Effect Of Artificial Insemination On Hatchability Of Turkeys (Melegris Gallopavo) Eggs
Material type: Book ; Literary form:
Publisher: 2016 Dissertation note: This six months study on semen morphology and effect of artificial insemination on hatchability in turkeys,Meleagrisgallopavo was conducted at Avian Conservation and Research Center, Department of Wildlife and Ecology, Ravi Campus, University of Veterinary and Animal Sciences, Lahore. Mature male (n = 3) and female (n = 24) birds were selected at random and were kept separately for two weeks. The female birds were divided into three groups, each group having eight females while the male birds were housed in separate cages. The tom in cage 1 was fed with poultry feed, while the toms in cage 2 and cage 3 were fed with corn and millet, respectively. All the cages were provided with separate drinking and feeding facilities.
For the collection of semen, male birds were conditioned and trained through abdominal massage. The testes of the male birds were massaged until the semen was collected using a rubber pipette and was transferred to collection vials. The mass mobility, concentration, color, morphology, volume and live-dead ratio of the collected semen were analyzed through microscope in Postgraduate Laboratory, Department of Wildlife and Ecology, Ravi Campus, University of Veterinary and Animal Sciences, Lahore and compared for test diets.
The laid eggs were collected from each cage and the weight of male and female birds, cage number and the weight of the egg was noted on the eggs and these eggs were transferred to storage cabinet. The eggs were then transferred to the incubators and the chick weight and hatchability percentage was recorded for natural and artificially inseminated birds.
After completion of the trial, one male and one female bird were manually eviscerated; the eviscerated carcassand sensory quality attributes, for meat sample for breast and thigh piece from male and female M. gallopavowere individually boiled and were presented to twenty semi-trained personnel for analysis of meat quality characteristics viz. meat color, juiciness, flavor, tenderness and overall acceptability.
Average semen volume for thirteen consecutive fortnights from the toms from cage 1 (fed with poultry feed) was 0.17±0.01 ml while semen volume for the toms in cage 2 (fed with corn) and cage 3(fed with millet) were recorded as 0.15±0.04 ml and 0.17±0.01 ml, respectively. Average live and dead ratio for the toms in cage 1 was 85.46±1.71while live and dead ratio for the toms in cage 2 and cage 3 were recorded as 85.15±3.05 and83.54±2.50, respectively. Average semen concentration for poultry feed, corn and millet fed toms was 6.62±1.33 (109cells/ml), 5.85±2.34 (109cells/ml)and 6.00±1.47 (109cells/ml), respectively.
Average mass motility in M. gallopavo fed with poultry, corn and millet feeds was 85.46±1.71 %, 85.15±3.05 % and 83.54±2.50 %, respectively. Average sperms without acrosome were19.23±1.83 %while acrosome defects due to hooked shaped acrosome, acrosome swelling and rounded acrosome for were recorded as 17.46±2.33 %,16.00±2.89% and 16.38±2.75 %, respectively.
Average bent head defects were 6.0±1.7 %, hooked shaped heads were 4.5±1.7 %, twin heads 4.8±1.9 %, swelled head sperms were 3.6±1.6 %, knotted head,5.6±1.2 %, larger head 5.0±1.8 % and short headed sperms were 4.8±1.4 %. Average bent mid piecedefects were 5.1±2.3 %, irregular mid piece 4.8±2.8 %, partially detached mid piece 5.0±2.5 %, swelled mid piece 5.5±1.9 %, mid piece swelled near neck region 5.0±2.4 %,knotted mid piece 4.4±2.3 % and spiral mid piece were observed 5.0±2.1 %.
Average double taildefects were recorded 4.31±2.25 %,coiled tail defects 4.00±1.73 %, knotted tail 4.77±2.20 %, bend tail 3.62±1.76 %, curled tail 4.85±2.19 %, detached tail 0.15±0.04 % and short tail defects were recorded 0.17±0.01 %.
Average hatchability from the eggs collected from naturally inseminated hens was 84.38±3.43 % while the same was recorded 89.69±3.01 % for the eggs laid by the artificially inseminated hens.
Growth parameters of male and female turkeys selected for the experiment were taken and compared. Statistically significant (p<0.05) variations in body weight, snood length, beak length, wing length, wingspan, body length, body girth, tail length, shank length, tarsus length were recorded between male and female Meleagrisgallopavo.
Positive correlation existed between body weight of the female with weight, length and width of the laid eggs. The weight of the eggs showed positively significant correlation with the length of the eggs.
The carcass characteristics viz. live body weight, thigh weight, leg piece weight, heart weight, liver weight, skull weight, gizzard weight, kidney weight, stomach weight, feather weight, lung weight, neck weight, wings weight, chest with wings weight, chest without wings weight were recorded heavier in male turkeys as compared to the females.
The chest and thigh pieces of male and female turkeys were analyzed for meat sensory quality attributes viz. color, flavour, juiciness, tenderness, oiliness and overall acceptability. Statistically significant (p<0.05) variations in color and overall acceptability in thigh and chest pieces were recorded for both the sexes.
It can be concluded from the present study that artificial insemination in turkeys is more fruitful than natural mating and influences hatchability of eggs.
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Assessment Of Metalic Loads In Water Sediments And Fish Sampled From River Ravi, Pakistan With Study On Their Mitigation Methods
Material type: Book ; Literary form:
Publisher: 2016 Dissertation note: Present study on the detection of heavy metals in water, sediments and fish, Cirrhinus mrigala
samples was conducted at river Ravi along with its three different sights (Ravi Siphon, Saggian
Bridge and Balloki Headworks). The stations were further divided into two sub-stations viz. (i)
Upstream and (ii) Downstream. Water and sediment samples were collected from three different
points from the sub-stations.
Water, sediment and fish samples were collected on monthly basis from November, 2015
through February, 2016. Average chromium concentrations in water samples from Baloki
Headworks during November, December, January and February were 0.33±0.17 mgL-1,
0.18±0.03 mgL-1, 0.17±0.06 mgL-1 and 0.17±0.06 mgL-1, respectively. Similarly, average
chromium concentrations from November, 2015 through February, 2016 from Saggian Bridge
was recorded 0.27±0.13 mgL-1, 0.18±0.04 mgL-1, 0.22±0.06 mgL-1 and 0.18±0.10 mgL-1,
respectively. From Shahdera bridge, the chromium concentrations of 0.28±0.12 mgL-1,
0.22±0.04 mgL-1, 0.23±0.06 mgL-1 and 0.16±0.07 mgL-1 were recorded during November,
December, January and February, respectively. Over all mean Cr concentrations in water
samples from Balloki Headworks, Saggian Bridge and Shahdera Bridge from November, 2015
through February, 2016 were recorded as 0.30±0.14 mgL-1, 0.19±0.04 mgL-1, 0.21±0.06 mgL-1
and 0.17±0.08 mgL-1, respectively.
During monthly surveys, average Ni concentrations in water samples collected from Baloki
Headworks were recorded 0.24±0.11 mgL-1, 0.27±0.15 mgL-1, 0.22±0.13 mgL-1 and 0.21±0.10
mgL-1 during November, December, 2015 and January and February, 2016, respectively. Water
samples from Saggian Bridge had Ni concentrations of 0.23±0.14 mgL-1 during November,
2015, 0.25±0.16 mgL-1 during December, 2015, 0.23±0.18 mgL-1 January, 2016 and 0.20±0.16
mgL-1 during February, 2016. Water samples from Shahdera Bridge contained Ni concentrations
of 0.27±0.14 mgL-1, 0.28±0.17 mgL-1, 0.26±0.16 mgL-1 and 0.20±0.16 mgL-1, respectively from
November, 2015 through February, 2016, respectively.
Average Pb concentrations in water samples from Baloki Headworks from November, 2015
through February, 2016 were recorded 0.14±0.12 mgL-1, 0.08±0.04 mgL-1, 0.06±0.05 mgL-1 and
0.16±0.06 mgL-1, respectively. Similarly, average Pb concentrations from Saggian Bridge
sampling stations were recorded 0.23±0.14 mgL-1, 0.25±0.16 mgL-1, 0.23±0.18 mgL-1 and
0.20±0.16 mgL-1, during November, December, January and February, respectively. The Pb
concentrations, from Shahdera Bridge water samples from November, December, January and
February were recorded 0.27±0.14 mgL-1, 0.28±0.17 mgL-1, 0.26±0.16 mgL-1 and 0.20±0.16
Average Cr concentrations during the study period in sediment samples from Balloki
Headworks, Saggian Bridge and the Shahdara Bridge were recorded 0.27 mgL-1, 0.22 mgL-1 and
0.29 mgL-1, respectively. Similarly, average Ni concentrations from Balloki Headworks, Saggian
Bridge and Shahdara Bridge were recorded 0.13 mgL-1, 0.132 mgL-1 and the 0.13 mgL-1,
respectively. Average Pb concentrations from Balloki Headworks were recorded 0.20 mgL-1,
from Saggian Bridge 0.22 mgL-1 while it was noted 0.19 mgL-1 from Shahdara Bridge.
During the month of November, 2015 higher Cr concentrations were recorded from muscle as
compare to the other body organs. Similarly, liver showed maximum Pb accumulation while
higher Ni concentrations were observed from liver and muscles. During December, 2015,
maximum Cr concentration was recorded in gills and skin while higher Pb concentrations were
recorded from the liver. Similarly, Ni concentration was higher in liver as compared to the other
body organs. During January, 2016 maximum Cr concentration was recorded from liver while Pb
and Ni concentrations were recorded maximum from skin of the Cirrhinus mrigala. During
February, higher Cr, Pb and Ni concentrations were recorded from liver as compare to all the
other fish organs.
Statistically significant variations in metal ion absorption were recorded between different
sampling stations. Significantly higher (p<0.05) Ni concentrations were absorbed by alkali
treated banana peels from the water samples collected from all the three sampling stations.
Similarly, higher Cr concentrations were absorbed through the alkali treated orange peels from
Statistically significant (p<0.05) variations in absorption of heavy metals from water samples
was recorded between the sampling stations. Among all the three heavy metals, significantly
lower Pb concentrations were absorbed through acid treated banana and orange peels from all the
three sampling stations.
Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [ Call number: 2487-T] (1).
Comparative Studies On Egg Quality, Hematology And Reproductive Traits In Ring Necked And Green Pheasants In Captivity
Material type: Book ; Literary form:
Publisher: 2016 Dissertation note: Present study was planned to compare egg quality, hematology and reproductive traits in ring necked and green pheasants in captivity. Day-old chicks of both the pheasant species Phasianuscolchicusand P.versicolorwere tagged individually and maintained initially in a room for a period of 4 weeks. The chicks were then transferred to cages provided with separate feeding and drinking facilities to the individual bird. The birds were kept until the 16 weeks of life. The sex of the chicks was predicted at early stages by observing feathers and plumage and was confirmed later at adult ages.
Eggs (n = 100) of both the pheasant species i.e. Phasianuscolchicusand P.versicolorwere collected. Each egg was weighed and its length and breadth was taken. These eggs were divided into three weight groups and were classified as light, medium and heavy category. The length and breadth of each collected egg was taken and surface area, egg volume and shape index were calculated.The egg quality test was performed on freshly collected eggs in the egg quality testing laboratory periodically. The eggs were weighed carefully on electronic digital balance. The albumen and yolk height and width, yolk index, albumen and yolk pH and Haugh unit score were recorded.
During present study, chick weight in ring necked pheasants Phasianuscolchicusand green pheasant P. versicolorfrom day old chick to 6-month stage varied significantly. The average body weight in day old chick weight ranged from20.6±1.35g to 24.50±1.29g.Increase in chick weight in male ring necked pheasants was 24.50±1.29g to 1235.25±101.81g. Similarly increase in female ring necked pheasant was 22.47±1.79gto 1004.75±52.94g.The chick average weight was almost double during 2nd week. Body length was maximum in male green pheasant 5.00±0.81cm during 1st week. However significant (p<0.05) increase in body weight was observed during 1st to 4thweek.Higher increase in average body weight was observed during 6thweek. Significantly (p<0.05) increase in wing length and wing span was also recorded during 6th week. During 7thweek, non-significant differences in body weight were observed between male and female P. colchicus.Overall, minimum increase in chick weight was observed during 21st,22nd and 23rd week and maximum during 6th,7th and 8th week of chick age. The chick weight at hatching in light, medium and heavy egg groups were determined as 19.5g, 21.8g and 22.6g, respectively.
Lowest increase in chick body weight in green pheasants ranged from 20.6±1.35g during 1st week to 837.00±49.45g during 24thweek of its growth. During present study it was determined that hatched chick weight increases with increase in egg weight. After completion of the incubation, the infertile egg percentage was 48% in ring necked pheasant and 42% in green pheasant. Increase in wing length varied significantly in male and female and between both species from day old chick to 6-month stage. The lowest increase in chick’s wing length ranged from 5.37±1.10cm to 33.75±1.70cm in female P. versicolor. Overall minimum increase in wing length was observed during 12thweek and maximum during 2nd,3rd and 6th week of chick age.
During present study, significant differences in various hematological parameters were recorded during different ages of pheasants. RBCs values in P.cholchicusincreased with age, reached a maximum point then decreased. While in P. versicolorthe values decreasedat juvenile stage and then increased to young ages and decreased. However, maximum 4.04±0.6 values for RBCs were recorded in P. versicolorduring 3rd month. In young age,significant (p<0.05) differences in blood biochemical profile of both the pheasant species were observed.
Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [ Call number: 2674-T] (1).
Construction Of Cellulolytic And Sulfate-Reducing Bacterial Consortium For Enhancing Efficiency Of Cellulose-Linked Bioremedial Processes
Material type: Book ; Literary form:
Publisher: 2016 Dissertation note:
Metallic and non-metallic pollutants originating from different industries are not treated before their final discharge into the environment. Consequently, environment is being degraded very rapidly and posing serious threats to all forms of life. For remediation of the said pollutants, a number of physico-chemical treatment methods have been practiced but couldn’t found suitable due to environmentally non-compatible natures and generation of secondary pollutants.
The present study was, therefore, designed to treat artificially prepared sulfate-rich wastewater jointly with the help of cellulolytic and sulfate-reducing bacterial species while using a variety of agro-industrial wastes as cost-effective growth substrates. In order to achieve the goal, the two bacterial species were mixed in different proportions to achieve significant results of sulfate reduction.
Statistical analysis revealed that rice straw appeared as the most efficient carbon source among all the agricultural wastes because it reduced about 96% of the total added sulfate in a 60-day trial of anaerobic incubation. And among all the industrial wastes, animal manure appearedasthe most efficient carbon source, it could reduce 93% of sulfate. Mixture of industrial and agricultural waste reduced about 90% of the sulfate. Findings of this project will be helpful in developing an economical and environmental friendly bio-remedial technique for the treatment of metallic and non-metallic wastes simultaneously which ultimately convert the industrial wastewaters into harmless and suitable discharge to aquatic environment.
Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [ Call number: 2675-T] (1).