Prevalence Of Mastitis And In-Vitro Antibiogram Study Of The Mastitogens In Bhag-Nari Cattle
Material type: Book ; Literary form:
Publisher: 2016 Dissertation note: Mastitis creates detectable changes in mammary gland and causes inflammation of the mammary gland. In terms of economic losses it is most expensive disease. Mastitis is a worldwide issue which affects the milking animals in any stage of life. Mainly it is caused by bacterial organisms. A study was designed to detect the mastitis and its mastitogens in Bhag-nari cows at district Naseerabad, Pakistan. Milk samples were collected from Bhag-nari cows. All information of milk samples (n=323) were collected randomly on the basis of designed performa (Annexure.1). Two to three strips of milk from each quarter were drawn on the floor surface to examine the presence of pus, blood clots, flakes and change in colour. Strip cup test was applied to detect the clinical mastitis. Surf Field Mastitis Test (SFMT) was used for the detection of subclinical mastitis in Bhag-nari cows. Aseptic techniques were applied by using cotton swabs dipped into 70% ethanol to clean and disinfect teat end. Sterile tubes of 10ml capacity were used to collect the milk samples. The positive milk samples were kept immediately in an icebox cooler and transported to lab (CASVAB) in Quetta. Primarily each milk sample was cultured on Nutrient agar by spread out technique. Mannitol salt agar was used to culture the Staphylococcus aureus. Multiple streaking was applied to isolate the selected bacteria. On the basis of culture characters, microscopic morphology, staining method and biochemical tests bacterial isolates were identified. Prevalence of mastitis in Bhag-nari cattle in Naseerabad, Balochistan was 15.79%. Areas wise the prevalence of mastitis was 18.5%, 16.2%, 14.1% and 12.9% in DM Jamali, Chattar, Baba kot and Tamboo, respectively. Age wise prevalence in the study was 14.29%, 19.63%, 17.58% and 4.88% in age group of 3-5 years old, 6-8 years, 9-11 years and above 11 years, respectively. On the basis of calving number there was significant difference (P<0.05) among the various parity numbers. The animals milked once daily showed 17.06%
mastitis as compared to 3.33% mastitis in animals daily milked more than once. There was significant difference (P<0.05). The prevalence of mastitis in well fed and under fed animals was 5.63% and 18.65%, respectively. Highly significance relation (P<0.05) was observed between the animals of satisfactory and none satisfactory udder hygiene with 6.94% and 33.64% prevalence. The most common bacterial isolates (staphylococcus aureus, streptococcus agalactiae and streptococcus dysgalactiae) were identified in the study. The most effective drugs against isolated bacteria were Ceftiofur, Oxytetracyclinc, chlortetracycline, Norfloxacin and Cephradine. Other antibiotics (Ciprofloxacin and Amoxicillin) were intermediate to resistive (Penicillin). Bhag-Nari is the only dual purpose cattle breed of Balochistan. The cattle have developed resistance to harsh environmental conditions of its home tract through centuries. The production potential (beef, milk) of the breed may be assessed and practical scientific approaches should be developed to improve the animal and facilitate the farmer.
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Study Of Hematological Alterations And Chemotherapeutic Trials Of Camels Naturally Infected With Trypanosomiasis In Cholistan, Bahawalpur
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Publisher: 2016 Dissertation note: Trypanosoma evansi (T. evansi) is a flagellated protozoan that is mechanically spread through biting flies like Stomoxys, Tabanus and Lyperosia.T. evansi was first isolated in 1880 from diseased equines and camels of Indian sub-continent. It is the parasite of likewise intravascular as well as extra vascular fluids causing “surra” in the subtropical and tropical regions all over the world, including Africa, Asia, and America. It affects a wide range of mammals. It is mostly observed in camelids and equines but camel is the principal host. Trypanosomiasis in Pakistan is prevalent as a major threat to the camels causing heavy financial losses like causing anemia, weight loss, high fever, anorexia, dullness, depression, pale mucous membranes, facial paralysis, and thin hump dropped to one side, abortion in females and even death of camels.Considering the significance and utilization of camels in our country and the substantial losses rendered by trypanosomiasis, the present study was designed to study incidence, hematological alterations and chemotherapy of trypanosomiasis in camels of Bahawalpur district.
For this purpose, 100 camels were examined for Trypanosoma infection. The blood was collected by ear-tip puncture and from Jugular venipuncture. Then thin blood smear slide was prepared and dried up in air and stained with Geimsa's staining method and examined under microscope. Trypanosomes were identified by their morphological characteristics (Chandler and Read, 1961), as described by standard texts like Taylor et al. (2007). Overall incidence of T. evansi in camels was estimated as 20%.
The effect of trypanosomiasis on various blood parameters (Hb, ESR, TEC, TLC, DLC, and PCV) was determined in 30 camels including 15 apparently healthy and 15 trypanosome infected camels to compare normal blood parameters. The remarkable decrease in Hb, TEC, PCV, platelets and lymphocytes were observed while remarkable increase inESR and TLC was observed.Severe leukocytosis, neutrophilia, monocytosis, eosinophilia and basophilia were also observed in diseased camels.
For chemotherapy, 12 camel’s positive for trypanosomiasis, were divided into three groups (A, B and C). The animals of group A were treated with Imidocarb dipropionate @ 1.2 mg Kg-1 BW I/M, and efficacy of drug was found 50% in camels against trypanosomiasis. The group B was treated with Buparvaquone @ 3 mg/kg BW 1/M and was observed 25% effective. While the group C was treated with Isometamedium chloride(Trypamidium Samorin®, Merial, Pakistan) @ 0.75mg/kg BW I/M, which was found 100% effective. The efficacy of drugs was measured on the basis of disappearance of clinical signs and recovery rate of the animals, and blood smear examination at day 2, 4 and 07 of post-medication.
Finally, the data on hematology were analyzed by Student's T-test using statistical software package SPSS v22 (statistical package for social science), P < 0.05 was considered significant. Considering the significance and utilization of camel in our country and the substantial losses rendered by trypanosomiasis, the present project was designed to record clinical cases and chemotherapy of trypanosomiasis in camels of Bahawalpur districts. The results of this study will help farmers and veterinary practitioners in field.
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Prevalence And Chemotherapy Of Dry Cow Mastitis
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Publisher: 2016 Dissertation note: The study was undertaken to determine the prevalence and chemotherapy of dry cow mastitis. Mastitis is responsible for a wide range of health problems and economic losses in cows and is characterized by decrease in milk production, Swelling of the udder, hotness of the udder and anorexia. All lactating animals generally have a period of 6-10 weeks preceding to calving (usually annually) as a dry or resting period, a non-lactating phase. About to calving the cow remains at risk to new intra-mammary infections, especially shortly after the ‘drying off’ or termination of milking. During the dry period the prophylactic benefit of 82% reduction in the rate of intra-mammary infection is the result of the dry cow treatment with antibiotics and higher rate of eliminating infections than treating in lactation.
For this purpose, 250 Pregnant dry cows were examined for subclinical mastitis. The milk samples were collected from Pattoki and adjacent areas and California mastitis test (CMT) was performed and positive samples were furtherly processed for somatic cell count at medicine Laboratory of University of Veterinary and Animal Sciences, Lahore.
For Chemotherapy, 24 animals positive for dry cow mastitis were equally divided into 4 groups viz A, B, C and D. Each group comprising of 6 animals. The animals of group A were treated with intramammary antibiotic Cloxacilline+ Ampicillin (Masticlox ,ICI). Animals in group B were treated by injecting 2 shorts (72 hours interval) of long acting Amoxicilline (amoxy 150 L.A Floris veterinaire produkten B.V Vught the Netherland) intra muscularly. Animals in group C were treated with Cephradine (Velosef, GSK) 1g/quarter through intramammary route once. Cows in group D were served as positive control. Animals in all groups were kept under close observation for clinical mastitis until parturition. After calving, cows in each group were tested for mastitis at days 7, 14 and 21 (post calving) using CMT and
SCC. Effectiveness of a particular treatment was determined on the basis of CMT score and SCC.
The collected samples from Pattoki and adjacent areas were processed at the Medicine laboratory at UVAS, Lahore aseptically for CMT and CMT positive samples were processed by Somatic cell count (SCC).
Overall prevalence determined which was 39.60% (99/250samples) by CMT and SCC.The efficacy of different antibiotics used in chemotherapy of dry cow mastitis was checked. The efficacy of Amoxicilline (Amoxy 150 L.A), Ampicillin+ Cloxacilline (Masticlox) and Cephradine (Velocef 1g) was recorded at day 7,14 and 21days post calving.
Group A was treated with Ampicillin +Cloxacilline (Masticlox) its efficacy was 83.33% and group B was treated with Amoxicilline (Amoxy 150 L.A) and its efficacy was 66.66% effective while the efficacy of Cephradine (Velocef 1g) was 33.33% in group C.
From this study it was concluded that CMT is more reliable test than other tests for the diagnosis of Mastitis in cows. Secondly subclinical mastitis which is an important problem of cows is significantly prevalent in dry cows in Pattoki and adjacent areas. Cloxacilline+ Ampicillin and Amoxicillin is the most effective drug while Cephradine is relatively less effective against mastitis in dry cows.
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Prevalence And Chemotherapy Of Bovine Anaplasmosis In District Mirpur Azad Jammu And Kashmir
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Publisher: 2016 Dissertation note: Anaplasmosis of livestock is mostly confined to tropical and subtropical countries like Pakistan, where climatic conditions are suitable for growth and development of many vectors as ticks. Piroplasms belongs to this complex and affects both large and small ruminants with high morbidity and mortality rates resulting in heavy economic losses and thus poses a serious risk to livestock production. A total of 200 blood samples of bovine, cattle (n=100) and buffalo (n=100) showing the signs of fever, progressive anemia, a marked decline in body weight, depression and debility from district Mirpur AJK were included in the study. The diagnosis was made through thin blood smear examination. The overall prevalence was found 15.00% in both species of animals. The prevalence in cattle and buffaloes revealed 22% and 08% respectively. The results showed significant difference (P<0.05) in prevalence between cattle and buffaloes. The gender wise prevalence of the disease revealed 12.12% in male and 26.87% in female cattle whereas; these values were 6.45% in male and 8.70% in female buffaloes. Chi-square analysis showed significant difference (P<0.05) between male and female animals in the area. The data on breed wise prevalence of anaplasmosis showed highest prevalence in exotic breeds (28.00%) followed by cross breed cattle (24.44%) and native breed (16.67%) of AJK. The prevalence was 5.71% in Kunddi breed of buffalo and 9.23% in Nili Ravi buffaloes. Chi-square analysis showed significant difference (P<0.05) between breeds of animals. Three different age groups of cattle and buffaloes were analyzed for the prevalence percentage of anaplasmosis in the area. The data showed highest prevalence (35.48%) in 1-3 year age group of animals followed by 18.92% in 3-5 year and 12.50% in age group 5-7 year in case of cattle and 14.29%, 6.67% and 5.88% in buffaloes respectively. the analysis of the data revealed a significant difference (P<0.05) among different age groups. The values of hemoglobin percent, packed cell volume and total
erythrocyte count were found increased significantly (P<0.05) in cattle and buffaloes infected with anaplasmosis whereas; total leukocyte count was decreased significantly. The parameters were tested through student’s T-test. The analysis showed significant difference of values of all parameters in normal and infected animals. The chemotherapeutic trials were conducted with two drugs against bovine anaplasmosis in clinically diagnosed cases. Twelve positive cases of each cattle and buffaloes were divided into two main groups A and B comprising of 06 animals in each group. Each group was further divided into two sub groups comprising of 03 animals in each sub groups. The group A was treated with Oxytetracycline @ 20 mg/kg B.W. I/M the efficacy of the drug was evaluated on the basis of disappearance of Anaplasma in the blood smear. The efficacy percentage of Oxytetracycline was 33.3, 33.3, 66.7, and 100 at 2nd, 4th, 6th and 8th day respectively post treatment in cattle whereas; 0.00, 33.3, 33.3 and 66.7 respectively in buffaloes. The group B was treated with Calotropis procera (Aak) at the dose rate of 0.3 mg/kg body weight orally. The efficacy percentage of Calotropis procera (Aak) was 0.00, 33.3, 66.7, and 66.7 at 2nd, 4th, 6th and 8th day respectively post treatment in cattle whereas; 0.00, 0.00, 0.00 and 33.3 respectively in buffaloes. The efficacy of Oxytetracycline against bovine anaplasmosis on day 08 was found 83.33% whereas; of Calotropis procera was 66.66%. It was concluded that Oxytetracycline is the most effective drug against bovine anaplasmosis.
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Therapeutic Study Of Trichomoniasis In Pigeons
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Publisher: 2016 Dissertation note: Trichomoniasis in birds is caused by the flagellated protozoan Trichomonas spp. In pigeons, it causes a condition known as ''canker''. The causative agent is Trichomonas gallinae.
The trichomoniasis is a one of the major protozoal diseases of pigeons and other members of the columbiformes family like doves etc. Common signs include diarrhea, anorexia, ruffled feathers and listlessness. A severe weight loss is one of the characteristic sign accompanied by appearance of cheesy mass in the buccal cavity.
On microscopic examination flagellated protozoan confirm the diagnosis. The transmission is either from parents to the offsprings while feeding or from the drinkers and feeders in colony keeping systems. Sometimes raptors and other birds of prey feeding on pigeons may get infection, after eating the infected prey. Trichomoniasis can occur at any time of the year, in the young squabs so a serious problem to the squab industry.
The prevalence of trichomoniasis can range upto 80% however in the present study it was found to be 19% in total.
In the present study included analysis of Trichomonas gallinae prevalence in pigeons. To evaluate this 125 pigeons were collected from various lofts and pet shops in district Lahore and were examined macroscopically for gross signs and microscopically for parasite prevalence. Prevalence was found to be highest in summer season , and in female pigeons. However certain breeds were found to be relatively more susceptible, than others.
The metronidazole was 100% effective in naturally infected pigeons with Trichomonas gallinae when it is given orally in a dose of 100 mg / pigeon for seven days (Abd El-Motelib and Galal, 1993 and Aydin et al, 2000), and 1gm / liter for five successive days (Shihata, 1978)
For comparing various therapeutic agents 4 groups of 10 birds each were used, first three groups A,B & C included naturally infected birds were treated with medicine while 4th group D included 10 birds remained untreated. In the end the efficacy of the two therapeutic drugs Metronidazole, Secindazole and one herbal agent Garlic was evaluated.
The data of the therapeutic part of the study was analyzed by ANOVA, the treatment groups were divided into 4 groups in which the pigeon were randomly placed.
Pretreatment (0 day) the buccal mucosa were analyzed and Post-treatment twice analysis were performed at 4 days and at 7 days data was analyzed using ANOVA.
Group A was Given Metronidazole at the dose rate of 100mg / day for seven days and showed the 100% recovery among the pigeons at day 4.
Group B was given Secindazole at a dose rate of 50mg single dose at day 01 only and showed 60% of the recovery at 4th day and 100% of bird recovery at 7th day.
Group C was given garlic extract approximately 200 mg / day for seven days and showed 50% of the recovery at 4th day and 70% of bird recovery at 7th day.
Group D was control thought out the study period.
Among all therapeutic groups the group A was the most significant p> 0.05(0.00a) than group B, C & D. group B is significant p< 0.05(0.16b) than group C & D, Group c is significant P<0.05(0.15b) than group D.
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