Tasks for the Veterinary Assistant
Edition: 1st ed. Material type: Book ; Literary form:
Publisher: USA: Lippincott Williams and Wilkins; 2005
Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [ Call number: 636.089073 Pattengale 18110 1st 2005 CMS] (1).
Elsevier's Veterinary Assistant Textbook
Edition: 1st ed. Material type: Book ; Literary form:
Publisher: China: Elsevier; 2013
Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [ Call number: 636.089 Sirois 27511 1st 2013 CMS] (1).
Rosen & Barkin's 5-Minute Emergency Medicine Consult / 5th ed.
Edition: 5th ed. Material type: Book ; Literary form:
Publisher: China: Wolters Kluwers; 2015
Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [ Call number: 616.025 Schaider 31802 5th 2015 CMS] (1).
Orthopaedics : Principles of Basic and Clinical Science
Material type: Book ; Literary form:
Publisher: USA: CRC Press; 1999
Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [ Call number: 616.7 Bronner 31746 1st 1999 CMS] (1).
Treatment Of Long Oblique Tibial Fracture With Intramedullary Pin Alone And Full Cerclage Wires In Cats
Material type: Book ; Literary form:
Publisher: 2017 Dissertation note: Fracture of long bone in animals is a challenging problem these days. Leg fractures in cats are quite common problem. Fractures treated with biomechanically sound fixation and proper attention to soft tissues will be most likely to heal with a functional outcome. However, osteomyelitis, bone sequestration, and joint ankylosis still continue to be major factors in inhibiting healing and bone functionality.
This research project was designed with the aim to test the effectiveness and accuracy of three sets of bone splintage devices in healing long oblique mid-shaft tibial fractures in cats, with minimal side effects and stress to the patient.
For the study total twelve adult cats as and when presented at Pet Centre, University of Veterinary & Animal Sciences Lahore, and Saleem Veterinary Clinic and petshop Lahore, having long oblique fracture of tibia irrespective of breed, sex and considering almost similar age group, both stray and domesticated were selected. These cats were divided into three groups i.e groups A, B and C comprising of four cats in each group, and designated as 1, 2 3 and 4 respectively. They were admitted as clinical trial patients and were kept in separate cat cages at Saleem Veterinary Clinic until the completion of the study. Specific tagged collars were applied on all the cats. They were kept under comfortable environment and on a standard commercially available cat feed diet with ad labitum access to water. All the cats of three groups, having long oblique tibial fracture were treated with 3 separate techniques for comparison. In group A, fracture was reduced and immobilized with intramedullary pinning. In group B, fracture was treated with full cerclage wires alone while cats of group C were treated with intramedullary pin and cerclage wires. Thus comparative fracture healing and efficacy of individual techniques in their respective cases were evaluated.
Subsequent comparative parameters were studied which included physical examination of wound, lameness grading, radiological scoring for callus formation, fracture line union, fracture alignment as well as callus remodelling. The collected data regarding study parameters were illustrated by descriptive statistics and non-parametric analysis of variance (Kruskal Walis Test) using IBM SPSS Statistics version 20.
Therefore, as advocated by the results of this study, intramedullary pinning (preferably threaded) with at least 2 - 3 full cerclage wiring was a better choice for the correction of a long oblique mid-shaft tibial fracture in cats. The combination of both these techniques together give a strong backbone for bone healing to take place with minimum amount of stress to the bone fragments and also to counteract different forces acting on the fracture site.Both these techniques were easy, required little soft tissue manipulation, were cost-effective, required less equipment and could easily be applied by an average practitioner.
Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [ Call number: 2891-T] (1).
Epidemiology, Molecular Detection, Zoonotic Potential, Heamatology And Chemotherapy Of Cryptosporidiosis In Small Ruminants In Southern Khyber Pakhtunkhwa, Pakistan
Material type: Book ; Literary form:
Publisher: 2017 Dissertation note: Cryptosporidiosis is one of the most important parasitic enteric protozoan infection affecting all vertebrates. The current study was designed to determine the percent prevalence of cryptosporidiosis in small ruminants and humans along with associated risk factors.
An overall highest percent prevalence of cryptosporidiosis recorded in all four categories of small ruminants were 27.22%, 20.56%, 18.33% and 12.22% in lambs, kids, Sheep and goats respectively.
In the current study, 21.55%, 18.33% and15% prevalence of the Cryptosporidium infection was recorded in sheep in District Kohat, Bannu and Lakki Marwat respectively. In the present study, the highest month wise percent prevalence in sheep, was observed in the month of August (36.66%) followed by April (26.66%), June (26.66%), May, July and September (23.33%), February (10.66%), March (10%), November (10%) while the lowest percent prevalence was observed in the month of December and January (6.66%). In sheep, season wise percent prevalence was also studied where highest prevalence was recorded in summer and autumn season (23.33%), followed by spring (20%) while the lowest percent prevalence was found in the winter season (10%). In sheep, age wise percent prevalence was also studied where highest percent prevalence was found at the age of 1 year (22.38%) followed by 1-2 years (18.03%) while the lowest at the age of 2-3 years (13.46%). In sheep, sex wise percent prevalence was also documented where highest percent prevalence was recorded in female (18.80%) followed by male (17.02%) where lowest percent prevalence was recorded.
In goats, the percent prevalence of the Cryptosporidium infection was also studied in three selected areas where recorded 6.66%, 11.66% and 18.3% prevalence in District Bannu, Lakki Marwat and Kohat respectively. Similarly, in goats, overall highest month wise percent
prevalence was recorded in the month of August (30%), followed by July (23.33%), June (20%), May (16.66%), March and September (13.33%), April and November (10%), January, February and October (3.33%) while the lowest percent prevalence was recorded in December (0%). In the current study, the season wise prevalence was also studied in goats where highest percent prevalence was recorded in the summer season (20.83%), followed by spring (13.33%), autumn (11.66%) while the lowest prevalence was observed in winter season (3.33%). The highest age wise percent prevalence was recorded at the age of 1 year (18.58%) followed by 1-2 years (10.20%) while the lowest at the age of 2-3 years or above (5.95%). According to the sex wise percent prevalence, the highest percent prevalence was recorded in male (12.30%) while the lowest in females (12.17%).
The overall highest percent prevalence of the Cryptosporidium infection was also recorded in lambs in three areas where 33.33%, 25% and 23.33% prevalence was recorded in Kohat, Lakki Marwat and Bannu respectively. The highest month wise percent prevalence was recorded in the month of August (46.6%), followed by other months of the year such as July (40%), April, May and June (30%), September and October (26.66%), November and January (20%) while the lowest in the month of February and December (16.66%) in lambs. The Season wise percent prevalence was recorded in lambs where highest percent prevalence was recorded in summer season (36.66 %), followed by spring and autumn (26.66%) while the lowest in winter season (18.33%). According to the age wise percent prevalence in lambs, the highest prevalence was recorded at the age of 1-15 days (38.09%) followed by 16-30 days (29.41%) while the lowest at the age of 31-60 days or above (15.15%). In lambs, the highest sex wise percent prevalence was recorded in females (31.18%) while the lowest percent prevalence was observed in males (22.98%).
In kids, overall highest percent prevalence was 20.55% recorded in three selected districts where the highest prevalence was recorded in District Kohat (23.33%), followed by District Bannu (20%) while the lowest in District Lakki Marwat (18.33%). In kids the month wise percent prevalence was also studied where the highest percent prevalence was recorded in May and August (33.33%), followed by June, July and September (26.66%), March, April and October (20%), November and December (13.33%) while the lowest percent prevalence was recorded in the month of the January (6.66%). The Season wise percent prevalence was also recorded in kids, where the highest percent prevalence was observed in the summer season (30%), followed by autumn (23.33%), spring (20%) while the lowest prevalence was recorded in winter season (10%). The highest age wise percent prevalence in kids was also recorded at the age of ≤1-15 days (33.92%), followed by 16-30 days (15.38%) while the lowest at the age of ≥31-60 days or above (13.55%). Sex wise percent prevalence was also determined in goat kids where, the highest percent prevalence was recorded in female (20.98%) followed by male kids (19.19%).
To conduct molecular study, 360 fecal samples of sheep were analyzed for presence of the Cryptosporidium oocysts through simple microscopic method first then confirmed by PCR. DNA was extracted with the help of DNA extraction kit (Made in USA, GFC vivantis). The targeted gene of parasite was 18s rRNA which result in amplification of a segment of genomic DNA at 435 bp. The following primers sequence was used for Forward primer: (5-AAGCTCGTAGTTGGATTTCTG- and reverse primers (5-TAAGGTGCTGAAGGAGTAAGG-3. An overall molecular percent prevalence of the Cryptosporidium infection was 24.99% in sheep in three selected zones of southern KPK. The highest molecular percent prevalence was 31.66%, 25% and 18.33% in District Kohat, Bannu and Lakki Marwat respectively.
The highest season wise molecular percent prevalence was also recorded where the highest percent prevalence was recorded in the summer (33.33%), followed by autumn (30%), spring (26.66%) while the lowest in the winter season (13.33%). Molecular percent prevalence was higher in females (27.08%) than male (25.53%). On the basis of environmental factors, overall the highest percent prevalence was recorded in the month of August where highest ambient temperature, relative humidity and heavy rain fall was recorded.
To find out Zoonotic aspect of the Cryptosporidium infection, the overall highest percent prevalence was recorded in children (16.66%), followed by adults (5.55%).
The highest percent prevalence was recorded in diarrhoeic children where direct contact with small ruminants was observed while the lowest prevalence was recorded in those children where no direct or indirect contact was observed.
To conduct the therapeutic trials, a total of 50 goats were selected of the same weight and age that were naturally infected by Cryptosporidium under field conditions. All the goats were placed under same feeding and management conditions and randomly divided into five groups such as A, B, C, D and E. All animals in groups A, B, C and D were treated with Azithromycin (10mg/kg b.wt), Metronidazole (50mg/Kg b.wt), Allium sativum (50mg/Kg b.wt) and Paromomycin (100mg/kg b.wt) respectively while Group-E was placed as a positive control group. The highest percent efficacy in reduction of OPG was shown by different drugs such as Paromomycine (91.77%) followed by Metronidazole (78.20%), Allium sativum (77.00%) while the lowest percent efficacy was shown by Azithromycin (59.29%). On the basis of hematological study, lower lymphocytes count was (48.39%) recorded in non-infected animals while higher (54.33%) count was recorded in infected animals. Similarly higher eosinophil count was (6.73%) recorded in infected group while lower (50 %) counts were recorded in non-
infected group. Hb level was higher in infected group than healthy animals. PCV level was higher (42.94%) in infected animals while low (34.62%) in healthy animals. Biochemical analysis of the serum showed, higher quantity of total protein, albumin, ALP, Sodium, Potassium, Chloride, Zinc, Copper, Urea and Creatinine was recorded in infected goats while lower quantity was observed in healthy goats.
Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [ Call number: 2880-T] (1).
Comparative Efficacy Of Mycotoxin Binders And Effects Of Aflatoxin B1 On Health Status Of Lactating Beetal Goats
Material type: Book ; Literary form:
Publisher: 2017 Dissertation note: Aflatoxins are the secondary metabolites produced by moulds particularly by certain strains of Aspergillus flavus and Aspergillus parasiticus. The most toxic is the aflatoxin B1 (AFB1) and is considered as Hepatocarcinogenic. In present study aflatoxin B1 contamination status of different concentrate feeds (cotton seed cake, wanda, wheat bran and homemade concentrate mixture) of dairy goats was investigated in district Lahore of Pakistan. Twenty goat farms were randomly selected and 40 feed samples (two from each farm) were collected. The samples were analysed for the estimation of AFB1 using reverse phase High Performance Liquid Chromatography (HPLC) in Quality Operations Laboratory, UVAS, Lahore. AFB1 was detected in 33 feed samples out of 40 thus with a percent contamination rate of 83%. The quantity of aflatoxin B1 ranged from 0-225.736 ppb (μg/kg). The maximum level of AFB1 was detected in cotton seed cake (mean level 137.059 ± 22.293 ppb) and minimum level was detected in wheat bran (mean level 5.676 ± 1.047 ppb). Amongst the positive concentrate feed samples, 28 samples (85% of the positive) were having the concentration of AFB1 higher than the permissible level recommended by European Communities which is 5 ppb for concentrates. Thus the milk from goats consuming AFB1 contaminated concentrate feed can be a potential hazard for public health. This part of the study fulfills the first objective of the research project, which is to determine the aflatoxin B1 contamination status of concentrate feeds of dairy goats in District Lahore.
Beetal is the best dairy goats’ breed of Pakistan. In second part of the study, lactating beetal goats were used. In this experiment, effects of dietary AFB1 on health status of lactating beetal goats and its transfer from feed into milk as metabolite aflatoxin M1 (AFM1) were investigated. Thirty two lactating beetal goats of 3-4yr old, 6-8 wks. lactation period and weighing 40.91 ± 0.285 Kg, were selected from Small Ruminant Farm, Pattoki, University of veterinary and Animal
Sciences Lahore, and were randomly divided into four groups A, B, C and D, each having 8 animals. Group A was kept as negative control, while groups B, C and D were fed with aflatoxin B1 through naturally contaminated cotton seed cake. The cotton seed cake was having high level of AFB1 which was 150 μg/kg. After 7 days of adaptation period, each animal of groups B, C and D was individually fed with 30μg, 40μg and 50μg of aflatoxin B1 per day respectively through naturally contaminated cotton seed cake for a 10 days period., thus each animal of groups B, C, and D was fed with 200 g, 266.66 g, and 333.33 g of cotton seed cake per day respectively, to provide the required amount of AFB1 to each experimental animal. Milk samples were collected 24hr before the first AFB1 feeding and on 3rd, 7th and 10th day post aflatoxin B1 feeding. The samples were tested for AFM1 through HPLC, somatic cell count (SCC) and total viable count (TVC). Blood samples were analyzed for aspartate aminotransferase (AST), alanine aminotransferase (ALT) and alkaline phosphatase (ALP) levels before and after aflatoxin B1 administration. AFM1 was detected in all milk samples of the Groups B, C and D, with concentration beyond permissible level which is 0.05ppb (European communities).The amount of AFM1 excreted in milk was positively correlated with the amount of aflatoxin B1 ingested. The AFB1 was excreted in the milk as AFM1 at 1.35-1.59%. The mean SCC of groups A, B, C and D was 1.44×106 ± 1.75×105, 4.13×106 ± 4.09×105, 3.63×106 ± 4.60×105, 1.38×106 ± 1.56×105 cells/ml respectively. TVC obtained was 2.4×104 ± 1.9×103, 4.3×104 ± 1.6×103, 4.8×104 ± 3.3×103, 3.6×104 ± 3.3×103 cfu/ml of milk for group A, B, C and D respectively. The mean ALP levels were 62 ± 7, 223 ± 22, 147 ± 14, 175 ± 16 U/L for group A, B, C and D respectively. Mean levels of AST of group A, B, C and D were 79 ± 2.214, 110 ± 5.386, 104 ± 2.015, 126 ± 9.456 respectively. Mean levels of ALT of group A, B, C and D were 14 ± 0.326, 20 ± 1.118, 21 ± 1.106, 28 ± 1.250 U/L respectively. The ingestion of AFB1 even at low dose of 30μg in goats resulted in excretion
of AFM1 in milk beyond the permissible level. SCC, TVC, AST and ALT levels increased with ingestion of dietary AFB1. This part of the study fulfills the 2nd objective of the research project which is to investigate the effects of dietary aflatoxin B1 on health status of lactating beetal goats and its transfer from feed into milk as AFB1.
In the third part of the study, the efficacy of two different mycotoxin binders Toxfin® and Elitox® was determined, in terms of reduction in milk AFM1 excretion, improvement in milk quality and liver health. Groups A and B were kept negative and positive controls respectively. Experimental animals, cotton seed cake and number of groups remained the same as used in part 2 of the experiment. After initial 10 days of the experiment, each animal of groups B, C and D was daily fed with 266.66 g of cotton seed cake to provide 40 μg of AFB1 per day to each animal, for next 7 days. In the meantime, group C was fed with mycotoxin binder Toxfin® (Kemin industries, Inc. USA), at a dose rate of 3 g per Kg of cotton seed cake, while group D was fed with mycotoxin binder Elitox® (Impextraco Belgium ) at a dose rate of 1 g per Kg of cotton seed cake. Toxfin® and Elitox® both significantly decreased the excretion of AFM1 in goats’ milk, detected through high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). Toxfin® and Elitox® reduced the excretion of AFM1 in milk by 56 % and 48 % respectively, thus the detoxifying ability of Toxfin® in feed was significantly higher than Elitox®. The SCC and TVC remained statistically unchanged after the administration of mycotoxin binders. The enzyme activities of alanine aminotransferase (ALT) and aspartate aminotransferase (AST) were not significantly affected by the mycotoxin binders. The alkaline phosphatase (ALP) level significantly increased in animals receiving either Toxfin® or Elitox®. The mycotoxin binders used in this study were not able to significantly improve milk quality and liver’s health in AFB1 treated goats, during the experimental period. This part of the study fulfills the 3rd objective of the research project, which was to determine the comparative efficacy of two different mycotoxin binders in lactating goats fed with mold contaminated diet.
Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [ Call number: 2860-T] (1).