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201. Study On Effect Of Nigella Sativa (Kalonji)Alone And In Combination With Allium Sativum (Garlic) On Histopathology of Tissues Induced by Newly Emerged Newcastle Disease Virus in Broilers

by Saira jabeen | DR. Muhammad Yasin tipu | Dr.Hassan Mushtaq | Ishtiaq ahmad.

Material type: book Book; Format: print ; Literary form: not fiction Publisher: 2014Dissertation note: Abstract Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 1921,T] (1).

202. Comparative Hemato-Biochemical Study On Theileriosis In Naturally Infested Punjab Urial (Ovis Orientalis Punjabiensis) And Domestic Sheep (Ovis Aries)

by Sammuel Shahzad | Dr. Muhammad Yasin Tipu | Dr. M. Ijaz | Mr. Irfan Irshad.

Material type: book Book; Format: print Publisher: 2014Dissertation note: Abstract Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 1981,T] (1).

203. Optimization Of Multiplex Pcr For The Simultaneous Detection Of Babesia Caballi Theileria Equi And Trypanosoma

by Muhammad Zeeshan Khalid | Prof. Dr. Asim aslam | Dr. Yasin tipu | Prof. Dr.Habib ur rehman.

Material type: book Book; Format: print Publisher: 2014Dissertation note: Abstract Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 2006,T] (1).

204. Comparison Of Ameliorative Potential Of Sacccharomyces Cerevisiae And Bentonite Clay On Pathological Effects Induced By Aflatoxin in Broilers

by Muhammad Saqlain | Dr. Ishtiaq ahmad | Dr. Gulbeena saleem | Prof. dr. Aftab.

Material type: book Book; Format: print ; Literary form: not fiction Publisher: 2014Dissertation note: Abstract Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 2014,T] (1).

205. A Study On Immunomodulatory Effect Of Nigella Sativa And Allium Sativum Against Escherichia Coli Infection In Broiler Birds

by Fiza Ahmad | Dr Muhammad yasin tipu | Dr. Muti-ur- rehman khan | Prof. Dr.

Material type: book Book; Format: print ; Literary form: not fiction Publisher: 2014Dissertation note: Abstract Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 2022,T] (1).

206. Esponse Of Lymphatic Tissues To Dietary Supplementation Of Nigella Sativa And Curcuma Longa In Broilers Challenged With Pasteurella Multocida (strain A)

by Muhammad Akmal raheem | DR. Muhammad Yasin tipu | Dr. Muti ur rehman khan | Prof. Dr.

Material type: book Book; Format: print ; Literary form: not fiction Publisher: 2014Dissertation note: Abstract Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 2050,T] (1).

207. Pathological Studies On Contagious Edthyma In Naturally Infected Small Ruminants

by Muhammad Usman ghani | Dr. Mati ur rehman khan | Dr. Muhammad | Prof. Dr. Asim aslam.

Material type: book Book; Format: print ; Literary form: not fiction Publisher: 2014Dissertation note: Abstract Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 2070,T] (1).

208. Comparisons Of Histopathological Effects Of Live Vector Immune Complax And Intermediate Plus Vaccines Of Infectiors Bursal Disease on the Bursa of Fabricius of Commercial Broiler

by Rana Waqas Arshad | Prof. Dr. Asim Aslam | Dr, Muhammad Saeed Imran.

Material type: book Book; Format: print ; Literary form: not fiction Publisher: 2014Dissertation note: Abstract Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 2086,T] (1).

209. Ameliorating Effects Of Acetic Acid On Performance And Performance And Histopathological Parameters In Broiler

by Rukhshanda Ramzan | Dr. Gulbeena Saleem | Dr. Jawad Nazir | DR. Yaseen Tipu.

Material type: book Book; Format: print Publisher: 2014Dissertation note: Abstract Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 2107,T] (1).

210. Haematological And Serum Biochemical Responses Of Nili- Ravi Buffalo Fed On Aflatoxin B1 Contaminated Feed With And Without Toxin Binders

by Muqaddas Sardar | Dr. Raheela Akhtar | Dr. Ishtiaq Ahmad | Prof. Dr. Tahir.

Material type: book Book; Format: print ; Literary form: not fiction Publisher: 2014Dissertation note: Abstract Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 2108,T] (1).

211. Role Of Aqueous Extracts From Zingiber Officinalis (Ginger) And Allium Sativum (Garlic) On Pathogenicity Of Avian Influenza Virus H9N2 on Chicken Embryoes

by Amir Rasool | Dr. Muti ur Rehman Khan | Mr. Muhammad | Mr. Muhammad Asad Ali.

Material type: book Book; Format: print ; Literary form: not fiction Publisher: 2014Dissertation note: Abstract Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 2127,T] (1).

212. A Study On Effects Of Natural Babesiosis Infection On Hemato- Biochemical Profile And Associated Pathological Changes In Sheep

by Abdul Bari | Dr. Gulbeena Saleem | Dr. Jawaria Ali | Dr. M. Saeed Imran.

Material type: book Book; Format: print ; Literary form: not fiction Publisher: 2014Dissertation note: Abstract Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 2144,T] (1).

213. Pathologenesis Of Anaplasmosis In Balkhi Sheep And Their Confirmation With Polymerase Chain Reaction

by Ajab Khan | Dr. Muti ur Rehman Khan | Dr. Gulbeena Saleem | Dr. Saima.

Material type: book Book; Format: print Publisher: 2014Dissertation note: Abstract Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 2145,T] (1).

214. Study Of Carrier Potential Of Salmonella Infections In Common Wild Birds Species

by Mutahir Ali Mir | Prof. Dr. Asim Aslam | Dr. Ishtiaq Ahmad | Dr. Muhammad.

Material type: book Book; Format: print ; Literary form: not fiction Publisher: 2014Dissertation note: Abstract Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 2148,T] (1).

215. Molecular Characterization Of Brucella Abortus Strains In Bovines

by Muhammad Ramzan | Dr. Raheela Akhtar | Prof. Dr. Aneela | Prof. Dr. Asim Aslam.

Material type: book Book; Format: print ; Literary form: not fiction Publisher: 2014Dissertation note: Abstract Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 2169,T] (1).

216. Pathological Investigations Of Theileriosis (T.Annulata) In Cattle In Disteict Lahore Punjab

by Syed Sadeed ud din Shah | Dr. Muti-ur- Rehman Khan | Dr. Raheela Akhtar | Prof. Dr. Aneela Zameer Durrani.

Material type: book Book; Format: print ; Literary form: not fiction Publisher: 2014Dissertation note: Theileriosis is very important protozoal disease in crossbred cattle. According to an assessment, about 250 million cattle are endangered by this disease and millions of high milk yielding cattle are at risk of exposure to disease. It acts as a bigger restraint on livestock improvement and production in many developing countries (Nagore et al. 2004). Theileria annulata is the main specie that causes high morbidity and mortality. It causes heavy economic and production losses in cattle in tropical and sub-tropical regions. The recorded mortality rates in cattle reached to 70% (Moor house et al. 2001). Theileria species are intracellular obligate hemoprotozoan parasites. All Theileria species are dangerous and cause disease but two of them are important for livestock. Theileria parva and T. annulata produces diseases named as East Coast fever and tropical theileriosis in cattle respectively. Genus Theileria has many other species like T. buffeli, T. taurotragi, T. velifera, T. sergenti and T. mutans. These species cause infections in wild and domesticated ruminants. Theileria species present in large and small animals show signs like fever, anorexia, swelling of the superficial lymph nodes, dyspnoea, lethargy, progressive anemia, constipation, diarrhea, lacrimation and nervous symptoms (Saeed et al. 2010; Irvin and Mawmachi 1983). A pronounced rise in body temperature, reaching 40-41.5 °C is pursued by lacrimation, depression, swelling of the superficial lymph node and nasal discharge. The characteristic sign of tropical theileriosis is anemia and finally haemoglobinuria occur with heavy weight losses. The clinical course of the disease alter from per acute to acute or sub-acute to chronic (Oliveira- Sequeira et al. 2005). The disease is lymphoproliferative in its early phases resulting enlargement of lymph nodes, later on enters lymph destructive phase which is associated with a pronounced Introduction 2 leukopenia. In the piroplasms phase in erythrocytes, the parasite becomes infective for the tick (El-Deeb and Younis 2009). Trans placental Bovine Tropical Theileriosis causing a deadly disease in a 3 day old neonate cross bred calf and cerebral form of the disease (turning sickness) in a cow were incriminated to T.annulata infection. It mainly depends upon the harmful effects of the T. annulata on lymphoid tissues and susceptibility of the host (Sudan et al. 2012). Theileriosis is prevalent in various regions of the world including Pakistan. It is transmitted by Hyalomma species ticks. These ticks spread T. annulata which causes tropical theileriosis (Durrani et al. 2009). The developmental stages of Theileria inside the Hyalomma ticks varies in different shapes and forms (Hamed et al. 2011). Therefore to increase the milk and meat production of cattle we can prevent the spread of the disease by controlling ticks (Hekmatimoghaddam et al. 2012). The sufficient amount of Hyalomma ticks are found in warm, commonly hard marshland and in central and Southern Europe, south west Asia and Southern Africa having very long dry season. A toxin is produced in the adult ticks. This toxin produce clinical signs of mucus membrane hyperemic and moist profuse eczema (Adam et al. 2000). The sporozoites of Theileria enter into cattle host during tick feeding and they immediately infect mononuclear leukocytes, these sporozoites develop into macroschizonts and induce proliferation of the host cells. Macroschizonts constantly mature into microschizonts and finally into merozoites, which are discharged from leukocytes. These merozoites attack erythrocytes and mature into piroplasms, become available to ticks. Infective sporozoites, injected during tick feeding, rapidly enter target cells, escape from the surrounding host-cell membrane and differentiate to schizonts that interact with different host-cell components (Dobbelaereand Rottenberg 2003). This interaction includes host cell signaling pathways that Introduction 3 regulate proliferation and cell survival (Chaussepied and Langsley 2011) and thus cause blastogenesis and clonal expansion of predominantly T and B cells (Fawcett et al. 1982; Baldwin et al. 1988; Spooner et al. 1989). Merozoites released from these schizonts subsequently infect red blood cells and become trophozoites. Lymphocytic stage of Theileria (schizonts) is the cause of many of the severe disease manifestations like lymphadenopathy, pyrexia, thrombocytopenia, and panleukopenia (Homer et al. 2000). Marked anemia, anisocytosis, pikilocytosis, and leucopenia were commonly observed in bovine theileriosis (Ceci et al. 1997). Cattle may survive the disease, but recovery and convalescence may be protracted and incomplete, this leads to permanent debilitation, loss of productivity and prolonged carrier state. (Shahnawaz et al. 2011). Cattle with subclinical infection in endemic regions become carrier of piroplasms and act as a source of infection for the vectors (Brown 1997; Brown 1990; Uilenberg 1995). The diagnosis of theileriosis in acute cases is majorly done on clinical signs and Giemsa stained blood smears of cattle but the detection of agent is not reliable and is almost impossible in carrier stage. Advances in molecular biological techniques have resulted in the improved detection, identification, and genetic characterization of many hemoparasites. Species specific polymerase chain reaction (PCR) has been developed for the detection and identification of various Theileria species and has been shown to have higher sensitivity and specificity compared with serological assays and examination of Giemsa-stained blood smears (Bhoora et al. 2009). Primers were derived from the gene encoding the 30-kDa major merozoite surface antigen for T. annulata (Aktas et al. 2006). Most of the previous studies on haematological parameters in T. annulata infection were carried out on experimentally infected cattle (Sandhu et al. 1998; Singh et al. 2001). The present investigation was conducted to study haematological parameters in cattle naturally infected with Introduction 4 T. annulata. Hematology has been broadly used in attempts to give information about disease condition, performance problems and health in cattle (Rezaei and Naghadeh. 2006). Hematological and sero-biochemical alterations are the indicators of severity of disease and are considered to be good tools for the diagnosis, prognosis for effective therapy (Col and Uslu 2007; Nazifi et al. 2010b). Lahore is one of the larger district in the Punjab province of Pakistan. Different cattle breeds are reared by the people of the area for meat and milk production. The exact current situation about the prevalence and pathogenesis of Theileriosis in the selected area is unknown. The present study was conducted to screen cattle by finding schizonts or piroplasms in Giemsa stained thin blood smears at slaughter house of district Lahore (Aktas et al. 2006) and later to confirm through Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR) (Chaisi et al. 2013) in order to implement efforts and regulation to eradicate the spread of disease in the selected area. Data generated from this study provided the latest status of Theileriosis, sex wise prevalence and its pathogenesis in cattle population of Lahore. The study has also provided the necessary information to formulate strategies for control of disease in the area. An investigation was also undertaken to ascertain the changes in haematology as a result of Theileria annulata infection. These studies will help better understanding of the pathogenesis and supportive therapy of this disease. Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 2186,T] (1).

217. Bancroft's Theory And Practice Of Histological Techniques / 5th ed

by John D Bancroft | Marilyn Gamble.

Edition: 5th ed.Material type: book Book; Literary form: not fiction Publisher: UK: Elsevier Publication; 2002Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 616.075 Bancroft 14868 5th 2002 Histology] (1).

218. Veterinary Clinical Pathology / 3rd ed

by Coles, Embert H.

Edition: 3rd ed.Material type: book Book Publisher: USA: W.B.Saunders Company; 1980Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 636.089607 Coles 11673 3rd 1980 Pathology] (1). Checked out (2).

219. Anderson's Pathology

by Anderson, W.A.D | Kissane,John M | Kissane, John M.

Edition: 8th ed.Material type: book Book Publisher: USA: Mosby, 1985Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 616.07 Kissane 13034 8th 1985 Pathology] (2).

220. Comparative Clinical Haematology

by Archer, R.K. & L.B. Jeffcott. (editors).

Material type: book Book Publisher: UK : Blackwell Scientific Publications, 1977Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 636.0896.075 Archer 11305 1st 1977 Pathology] (1).

221. Laboratory Techniques in Biochemistry and Molecular Biology

by Work, T.S.

Edition: 1st ed.Material type: book Book Publisher: Netherlands: north holand; 1969Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 573.44 Work 9786 1st 1969 Biochemistry] (1).

222. Veterinary Radiology

by Singh, Jit Singh A.

Edition: 1st ed.Material type: book Book Publisher: India : CBS Publisher & Distributors P Ltd, 2012Availability: Items available for loan: Pattoki Library [Call number: 636.0896075705 Singh 13837 1st 1994 CMS] (1), UVAS Library [Call number: 636.0896075705 Singh 18748 1st 1994 CMS] (10).

223. Medical Laboratory Technology

by Sood, Ramnik.

Material type: book Book Publisher: India : Jaypee Brothers Medical Publishers; 2003Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 616.075 Sood 19599 5th 2006 Pathology] (1).

224. Robbins Basic Pathology / 5th ed

by Vinay Kumar | Ramzi S. Cotran | Stanley L. Robbins.

Edition: 5th ed.Material type: book Book Publisher: USA: Saunders; 1992Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 616.07 Robbins 13341 5th 1992 Pathology] (1).

225. Manual of Laboratory and Diagnostic Tests

by Fischbach, Frances | Dunning,Marshall Barnett.

Material type: book Book Publisher: India: LWW; 2014Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 616.075 Fischbach 30369 9th 2015 Pathology] (1).

226. Lippincott's Review of Pathology : Illustrated Interactive Q&A

by Fenderson, Bruce | Raphael, Rubin.

Edition: 1st ed.Material type: book Book Publisher: USA: Lippincott Williams & Wilkins; 2007Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 616.07076 Fenderson 19939 1st 2007 Pathology] (1). Checked out (1).

227. Making and Using Antibodies : A Practical Handbook

by Howard, Gary C | Kaser, Matthew R.

Edition: 2nd ed.Material type: book Book Publisher: USA: CRC Press, 2014Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 571.967 Howard 30365 2nd 2014 Pathology] (1).

228. Veterinary Pathology / 4th ed

by Jones, Thomas Carlyle.

Edition: 4th ed.Material type: book Book Publisher: USA : Lippncott William Wilkins, 1972Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 636.089607 Thomas 10889 1974 Pathology] (2).

229. Introduction To Veterinary Pathology / 2nd ed

by Cheville, Norman F.

Material type: book Book Publisher: India: International Book Distributing Co., Publishing Division (IBDC); 1993Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 636.089607 Cheville 14270 2nd 1993 Pathology] (3).

230. Techniques of Veterinary Radiography / 5th ed

by Morgan, Joe P | Morgan, Joe.

Edition: 5th ed.Material type: book Book Publisher: USA : Wiley-Blackwell, 1993Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 636.089607572 Morgan 16206 5th 1993 CMS] (2).

231. Clinical Laobratory methods and Diognosis

by Fankel,Sam.

Edition: 5thed.Material type: book Book Publisher: UK: Mosby Company; 1963Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 616.075 Frankel 12476 6th 1963 Pathology] (1).

232. Laboratory medicine Hematology

by Miale,John B.

Edition: 3rded.Material type: book Book Publisher: Japan: Mosby; 1967Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 616.15 Miale 9467 3rd 1967 Pathology] (1).

233. Veterinary Hematology : A Diagnostic Guide and Color Atlas

by Harvey, John W.

Edition: 1st ed.Material type: book Book Publisher: China: Elsevier; 2012Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 636.089615 Harvey 27529 1st 2012 Pathology] (1).

234. A Textbook Of Veterinary Systemic Pathology / 2nd ed

by Vegad, J.L | Swamy, Madhu.

Edition: 2nd ed.Material type: book Book; Literary form: not fiction Publisher: New Delhi: CBS, 2015Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 636.089607 Vegand 31162 2nd 2015 Pathology] (16). Checked out (12).

235. Veterinary Clinical Pathology

by Jackson, Marion L.

Edition: 1st ed.Material type: book Book Publisher: USA: Wiley-Blackwell, 2007Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 636.089607 Jackson 19186 1st 2007 Pathology] (2).

236. Outline of Veterinary Clinical Pathology

by Benjaman ,Maxine M.

Edition: 2nd ed.Material type: book Book Publisher: USA: Iowa state university press; 1965Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 636.089607 Benjaman 9374 2nd 1965 Pathology] (3).

237. Mycology and Plant Pathology

by Khan,AG.

Edition: 1st ed.Material type: book Book Publisher: India: HEC; 2006Availability: Items available for loan: Pattoki Library [Call number: 632.9 Khan 18564 1st 2006 Agriculture] (5).

238. Practical Guide to Diagnostic Parasitology

by Garcia, Lynne S.

Edition: 2nd ed.Material type: book Book Publisher: USA : ASM Press, 2009Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 616.96075 Garcia 27631 2nd 2009 Parasitology] (3). Checked out (1).

239. Textbook of Veterinary, Clinical and Laboratory Diagnosis

by Chauhan.

Edition: 2nd edition.Material type: book Book Publisher: India : Jaypee Brothers Medical Publishers; 2008Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 636.0896075 Chauhan 19858 2nd 2006 Pathology] (3).

240. Differential Diagnosis in Small Animal Medicine

by Gough, Alexander.

Edition: 1st ed.Material type: book Book Publisher: Hong Kong: Wiley-Blackwell, 2007Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 636.0896075 Gough 20431 1st 2007 Pathology] (1).

241. Clinical Pathology for the Veterinary Team

by Rosenfeld, Andrew J | Dial, Sharon M.

Edition: 1st ed.Material type: book Book Publisher: Singapore: Wiley-Blackwell; 2010Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 636.089607 Andrew 25052 1st 2010 Pathology] (1).

242. Veterinary Radiography

by BSc, Suzanne Easton MSc.

Edition: Workbook ed.Material type: book Book Publisher: UK: Butterworth-Heinemann; 2006Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 636.08960757 Easton 20064 1st 2006 Pathology] (1).

243. Introduction to General Pathology / 4th ed

by FRCP, Tim D. Spector MB BS Msc MD | FRCP, John S. Axford Bsc MD.

Edition: 4th ed.Material type: book Book Publisher: China : Churchill Livingstone, 1999Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 616.07 Spector 16436 4th 1994 Pathology] (1).

244. Anaerobic Bacteriology for the Clinical Laboratory

by Silver, Sylvia.

Material type: book Book Publisher: USA: Mosby; 1980Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 589.9 Silver 11188 1st 1980 Pathology] (1).

245. Schalm's Veterinary Hematology / 2nd ed

by Schalm, Oscar.

Edition: 2nd ed.Material type: book Book Publisher: UK: Lea& Febiger; 1965Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 636.0896075 Schalm 6639 2nd 1965 Pathology] (2).

246. Detection Of Influenza A Virus Contamination In Newcastle Disease Live Virus Vaccines And Their Pathological Effects On Visceral Organs

by Munir Hussain (2004-VA-64) | Mr. Muhammad Saeed Imran | Prof. Dr. Asim Aslam | Dr. Shafqat Fatima Rehmani.

Material type: book Book; Literary form: not fiction Publisher: 2015Dissertation note: Poultry is one of the most vibrant commercial sector which is playing a vital role to bridge the gap between supply and demand of animal protein foods to cater for its ever increasing human population 2.1 per cent annually in Pakistan (Sahota et al. 2003). Vaccination is one of the most effective way to prevent the poultry birds from the specific diseases. Disease producing microorganisms can be classified smallest to largest as viruses, bacteria, fungi, protozoa and parasites. All, except the viruses are sensitive to drugs when outbreaks occur. Vaccination is basically the introduction of a specific biological substance (antigen) into the bird to stimulate the antibodies formation or immunity to a particular disease. Usually the biological substance is avirulent the live disease organisms, which are capable to protect the bird against the particular disease by producing an immune response. Presence of these organisms (antigen) in the blood stimulates the body's defense mechanism to produce antibodies that neutralize the disease causing organisms when the bird is exposed to them (Kamboh et al. 2009). A danger of such type of live vaccines is that the live microbes can back mutate to a virulent form. While, dead vaccines that contain whole killed (usually by formalin or phenol) microbes are safe. They may contain little or no extraneous material and therefore tend to produce fewer adverse effects (Palombo and Semple 2001). The vaccines that contain dead organisms are safe with respect to residual virulence and are easy to store, since organisms are already dead. While live vaccines may possess residual virulence for the animal by reversion of avirulent organisms to fully virulent type or spread to nonvaccinated animals. Dead vaccines have very little risk of ‘alive’ contamination, while live vaccines always run the risk of contamination with unwanted organisms; for instance, outbreaks of reticuloendotheliosis in Introduction ______________________________________________________________________________ 2 chickens in Japan and Australia have been traced to contaminated Marek’s disease vaccine (Tizard 1995). Avian Influenza viruses typically produce Syndromes ranging from asymptomatic infection to respiratory disease and drops in egg production to severe, systemic disease with near 100% mortality (Olsen et al. 2002). Avian influenza initially was recognized as a highly lethal, systemic disease (i.e., highly pathogenic). HPAI was known by various name including fowl plague, fowl pest etc. Avian Influenza viruses are classified in the family orthomyxoviridae, genus influenza virus A (Garten et al. 2009). Avian influenza viruses can be categorized into four clinical groups:1) highly virulent, 2) moderately virulent, 3) mildly virulent, and 4) Avirulent (Swayne and Suarez 2000). Avian Influenza further sub type based on serologic reaction of HA and NA surface glycoproteins. Fifteen sub types of HA and nine sub types of NA are recognized (Swayne and Suarez 2000). MP AI viruses in domestic poultry produce clinical sign reflect abnormalities in the respiratory, digestive, urinary and reproductive organs (Allwright et al. 1993). To date, naturally occurring highly virulent influenza A viruses that produce acute clinical disease in chickens, turkeys and other birds of economic importance have been associated only with the H5, H7 and H9 subtypes. Influenza A viruses of subtype H9 are now considered to be wide spread in poultry and have demonstrated the ability to infect humans (Fedorko et al. 2006). To date, all outbreaks of the highly pathogenic form have been caused by influenza A viruses of the subtypes H5 and H7. The disease is transmitted horizontally by direct contact through contamination. There is little or no evidence of vertical transmission (egg-borne infection). However, eggshell surfaces can be contaminated with the virus (Potima 2007). Wild and domesticated water fowl is the major natural reservoir of influenza A viruses. Representatives of Introduction ______________________________________________________________________________ 3 all of the different subtypes of avian influenza A virus have been isolated from birds, particularly from aquatic species such as ducks, geese, and gulls (Karasin et al. 2000). Wild birds such as geese, ducks and game birds; they can be carriers of even highly pathogenic strain H5N1 shedding the virus in their feces without clinical signs of disease. Thus, the present study was carried out to examine the viral contamination (Influenza A virus) in poultry vaccines manufactured locally and imported from different countries of the world in Pakistan. The findings of the study have helped us to see the Avian Influenza A virus contamination in vaccines which are used in field conditions and also help to evaluate the purity of vaccines. The RT-PCR based technology has been described for the detection of different RNA viruses such as Newcastle disease virus etc. (Payne et al. 1981) revealed contamination of vaccines with ALVs, specifically in two Marek´s vaccines, which confirms that these agents are potential contaminants of viral vaccines applied in poultry. This assay has meant a considerable advance due to a higher sensitivity and specificity upon differentiating the subgroups compared with ELISA. It is quicker test for detection of RNA viruses than the viral isolation, which requires until 10 days and it needs detection by ELISA for the identification result. Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 2212,T] (1).

247. Toxicopathological Alterations And Tissue Residue Of Colistinsulphate (Polymixin E) In Broilers

by Muhammad Aslam (2012-VA-809) | Dr. Muhammad Raza Hameed | Prof. Dr. Muhammad Younus | Dr. Syed Ehtisham ul Haque.

Material type: book Book; Literary form: not fiction Publisher: 2014Dissertation note: Poultry industry is the 2nd largest industry in Pakistan playing important role to meet daily protein requirement with an investment of more than 200 billion rupees. It is contributing 6.1% and 10.8% share in total contribution of agriculture and livestock the national GDP, respectively. Total poultry meat production in the last year was 987 thousand tones (Economic survey of Pakistan 2013-2014). Because of high density and lack of biosecurity measures, outbreaks of infectious disease are more common and often occurs. Different antibiotics are used rational and irrational to treat and control these outbreaks. Colistin is among the most widely used antibiotic in intensive poultry farming, it is used to combat gram negative bacterial infections particularly for collibacillosis and gastrointestinal tract infections (Hussain and Khalil 2013). Colistin belongs to the polymixins group of antibiotics. It is also known as Polymixin E. Polymixins are structurally related substances consisting of a cyclic peptide with a hydrophobic tail, mainly produced from gram positive nitrogen fixing bacteria Bacillus polymyxa. Polymixins are classified into six subtypes namely polymixin A to F and among these polymixin B and E are commonly used for the treatment of gram negative infections in animal and human beings. Colistin is mixture of two subtype’s colistin A (polymixin E1) and colistin B (polymixin E2). Commercially, it is available in two forms colistin sulfate and colistimethate sodium but colistin sulfate is more stable cationic water soluble salt (Landman et al. 2000) and is easily available in markets. colistin sulphate has lipophilic and lipophobic(hydrophilic) properties, that makes it easier to interact on bacterial cell membrane by displacing counter ions in lipopolysaccharides, influencing Mg efflux that’s why it is effective against gram negative bacteria (Poole and Sheffield 2013). Polymixins also presents antipyretic activity by binding endotoxins, especially lipid A, (the active compound of lipopolysaccharide). Owing to this property it is extensively used to treat gram negative infections in livestock and poultry industries (Hanasawa et al. 1990). The use of colistin was restricted in the past due to its toxic properties mainly in nephrotoxicity. There are reports available in the literature indicating that the parental use of colistin leads to the alterations of biochemical parameters in chicken i.e. increase in glutamic oxaloacetic transaminase, catalase activity, creatinine while, adversely affect total plasma proteins (Ibrahin et al. 2011). In ostriches it leads to the development of neurotoxic signs along with histologically odema formation in pericardium, intestinal serosa and heart was observed (Landman et al. 2000). Toxic effects of colistin were also reported in humans including nephrotoxicity, increased serum creatinine during the treatment (Falagas et al. 2005). As bioavailability for oral route is minimal and it is used parentally to treat systemic infections. Parenteral route may cause toxopathological effects in birds. Other effects includes change in aspartate aminotransferase and alanine aminotransferase which indicate liver damage. Red blood cells, white blood cells, packed cell volume and hemoglobin estimation were also decreased (Saleemi et al. 2013). The incidence of nephrotoxicity is severe but less common in oral administration as polymixins absorption through gastrointestinal tract is very slow and limited, and cannot be detected in plasma concentrations at ordinary doses (Falagas and Kasiakou 2006). Instead of all these toxic effects, now a days it is frequently used for the treatment against gram negative bacterial infections (Vaara 2010). The emergence of bacterial resistance has become an important public health hazard throughout the world). Due to irrational use of antimicrobial drugs against different diseases (Naqvi et al.2013. Colistin is one of the most widely used antibiotic in poultry industry against diseases like collibacillosis, salmonellosis and clostridial infections through drinking water, feed additives and parenteral route in developing countries like Pakistan (Tanweer et al.2013). Parenteral use of colistin sulphate may leads to the deposition of residues in different tissues. The presence of its residues in edible parts may lead to the toxicity as well as development of antibacterial resistance in human. Keeping in view the potential toxic effects and other hazards relating to the extensive use of colistin in poultry birds, present study has been designed to investigate dose dependent patho-morphological alterations and tissue residue in broiler chickens. Objective 1. To study the toxicopathological effects of parenteral administration of colistin in broilers. 2.Investigation of the tissue deposition of colistin as residues and its withdrawal period. Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 2221-T] (1).

248. Outline of Clinical Diagnosis in the Goat

by Matthews, John.

Edition: 1st ed.Material type: book Book Publisher: UK: Wiley, 1991Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 636.30896075 Matthews 13375 1st 1991 Goat] (1).

249. Introductory Mycology

by Tripathi, D P.

Edition: 1st ed.Material type: book Book Publisher: India: Kalyani Publishers; 2006Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 589.2 Tripathi 20240 1st 2006 Microbiology] (2).

250. Textbook of Veterinary Diagnostic Radiology / 2nd ed

by Thrall, Donald E.

Edition: 2nd ed.Material type: book Book; Literary form: not fiction Publisher: USA: W B Saunders Co; 1994Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 636.0890757 Thrall 14945 2nd 1994 CMS] (1).



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