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1. Farm Animal Medicine and Surgery

by Duncanson, Graham R.

Edition: 1st ed.Material type: book Book; Literary form: not fiction Publisher: UK : CABI, 2013Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 636.089 Duncanson 1st 2013 29869 CMS] (1).

2. Textbook of Clinical Veterinary Medicine / 3rd ed

by Chakrabarti, Amalendu.

Edition: 3rd ed.Material type: book Book Publisher: New Delhi: Kalyani Publishers; 2006Availability: Items available for loan: Pattoki Library [Call number: 636.0896 Chakrabarti 20321 3rd 2006 CMS] (5), UVAS Library [Call number: 636.0896 Chakrabarti 29257 3rd 2006 CMS] (38). Checked out (3).

3. Large Animal Internal Medicine / 4th ed

by Smith, Bradford P.

Edition: 4th ed.Material type: book Book Publisher: USA: Mosby, 2009Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 636.0896 Smith 4th 2009 23830 CMS] (3).

4. Manual of Small Animal Emergency and Critical Care Medicine

by Macintire, Douglass K | Drobatz, Kenneth J | Haskins, Steven C | Saxon, William D.

Edition: 2nd ed.Material type: book Book; Literary form: not fiction Publisher: India : Wiley-Blackwell, 2012Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 636.0896025 Macintire 2nd 2012 29154 CMS] (1).

5. Manual of Skin Diseases of The Dog and Cat

by Paterson, Sue.

Edition: 2nd ed.Material type: book Book; Literary form: not fiction Publisher: Singapore: Wiley-Blackwell, 2008Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 636.708965 Paterson 2nd 2008 30032 CMS] (1).

6. Blackwell's Five-Minute Veterinary Consult

by Vaden Shelly | Vaden, Shelly L | Knoll, Joyce S | Jr., Francis W. K. Smith | Tilley, Larry P.

Edition: 5th ed.Material type: book Book Publisher: USA : Wiley-Blackwell, 2009Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 636.0896075 Vaden 5th 2012 30146 CMS] (1).

7. Essentials of Small Animal Anaesthesia and Analgesia

by Grimm, Kurt A | Tranquilli, William J | Lamont, Leigh A.

Edition: 2nd ed.Material type: book Book; Literary form: not fiction Publisher: Singapore: Wiley-Blackwell, 2011Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 636.0897 Grimm 30184 2/e 2011 CMS] (1).

8. The Veterinary Clinics of North America: Small Animal Practice

by Osborne, Carl. A.

Edition: 1st ed.Material type: book Book Publisher: USA: W.B.Sounders company; 1999Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 636.083297 Osborne 15511 1/e 1999 CMS] (1).

9. The Merck Veterinary Manual / 6th ed

by Fraser,Clarence.

Edition: 6th edition.Material type: book Book Publisher: USA : Merck & Co, 1986Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 636.089 Fraser 10697 6th 1986 CMS] (2).

10. The 5 Minute Veterinary Consult : Canine And Feline

by Tilley, Larry P | Smith, Francis W. K., Jr.

Edition: 1st ed.Material type: book Book Publisher: USA : Williams & Wilkins, 1997Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 636.0896 Tilley 15830 2nd 2000 CMS] (3).

11. Techniques in Large Animal Surgery

by Turner, A. Simon | McIlwraith, C. Wayne.

Edition: 2nd ed.Material type: book Book; Literary form: not fiction Publisher: [S.l.] : Wiley, 1989Availability: Items available for loan: Pattoki Library [Call number: 636.0897 Turner 159924 2nd 1989 CMS] (2), UVAS Library [Call number: 636.0897 Turner 15998 2nd 1989 CMS] (7).

12. Manual of Small Animal Surgical Therapeutics

by Betts, C. W.

Edition: 1st ed.Material type: book Book Publisher: USA: Churchill; 1986Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 336.70897 Betts 29271 1st 1986 CMS] (1).

13. Disease Mechanisms in Small Animal Surgery

by Bojrab, M. Joseph | Daniel D. Smeak | Mark S. Bloomberg.

Edition: 2nd ed.Material type: book Book Publisher: USA: Lippincott Williams & Wilkins; 1993Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 636.0897 Joseph 14248 2nd 1993 CMS] (1).

14. The Complete Textbook of Veterinary Nursing

by Victoria Aspinall.

Edition: 1st ed.Material type: book Book Publisher: Spain: Butterworth-Heinemann; 2006Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 636.089073 Aspinall 19019 1st 2006 CMS] (1).

15. Fundamentals of Veterinary Ophthalmology

by Douglas Slatter.

Edition: 3rd ed.Material type: book Book Publisher: USA: Saunders; 2001Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 636.08977 Douglas 20496 3rd 2001 CMS] (1).

16. Textbook of Small Animal Surgery : 3rd ed / Vol.1

by Douglas Slatter.

Edition: 3rdMaterial type: book Book Publisher: USA: Saunders; 2003Availability: Items available for loan: Pattoki Library [Call number: 636.0897 Slatter 22458 3rd.Vol.1 2003 CMS] (5), UVAS Library [Call number: 636.0897 Slatter 22470 3rd.Vol.1 2003 CMS] (16).

17. Textbook of Small Animal Surgery : 3rd ed / Vol.2

by Douglas Slatter.

Edition: 3rdMaterial type: book Book Publisher: USA: Saunders; 2003Availability: Items available for loan: Pattoki Library [Call number: 636.0897 Slatter 22473 3rd.Vol.2 2003 CMS] (5), UVAS Library [Call number: 636.0897 Slatter 22477 3rd.Vol.2 2003 CMS] (16). Checked out (1).

18. Safety Level And Efficacy Of Controlled Release Urea On Performance And Health Status Of Nili Ravi Buffalo

by Muhammad Mobin (2007-VA-156) | Prof. Dr. Aneela Zameer Durrani | Dr. Jawairia Ali Khan | Dr. Nisar Ahmad.

Material type: book Book; Literary form: not fiction Publisher: 2014Dissertation note: Livestock is one of the major sectors of Pakistan’s agrarian based economy. During 2013-14, it contributed almost 55.4% to the agricultural value added and 11.9% to national GDP. In the livestock sector, gross value addition increased from Rs.735 billion to Rs.756 billion; revealing an increase of 2.9% as compared to the previous year. Livestock is considered the best tool for poverty alleviation, as most of the livestock are owned by poor people who live in the rural areas. Pakistan is 4th largest Milk producing country in the World. Its Cattle Population is 33 Million while Buffalo Population is about 30 Million (Economic Survey of Pakistan, 2013-14). Despite large population, per animal production is very low.The low productivity of these animals is because of poor quality feed stuff. Their productivity can be enhanced by feeding them balanced ration. Growing human population urges the intense need to explore the present livestock resources to fulfill the animal protein requirements. It is impossible unless optimal fodder and forage production is ensured. In Pakistan, low quality fodders coupled with the reduction in the fodder area are the main constraints, which adversely affect the animal production. In future, it is expected that ruminants will be more dependent on forages because readily expanding human population will have direct competition with livestock for edible grains. Among the problems facing the livestock in the tropics is the low protein tropical grasses and the high cost of alternate sources of protein such as the Soybean and other oil cake. A portion of nitrogen in feeds for ruminants may be provided in the form of simple nitrogen compounds (or0non-protein0nitrogen0NPN) 0that are degraded in the0rumen to release ammonia (NH3), which is used by rumen microorganisms to produce amino acids. The amount of NPN that can be provided is limited. The product which is the urea, when it releases NH3 faster than it can be converted into microbial protein excess NH3is absorbed through the rumen wall, causing toxication. Protein is often0the0major0limiting0nutrient for ruminants. Protein-rich leguminous forages and vegetable protein supplements are usually expensive or not available.The manufacture0of0urea and0ammonia for use as0fertilizer has been greatly0expanded in0many countries, 0but these compounds0could0not be0used more0widely in feeds for0ruminants. The ability0of0the0micro-organisms0in0the0rumen0of0cattle0and0sheep0to0utilize0urea0sources0to form0true protein0that0can0be converted0to meat0and0milk0by the0animals, represents0an important0contribution0to0man's0food0supply.0Maximizing0microbial0protein0synthesis0and flow0to0the0duodenum0by0reducing the0recycling of0microbial N in the rumen offers a potential0to improve0the production0efficiency0of ruminants.In general, the efficiency of utilization of dietary N by cattle is relatively low under normal production conditions (Castillo et al, 2001) with a global average N-efficiency in cattle estimated at 7.7 % (Van der Hoek, 1998). Urea is used rather inefficiently for production of protein products (Broderick et al, 2009) and due to its wide use in ruminant feeds, may0be0partially0responsible for0the poor N efficiency0in cattle. Low efficiency of utilization of dietary urea has been attributed to the rapid0hydrolysis0to0ammonia (NH3) in0the0rumen0by microbial0enzymes which occurs at a higher rate than its utilization byrumen bacteria, leading to ruminal accumulation and absorption0of0ammonia andsubsequent excretion of0urea in the urine (Golombeski0et0al., 2006; Highstreet0et0al,2010).Furthermore if used above threshold level, the main problem with urea usage is that it can cause toxicity and even death of the animals. Farmers hesitate to use urea as a source of protein, resulting which his animals remain underfed and never achieve the peak production. Urea0poisoning0is0one0of0the0more0commonly0suspected0toxicities0of0cattle. Urea0is0used as0a source0of non-protein0nitrogen0in feed0supplements.In ruminants,0nitrogen0from0urea is released0in the0rumen as0ammonia0and0can0be0used0by0rumen0micro0flora0to0synthesize protein. This0protein0thenbecomesavailable0to0the0animal0through0the0normal0processes of digestion0and0absorption. However,if0 more0ureaisconsumed0than the rumen organisms can0metabolize, the0ammonia0is0absorbed0from0the0rumen0into0the0blood.Ruminal pHbecame alkaline due to the hydrolysis of urea to0ammonia (Buffalo Bulletin,2002). The ammoniaisthen0converted0back0to urea in0the liver and is0the0excreted by0the0kidneys. This0pathwaycan easily be0overwhelmed,0when excess0ammonia0and urea0circulate0in the blood,0causing0poisoning. Poisoningcanoccur0rapidly0from a few0minutes0to four0hours after0consumption. Suspect0urea0poisoning0if cattle are found0dead close to0the0supplement (H. Parkes et al. 2003).Slow release urea has been shown to affect ruminal fermentation characteristics.Most notably, slow release urea is intended to0reduce0the release rate0of NH3 within the0rumen. Most reports on controlled release urea have shown a reduction in ruminal NH3 concentration when measured (Cherdthonget al, 2011; Huntington etal, 2006b; Taylor- Edwards0et0al, 2009d). This is the reason why slow release urea presents a lower risk for ammonia toxicity than feed grade urea. Ruminal NH3 concentration is often related to ruminal pH, as the protonation of NH3 toNH4+ when ammonia from urea ionizes, can result in an increase in ruminalpH. Consequently, there are reports of higher ruminal pH for animals fed urea than those fed slow release urea (Cherdthongetal, 2011; Taylor-Edwards et al, 2009b) Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 2216-T] (1).

19. Dollar's Veterinary Surgery : General, Operative and Regional

by O'Connor, J. J. (Editor).

Edition: 4th Edition.Material type: book Book; Format: print ; Literary form: not fiction Publisher: UK: Bailliere, Tindall and Cox; 1965Availability: Items available for loan: Pattoki Library [Call number: 636.0897 Connor 1115 4th 1965 CMS] (5), UVAS Library [Call number: 636.0897 Connor 14739 4th 1965 CMS] (23).

20. Veterinary Medicine : A Textbook of the Diseases of Cattle, Sheep, Pigs, Goats and Horses

by D. C. Blood | Radostits, O. M.

Edition: 7th ed.Material type: book Book Publisher: UK: Bailliere Tindall; 1989Availability: Items available for loan: Pattoki Library [Call number: 636.0896 Radostits 18695 9th 2003 CMS] (2), UVAS Library [Call number: 636.0896 Blood 13073 7th 1989 CMS] (18).

21. A Textbook of Preventive Veterinary Medicine / 5th ed

by Amalendu Chakrabarti.

Edition: 5thMaterial type: book Book Publisher: India: Kalyani Publishers; 2012Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 636.08944405 Chakrabarti 30797 5th 2012 CMS] (5).

22. Textbook of Clinical Veterinary Medicine / 4th ed

by Chakrabarti, Amalendu.

Edition: 4th ed.Material type: book Book Publisher: New Delhi: Kalyani Publishers; 2014Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 636.0896 Chakrabarti 26081 4th 2014 CMS] (5). Checked out (1).

23. Antimicrobial Therapy in Veterinary Medicine / 5th ed

by Giguere, Steeve | Prescott, John F | Dowling, Patricia M.

Edition: 5th ed.Material type: book Book; Literary form: not fiction Publisher: Malaysia: Wiley-Blackwell; 2013Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 636.0895329 Steeve 31375 5th 2013 CMS] (2).

24. Comparative Efficacy Of Different Nsaids Against Bovine Ephemeral Fever

by Ghazanfar Ali Chishti (2007-VA-51) | Prof. Dr. Aneela Zameer Durani | Prof. Dr. Muhammad Sarwar Khan | Dr. Shehla Gul Bukhari.

Material type: book Book; Literary form: not fiction Publisher: 2015Dissertation note: Dairy sector has significant role in Pakistan economy with a share of 46.8% in agriculture and 10.8% to Pakistan GDP. Pakistan ranks 4th among largest milk producing countries in the world (Anonymous 2012-13).In last decade, dairy sector in Pakistan has seen tremendous growth and corporate investment. More than 40000 exotic cross bred high producing cattles have been imported. Earlier this sector used to rely primarily on local low producing cattles and small scale subsistence farming, now different commercial dairy farms having high producers exotic cattles are also becoming major contributor in this sector. Trend is changing, different issues concerned with sector are rising. Sensitivity level of commercial dairy farmer is far high as compared to small scale traditional farmers, they can not accept or tolerate any factor affecting economy of their dairy business due to heavy investment. One such issue rose to headlines in July-August 2014, Pakistan dairy industry was struck badly with an outbreak of viral disease called Bovine Ephemeral Fever (BEF). It caused colossal damages to dairy industry in terms of decreased milk production, mortalities and treatment costs. This was not an out rightly a new disease in Pakistan its episodes have been seen in past in local cattles and buffalo (Asi et al. 1999) and locally it was termed as “will” (Prof Khushe personal communication). But it never got such a hype and attention in past as local animals were already low producers and their production was never affected at substantial level. Local animals were generally weak having low Body Condition Score, a character which does not support the intensity of this disease, Ectoparasite resistance is another factor considered to be a source of protection for local animals. Introduction 2 During initial phase of outbreak, it was considered as a common local epidemic Hemorrhagic Septicemia (HS) and Foot and Mouth Disease (FMD) and few signs also confused it with Milk Fever. But once outbreak progressed, it became clearer that it in neither HS and nor FMD it is something different. After going through literature it was clinically suspected as BEF and later was confirmed through Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR) by University Diagnostic Laboratory (UDL), UVAS, Lahore. BEF is a viral disease caused by genus Ephemerovirus and family Rhabdoviridae. (Uren et al. 1992).It is a noncontagious, vector borne disease of water buffaloes and cattles proposed to be communicated by midges (Culicoides biting) and mosquitoes.(Walker et al. 2012). Ephemeral fever, stiff sickness, three-day-sickness, bovine influenza and bovine epizootic fever have been used to name this viral disease in the different nations at different eras (Chiu 1986; Chiu and Lu 1986; Lin and Inoue 1969; St.George1981). BEF happens seasonally in temperate, tropical and subtropical regions of Asia, Africa, Middle-East and Australia and this is a disabling disease with significant economic effect due to reduction of milk production, loss of health status in beef herds, abortion and infertility. Characteristic clinical signs comprise of a sudden onset of fever as high as 41 °C, an abrupt and austere drop in milk production, lethargy, inappetence, salivation, depression, nasal discharge, stiffness, dyspnea and ruminal stasis (Walker et al. 2012). Primarily, pathogenesis of BEF is based on vascular inflammation (Young and Spradbrow, 1980) so this provides the rationale for its treatment through anti-inflammatory drugs. Different NSAIDs have been used in previous studies phenylbutazone, flunixin meglumine and ketoprofen (Uren and Murphy, 1985; St George et al. 1984) but no study has been found using most common field NSAID of Pakistan, meloxicam. So, here a comparative study was carried out between three NSAIDs meloxicam, ketoprofen and phenylbutazone on naturally infected BEF animal. Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 2243-T] (1).

25. Effects Of Aflatoxin M1 (Afm1) On Sheep And Efficacy Of Mycotoxin Binders

by Muhammad Akhtar (2008-VA-122) | Dr. Jawaria Ali Khan | Dr. Muhammad Hassan Saleem | Dr. Muhammad Ovais Omer.

Material type: book Book; Literary form: not fiction Publisher: 2015Dissertation note: Livestock production is an important part of national economy and it plays a significant role in providing the high quality food for human beings. Dairy industry of Pakistan contributes up to 46.8% in the agriculture and about 10.8% of the GDP in the form of milk, milk products, meat, hides, skin and bone meal (Ghaffar et al. 2007). Molds are fungi consisting of filaments that are present in the feed of animals. Molds can cause many infections in dairy cattle, especially during period of stress when their immune system is depressed. They cause a special disorder that is termed as Mycosis. Specific mycotoxins are produced by these fungi and when these animals eat such type of feed then they also engulf such dangerous mycotoxins. Mycotoxins are produced by a wide range of various molds and can be classified as secondary metabolites meaning that their function is not essential to the mold’s existence (Whitlow and Hagler 2005). In the European countries, sheep milk is mainly produced in the Spain, and it is about 403000 tons per year. The main purpose of this milk is to produce cheese. Manchego cheese is considered as the best quality cheese in the world. This is the only technique by which we can produce the high quality of cheese (Rubio et al. 2009). These Aflatoxins are the fungal main dangerous constituents that can contaminate the feed of animals very easily. If AFB1 contaminated ration is consumed by animals then metabolism takes place in these toxins and excrete AFM1 in milk which further reduces milk production. More long-lasting aflatoxin poisoning produces very dissimilar signs that may not be clinically superficial and decreased rate of production in young animals. Severe aflatoxicosis causes hepatitis, hemorrhage, and death. Decreased growth rate is the most delicate clinical symbol of chronic aflatoxicosis, and it may be the only readily obvious abnormality. Natural toxins considerably show the greater danger to human and animal health. One large group of natural toxins that are universally Introduction 2 documented as poisons of food and feed are the mycotoxins. The toxins occur naturally in various animal feeds, including corn and cottonseed. To control AFM1 in milk, it is essential to decrease the feed contamination by AFB1 (Prandini et al. 2009). The livestock is playing major role in enhancing agricultural productivity and it has also major contribution to decrease the rate of poverty in the rural areas of Pakistan. Most farmers have domesticated sheep in their home which are their major sources of income (Mahmood et al. 2009). Aflatoxins adulterated rations prompted important reduction in daily feed consumption and the means of body weight, body weight increment and feed transformation rates were radically affected during the exposure stage to aflatoxins. Furthermore, serum ingredients and ruminal measurements showed lessened liver function and digestive turbulences in sheep fed aflatoxin (Jouany and Diaz 2005) Aflatoxins are included in that group of toxins which are considered as highly toxic toxins. Aspergillus parasiticus, Aspergillus flavus and Aspergillus nomius are those types of fungi which can produce very strong type of toxins. Aflatoxin B1 (AFB1) is considered as the most dangerous type of aflatoxin and it is very strong hepato-toxin (damaging the liver as a whole). It can also cause cancer, can produce teratogens, and may also cause mutation in the both animals and in human beings. AFB1 being very toxic, can be activated by the special metabolism of liver and through cytochrome P450. The cancer causing ability of AFBI is ten times more than the AFM1. The conversion of AFB1 to AFM1 in the milk producing animals is in the range of half percent to about six percent. In milk producing animals the level of aflatoxin M1 is greatly altered by the contamination rate of aflatoxin B1 (Bognanno et al. 2006). It is observed that the excretion pattern of aflatoxin M1 in the milk of sheep is lower than the excretion pattern of aflatoxin M1 in the milk of cows. Due to presence of aflatoxin B1 in the feed of animals and hence appearance of aflatoxin M1 in the milk of animals shows that Introduction 3 milk of such animals becomes more toxic and more un-hygienic. The young ones having milk as their main feed ingredient may have much more chances of getting various infections. (Var and Kabak 2009). To check the level of aflatoxin M1 in the milk of sheep, various experimental studies have been performed in the whole world (Battacone et al. 2005). In Pakistan, there are many favorable environmental conditions in which various types of fungi can easily prompted (Iqbal et al. 2011). The contamination level of aflatoxin M1 in the milk of dairy animals and in the dairy products has been found by (Hussain et al. 2008). Aflatoxins can be produced from fungal metabolites. Aflatoxin M1 is produced as the complete metabolism of aflatoxin B1 has taken place. Aflatoxin B1, when converted into aflatoxin M1 is appeared in the milk of that animals and the same aflatoxin M1 can also be appeared in the dairy products which can contaminate the feed of human too. Transformation of aflatoxin B1 into the aflatoxin M1 is around one to two percent. This transformation is highly dependent upon the feed of animals, transformation from one affected animal to other healthy animal, transformation from the milking of affected animal to the milking of healthy animal and from one day to another day also. It is also noted that as the level of aflatoxin B1 in the feed of animal is decreased down then the level of M1 in the milk of animals is also dropped down significantly but it takes about 72 hours for this dropped down (Nilchian and Rahimi 2012). AFM1 had a resistant to thermal inactivation used during food processing procedure such as pasteurization and autoclaving. Storage of various dairy products was not effective in the reduction of this toxin (Ozdemir 2007). Aflatoxin M1 level in the milk of animals can also be found in 12 to 24 hours after the ingestion of aflatoxin B1. After this, its level can be raised within the few days. The estimation of conversion rate of aflatoxin B1 in the contaminated feed of animals into aflatoxin M1 in the milk that animal is elaborated as 1 to 3 percent in a specific range (Ozdemir 2007). Introduction 4 Aflatoxin B 1 being very much dangerous mycotoxin, it is very much important to know about such methods by which the level of aflatoxin B1 in the feed of animals can be controlled. For this purpose we should first come to know the basic source of feed contamination of animals, and after this we should adapt such easy method to determine the level of aflatoxin B1 in the animal’s feed and such methods should be very cost effective. The best accepted and recognized method to determine aflatoxin M1 level in the milk of infected animals is HPLC high-performance liquid chromatography and TLC thin-layer chromatography (Thirumala-Devi et al. 2002). Aflatoxin M1 can be found in the milk of infected animals and can also be found in the products that are prepared from that contaminated milk. This contamination is the main problem arising now a days in the whole world (Fallah et al. 2009). Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 2237-T] (1).

26. Quick Reference to Veterinary Medicine

by Fenner, William R.

Edition: 2nd ed.Material type: book Book Publisher: USA: Lippincott Williams & Wilkins; 1991Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 636.0896075 William 14029 2nd 1991 Medicine] (1).

27. The Veterinary Clinics of North America: Small Animal Practice

by Jhonston D. S.

Edition: 1st ed.Material type: book Book Publisher: USA: W.B.Sounders company; 1991Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 636.083297 Jhonston 15860 Vol.21 1991 CMS] (1).

28. Wright's Veterinary Anaesthesia and Analgesia / 7th ed

by Wright, John G | Hall, Leslie W.

Edition: 7th ed.Material type: book Book Publisher: UK: Bailliere Tindall; 1971Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 636.089796 Wright 10434 7th 1971 CMS] (11).

29. Anesthesia : 2nd ed / Vol.1

by Miller, Ronald D.

Edition: 2nd ed.Material type: book Book; Literary form: not fiction Publisher: USA: Churchill Livingstone; 1986Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 617.96 Miller 13021 Vol 1. 2nd 1986 CMS] (1).

30. Veterinary Trauma and Critical Care

by Zaslow, Ira M.

Edition: 1st edMaterial type: book Book Publisher: USA: Lea & Febiger; 1984Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 636.08971 Zaslow 12842 1st 1984 CMS] (1).

31. Seroprevalence And Risk Factors Of Brucellosis In Ruminents In District Skardu Of Gilgit

by Sajid Hussain (2008-VA-77) | Dr. Muhammad Avais | Dr. Iahtasham Khan | Dr. Jawaria Ali Khan | Dr. Shehla Gul Bukhari.

Material type: book Book; Literary form: not fiction Publisher: 2015Dissertation note: Brucellosis is among the vital zoonotic and transmissible bacterial diseases of most of the animal’s worldwide (Shafee et al. 2011). Various types of brucella species are the causative agents of bovine brucellosis. In bovines, brucellosis is mainly triggered by Brucella abortus, less repeatedly by Brucella melitensis and sometimes by Brucellosis suis. As it is a zoonotic disease so, the public health is near thoughtful risk. According to (Pappas et al. 2006), it is considered to be the collective zoonosis worldwide, moreover 5, 00,000 cases of brucellosis are reported annually in both animals and humans. It is a common problem of under developed countries with poor health programs. This disease has been eradicated from USA, Canada, Japan, and New Zealand however; it is still an uncontrolled hazard in highly endemic regions of Africa, Latin America, Middle East and Asia (Refai, 2002). According to Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO), World Health Organization (WHO) and Office International of Epizootics (OIE), brucellosis is considered the most wide spread zoonosis in the world (Schelling et al. 2003). The infection transfers via contact with the body secretions, aborted fetus, contaminated milk feeding, licking of aborted fetuses and also venereal disease. In animals, reproduction, fertility, reduced survival of newborn, decreased milk production and noticed able mortality of the adult are the main effects of brucellosis. (Al-Sous et al. 2004). It is characterized by abortion during 3rd trimester of pregnancy, weak calves, still births infertility, placentitis, epididymitis, orchitis and the excretion of organisms in milk and uterine secretions. According to public opinion brucellosis is work-related disease it has more effects on INTRODUCTION Page 2 Veterinarians, slaughter house and farm workers likely butchers and shepherds (Yagupsky and Baron 2005). Brucellosis occurs in cattle, Sheep, goats, swines, camels, dogs and it may also affect the other ruminants and marine mammals. The other names of brucellosis are Enzootic abortion, Contagious abortion, Bangs disease, Undulant, Malta and Mediterranean fever. It also causes significant losses in those animals which are sexually matured (Forbes and Tessaro 1996). The main causative agent of bovine brucellosis is Brucella abortus (Ali et al. 2014). The animals and persons, who are directly or indirectly in contact with infected animals, its products and by-products, may acquire infection easily. The main source of human infection is the raw milk of the infected animal as it excretes brucella in milk (Shimol et al. 2012). The Serological, Bacteriological and Molecular Methods are used for the diagnosis of brucellosis in the farm animals and humans. Bacteriological method is considered to be the most standard method among all of the above mentioned methods (Sathyanarayanan et al. 2011). However, due to non-availability of ‘BSL-3 laboratory’ for culturing and isolation, time taking nature and because of the safety concerns of the laboratory workers, it is not widely applicable. According to Alton et al. (1998), in Pakistan, at animal and herd level, the molecular tools, like ‘Polymerase Chain Reaction’ (PCR), are not economical for screening due to limited resources. ‘Milk Ring Test’, a serological test, is economical and mostly used for the diagnosis of brucellosis however according to Huber and Nicoletti et al. (1986), its specificity and sensitivity is doubtful even now. In most of the countries, for the control and eradication of the disease the serological diagnosis is widely used. Although, different techniques are used to detect the brucella antibodies but, different antibody isotopes were detected by each one of the technique to INTRODUCTION Page 3 determine seropositive animal to brucellosis (Nielsen et al. 2001). The serological test is more sensitive as compare to the culture techniques but its specificity was quite low (Al-Attas et al. 2000). Diverse studies have been conducted worldwide to evaluate different brucella diagnostic techniques. ELISA was found more sensitive and specific as compared to other serological techniques and the findings confirmed that standard tests, like Rose Bengal Plate test (RBPT) and Serum Agglutination Test (SAT) only detect antibodies to the LPS (lipopolysaccharides) antigen of Brucella abortus so, it has low specificity (Al-Attas et al. 2000). The advanced in specificity and sensitivity levels of the ‘Serological Diagnosis’ as compared to the other conventional technique are due to the introduction of the indirect immuno-enzymatic technique (Mousing et al. 1997). The indirect ELISA uses cytoplasmic proteins to measure the immunoglobulins of classes M, G, and A. The clinical situation can thus be interpreted better further it also overcomes some of the short comings of serum agglutination test. A comparison shows that ELISA is more specific and sensitive than SAT (serum agglutination test) Almuneef and Memish (2003). According to certain studies conducted worldwide and also in Pakistan, it has been proved that ELISA tests are more accurate and reliable than other tests like Serum Agglutination Test (SAT) and Milk Ring Test (MRT), showing high seropositive samples. Shafee et al. 2011 confirmed by using i-ELISA for the prevalence of brucellosis in Quetta city and the result was found to be 3 and 8.5 percent overall prevalence in cattle using MRT and indirect ELISA respectively. The Gilgit Baltistan is at developing stages in the livestock sector, small farmers owning 95% of the Gilgit Baltistan’s livestock and are landless, providing an opportunity for improving INTRODUCTION Page 4 the quality of their livestock. The areas selected for the study were the villages (Shagaribala, Shagari kalan, Kathpanah, Chunda, Kachura, Hussain abad and Sadpara) of Skardu district, which are very important from livestock point of view. There is a dire need of screening these animals for the zoonotic point of view. It is the first time that effort for the diagnosis of brucellosis in Gilgit Baltistan by using the serological test like Rose Bengal Plate Aggulutination Test (RBPT) and Indirect Enzyme Linked Immunosorbent Assay (ELISA) has been made. Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 2246-T] (1).

32. Epidemiological Studies And Chemotherapy Of Postparturient Haemoglobinuria In Buffaloes

by Muhammad Ijaz Ul Haq (2008-VA-83) | Dr. Jawaria Ali Khan | Dr. Muhammad Avais | Prof. Dr. Mian Abdul Sattar.

Material type: book Book; Literary form: not fiction Publisher: 2015Dissertation note: The district Gujranwala lies at northern part of the Punjab in Pakistan. It is situated between two main cities, in North is Gujrat and in South, there are Sheikhupura and Lahore. The majority of the population lives in the rural areas and mainly earns their livelihood through agriculture. The source of irrigation is perennial and non-perennial canals supplemented by tube wells. This area is heavily populated with buffaloes rather than cattle. Buffalo is playing a foremost role in the national economy by producing milk, meat and draught power. Out of total milk produced in the country, buffalo contributes about 68 %. Due to high fat contents of buffalo milk, it is the ideal species in Pakistan (Bilal et al. 2006). Buffaloes suffer from many fatal diseases throughout the year causing irretrievable economic losses in the GDP. Among these fatal diseases, Postparturient haemoglobinuria is a frightening problem for the economy of Pakistan and as well as for the whole world. Postparturient haemoglobinuria is a periodic condition seen worldwide that most frequently affects high-yielding dairy animals at the onset of lactation. It is characterized by development of per acute intravascular hemolysis and anemia with potentially lethal results. Beef and non-lactating cattle are hardly ever affected. The exact cause is unidentified, but phosphorus reduction or hypophosphatemia is known to be a major predisposing factor. Decrease in the Phosphorus level of RBCs is known to raise osmotic tenderness of the RBCs, probably predisposing to intravascular hemolysis. A parallel condition reported in New Zealand was linked with copper depletion, potentially building RBCs were more prone to oxidative trauma. Other potential causes were hemolytic or oxidative plant toxins (Michael A. Moses and Aiello 2014). In buffalo rearing countries mainly in India, Pakistan and Egypt, Postparturient haemoglobinuria was a major problem as described by (Pirzada and Hussain 1998). Acute hypo phosphataemia was linked with high producing buffaloes and characterized by intravascular hemolysis (Kurundkar et al. 1981). Postparturient haemoglobinuria was a disease of high yielding buffaloes in district Attock, Rawalpindi, Jhelum and Faisalabad where soil was deficient in mineral contents. The disease was distinguished by icteric and inflexible constipation in pregnant animal (Hussain et al. 1991). Postparturient haemoglobinuria was mainly disease of buffaloes and found in almost all the districts of Pakistan (Pirzada and Hussain 1998). In buffaloes, Postparturient haemoglobinuria occurred mostly after 3rd week of parturition during 3rd to 5th lactation having a period of 5 to 6 days of illness (Nagpal et al. 1968). The occurrence of hypophosphatemia was highest in buffaloes in progressive pregnancy or in 3rd to 6th lactation (Gautam et al. 1972). Multiparous females were mostly affected by Hypo phosphataemia and a range of etiological factors were reported to be related with the disease in unusual parts of the world (Singari et al. 1991). Dietary phosphorus shortage and rations containing cruciferous plants were supposed causes of rigorous hypo phosphataemia and had been associated with hemolytic anemia in cows and buffaloes (Heuer and Bode 1998). Mucous membranes turned pale or might become icteric with the development of anemia and breathing became rapid and shallow with tachycardia (Spears 2003). During third to sixth lactation of adult dairy buffaloes, this disease was more frequently seen, showing weakness and recumbency (Macwilliams et al. 1982). The occurrence of the disease in the total cattle population was very stumpy with a case fatality rate ranging from 10% to 50% (Madsen and Nielsen 1939). Sporadically, farms with a predominantly elevated incidence might be encountered but typically only one or two cases were clinically evident at one time (Freudenberg 1955). In Australia, about 70% cases were reported within 30 days of calving (Mulijns and Ramsay 1959). Bulls, ante partum cows, heifers less than two years old and beef cows were rarely affected. A disease called as "red water" in Ontario, was allied with numerous predisposing factors which integrated recent parturition, intense milk production, dietetic phosphorus absence, utilization of turnips, rape, kale, green alfalfa and sugar beet pulp (Macwilliams et al. 1982). Postparturient haemoglobinuria was one of the foremost and economically important diseases of dairy animals in Pakistan, India and elsewhere in the world (Macwilliams et al. 1982; Chugh et al. 1996; Pirzada and Hussain 1998). Diagnosis was done on the basis of clinical signs, urinalysis and hematological reports of the examined animals (Madsen and Nielsen 1939). In a survey conducted during 1996 in Punjab (Pakistan), mortality rate due to Postparturient haemoglobinuria in buffaloes and cattle was 5% which translated into estimated annual losses of Rs. 490.2 and 153.1 million, respectively (Farooq et al. 2007). Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 2210-T] (1).

33. The Veterinary Clinics of North America: Small Animal Practice

by Vassallo, John.

Edition: 1st ed.Material type: book Book Publisher: USA: W.B.Sounders company; 2000Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 636.083297 Vassallo 15508 1st 2000 CMS] (1).

34. The Practice of Veterinary Medicine / 6th ed

by D. H. Udall.

Edition: 6th edMaterial type: book Book Publisher: USA: The Author; 1954Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 636.089 Udall 4903 6th 1954 CMS] (2).

35. The Veterinary Clinics of North America: Small Animal Practice

by Cheryl L. Chrisman.

Edition: 1st ed.Material type: book Book Publisher: USA: W.B.Saunders company; 1980Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 636.083297 Chrisman 18580 Vol.10 1980 CMS] (1).

36. Bronchial Asthma

by D. Behera.

Edition: 2nd ed.Material type: book Book Publisher: India: Jaypee Brothers Medical Publishers (P) Ltd; 2005Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 616.238 Behera 19364 2nd 2005 CMS] (1).

37. Patterns of Animal Disease

by Halpin, Brendan.

Edition: 1stMaterial type: book Book Publisher: USA: Bailliere Tindall; 1975Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 636.08944 Halpin 13494 1st 1975 CMS] (2).

38. Veterinary Dentistry : Principles and Practice

by Wiggs, Robert B | Lobprise, Heidi B.

Edition: 1st ed.Material type: book Book Publisher: USA: Wiley-Blackwell; 1997Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 636.08976 Wiggs 20728 1st 1997 CMS] (3).

39. Molecular Diagnosis And Therapeutic Trials Against Bovine Fasciolosis In And Around Okara

by Hafiz Farooq Ahmad (2008-VA-93) | Dr. Muhammad Ijaz | Dr. Waseem Shahzad | Dr. Jawaria Ali Khan | Dr. Shehla Gul Bokhari.

Material type: book Book; Literary form: not fiction Publisher: 2015Dissertation note: Agriculture sector plays a pivotal role in the economy of Pakistan. At present it participates 11.4% to GDP. Agriculture provides 45% employment to labour of our country and contributes in the development of other sectors of the economy. The livestock sector occupies a distinguishing position in the National Agenda of economic development. It provides net source of foreign income. In the history livestock has been dominated by small holders to meet their needs of milk, food safety and cash earnings on daily basis. Besides, livestock is considered a source of employment generation at rural level. It plays an important role in poverty mitigation and keeps in elevating the socio-economic situation of our rural commonalities. Livestock share approximately 55.4 percent to the agricultural value added and 11.9 percent to national GDP during 2013-14. Anonymous (2013-14). Parasitism is one of the major problems lowering livestock productivity round the earth Vercruysse and Claerebout et al. (2001). The significance of helminthes infections is increased manifold in developing countries like Pakistan where 65.2% population is rural (Population Census Organization (2007) depending upon livestock for their incomes and where parasitism acts as a serious trouble for livestock economy Chaudhry et al. (1984). Among helminthes infections, fasciolosis commonly called as liver fluke disease is of vital importance due to its wider spectrum of ultimate hosts Rondelaud et al. (2001) causing acute and chronic infections Sampaio-Silva et al. (1996). The disease is primarily caused by Fasciola hepatica and Fasciola gigantica Soulsby et al. (1987). Fasciolosis is a parasitic liver infection of wild and domestic ruminants caused by genus Fasciola, which has worldwide distribution Soulsby et al. (1986). Fasciolosis causes economic losses as a result of mortalities, abortions, retard growth, reduced milk and meat production, condemnation of infected liver and emaciated carcasses and cost of animal treatment Gracey and Collins et al. (1992). Fasciolosis caused by F. hepatica is a cause of important economic losses in ruminants. The disease is widely spread throughout in Africa, Asia and the Pacific. Although mostly a problem of young stock, the disease is also found in older animals where it adversely affects health, growth rate and development. Apart from its great veterinary importance throughout the world, fasciolosis caused by both F. hepatica and F. gigantica has recently been shown to be a re-emerging and wide spread zoonosis affecting a number of human populations Mas-Coma and Bargues et al. (1997); Esteban et al. (2003). Prevalence of fasciolosis infestation in buffaloes is 49.01%. The infestation of fasciolosis was optimal from January to September, while least during October to December. Fecal samples indicated F. hepatica prevalence 65%. Whereas prevalence of F. gigantica was observed higher in adult cattle as compared to cattle calves by fecal egg counts Khalil et al. (2009). 4% Buffalo calves infested with trematodes. Availability of intermediate host and the grazing habits of the final host determines the epidemiology and seasonal pattern of infection with trematodes Pfukenyi et al. (2005); Bhutto et al. (2002). The life cycle of F. hepatica includes many stages which develop in the environment or the intermediate host. Metacercariae which is the infective stage encysted and ingested by grazing herbivores. Temperature and rainfall are the important factors affecting the life cycle and the prevalence of F. hepatica infection McCann et al. (2010). Many studies revealed that F. hepatica is endemic in buffaloes, cattle, goats, sheep and humans in Pakistan Ijaz et al. (2009); Iqbal et al. (2007); Khan et al. (2010) and Qureshi et al. (2005). Fasciolosis is the disease by which about 250 million sheep and 300 million cattle are potentially affected worldwide Boray et al. (2005), and more significantly infects all ruminants Iqbal et al. (2007). F. hepatica and F. gigantica are the two liver flukes commonly reported to cause fasciolosis in ruminants Walker et al. (2008). Infected cattle can exhibit Introduction 3 poor weight gain and dairy cattle have lower milk yield, and possibly metabolic diseases Mason et al. (2004). Losses due to fasciolosis in the United Kingdom and Ireland alone are more than £18 million a year Mulcahy and Dalton et al. (2001); €52 million a year or €299 per infected animal in Sweden Schweitzer et al. (2005); 0.26 million USD annual due to fasciolosis associated liver condemnations in cattle slaughtered in Kenya Kithuka et al. (2002). In Pakistan, 35697 USD (3141360 PKR) are reported in only one tehsil of Punjab province, the Sargodha T.U. Rehman et al. (2013). While Fasciolosis is prevalent in whole Punjab province of Pakistan but the marshy areas such as regions of Gujranwala, Lahore, Multan, Faisalabad, Jhang, Muzaffargarh, Sheikhupura, and Sargodha are of major concern. Fascioliasis in ruminants causes substantial economic losses, estimated at US$ 2 billion per annum worldwide, to rural agricultural communities and commercial animal producers due to death of infected animals, condemnation of affected livers and production losses associated with reduced feed conversion efficiency Urquhart et al. (1996); Spithill and Dalton et al. (1998). In tropical countries, fascioliasis is prevalent up to 90% and is considered the most important helminthes infection of cattle Spithill and Dalton et al. (1998). Most important, human can also become infected with Fasciola spp. and the disease is referred to as human fasciolosis. It is estimated that 2.4 million people in more than 60 countries are infected and the number of people at risk is more than 180 million throughout the world Haseeb et al. (2002); Mas-Coma et al. (1999); Ishii et al. (2002). Khalil et al. (2009) recorded 49.01% prevalence of fasciolosis infestation in buffaloes. He also observed that optimum infestation was seen from January to September, while minimum during October to December. Whereas Bhutto et al. (2002) recorded 4% buffalo calves infested with trematodes. Introduction 4 Morphological identification of Fasciola species requires significant parasitological skills and is not an accurate method of characterization, especially for the ‘intermediate’ form Kendall et al. (1965); Lin et al. (2007); Le et al. (2008). Hence, different molecular tools have been developed during the last decade for the accurate identification of Fasciola spp. Marcilla et al. (2002); Velusamy et al. (2004); Cucher et al. (2006); Magalhaes et al. (2008); Ai et al. (2010). Conventional techniques like fecal examination used for its diagnosis are not comprehensive because of Species similarity in distribution in many countries of East and North Africa, and Southeast and Central Asia, and are similar in egg morphology. Coprological methods continue to be the most widely used approach for the detection and quantification of Fasciola and other helminth eggs in laboratory animals, domestic and sylvatic animals and humans Cringoli et al. (2004, 2010); Bergquist et al. (2009), with a more recently developed method that is currently undergoing broad-scale validation the FLOTAC techniques Cringoli et al. (2010) for the detection and quantification of F. hepatica eggs in feces obtained from experimentally-infected rats before and after drug administration. FLOTAC has been used successfully in the diagnosis of F. hepatica infections in naturallyinfected sheep, which underwent treatment with standard Cringoli et al. (2006). However PCR based diagnosis using specie-specific primers has been proved more accurate and successful in diagnosis and distinction of Fasciola species Le TH et al. (2012). The molecular technique such as PCR is used for the recognition of parasite. These molecular techniques are largely accepted all over the world. These are more exact methods than traditional in epidemiological studies Heckeroth and Tenter et al. (1999). Herbal drugs have been used since ancient times to cure diseases and medicinal plants have been used to treat fasciolosis among these Nigella sativa and Allium sativum have been used to treat the worm infestation. No report of resistance development to plant anthelmintic although many have been used in veterinary medicine for many years Ashaal et al. (2010); Introduction 5 Waller et al. (1995); Koko et al.(2000); Thienpont et al. (1979); Keiser et al. (2011). Herbal (indigenous) drugs have been used since ancient times to cure diseases, and several medicinal plants have been used to treat fasciolosis Satyavati et al. (1987). Among these, Nigella sativa has been used to treat worm infestation Nadkrani et al. (1954; Said et al. (1969); Akhtar et al. (1988). N. sativa can be used as a therapeutic agent against helminthes Khan et al. (2013). Neem leaf powder can be used as therapeutic agent against gastrointestinal parasites of camel, equine, cattle, buffalo and small ruminants Mehmood et al. (2013). Garlic powder can also be used as herbal product against the gastrointestinal helminthes of livestock Ijaz et al. (2008). Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 2256-T] (1).

40. Current Techniques in Small Animal Surgery

by Bojrab, M. Joseph | Slocum, Barclay | Ellison, Gary W.

Edition: 4th edMaterial type: book Book Publisher: USA: Lippincott Williams & Wilkins; 1998Availability: Items available for loan: Pattoki Library [Call number: 636.0897 Joseph 14885 4th 1998 CMS] (1), UVAS Library [Call number: 636.0897 Joseph 14884 4th 1998 CMS] (1).

41. Large Animal Internal Medicine : Diseases of Horses, Cattle, Sheep and Goats / 2nd ed

by Smith, Bradford P | Smith, Bradford P.

Edition: 2nd ed.Material type: book Book Publisher: USA: Mosby-Year Book, 1996Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 636.0896 Smith 14342 2nd 1996 CMS] (4).

42. Equine Neonatal Medicine

by Mary Rose Paradis.

Edition: 1st ed.Material type: book Book Publisher: China : Saunders, 2006Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 636.10896 Paradis 20058 1st 2006 CMS] (1).

43. Textbook of Small Animal Surgery / 3rd ed

by Douglas Slatter.

Edition: 3rd ed.Material type: book Book Publisher: USA : Saunders, 2002Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 636.0897 Slatter 15133 3rd 2003 CMS] (1). Checked out (1).

44. Textbook of Large Animal Surgery

by Oehme, Frederick W.

Edition: 1st ed.Material type: book Book Publisher: USA: Williams and Wilkins; 1974Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 636.08917 Oehme 22640 1st 1974 CMS] (5).

45. The Merck Veterinary Manual / 10th ed

by Kahn, Cynthia M | Line, Scott.

Edition: 10th ed.Material type: book Book Publisher: USA : Merck, 2010Availability: Items available for loan: Pattoki Library [Call number: 636.089 Marck 29583 10th 2010 CMS] (1), UVAS Library [Call number: 636.089 Marck 24320 10th 2010 CMS] (2).

46. Seroprevalence And Associated Risk Factors Of Leptospirosis In Sheep And Goat In And Around Lahore

by Muhammad Awais Akram (2008-VA-230) | Dr.Muhammad Hassan Saleem | Dr. Muhammad Avais | Dr. Hassan Mushtaq.

Material type: book Book; Literary form: not fiction Publisher: 2015Dissertation note: Sheep and goats, although representing an important source of animal protein in third world countries such as Pakistan, seem to have benefited little from veterinary care and production improvement. Sheep and goats are often the main source of daily meat and are used in ceremonial festivities throughout the country. Small ruminants (sheep and goats) are ubiquitous, with important contributions to the subsistence, economic, and social livelihoods of many humans, particularly in developing countries. According to FAO, (2010), approximately 95.7% of all goats and 63.3%of all ewes worldwide are located in developing countries and represent more than 70% of total animal production. Among the various factors that may lead to low productivity in tropical countries, infectious diseases may be very prevalent, impairing milk and meat production. Leptospirosis is an outstanding neglected disease, and since it is usually silent, its effects on livestock are often underestimated. As an example that may be considered for other tropical areas of the world, it was recently described as the most frequent and potentially the major infection impairing productivity in small ruminants. Unfortunately, a definitive diagnosis of leptospirosis is difficult to make. Most of diagnostic laboratories do not attempt to isolate leptospires because of their fragile nature, cost and complexity of the isolation media, and prolonged incubation period. Therefore, recognition of leptospiral infection has been based generally on serological evidence. A wide variety of serological tests, which show varying degrees of serogroups and serovar specificity, have been described. Two tests have a role in veterinary diagnosis: the microscopic agglutination test (MAT) and the enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. A total of 180 serum samples were examined in this study. The animals were included in this study from various sources representing the diverse livestock production system / management conditions i.e. rural subsistence, peri-urban and semi commercia, sheep and goat farms in and around the Lahore. The blood samples were collected from randomly selected animals as well as on the basis of Leptospirosis- like symptoms or any other indication of the disease. The blood samples were collected in clean sterile vacutainers having no anticoagulant. From each animal 5-10 ml blood sample were collected by phlebotomy. For this purpose the area on jugular vein was sterilized with 70% alcohol and blood was collected in the vacutainer. The blood samples were put in slanted position in the refrigerator for two hours. Upon appearance of serum in the tubes usually after three hours of refrigeration, samples were centrifuged at 4000 revolution per minute (RPM) for five minutes. The sera were separated using a sterile pipette for each sample and clean sterilized vials were stored at -20°C in the freezer till used. The standard hygienic measures were adopted during collection and processing of blood samples. The ELISA is performed by the procedure that is described by the ELISA kit manufacturer. The sheep were divided into three categories that were healthy, pregnant and aborted, which account for 0, 3.34 and 26.6%, respectively, positive samples. Whereas, The goat were also divided into three categories that were healthy, pregnant and aborted, which account for 0, 6.67 and 30%, respectively, positive samples. The highest percentage were observed in aborted animals that indicated that the leptospirosis had contribution in the abortion of the goat and sheep. The sheep were divided into four categories that were urban, peri urban, semi-commercial and commercial, which account for 13.3, 6.67, 6.67 and 10%, respectively, positive samples. Whereas, the goat were also divided into four categories that were urban, peri urban, semi-commercial and commercial, which account for 16.7, 13.4, 6.67 and 10%, respectively, positive samples. The highest percentage were observed in urban areas where the sheep and goats were raised together that indicated that the leptospirosis can be spread from animal to animal. Conclusion: From the finding of the current study suggested that leptospirosis can be difficult to diagnosis properly. The proper diagnosis can helpful for the controlling the leptospirosis. The urban area, and physiological conditions, of sheep and goat, are the major risk factors. Suggestion and Recommendations: Proper diagnosis and good management can reduce the risk of leptospirosis in sheep and goat. The infected animal must be isolate and treat with proper medications. The further studies can helpful for more proper disease diagnosis and control. Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 2274-T] (1).

47. Comparison Of Intravenous And Inhalation Anesthesia For Performing Minor And Major Surgeries In Sheep And Goat

by Muhammad Imran Ibraheem (2006-VA-108) | Dr. Sadaf Aslam | Dr. Uzma Farid Durrani | Dr. Hafsa Zainab.

Material type: book Book; Literary form: not fiction Publisher: 2015Dissertation note: Anesthesia can be achieved with injection or inhalation of substances that produce reversible state of unconsciousness. For scientific quality, anesthetic technique must be reliable and safe and the effects, of anesthetic compounds on animals must be well documented. If animals undergo survival surgery, they need to recover quickly and not suffer unnecessarily disturbance in biological parameters. This is of importance for both animal welfare and scientific quality. Awareness among animal lovers and increase in value of animals, the impedance has increased to many folds on surgeons to select ideal anesthetics for ideal outcomes during major surgical interventions. The anesthetic agents should be standardized for minimal recovery time in animals, so that the animals have to bear minimum cardiovascular, hepatic and renal distress due to different anesthetic drugs used. The present study was carried out on twelve sheep and goats. The selection criteria was surgical cases presented for minor and major surgeries at Indoor Surgery Clinic, UVAS, Lahore. All surgical cases were subjected into two treatment groups, viz. group A and B comprising six surgical cases in each group. In group (A) animals were given Xylazine @2.2mg/kg (Xylaz; Farvet, Holland) as a preanesthetic followed by Ketamine @2-4mg/kg (Ketarol; Global pharma, Pakistan) as anesthetic and maintenance whereas group (B) animals were given xylazine @2.2mg/kg as preanesthetic and afterwards induction and maintenance were performed with Isoflurane (4%) (Forane; Abbott, Pakistan) inhalation anesthesia with oxygen flow rate of (3 L/min) ……………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………SUMMARY 63 The overall objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of xylazine, ketamine and isoflurane gas anesthesia on different biological systems of body. Comparison among different drugs was evaluated during minor and major surgeries in sheep and goat. The parameters used to evaluate the efficacy of these anesthetic drugs exposed that isoflurane has less outcome on cardiovascular, liver and renal system. In adding together it has an edge over other injectable anesthetic drugs on account of its undetrimental effect on other physiological parameters of animals. Clinical trials have proved that isoflurane a narrative anesthetic agent is a drug of choice in minor as well as major surgical procedures without any injurious effects. Conclusion: The mean value of specific all parameters TPR, LFT and RFT and CBC shows that Injectable xylazine and ketamine was not safe. Isoflurane anesthesia was the safest anesthetic agent in geriatric or weak animals for longer procedure. Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 2273-T] (1).

48. A Sonographic Diagnostic Study Of Tendinopathies And Traumatic Injuries Of Joints And Associated Soft Tissue Structures In Equines In And Around Lahore

by Azmat Ullah (2013-VA-440) | Dr. Shehla Gul Bokhari | Dr. Sadaf Aslam | Dr. Saima Masood.

Material type: book Book; Literary form: not fiction Publisher: 2015Dissertation note: Diagnostic ultrasound was introduced as diagnostic modality in equines in 1982 by Rantanen. Horses are widely used across Pakistan for polo, race and draught purpose. Tendinopathies along with associated arthropathies and / or soft tissue trauma are common aliments among feet problems. However, no work has been done so far in Pakistan regarding the precise sonographic diagnosis of these problems and the seat of lameness, which results in the early culling of these horses. Advancements in diagnostic imaging have greatly improved the efficiency of the veterinarians in diagnosing soft tissues abnormalities. The present project was aimed to addressed these issues regarding precise lameness diagnosis in equines, with respect to sonographic presentation of the tendons, soft tissues and associated joints, and hence, to initiate precise diagnosis for effective treatment in future. The study was designed to precisely diagnose and characterize the soft tissue injuries occurring concurrently with joint involvement, in the three predominant categories of horses in and around Lahore, viz., Race, Polo and draught-purpose. For this purpose, twenty-four horses were divided into three groups i.e. A, B and C, each group comprising eight horses. Furthermore, each group were subdivided into two subgroups with four clinically sound horses and four unsound horses presented with soft tissues abnormalities occurring concurrently with or without joint involvement. The changes between sound and unsound structures were compared through intra-group and inter-group comparison. The study was aimed towards practical needs in addressing to the precise sonographic diagnosis for the seat of lameness and characterization of the lesion. Conclusively, percentage Summary 64 occurrence and degree of prognosis were assessed. Besides, it will futuristically augment in proper treatment of our precious animals. Different soft tissue structures of various joints (elbow, carpus, MCP/MCT, stifle, and hock) were sonographically imaged both in sound and unsound horses for the percentage occurences of injuries in all the three group, along with degree of lameness, degree of pain, degree of range of motion in each joint and degree of prognosis. The parameters shown significant correlation with minor differences. The study proved that occurrence of tendinopathies and associated joint trauma are more common in race horses than in polo and draught-purpose horses. The data regarding sonography of the joints was analyzed by using chi square test with the help of SPSS version 17. The study can be used as a proven tool for the early diagnosis, prognosis of soft tissue abnormalities and facilitate both veterinarians and owners in long run and can also be used for treatment purposes.Diagnostic ultrasound was introduced as diagnostic modality in equines in 1982 by Rantanen. Horses are widely used across Pakistan for polo, race and draught purpose. Tendinopathies along with associated arthropathies and / or soft tissue trauma are common aliments among feet problems. However, no work has been done so far in Pakistan regarding the precise sonographic diagnosis of these problems and the seat of lameness, which results in the early culling of these horses. Advancements in diagnostic imaging have greatly improved the efficiency of the veterinarians in diagnosing soft tissues abnormalities. The present project was aimed to addressed these issues regarding precise lameness diagnosis in equines, with respect to sonographic presentation of the tendons, soft tissues and associated joints, and hence, to initiate precise diagnosis for effective treatment in future. The study was designed to precisely diagnose and characterize the soft tissue injuries occurring concurrently with joint involvement, in the three predominant categories of horses in and around Lahore, viz., Race, Polo and draught-purpose. For this purpose, twenty-four horses were divided into three groups i.e. A, B and C, each group comprising eight horses. Furthermore, each group were subdivided into two subgroups with four clinically sound horses and four unsound horses presented with soft tissues abnormalities occurring concurrently with or without joint involvement. The changes between sound and unsound structures were compared through intra-group and inter-group comparison. The study was aimed towards practical needs in addressing to the precise sonographic diagnosis for the seat of lameness and characterization of the lesion. Conclusively, percentage Summary 64 occurrence and degree of prognosis were assessed. Besides, it will futuristically augment in proper treatment of our precious animals. Different soft tissue structures of various joints (elbow, carpus, MCP/MCT, stifle, and hock) were sonographically imaged both in sound and unsound horses for the percentage occurences of injuries in all the three group, along with degree of lameness, degree of pain, degree of range of motion in each joint and degree of prognosis. The parameters shown significant correlation with minor differences. The study proved that occurrence of tendinopathies and associated joint trauma are more common in race horses than in polo and draught-purpose horses. The data regarding sonography of the joints was analyzed by using chi square test with the help of SPSS version 17. The study can be used as a proven tool for the early diagnosis, prognosis of soft tissue abnormalities and facilitate both veterinarians and owners in long run and can also be used for treatment purposes. Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 2272-T] (1).

49. Veterinary Nursing : Formerly Jones's Animal Nursing B. C. Cooper.

by Lane, D. R.

Edition: 5 Sub ed.Material type: book Book; Format: print Publisher: UK: Pergamon Press; 1994Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 636.089073 Lane 13596 5th 1994 CMS] (1).

50. General Animal Surgery and Anaestesiology : With Theory and Practicals

by Kumar, Gangwar | A. K. Naveen.

Edition: 1stMaterial type: book Book Publisher: India: New India Publishing Agency; 2010Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 636.0897 Gangwar 24335 1st 2010 CMS] (2).



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