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1. Rapid Review, ECG Interpretation in Small Animal Practice

by Oyama, Mark A.

Edition: 1st ed.Material type: book Book; Literary form: not fiction Publisher: USA: CRC Press; 2014Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 636.08961 Oyama 31003 1st 2014 CMS] (1).

2. Comparative Efficacy Of Advanced Surgical Hemostats In The Canine Hepatotomy

by Syed Waseem Abbas Ali Shah (2009-VA-168) | Dr. Hamid Akbar | Prof. Dr. M.Arif Khan | Dr. Muti -ur- Rehman Khan.

Material type: book Book; Literary form: not fiction Publisher: 2016Dissertation note: The liver is a very complex and largest organ of the body. It has role in body metabolism, filtration of blood, synthesis of plasma protein, hormone production, and it is most vital organ of body. The liver has an excellent ability to recover from injury and regenerate new tissues. Liver is a highly vascularized organ and chances of bleeding are very high in hepatic surgeries. Liver is directly supplied by hepatic artery and drained by portal vein. We often come across certain problems in liver which require surgery. When an incision is given in liver there is a high risk of bleeding. In severe cases animal can lead to death due to hypovolemic shock. In this study we used latest and most advanced hemostatic agents by using Surgicel Snow and Surgicel Fibrillar to control bleeding during hepatotomy in dogs. These hemostats are affordable, safe, reliable and convenient. Considering the significance of hemostasis in surgical interventions, this project was designed to compare the advance hemostatic agents e.g. Surgicel Snow, Surgicel Fibrillar and sterile Surgical Gauzes. This study helped us to identify the best method that can be used for future surgical interventions in dogs, with the aim to minimize surgical bleeding in liver surgeries to accentuate early recovery. Conclusion On the basis of findings of this study: it was concluded Surgicel Snow is best hemostat than Surgical Fibrillar. It is the best hemostat with minimum blood loss and least effects on liver function. Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 2658-T] (1).

3. Effect Of Unilateral And Bilateral Thyroidectomy On Hormonal And Biochemical Parameters In Dogs

by Mehmood Ur Rehman (2009-VA-177) | Dr. Hamid Akbar | Prof. Dr.M.Arif Khan | Dr. Muti ur Rehman Khan.

Material type: book Book; Literary form: not fiction Publisher: 2016Dissertation note: Thyroid gland is one of the most important endocrine gland of animal body. T3 and T4 are two major hormones secreted by thyroid gland. These hormones have a major role in metabolism of cells and organs. In normal thyroid both these hormones have anabolic effect. Thyroid tumors account for 1.2-3.8 % of all types of tumors in dogs. Unilateral, bilateral or subtotal thyroidectomies are practiced to remove benign or malignant thyroid carcinomas. The present study was conducted on 12 mongrel dogs. These dogs were rendered to 3 groups with 4 dogs in each group. One group acted as control, in which no surgery was performed, second group underwent unilateral removal of thyroid gland while the third group underwent bilateral removal of thyroid gland. Free thyroxine, thyroid stimulating hormone level, calcium, W.B.Cs, R.B.Cs and haemoglobin concentration were monitored for 21 days post-operatively. The data was expressed as mean and standard deviation. Results of the study were analysed by 2 samples T-test, one way ANOVA using multiple comparison test on SPSS version 16.0. Based on these results it was concluded that bilateral thyroidectomy was effective in relieving hyperthyroidism but there is a need to immediately initiate levothyroxine therapy. Free T4 level drops near to zero by day 21 and TSH level rises by many folds. On the other hand, in unilateral procedure Free T4 level remain in normal range and 75% of dogs require no levothyroxine therapy. Level of calcium in unilateral and bilateral thyroid removal remains within normal range provided parathyroid glands are preserved properly. Haemoglobin concentration in both the procedures is reduced significantly postoperatively. There is a need to monitor blood parameters postoperatively. Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 2657-T] (1).

4. Comparative Efficacy Of Albendazole, Pyrantel Pamoate, Ajwain And Kamala Against Toxocara Vitulorum Infestation In Bovine Calves

by Muhammad Zahid IQbal (2007-VA-72) | Prof. Dr. Aneela Zameer Durrani | Dr. Muhammad Hassan Saleem | Dr. Arshad Javid.

Material type: book Book; Literary form: not fiction Publisher: 2016Dissertation note: Toxocara vitulorum is a round worm of cattle and buffalo that is common in tropical and subtropical area.Toxocara vitulorum from infected cattle and buffalo transmitted to calves via colostrum and placenta while its transmission was very less though feed and water. Toxocara vitulorum infestation was very high in calves and it caused mortalities in calve ages between 1 to 3 months, while infestation was less in high age groups.Mortality in cattle and buffalo calves reached up to 50% andcause poor growth, colic, constipation, diarrhea, anorexia and ketosis in calves. These worms could cause intestinal strangulation, holes and blockage in intestines of calves. Resent study was designed to check the prevalence and therapeutic trial of Toxocara vitulorum in cow and buffalo calves. These results were very helpful for the treatment of the Toxocara vitulorum that was a major endo-parasite in the cows and buffalo calves. Fecal samples from 300 cows and buffalo were examined under the compound microscope for ova. Positive cow and buffalo calves were divided in five groups and different treatments were given to each group. Egg per Gram (EPG) counted at day 7and 14th post-treatment. Overall prevalence Toxocara vitulorum was 49% in cow calves and 59% in buffalo calves. Prevalence was higher in 1-3 month age group calves (78% in cow calves & 91% in buffalo calves) while prevalence was higher in female calves (52% in cow and 61% in buffalo calves) as compare to male calves (44% in cow and 55% in buffalo calves). Prevalence was higher in the summer stress months. The efficacy of the Albendazole was lowest in both cows and buffalo calves. The efficacy of Albendazole in cow was 25% and 31% at day 7th and 14th, respectively while in buffalo calves the efficacy of Albendazole was 24% and 31% at 7th and 14th days of post treatment, respectively. The efficacy of Pyrantel pamoate was 98% and 100 % in cow calves at day 7th and 14th, respectively while in buffalo calves the efficacy of Pyrantel pamoate was 81% and 100% at day 7th and 14th, respectively. The efficacy of Ajwain in cow calves was 59% and 69% at day 7th and 14th, respectively while in buffalo calves it was 58% and 69% at day 7th and 14th, respectively. The efficacy of Kamala in cow calves was 33% and 39% at day 7th and 14th day of post-treatment, respectively and buffalo calves the efficacy was 34% and 42% at day 7th and 14th of post-treatment. It is concluded from the present study that both in cow and buffalo calves, Toxocara vitulorum is most prevalent parasitic infestation. This parasite is more prevalent in female calves, 1-6 months of age and during hot and humid season in both cows and buffaloes. Pyrantel pamoate is proved to be better than Ajwain but Albendazole and Kamala was not justified good dewormer against Toxocariasis in bovine calves. . Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 2656-T] (1).

5. Principles and Practice of Veterinary Technology / 4th ed.

by Sirois, Margi.

Edition: 4th ed. Material type: book Book; Literary form: not fiction Publisher: China: Elsevier; 2017Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 636.089 Sirois 31908 4th 2017 CMS] (1).

6. Use Of Xylazine And Detomidine Alone And With Ketamine Anesthesia For Caponization In Pigeons

by Ahtzaz Haider (2009-VA-413) | Prof. Dr. M.Arif Khan | Dr. Hamid Akbar | Dr. Muti -ur- Rehman Khan.

Material type: book Book; Literary form: not fiction Publisher: 2016Dissertation note: For this study, (16) sixteen pigeons were selected, the birds were allocated into four treatment groups i.e. Group A, Group B, Group C and Group D, with 4 birds each. In group A, after surgical preparation, birds were given xylazine injection intramuscularly at dose rate of 16mg per kg body weight. In group B, birds were given detomidine injection intramuscularly at dose rate of 1.4mg per kg body weight. In group C, birds were given ketamine-xylazine injection intramuscularly at the dose rate of 30mg and 8mg per kg body weight respectively. In group D, birds were given ketamine-detomidine injection with the dose rate of 30mg and 0.7mg per kg body weight respectively. While regularly checking reflexes after short intervals of time. After achieving of the surgical stage of anesthesia, the surgical operation was beginning. The data was analyzed by One Way ANOVA followed by multiple comparison tests using Statistical Package for Social Science (SPSS) version 20.0. The purpose of designed research was to compare the efficacy of anaesthesia alone and with the combination of the other anaesthesia during the surgery of the pigeons. Different parameters were used to check the efficiency of the anaesthesia. All birds were thoroughly examined to rule out any other anomaly before study. The surgery was performed at Surgery Section, Department of CMS, UVAS, Lahore for 3 months’ duration (including adaptation and postoperative period). Conclusion The verdict based explanations for better and reliable anaesthetic combination used in pigeons and to evaluate safe anaesthetic combination and to find ideal pre anaesthetic with minimum effects. We concluded that detomidine alone can be used just for non-surgical 40 procedures because it produces the light sedation but superficial analgesia with smooth induction and recovery but xylazine can also be used if detomidine is not available. Xylazine produces superficial analgesia and light sedation but for the short time comparatively. For major and minor surgeries both combinations of ketamine i.e. (K-Xp) and (K-Dp) are more reliable and safe. Both cocktails produce the deep analgesia and anaesthesia as well, with rapid and smooth induction and recovery. Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 2684-T] (1).

7. Molecular Identification And Treatment Of Theileriosis In Small Ruminants Of Northern Balochistan

by Mir Ahmad Khan (2005-VA-214) | Prof. Dr. Muhammad Arif Khan | Prof. Dr. Muhammad Azam Kakar | Prof. Dr. Muhammad Sarwar Khan | Prof. Dr. Aftab Ahmad Anjum.

Material type: book Book; Literary form: not fiction Publisher: 2016Dissertation note: The present study was conducted to investigate the prevalence of Ovine and Caprine Theileriosis in Northern Highlands and Suleiman Mountain Region of Balochistan, Six thickly populated /union councils were included in the study area. Samples were collected from 2870 animals Sheep (n= 2200) and Goats (n= 670) for screening of the disease. The samples were collected and processed in Regional Disease Investigation Laboratories, Department of Livestock and Dairy Development Balochistan, T.B. Sanatorium Hospital Quetta and Center for Vaccinology, Bacteriology, The University of Balochistan, Quetta and Medicine Laboratory, Department of Clinical Medicine and Surgery, The University of Veterinary and Animal Sciences, Lahore. Data revealed 20.82% disease in sheep and 9.70%. in goats. The regional prevalence of theileriosis revealed 19.19% in Northern Highlands and 17.48% in Suleiman Mountain Region Chi-square analysis showed significant difference in the prevalence of disease in sheep and goats. The regional difference was not significantly different between two regions of Northern Balochistan. The comparison among union councils showed significant difference being highest prevalence (22.71%) in union council Kuchlak district Quetta followed by Aghberg (18.42%) and Hanna Urak (15.53%) in Northern highlands and Union Council Zangiwal Jogezai (19.83%) followed by Kach Amaqzai (16.30%) and Sinjavi (15.92%) in SMR. The disease prevalence when compared among 4 different breeds of sheep showed significant difference being highest in Karakul breed (34.62%) followed by Shinwari (24.54%), Bibrik (19.36%) and Harnai (16.40%). The highest prevalence of theileriosis in sheep and goats were observed in Summer season (30.30%) followed by Autumn 19.07%, Spring 14.52% and Winter SUMMERY 105 7.61%. Chi-square analysis of the data showed significant difference in the prevalence of the disease in different seasons of the year. The disease was also compared in three age groups of sheep and goats. The data showed 22.17% disease in adult animal group above 2 years of age followed by 15.85% in animals between 1-2 year and 7.99% in age group below one year. Statistically significant difference in all age groups was found in chi-square analysis. The sex wise prevalence of theileriosis revealed non-significant difference between male and female sheep and goats. Two different species of Theileria were reported by many researchers causing disease in sheep and goats. The PCR was carried out for the identification of Theileria species affecting sheep and goats in Balochistan. Two species specific sets of primers were designed using 18SRNA gene sequence to identify these two species of Theileria and the distribution among the two species of animals. The genomic DNA of two species of parasite was successfully amplified in positive samples. The assay was proved successful and we recommend for the prevalence surveys for theileriosis in sheep and goats. The data showed that the prevalence of T. lestoquardi was 73.80% in sheep and 69.23% was in goats in the target regions. It was found the T. lestoquardi was highly prevalent and causing theileriosis in small ruminants. The prevalence of T. ovis was 26.19% in sheep and 30.76% in goats respectively in the investigated animals; it was less than T. lestoquardi. It was concluded that both Theileria species were identified and found circulating in small ruminants in the target region of Balochistan. In the study we determined that PCR method based on 18S RNA gene could detect and differentiate T. ovis and T. lestoquardi. Effect of theileriosis in sheep and goats on hemeto-biochemical parameters were studied included RBCs, Hb%, PCV, Platelets, WBCs, MCV, MCHC, AST, ALT, BUN, Bilirubin and Creatinine. Blood samples were collected from Theileria confirmed, diseased animals (sheep and SUMMERY 106 goats) along with equal number of healthy animals for comparison. In sheep RBCs, Hb%, PCV, WBCs, MCHC, AST, ALT and Creatinine values showed significant difference when compared with values of healthy animals. Significant (p<0.05) reduction was noted in measurement of RBCs, Hb%, PCV and MCHC whereas, AST, ALT and Creatinine showed significant increase in diseased animals. In goats affected with theileriosis showed significant decrease in RBCs count and Hb%. The values for AST, ALT and Creatinine were found significantly increased in diseased animals when compared with healthy control group of equal number of animals. In present study it was noted that Butalex intra muscularly at the rate of 2.5 mg/kg body weight is quite effective in eliminating the Theileria parasite from the blood of sheep and goats and treatment at the day 10 post treatment. Imizol was also found an effective treatment of theileriosis but less effective than Butalex. Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 2690-T] (1).

8. A Clinico-Biochemical Study On Different Pre-Anesthetic Drugs With Propofol For Neutering In Dogs

by Saba Siddique | Dr. Sadaf Aslam | Prof. Dr.M.Arif Khan | Dr. Raheela Akhtar.

Material type: book Book; Literary form: not fiction Publisher: 2016Dissertation note: The present research project was designed to study the effect of three routinely used pre anaesthetic (alpha-2 adrenergic agonists) drugs xylazine (xylaz; 20 mg/ml, farvet, Holland) and medetomidine (doiter, 1 mg/ml ; Orion pharma, finland), diazepam(Valium 0.25 mg/kg) and propofol (pofol, 10 mg/ml ;Dongkook pharma, korea) anaesthesia in male dogs and castration surgery was performed using pre scrotal approach. The effect of these sedative and anaesthetic agents was studied at physical (temperature, pulse, and respiration), sedative (palpebral effect), analgesic (tail pinch, toe pinch reflex), liver function (ALT, AST, and ALP), renal functions (serum creatinine, BUN) and haematological (RBC, WBC, Hb) parameters. A total number of twelve (12) dogs (mix breed) clinical cases were selected. These dogs were subjected into three groups (A, B , C) each comprising four (4) dogs. Different drugs combination was administered in each group of dogs. Three different drug combinations are; Group A .Xylazine-Propofol Group B. Diazepam-Propofol Group C. Medetomidine-Propofol Blood samples were taken at four different intervals like 0 minutes, 30 minutes, 60 minutes and after 24 hours in EDTA coated vacutainer for studying haematological parameters and in lithium heparin vacutainer for evaluating biochemical parameters. Results revealed that both sedative and anaesthetic agents produce slight non-significant changes in liver enzymes but in case of renal function test, medetomidine-propofol produce significant Summary 42 changes in serum creatinine and xylazine-propofol, and diazepam-propofol produce significant changes in the values of blood urea nitrogen. Coming towards haematology, white blood cells increase significantly in diazepam-propofol receiving group. The results of the present research study were mostly similar with the findings of other scientists. The results of present project were analysed by ANOVA followed by Turkey honestly significant difference (HSD) test. Conclusion The result of present project will prove fruitful for veterinary practioners for selectin anaesthesia protocol for patients suffering from hepatitis or other liver, renal and haematological problems and would be productive to solve the problems of anaesthetists who are actively engaged in canine practice all over the world. On the basis of findings of this study it is concluded that medetomidine-propofol combination gives better results. Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 2689-T] (1).

9. Comparative Efficacy Of Xylocaine Hcl And Bupivacaine Hcl For Ophthalmic Anesthesia In Horses

by Muhammad Asad Islam (2012-VA-576) | Dr. Sadaf Aslam | Prof. Dr. Muhammad Arif Khan | Prof. Dr. Muhammad Sarwar Khan.

Material type: book Book; Literary form: not fiction Publisher: 2015Dissertation note: Ophthalmic procedures can be performed by many clinicians in horses using local nerve blocks by using local anaesthetics for short duration of action for completion of these procedures. These surgical procedures may involve exclusion of third eyelid, suturing of laceration around eye orbit and tumor which can be caused due to any reason with in time period of thirty minutes. Inner chamber centesis can be done easily by using the above mentioned technique in standing horse. There are numerous benefits of doing standing surgical methods and avoiding general anaesthesia in horses. As hospitalizing horse may get other infectious diseases from surroundings like colitis and laminitis and also injured it when recovering from general anaesthesia. On the other hand standing surgical procedure reduced such complication by using local anaesthetic for short duration. Bupivacaine Hcl gave an ideal local eye anaesthesia compare to xylocaine Hcl for standing surgical procedures in horses. The present study was accomplished to assess the effectiveness of two local eye anaesthetics; xylocaine Hcl and bupivacaine Hcl by two different techniques i.e. retrobulbar technique and auriculopalpebral technique in horses. A total of 12 horses from indoor clinic and S.P.C.A were used in this study. These horses were subjected to two groups’ i.e. Group A and B. Each of these groups was further subdivided into two subgroups i.e. Group AI, AII and BI, BII respectively. SUMMARY 42 Horses in group A were administered xylocaine Hcl through auriculopalpebral technique and retrobulbar technique. While horses of subgroup AI were given xylocaine Hcl by auriculopalpebral technique and horses in subgroup AII were injected xylocaine Hcl by retrobulbar technique. Likewise horses in subgroup BI were given bupivacaine Hcl by auriculopalpebral technique, while those of subgroup BII were given bupivacaine Hcl through retrobulbar technique. The efficacy of above mentioned local anaesthetics was compared on the basis of Pattern of induction, Duration of anaesthesia and Recovery Pattern. Presence or absence of reflexes was also noted i.e. Pupillary Light Reflex and Blink reflex. The data were analyzed through one way analysis of variance (ANOVA). The difference in group’s means was determined by Least Significant Difference (LSD) post-hoc test. A probability level of (P<0.05) was considered as statistically significantly difference. The statistical analysis was performed using statistical package for social science (SPSS) version16. Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 2679-T] (1).

10. Infection Rate And Chemotherapy Of Haemonchus Contortus In Mouflon Sheep

by Majeed Ul Zafar Jaidi (2013-VA-890) | Dr. Waseem Yaqub | Dr. Muhammad Sarwar Khan | Dr. Zia Ullah.

Material type: book Book; Literary form: not fiction Publisher: 2015Dissertation note: Mouflon sheep have lovely brown colored short haired coat. Typically it is not the wild animal found in Pakistan but a little population of Mouflon sheep is present in Pakistan in the captive vicinities like private zoo and wild life parks .Their population is countable, 150-200 Mouflon sheep are present. They can be parasitized by many nematodes, one of the most important is Haemonchuscontortus. Adult Haemonchuscontortus found in the abomasum of the animal.Female parasite can lay up to 1500 eggs in a day in mid-Summer July- August and those eggs produce the infective stage L3, which after infestation causes heavy blood loss resulting anemia, weight loss, emaciation and sudden death in acute cases compromising the production and propagation losses in Mouflon sheep. The Mouflon sheep of various private and public Zoo and Wild Life Parks located in area of District Lahore were included in this study. A total of 100 Mouflon sheep were examined coprologically for the presence of Haemonchuscontortus for the present study. It is difficult to restrain the wild animal, a Dort was used for this purpose keeping in view of this problem about 3 gram of sample were collected early in the morning from the freshly passed feces, for this purpose disposable gloves was used on hands,the samples were collected carefully to avoid soil contamination the sample was placed in self-sealing polythene bags and were transferred to the laboratory in ice pack cooler. The samples were stored in refrigerator at 4°C till analysis. The fecal samples were analyzed for Haemonchuscontortus eggs using direct smear method and floatation technique, while the egg count were performed by McMaster technique at medicine Laboratory University of Veterinary Animal Sciences Lahore the identification of Haemonchuscontortus was made by using standard procedures. Infection rate was calculated by using formula Infection rate (%) = No. of infected animals (n)/ total No. of sampled animals (N) × 100 The infection rates were calculated in this study and total Thirty (33) animals were found positive after qualitative and quantitative analysis of fecal samples. The infection rate of Haemonchuscontortus in Mouflon sheep were calculated out of sampled animals which resulted the significant (P < 0.05) infection rate in females as well as in male Mouflon sheep. The infection rate in female Mouflon sheep was 33.82 % and in males it was 31.25 % in males out of positive animals. Similarly The infection rate of H. contortus in Lahore Zoo, Safari Park Lahore and Jallo Park was 29.72, 32.50, 39.13 respectively, and the infection rate of H. contortus in age group of 1-3, 4-6, 7-9 was 39.58, 27.27, 26.31 respectively. For therapeutic trails, a total of 30 animals positive for nematodes having egg per gram between 1000---2000 were divided into 3 groups A, B, and C each group were comprised of 10 animals. The animal of group A was treated with Albendazole at the dose rate of 10 mg per kg of body weight PO; group B was treated with Levamisole at the rate of 7.5 mg per kg of body weight PO whereas the group C was treated with Pyrentelpamoate at the dose rate of 25 gram PO.The fecal sample of all groups were collected at day 0 (pre-treatment) and then at 3rd day 5th, 7th and 12th (post-treatment). The efficacies of these drugs were assessed on the bases of reduction in egg per gram and calculated as per formula of (Iqbal at al. 2013). Drug efficacy = {(pre-treatment EPG - post-treatment EPG / pre - treatment EPG)} × 100 The chemotherapy of Haemonchuscontortusin Mouflon Sheep were studied in different 3 treatment groups. Microscopically screened out Haemonchuscontortus positive Mouflon sheep were divided in Three (3) treatment groups T 1, T 2 and T 3 and each group contained Ten (10) positive animals. Faecal samples of animals were examined at day 0 pre-treatment and at days 3, 5, 7 and 12 post treatment. All the treatment groups showed a significant reduction (P < 0.05) in eggs per gram (EPG) at 3rd, 5th, 7th and 12th days after treatment. The maximum reduction in EPG %age was 96.1 % showed by T 1 group treated with single dose of Albendazole at 10 mg/kg body weight at day 7 post treatment while the groups T 2 and T 3 showed maximum reduction of 95.52 % and 93.26 % at day 12th post treatment. Hence Albendazole was the best group found against Haemonchuscontortus at day 7 post treatment among the other two groups of drug used. Data on Infection rate of Haemonchuscontortus was estimated by Pearson’s chi-square test. For significance whereas data on chemotherapy was analyzed by one way analysis of variance (ANOVA) using SPSS, P< 0.05 were considered significant. Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 2677-T] (1).

11. Comparative Efficacy Of Ozone And Gentamicin Sulphate On Uterine Infections In Crossbred Dairy Cows

by Muhammad Usman Raza (2014-VA-914) | Prof. Dr. Aneela Zameer Durrani | Mr. Ghazzanffar Ali Chishti | Dr. Muti ur Rehman.

Material type: book Book; Literary form: not fiction Publisher: 2016Dissertation note: Efficient fertility of lactating dairy cows has always been the doorstep to economically profitable dairy farming. It is mostly agreed that uterine diseases in the cow after parturition have a negative effect on overall reproductive performance. Ozone which is assumed as a very potent oxidant, is one among these alternative techniques. The advantage of using ozone rather than antibiotics is in lowering the incidence of bacterial resistance in consumers of foodstuffs of animal origin, and other advantage is that ozone has no withdrawal period for milk, meat and other products. Ozone breaks through the microorganism (bacteria and germs) cell membrane, and also destroys viruses by diffusing through the protein coat in the nucleic acid core, resulting in damage of the viral nucleic acid. The study was conducted on 50 animals which were randomly divided in two groups. Both groups were having 25, 25 animals. Group A received Ozone while group B received gentamicin sulphate intra uterine. Uterine lavage was taken twice, once before applying treatment and second after 8 hours of applying treatment. Samples were cultured for bacteriology to detect E.coli, F. necrophorum, A. pyogenes and St. pyogenes. Number of positive cases in Group A was 12, 9, 10 and 7 for E. coli, F. necrophorum, A. pyogenes and St. pyogenes respectively. Number of positive cases in Group B was 10, 8, 11 and 8 for E. coli, F. necrophorum, A. pyogenes and St. pyogenes respectively. After applying certain biochemical tests for each bacteria, bacteria was confirmed. Difference of the colony forming units of before and after applying treatments for each bacterium in both groups was calculated. This difference was compared with difference of the colony forming units for same bacteria of other group by using Independent 2 samples T-test with the help of Statistical Packages for Social Sciences (SPSS Inc.) for the windows Version 13.3 (Chicago IL, USA). Results were interpreted on the basis of level of significance. Differences among the groups were considered significant at P < 0.05. E. coli, F.necrophorum and St. pyogenes were highly significant as the P value for group differences was less than 0.05. Group differences among S.pyogenes showed no significance as the P>0.05. The results showed that ozone is better in efficacy as compared to gentamicin sulphate on uterine infections in cows. Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 2685-T] (1).

12. Molecular Identification And Treatment Of Theileriosis In Small Ruminants Of Northern Balochistan

by Mir Ahmad Khan (2005-VA-214) | Prof. Dr. Muhammad Arif Khan | Prof. Dr. Muhammad Azam Kakar | Prof. Dr. Muhammad Sarwar Khan | Prof. Dr. Aftab Ahmad Anjum.

Material type: book Book; Literary form: not fiction Publisher: 2016Dissertation note: The present study was conducted to investigate the prevalence of Ovine and Caprine Theileriosis in Northern Highlands and Suleiman Mountain Region of Balochistan, Six thickly populated /union councils were included in the study area. Samples were collected from 2870 animals Sheep (n= 2200) and Goats (n= 670) for screening of the disease. The samples were collected and processed in Regional Disease Investigation Laboratories, Department of Livestock and Dairy Development Balochistan, T.B. Sanatorium Hospital Quetta and Center for Vaccinology, Bacteriology, The University of Balochistan, Quetta and Medicine Laboratory, Department of Clinical Medicine and Surgery, The University of Veterinary and Animal Sciences, Lahore. Data revealed 20.82% disease in sheep and 9.70%. in goats. The regional prevalence of theileriosis revealed 19.19% in Northern Highlands and 17.48% in Suleiman Mountain Region Chi-square analysis showed significant difference in the prevalence of disease in sheep and goats. The regional difference was not significantly different between two regions of Northern Balochistan. The comparison among union councils showed significant difference being highest prevalence (22.71%) in union council Kuchlak district Quetta followed by Aghberg (18.42%) and Hanna Urak (15.53%) in Northern highlands and Union Council Zangiwal Jogezai (19.83%) followed by Kach Amaqzai (16.30%) and Sinjavi (15.92%) in SMR. The disease prevalence when compared among 4 different breeds of sheep showed significant difference being highest in Karakul breed (34.62%) followed by Shinwari (24.54%), Bibrik (19.36%) and Harnai (16.40%). The highest prevalence of theileriosis in sheep and goats were observed in Summer season (30.30%) followed by Autumn 19.07%, Spring 14.52% and Winter SUMMERY 105 7.61%. Chi-square analysis of the data showed significant difference in the prevalence of the disease in different seasons of the year. The disease was also compared in three age groups of sheep and goats. The data showed 22.17% disease in adult animal group above 2 years of age followed by 15.85% in animals between 1-2 year and 7.99% in age group below one year. Statistically significant difference in all age groups was found in chi-square analysis. The sex wise prevalence of theileriosis revealed non-significant difference between male and female sheep and goats. Two different species of Theileria were reported by many researchers causing disease in sheep and goats. The PCR was carried out for the identification of Theileria species affecting sheep and goats in Balochistan. Two species specific sets of primers were designed using 18SRNA gene sequence to identify these two species of Theileria and the distribution among the two species of animals. The genomic DNA of two species of parasite was successfully amplified in positive samples. The assay was proved successful and we recommend for the prevalence surveys for theileriosis in sheep and goats. The data showed that the prevalence of T. lestoquardi was 73.80% in sheep and 69.23% was in goats in the target regions. It was found the T. lestoquardi was highly prevalent and causing theileriosis in small ruminants. The prevalence of T. ovis was 26.19% in sheep and 30.76% in goats respectively in the investigated animals; it was less than T. lestoquardi. It was concluded that both Theileria species were identified and found circulating in small ruminants in the target region of Balochistan. In the study we determined that PCR method based on 18S RNA gene could detect and differentiate T. ovis and T. lestoquardi. Effect of theileriosis in sheep and goats on hemeto-biochemical parameters were studied included RBCs, Hb%, PCV, Platelets, WBCs, MCV, MCHC, AST, ALT, BUN, Bilirubin and Creatinine. Blood samples were collected from Theileria confirmed, diseased animals (sheep and SUMMERY 106 goats) along with equal number of healthy animals for comparison. In sheep RBCs, Hb%, PCV, WBCs, MCHC, AST, ALT and Creatinine values showed significant difference when compared with values of healthy animals. Significant (p<0.05) reduction was noted in measurement of RBCs, Hb%, PCV and MCHC whereas, AST, ALT and Creatinine showed significant increase in diseased animals. In goats affected with theileriosis showed significant decrease in RBCs count and Hb%. The values for AST, ALT and Creatinine were found significantly increased in diseased animals when compared with healthy control group of equal number of animals. In present study it was noted that Butalex intra muscularly at the rate of 2.5 mg/kg body weight is quite effective in eliminating the Theileria parasite from the blood of sheep and goats and treatment at the day 10 post treatment. Imizol was also found an effective treatment of theileriosis but less effective than Butalex. Availability: No items available

13. Principles and Practice of Veterinary Technology

by Sirois, Margi.

Edition: 2nd ed. Material type: book Book; Literary form: not fiction Publisher: USA: Mosby; 2004Availability: Items available for loan: Pattoki Library [Call number: 636.089 Sirois 32504 2nd 2004 CMS] (1).



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