of Rb by molecular testing can enable and enhance clinical management, earlier treatment, follow-up care, carrier screening, genetic counseling, prenatal diagnosis and reproductive planning in predisposed families. Irrespective of the importance of molecular testing of Rb patients, in Pakistan only a few clinical reports on Rb are available so, there was a dire need to find RB1 mutations in Pakistani Rb patients and to set a molecular based diagnosis for poor affected families. Keeping in view the importance of molecular diagnosis, in this study a reliable genetic test has been developed to detect the RB1 germline mutations in Pakistani Rb patients. During this study, 70 Rb patients including 38 unilateral and 32 bilateral cases were enrolled, from different regions of Pakistan. By using direct sequencing method, seven novel and twelve reported RBI mutations were found. The novel mutations included three frameshift mutations (c.1116_1119delCACT in exon 11, c.1436_1437delAC in exon 16 and c.2060_2061insTCATT in exon 20) and four substitutions (c.148G>T in exon 2, c.610G>T in exon 2, g.94G>C in exon 7, c.947A>T in exon 10 and g.1991G>C in promoter region) while twelve reported mutations in 146 22 patients included, 9 substitutions (c.160G>T in exon 2, c.289G>T in exon 3, c.751C>T in exon 8, c.920C>T in exon 9, c.967G>T in exon 10, c.1072C>T in exon 11, c.1654C>T in exon 17, c.2063T>C in exon 20 and c.2359C>T in exon 23), one frameshift mutation (c.772_776del in exon 8) and two splice site mutations (c.380+1G>T and c.1215+1G>A in intron 3 and 12 respectively). Mutation detection rate was found to be 77.8% in (7/9) bilateral familial, 50% in (2/4) unilateral familial, 56.5% in (13/23) bilateral sporadic and 14.7% in (5/34) unilateral sporadic patients while overall rate of mutations in bilateral and unilateral patients was detected as 62.5% (20/32) and 18.4% (7/38) respectively. Beside mutations one novel c.940-64C>T (intron 9) and nine reported intronic variants c.380+45 C>T (intron 3), c.501-77G>A (intron 4), c.1128-72T>G (intron 11), c.1695+99A>T (intron 17), c.1695-1696delAA (intron 17), c.1815- 104A>G (intron 18), c.1961-10T>C (intron 19), c.2663+33T>C (intron 25) and c.2664-10T>A (intron 25) were also found. Carrier screening facility was also provided to six asymptomatic siblings (as possible carriers) of familial proband but none of them was found to be diseased. Hopefully, in future the findings and developed protocol of this study will help to reveal the molecular basis of Rb in Pakistani Rb patients which additionally help to secure vision and life of Rb patients. Further, in Pakistan there is dire need to develop “National Rb Registry Centre”, to register all new Rb cases for finding incidence rate and prevalence of Rb in Pakistan. Beside this other related issues like financial constraints, health education, planning and awareness about Rb, occupational training for health providers, capacity building for neonatal ophthalmologic screening and cosmetic rehabilitation for surviving Rb patients are important and should consider. Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 2370-T] (1).

75. Study Of Wound Healing Effects Relating To Topical Application Of Human Saliva On Rabbits

by Sanila Amin (2013-VA-281) | Prof. Dr. Tahir Yaqub | Dr. Muhammad Imran | Dr. Habib ur Rehman.

Material type: book Book; Literary form: not fiction Publisher: 2015Dissertation note: Histatin proteins present in human saliva have been observed to show natural antibacterial and antifungal properties, as well as play a role in wound healing. These naturally occurring proteins can serve as effective agents when combating microbial infections of vulnerable wounds that have become drug resistant, without inducing negative side effects in the host. Focusing on these proteins can create a new outlook with regards to wound-healing medicine for both humans and animals. Subjects of this study were 30 fully grown adult male rabbits weighing 2.0 to 3.4 kg and ranging from 8 to 16 months in age. They were acclimatized for two weeks in stainless steel cages and fed commercial diets, vegetables, crushed wheat and corn all over the whole experiment. Out of all 30 rabbits 24 rabbits were experimental on which saliva was applied, three were negative control to check natural wound healing, and three were positive control on which wound healing medicine was applied. The 24 experimental rabbits were further divided into four groups with each group consisting of 6 rabbits to check the effect of age on wound healing. The age groups of human samples were divided as 15-25, 25-35, 35-45 and 45-55 (Verma et al. 2013). Saliva of human individuals belonging from these four age groups was applied on the wounds of experimental group. Furthermore, all age groups contained saliva from both gender i.e. each age group consisted of 3 male and 3 female saliva samples. Furthermore, DNA was extracted from blood samples of the same individuals from whom saliva samples were procured. HTN1 gene which is responsible for the production of salivary histatin protein was amplified using specific primers and PCR optimization. CHAPTER 6 SUMMARY 33 The results of this study demonstrated the wound healing properties of histatin proteins present in saliva and thus, providing a basis of using the natural ability of human saliva to act as a major component in the future of medicine for wound healing and preventing wound infections in both human and animals. Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 2344-T] (1).

76. Molecular Characterization Of Local Donkey Based On Mitochodrial D-Loop Analysis

by Shakeel Earnest (2012-VA-597) | Dr. Muhammad YasirZahoor | Prof. Dr. TahirYaqub | Mr. Tariq Mahmood .

Material type: book Book; Literary form: not fiction Publisher: 2014Dissertation note: Research on control region or mitochondrial d-loop is of special interest in all mammalian species because they the displacement loop hyper-variable region of mtDNA (D-loop), which is of 1200 bp, is very important for genetic variations. It is also important for amtDNA in Nuclear Mitochondrial sequences (NUMTs) in vertebrates species so that it rarely occurring NUMTs. The control region in equine consist of two highly variable regions (HVR1 and HVR2), 4 conserved blocks (CSB), and variable repeats of 8 bp motifs (Cothran, et al. 2013). The displacement loop hyper-variable region of mtDNA (D-loop) of Pak- local donkeys are very similar to genome of other species; however there are considerable differences in the mtDNAevolutionary rate for different taxonomic groups. The phylogenetic tree based on consensus sequences of 12 Asian Donkeys breeds available on NCBI and sequences of local Pakistani donkey breeds showed their genetic relationship among each other. The clade was consisting of Pakistani local donkey breeds i.e. 3-SF, 7-SF,10-SF,11-SF,12-SF,13-SF, K-3,K-6,K-11,K-13,K-16,K18,K-19 and K-20 showing their high relatedness.K-8 and 8-SF have more mutation rate in the sequence and have more diversity from other individuals. The second major branch was furher divided in two sub branches i.e. Donkey family representing Equusburchellichapmani (JX312729), Equusburchelliquagga (JX312733), Equusgreyvi(NC020432) and Equus zebra (JX312718) clustered together. The second sub branch was consisting of other donkey breeds i.e. Equushemionusonager (JX312730), Equushemionus(NC016061) and Equushemionuskulan (NC018782) grouped together while two Pakistani local donkey breeds i.e. SF-8 and K-8 were clusterd with Equusasinussomalicus (AP012271) and Equusasinus (X97337). The d-loop sequence of Human (Homo sapiens) was taken as out group and it clearly differed and separated from rest of phylogenetic tree i.e. camel, bovine, ovine, caprine and other mammals. The phylogenetic tree constructed under this study not only confirmed the status of Pak- local donkey breeds but also confirmed the genetic relationship among other mammalian species, thus reconfirming the already established biological classification. Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 2362-T] (1).

77. Mutation Anlysis Of DTNBP1 Gene In Pakistani Patients With Schizophrenia Disorder

by Hafiza Sidrah Yasin (2013-VA-11) | Dr. Asif Nadeem | Dr. Maryam Javed | Dr. Abu Saeed Hashmi.

Material type: book Book; Literary form: not fiction Publisher: 2015Dissertation note: Schizophrenia (SCZ) disorder is a mental complex, heterogeneous and chronic neurodegenerative disorder with a cumulative prevalence of 1%. SCZ is an idiopathic disorder of the cortex and hippocampus. Environmental as well as genetic factors contribute to its complex pathogenesis. A functional repeat polymorphism in the Dystrobrevin Binding Protein 1 (DTNBP1) gene promoter conveys susceptibility for SCZ disorder. The DTNBP1 has been implicated in rare autosomal dominant forms of SCZ disorder because of mutations associated with severe disease progression and a typical physical signs and symptoms, indicative of neurodegeneration. Mutation in DTNBP1 gene has association with change in dysbindin protein which leads to change in abnormal neurotransmitter trafficking which leads to decrease in neuronal size, brain atrophy and reduced glutamate release in schizophrenia disorder. A systematic approach was applied to proceed the present study in order to identify the single nucleotides polymorphisms in schizophrenic patients. Blood samples (n=40) were collected from schizophrenia disorder patients. DNA was extracted by organic method. Primers were designed using Primer3 software. The amplification of gene was done by Polymerase Chain Reaction. PCR products were sequenced bi-directionally on ABI 3130XL Genetic analyzer. Sequence alignment was performed for polymorphism identification. The analysis of identified polymorphism was done by CHROMAS software. Sequence was aligned by Blast tool of NCBI. Difference between allele and genotype frequency of studied gene was evaluated and analyzed by using “SNPator”. The present study provides information about the susceptibility and genetic basis of the individual towards this disease and identified polymorphisms provides the opportunity to diagnose the disease earlier on the basis of particular SNPs in Pakistani patients. Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 2382-T] (1).

78. Genetic Identification And Molecular Classification Of Sub-Family Phasianinae Of Pakistani Bird Species Through Dna Barcoding

by Maryem Hussain (2008-VA-349) | Dr. Ali Raza Awan | Dr. Sehrish Firyal | Dr. Muhammad Tayyab.

Material type: book Book; Literary form: not fiction Publisher: 2015Dissertation note: DNA barcoding is a precise technique that uses molecular genetics tools for accurate identification, categorizing, relating and separating the phylogenies of species. Being a small sized genome and agile enough to show rapid mutation, mtDNA has been used as a pertinent marker of molecular biodiversity.The aim of this study was to develop DNA barcode for genetic characterization and classification of Sub-family Phasianinaeof Pakistani bird species. Theyhave not been genetically identified yet in Pakistan. It includes birds like domestic chicken(Gallus gallusdomesticus), aseel chicken(Gallus gallusdomesticus strain),blue peafowl(Pavo cristatus), green peafowl (Pavo muticus), white peafowl (Pavo cristatus leuticus), Kalij pheasant (Lophura leucomelanos),monal pheasant (Lophophorus impejanus),koklass pheasant(Purcrasia macrolopha), ring necked pheasant (Phasianus colchicus), Tragopan (Tragopan melanocepals) andred junglefowl (Gallus gallus). These birds are considered an important part of an ecosystembecause they play a significant role in seed dissemination, pollination of plants and disease spread which are the basic constituents of an ecosystem. They are used for food, hunting and entertainment purposes. Mitochondrial geneCytochrome c oxidase subunit 1 (CO1)of 500bps was used as a marker for identification at specie level.Genomic DNA was extracted by each blood and tissue sample of eleven bird species (33 samples). Amplification of CO1 gene was a done by using a universal set of primers (BIRDF1 and BIRDR1)containing region of almost 750 bps (Hebert et al. 2003).Amplicons were purified and sequenced Sanger sequencing method (Sanger et al. 1977). Forward and reverse sequences were analyzed using softwaresEMBOSS merger,ClustalW, BioEdit and nBLAST. Phylogenetic analysis of selected bird species was done. Each sequence was aligned with its reference sequences of CO1 gene present on NCBI. Every nucleotide position which did not align with the reference sequence was studied to identify SNPs. Fixation index (FST) were used to measure species diversity within a same sub population relative to that found in the entire population. Consensus sequences (500bps) generated was used to construct their phylogenetic tree to see their evolutionary relationship with other bird species. All species showed their closest linkage with their respective species. Pakistani population of peafowl and chicken species showed the close relation with same sequences generated in China. Tranopans showed its closest linkage with T. temminckii. In conclusion, seven species ofPhasianinaesub-family of Pakistani bird species was genetically characterized first time in Pakistan by using CO1 as a barcode. It proves that DNA barcoding is an efficient and accurate molecular tool for species identifica¬tion and phylogenetic implication. This study leads to establish a DNA Data Bank that helped scientists to investigate the biodiversity, taxonomic classification, specie identification, in forensic purposes and to study the genetic and phenotypic evolution of these species. DNA barcoding through CO1 gene works as a functional tool for detectingmeat mislabeling and preventing illegitimate trade. This study has established foundations for molecular biologists to study taxonomic uncertainties at sub species level using SNP based identifying marker. It helps in preservation and identification of endangered species by generating their barcodes from even minimal evidence available. Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 2376-T] (1).

79. Molecular Characterization of Pakistani Common Leopard

by Muhammad Usman Ijaz (2012-VA-908) | Dr. Sehrish Firyal | Dr. Ali Raza Awan | Dr. Muhammad Tayyab.

Material type: book Book; Literary form: not fiction Publisher: 2015Dissertation note: CD not available. Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 2379-T] (1).

80. Molecular Cell Biology / 6th ed

by Lodish,Harvey | Berk | Kaise.

Edition: 6th ed.Material type: book Book; Literary form: not fiction Publisher: U.S.A Freeman and Company, 2008Availability: Items available for loan: Pattoki Library [Call number: 572.8 Lodish 23097 6th 2008 Genetics] (1).

81. Biology of the Gene

by Levine,Louis.

Edition: 1st ed.Material type: book Book; Literary form: not fiction Publisher: USA C.V MOSBY 1973Availability: Items available for loan: Pattoki Library [Call number: 575.12 Levine 11903 1st 1973 Genetics] (1).

82. Expression And Purification Of A Potent Surface Antigen (Sag1) Of Toxoplasma Gondii In Prokaryotic Expression System

by Zunaira Zafar (2009-VA-542) | Dr. Wasim Shehzad | Dr. M. Yasir Zahoor | Dr. Imran Rashid.

Material type: book Book; Literary form: not fiction Publisher: 2015Dissertation note: Toxoplasma gondii, an intracellular obligate parasite infects almost all warm-blooded animals including human. Toxoplasmosis, caused by T. gondii, may show minute to severe clinical results in humans. Currently, there is no vaccine available for human use. SAG1 is a major candidate of interest for vaccine development that elicits humoral as well as cellular immune response against this devastating parasite. rSAG1 that had already been ligated in pET28/His expression vector, was transformed in E. coli (BL21) host and expression was confirmed by means of SDS-PAGE and western blotting. Nickel columns were utilized for affinity based chromatographic purification of rSAG1. This purified protein was then quantified via protein quantification kit. Immunogenic recombinant SAG1 can be used in diagnostic antigen-antibody tests e.g. in ELISA. Moreover, it might be used in vaccination against T. gondii. Vaccine against this parasite may alleviate socio-economic burden on human society that ultimately modulates the health parameters for better living. Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 2393-T] (1).

83. Mutational Analysis Of Hcv Gene Encoding E1 Glycoprotein

by Muhammad Saad Junjua (2013-VA-893) | Dr. Muhammad Imran | Dr. Wasim Shehzad | Dr. Abu Saeed Hashmi.

Material type: book Book; Literary form: not fiction Publisher: 2015Dissertation note: Hepatitis C virus (HCV) is a positive single stranded RNA virus that belongs to Flaviviridae family and causes liver related issues like hepatocellular carcinoma, cirrhosis and chronic liver disease. HCV is affecting people worldwide; more than 170 million peoples have been affected so far and the number is increasing day by day. Its prevalence in Pakistan is about 3% to 6%. There is lot of variation in its genome and it is classified into 6 major genotypes and these genotypes are further classified into many subtypes. Size of HCV is about 9500 bps which only encodes single polyprotein. This 3000 to 3300 amino acids polyprotein is processed by cellular and viral proteases to generate 10 polypeptides consisting of 4 structural (Core, E1, E2 and P7) and 6 non-structural proteins (NS2, NS3, NS4A, NS4B, NS5A, NS5B). The most immunogenic gene from all the genes is E1. It involves in the interaction with the host cell and easily escapes from the immune system of host due to the presence of hypervariable regions in E1 gene. To isolate the E1 gene, RNA extraction was done using the kit method. RNA was converted to cDNA which was then amplified in two rounds of PCR using nested primers from HCV core region. After confirming the presence of HCV RNA in serum samples, PCR amplification of HCV E1 gene was carried out using gene specific nested primers. Amplified E1 gene products were Sanger sequenced and aligned with standard sequence to find out genetic variations. E1 gene sequences were converted to protein sequences for which secondary protein structures were made and analyzed. No noticeable change was seen in these secondary protein structures. The protein sequences were also analyzed for the presence of B-cell and T-cell epitopes; two T-cell epitopes (QAFTFRPRR, FLVGQAFTF) were found which may inform the development of a proper vaccine against HCV. Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 2399-T] (1).

84. Identification Of Single Nucleotide Polymorphism In Toll Like Receptor 4 Gene And Its Association With Mastitis In Sahiwal Cows

by Hafiz Kamran Rizwan Ullah (2013-VA-557) | Dr. Sehrish Firyal | Dr. Muhammad Wasim | Prof. Dr. Habib Ur Rehman.

Material type: book Book; Literary form: not fiction Publisher: 2015Dissertation note: Several factors militate against realizing the milk production potential of cows. Mastitis is one of the shocking maladies of milch animals causing high production losses to livestock industry in Pakistan and elsewhere in the world. Mastitis has been familiar as one of the most inexpensively important diseases affecting dairy animal’s worldwide. Susceptibility and resistance to mastitis is a complex trait and influenced by genetic variation of the immunity genes of animals. Among these variations, the polymorphisms in Toll-like receptor 4 gene (TLR4) play important role in the immune response to mastitis. Polymorphism in exon 3 of TLR4 gene is associated with mastitis susceptibility and resistance. It is a potential candidate gene for screening of the mastitis susceptible and resistant dairy cows. The present study was designed for the identification of polymorphism in TLR4gene associated with mastitis. Blood samples from 20 Sahiwal cows having clinical and subclinical mastitis were sampled. Blood sample of 10 normal Sahiwal cows was also collected. DNA was extracted. Specific primers for amplification of TLR4 gene were designed from NCBI. TLR4gene was amplified and sequenced to get the desire sequence of this gene. Comparative analysis of the resulted sequences using NCBI BLAST was done. Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 2392-T] (1).

85. Molecular Cell Biology / 4th ed

by Lodish, Harvey F | Berk, Arnold | Darnell, James.

Edition: 4th ed.Material type: book Book; Format: electronic ; Literary form: not fiction Publisher: New York : W.H. Freeman, 2000Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 571.6 Lodish 14863 4th 2000 Genetics] (1).

86. Cell and Molecular Biology : Concepts and Experiments / 3rd ed

by Karp, Gerald.

Edition: 3rd ed.Material type: book Book; Format: print ; Literary form: not fiction Publisher: New York : John Wiley & Sons, 2002Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 575.1 Karp 15296 3rd 2002 Genetics] (1).

87. Molecular Biology of the Cell / 4th ed

by Alberts, Bruce.

Edition: 4th ed.Material type: book Book; Literary form: not fiction Publisher: New York : Garland Science, 2002Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 571.6 Alberts 14874 4th 2002 Genetics] (1).

88. Molecular Biology : Understanding the Genetic Revolution

by Clark, David P | Russell, Lonnie Dee.

Material type: book Book; Literary form: not fiction Publisher: St. Louis, MO : Cache River Press, 2005Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 572.8 Clark 18108 1st 2005 Genetics] (1).

89. Genetic Effect Of Interferon Gamma On Bovine Resistance Against Mycobecterium Bovis

by Syed Ahmed Raza Rizvi (2012-VA-819) | Dr. Maryam Javed | Dr. Tanveer Hussain | Dr. Muhammad Tayyab.

Material type: book Book; Literary form: not fiction Publisher: 2015Dissertation note: Bovine tuberculosis is a disease caused by the species included in the Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex. IFN-GAMMA are a family of conserved innate immune recognition receptors that trigger adaptive immune responses. IFN-GAMMA play an important role in host defense against mycobacteria, especially by mediating the response to mycobacterial triacylated lipopeptides. The objective of this study is the identification of single nucleotide polymorphisms within the coding region of IFN-GAMMA gene to evaluate its potential for enhanced the resistance to bovine tuberculosis in Nili-Ravi buffalo breed. Fifty blood samples of Nili-Ravi breed were collected from UVAS Pattoki Campus, Research Farm B and Buffalo Research Institute (BRI) Pattoki. Inorganic method was used for DNA extraction, for amplification of the coding region of IFN-GAMMA gene PCR (Polymerase Chain Reaction) was used using specially designed primers and the PCR products were sequenced through Sanger’s Chain Termination method. For the analysis and alignment of sequencing the results obtained after sequencing were analyzed and aligned using the CLUSTAL W and BLAST software. After all these analysis Ten SNPs were identified in the coding region of IFNG mentioned in table. The Eight SNPs identified in the coding region of INTERFERON GAMMA were in this order P1 C>T, P2 T>C, P3 T>C, P4 T>C, P5 T>C, P6 C >T, P7 T>C, and P8 C >T. The one SNP found in the current research is in compliance with the (Sun et al. 2012) research on INTERFERON GAMMA hence Nine SNPs found in the current research are novel in Nili Ravi buffalo. Research on IFN-GAMMA hence Seven SNPs found in the current research are novel in Nili Ravi buffalo. The SNPs in the exonic region that is P1 C>T, P2 T>C, P3 T>C, P4 T>C, P5 T>C, P6 C >T, P7 T>C, P8 C >T, among them four were transitions and four were transversion . Population genetic analysis and allelic distribution at all loci was analyzed using Summary 57 POPGENE 32 software indicated that at [P3=0.354539>0.05] , [P5=0.365524>0.05]followed the assumptions of the Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium indicating that the alleles were randomly distributed throughout the population, no migration had occurred, no bottlenecks happened and population remained large in numbers. This Non-significant and obeying HWE, so can be potential marker for genetic selection. At [P1= 0.000032< 0.05], [P2=0.038766< 0.05] and [P7=000394< 0.05] the probability value below 0.05 indicated that population at these polymorphic sites was not obeying Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium. This indicated that at these positions alleles were not equally distributed in population. It can be concluded from my research that the SNPs identified in the current research may also hold potential for marker-assisted breeding programs, with the aim of breeding more BTB-resistant animals and herds within both the national farms and the private sector. Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 2419-T] (1).

90. Lactoferrin Gene Polymorphism in Dairy Cattle

by Syeda Iqra Aiman Bukhari (2009-VA-556) | Dr. Sehrish Firyal | Dr. Ali Raza Awan | Dr. Muhammad Tayyab.

Material type: book Book; Literary form: not fiction Publisher: 2015Dissertation note: Several factors militate against realizing the milk production potential of cows. Mastitis is the most costly and the prevalent production-limiting disease of dairy animals in Pakistan and elsewhere in the world. It is accompanied by elevated Somatic cell count (SCC) in the milk and estimated genetic correlation between SCC and mastitis ranges between 0.53-0.77. Susceptibility and resistance to mastitis is a complex trait and influenced by genetic variation of animals. Among these variations, the polymorphism in Lactoferrin gene (LTF) plays an important role in the immune response to mastitis. Polymorphism in intron 6 of LTF gene is associated with mastitis susceptibility and resistance. It is a potential candidate gene for imparting resistance mastitis in dairy cows. The present study was designed for the identification of polymorphism in LTF gene associated with mastitis. Milk and blood samples were collected from 20 Sahiwal cows having clinical and subclinical mastitis. SCC of milk samples was performed using serial dilutions. 10 normal Sahiwal cows as control were included in present study. DNA was extracted from blood using organic extraction and kit method followed by DNA quantification. Amplification of LTF gene was designed by using already reported primers obtained from NCBI. LTF gene was amplified and sequenced to get the full length sequence of this gene. Comparative analysis of the resulted sequences using NCBI BLAST was done. Outcomes: The results obtained from polymorphisms in LTF gene can play an important role for selection of mastitis resistant and susceptible dairy cows. This can be useful in selective breeding of cattle for enhanced immune response, as a tool to improve inherent animal health, which ultimately can lay the foundations to contain the magnitude of economic loss due to mastitis. Develop a biological response modifier that will promote a sustained immunity of the mammary teat and protect the gland from invading pathogens. Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 2416-T] (1).

91. Polymorphism Study Of Calcium-Sensing Receptor Gene (Casr)In Calcium Nephrolithiasis Affected Families

by Hafza Ammara (2013-VA-865) | Dr. Muhammad YasirZahoor | Dr. Asif Nadeem | Ms. Huma Mujahid.

Material type: book Book; Literary form: not fiction Publisher: 2015Dissertation note: Nephrolithiasis is a multi-factorial kidney stone disease resulting from the combined influence of epidemiological, biochemical and genetic risk factors. Calcium-sensing receptorprotien is plasma membrane G protein-coupled receptors that regulate secretion of parathyroid hormoneand calcium re-absorption by kidney tubular cells. This protienis able to sense small changes in circulating calcium concentration and, once activated, it inhibits parathyroid hormone secretion and renal tubule calcium re-absorption. The CaSR gene protein islocated on chromosome 3q13 is one of the candidate gene explaining individual predispositions to calcium nephrolithiasis. CaSR gene is a predecessor for nephrolithiasis due to its role in calcium re-absorption. CaSRgene has seven exons and several mutations have been reported globally related to calcium nephrolithiasis. Twenty families affected with calcium nephrolithiasis having at least two affected individuals have been enrolled for this study. Ten families have already been analyzed for exon 3 & 4 in the laboratory. DNA has been extracted through inorganic extraction method from the blood of newly enrolled families. Primers have been designed for exon 5, 6 and 7 through Primer3 software. These exons have been sequenced using the BigDye Terminator Cycle Sequencing Ready Reaction Kit (Perkin Elmer/ABI) and have been read in an automated sequencer, ABI Prism model 3730 (Perkin Elmer). We also screend the coding exon of CLDN14 genewhich is a membrane protein that regulates paracellular passage of ions and small solutesat epithelial tight junction.The overexpression of claudin-14 in the thick ascending limb of loop of henleof the kidney generates a renal phenotype characteristic with hypomagnesemiaand hypercalciuria that leads to the development of calcium nephrolithiasis. All of the sequences have been evaluated by using Clustal-W programs, Chromas and Bioedit software for mutational analysis.Sequence analysis of CaSR gene revealed one novel splice mutationC>G at position 63722 at exon 5 in one affected family.This variation is found in the intronic region of the gene.We found one missense mutation Q536R at exon six in three different affected families. And one synonymous single nucleotide polymorphism(SNP) C>G found at exon 7at rs2036400 in six different affected families.These SNPs showsa significant association of CaSRgene with nephrolithiasis. It will help to determine the risk factor and role of CaSR gene in inheritance of calcium nephrolithiasis. And it will also be used for genetic screening and prenatal diagnosis. Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 2426-T] (1).

92. An Introduction to Genetic Engineering / 3rd ed

by Desmond, S. T. Nicholl.

Edition: 3rd edMaterial type: book Book; Literary form: not fiction Publisher: India: Cambridge University Press; 2010Availability: Items available for loan: Pattoki Library [Call number: 660.65 Nicholl 31650 3rd 2010 Genetics] (1).

93. Molecular Biology of the Cell : The Problems book / 6th ed

by John Wilson | Tim Hunt.

Edition: 6thMaterial type: book Book; Literary form: not fiction Publisher: USA: Garland Science; 2015Availability: Items available for loan: Pattoki Library [Call number: 571.6 Wilson 31671 6th 2015 Genetics] (1).

94. Genetic Polymorphism Of Prss12 Gene Responsible For Cognitive Dysfunction And Its Homology Analysis With Canine

by Hafsa Amjad (2014-VA-776) | Dr. Muhammad Yasir Zahoor | Dr. Muhammad Imran | Mr. Shahid Abass.

Material type: book Book; Literary form: not fiction Publisher: 2016Dissertation note: Neurotrypsin a multi domain serine protease predominantly expressed in brain is considered to be involved in cognition by the establishment and maintenance of synapses in mammals. Mutations in PRSS12 gene have been reported for cognitive disability in Algerian family. In present study, DNA of 10 enrolled non-relative cognitive dysfunctioned patients was extracted through organic method. The normal individual samples of siblings and parents of relevant families was also included in this study as control. This amplification exon 7 of PRSS12 was done after designing primer by using Primer3 software. Exons was sequenced by using BigDye Terminator Cycle Sequencing Ready Kit(Perkin Elmer/ABI) and read in automated sequener, ABI Prism model 3730 (Perkin Elmer). No significant mutation was identified in affected individuals. Computational comparative sequence analysis tools were used for the nucleotide and amino acid sequences to predict the homology in PRSS12 gene among mammals of well-developed cognition. PROSITE domain database search was performed to determine domain organization and Phyre software was used to develop secondary structural features and 3D protein models and ReptroX for multiple sequence alignment of tertiary structures. Using the generated alignments highly conserved regions in primary and secondary structures of neurotrypsin in mammals were identified. Phylogenetic analysis indicated highest similarity of human PRSS12 with non-human primates (chimpanzee, orangutan and monkey) followed by Catecians, Felis, and Canine evolving from the same ancestor. The predicted domain architecture shows the neurotrypsin consisting of kringle domain, four scavenger receptor cysteine-rich CHAPTER 6 SUMMARY Summary 68 domains and a serine protease domain named trypsin. Whereas mouse consists of only three scavenger receptor cysteine-rich domain. Prediction and comparison of domains in mammals indicated that primates and catecians protein domains have high similarity with humans. Computational analysis by using animal models can aid in evolutionary studies and. understanding the role of neurotrypsin in cognition. Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 2498-T] (1).

95. Nucleotide Sequence Variation In Heat Shock Protein 70-1 Gene Of Capra Aegagrus Blythi

by Fehmeeda Fatima (2014-VA-775) | Dr. Asif Nadeem | Dr. Maryam Javed | Dr. Abu Saeed Hashmi.

Material type: book Book; Literary form: not fiction Publisher: 2016Dissertation note: Heat shock protein 70 (HSP 70) plays a vital role in survival of an organism by providing cytoprotection against various kinds of stresses. Among all the HSPs present in the cell, the ubiquitous HSP 70 proteins are the most abundant and temperature sensitive. Considering the importance of HSP70-1 gene in conferring thermotolerance, present study has been designed to characterize this gene in Sindh ibex which is a wild goat species of Pakistan. The characterization of HSP70 gene might be helpful for deriving phylogenetic relationship among different species and identifying new functions among the related species. Blood/meat samples (n=25) were collected from Kirthar national park, Sindh. Standard DNA extraction method was used for DNA extraction. PCR primers were designed by Primer3 software and amplification of gene was done by Polymerase Chain Reaction. PCR product was sequenced bi-directionally by Big DyeTM Terminator on ABI 3130XL Genetic Analyzer. Multiple sequence alignment was performed for polymorphism identification. Genetic diversity was calculated by using DnaSP v.5.0. Phylogenetic analysis using the MEGA v.6.0 software package was performed and neighbor joining and UPGM trees were constructed. The results indicated that Sindh ibex HSP70.1 gene was highly similar to of domestic goat, sheep, cattle, buffalo, camel and horse which indicates their origin from a common ancestor. The results of this data might be helpful in designing effective conservation strategies for Sindh ibex. Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 2524-T] (1).

96. Molecular Biology

Material type: book Book; Format: print ; Literary form: not fiction Availability: No items available Checked out (1).

97. Development Of Dna Based Diagnosis Of Theileriosis In Cattle And Its Specificity With Blood Smear Microscopy

by Uzma Sarwar (2014-VA-777) | Dr. Wasim Shehzad | Dr. M. Yasir Zahoor | Dr. Ali Ahmed Sheikh.

Material type: book Book; Literary form: not fiction Publisher: 2016Dissertation note: Theileria annulata and Theileria parva are intra-erythrocytic parasites which are responsible for causing tropical theileriosis and East Coast fever in cattle respectively. This parasite is transmitted by ticks to vertebrate host i.e. cattle. Currently used diagnostic methods for diagnosis of bovine theileriosis are clinical symptoms, peripheral blood smear microscopy and serological tests (IFAT and ELISA). Current study was conducted to compare the specificity and sensitivity of blood smear microscopy and PCR techniques to diagnose bovine theileriosis. This study is comparative as well as developmental in nature. Although peripheral blood smears microscopy is cost effective and quick method of diagnosis in case of high or moderate parasitaemia in blood. But the limitations associated with microscopy include false negative diagnosis in case of low parasitaemia in chronic and asymptomatic infection, morphological similarity of Theileria with other species of Plasmodium and Babesia. These limitations may lead to misdiagnose the infection due to which disease may remain unnoticed. PCR based method, developed in this study, and is found to be more specific and sensitive than conventional microscopy. Fifty blood samples were collected from September, 2015 to November, 2015. These samples were screened microscopically as well as with PCR for presence of Theileria. Nine samples were found to be positive microscopically but 18 samples were found positive by PCR. The results obtained from the study clearly show that PCR is more reliable, precise and sensitive assay for diagnosis of bovine theileriosis then microscopy. It is hoped that proposed method to diagnose Theileria will help to nullify the problems associated with microscopy. This will ultimately facilitate in the formulation of effective treatment control and vaccine development strategies. Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 2547-T] (1).

98. Molecular Exploration Of Zbed6 Gene For Growth Trait In Lohi Sheep

by Usman Sagheer (2014-VA-03) | Dr. Maryam Javed | Dr. Akhtar Ali | Prof. Dr. Tahir Yaqub.

Material type: book Book; Literary form: not fiction Publisher: 2016Dissertation note: ZBED6 gene is a central transcription factor. It is as a repressor of IGF2 (insulin-like growth factor II) interpretation in skeletal muscle myogenesis and development. It is essentially included in organism development, signaling, cell to cell collaboration, hepatic fibrosis, clathrin intervened endocytosis and tight intersection signaling falls. Chromatin immune precipitation (ChIP) sequencing utilizing C2C12 cells recognized around 2,500 ZBED6 binding locations in the genome, and the derived accord theme gave an immaculate match with the set up tying site in IGF2. Silencing of ZBED6 in myoblast cells influences IGF2 expression, wound healing, cell proliferation and myotube arrangement. Genes connected with ZBED6 binding sites demonstrated a very huge advancement for certain Gene Ontology groupings, including improvement and transcriptional regulation. Forty two blood samples were collected. DNA extraction was done by using organic extraction method. Primers for PCR amplification designed using Primer3 software. PCR products were sequenced and then analyzed by using BioEdit software. Expasy translational tool for translation and POPGENE 32 software for analysis of population genetics at all the loci were used. Using this software the overall allele frequency, heterozygosity, probability using Chi-square test and Likelihood ratio test and Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium, genotype distribution at all SNP position, summary of genetic variation statistics for all loci and association were calculated. After this, for the association one way ANOVA was performed. Single nucleotide polymorphism within ZBED6 could be potential candidate gene to be serving as genetic marker for the selection of animals with higher tendencies towards weight gain. Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 2539-T] (1).

99. Molecular Exploration Of Zinc Finger Bed-Type Containing 6 Gene For Growth Trait In Beetal Goat

by Kanwal Rashid (2014-VA-496) | Dr. Maryam Javed | Dr. Asif Nadeem | Dr. Abu Saeed Hashmi.

Material type: book Book; Literary form: not fiction Publisher: 2016Dissertation note: Zinc finger, BED-type containing 6 (ZBED6), is a novel transcription factor.It acts as a repressor of IGF2 transcription in skeletal muscle myogenesis and development. it is mainly involved in organism development, signaling, cell to cell interaction, hepatic fibrosis, clathrin mediated endocytosis and tight junction signaling cascades. Chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP) sequencing using C2C12 cells identified about 2,500 ZBED6 binding sites in the genome, and the deduced consensus motif gave a perfect match with the established binding site in Igf2. Silencing of Zbed6 in myoblast cells affect Igf2 expression, cell proliferation, wound healing, and myotube formation. Genes associated with ZBED6 binding sites showed a highly significant enrichment for certain Gene Ontology classifications, including development and transcriptional regulation.Functional and signaling assays of BED6 gene indicate its probable role in controlling growth traits in Goat. Blood samples (n = 40) were collected. Inorganic method of DNA extraction used. Primers for PCR amplification will be designed using Primer3 software. PCR products will be sequenced bi-directionally on ABI 3130XL Genetic analyzer. The results of sequencing were analyzed using CHROMAS software. Sequence alignment tools (blast 2)were used for SNPs identification. Difference between allele and genotype frequency of studied gene evaluated by chi square test, likelihood test and analysis was done by POPGENE and one way ANOVA.Novel Variations identified which have probable implementation in selection of superior goats with higher tendencies towards weight gain. Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 2554-T] (1).

100. Molecular Phylogeny And Diversity Analysis Of Bovidae (Boselaphus Tragocamelus, Antilope Cervicapra) And Cervidae (Axis Axis, Axis Porcinus) In Pakistan

by Ghulam Abbas (2011-VA-748) | Dr. Asif Nadeem | Prof. Dr. Mansoor Ellahi Babar | Dr. Muhammad Tayyab.

Material type: book Book; Literary form: not fiction Publisher: 2016Dissertation note: Many species of mammals have declined within the past two centuries due to human caused disturbances and the unsustainable use of natural resources. Molecular methods have an important role in phylogeny and diversity analysis. The present study was designed for diversity analysis of Boselaphus tragocamelus & Antelope cervicapra (Bovidae) and Axis axis & Axis porcinus (Cervidae) family in Pakistan. A total of 25 samples from each of the four species were collected from different parks, zoos and natural habitats. DNA was extracted, PCR primers were designed and cytochrome-b, cytochrome-c gene and d-loop regions were amplified by PCR. PCR products were sequenced bi-directionally by Big DyeTM Terminator. Bioinformatics tools, Blast 2 sequences, Clustal-W, MEGA-6, Bioconductor in “R” were applied for analysis. The clustering of the samples indicates that each species contains less within-population genetic variability. Same pattern was observed when sequence of three genes was combined and MDS plot was constructed. Phylogenetic analysis of the gene sequences revealed that each species comprised a clade that is clearly distinct from the clade comprised of other species of deer selected for this study. Finding of this study indicated that these species of deer have significant genetic variations among-species that differentiate them from each other. This is the first report from our region. The information of selected species of deer is prerequisite for designing effective strategy in future conservation practices. However further genomic investigations should be carried out at larger scale. Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 2560-T] (1).



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