Your search returned 213 results. Subscribe to this search

Not what you expected? Check for suggestions
|
1. Fattening Of Lambs With Different Vegetable Protein Sources

by Mohsin Raza Malik | Dr . Muhammad Yapoob Malik | Dr . Nisar Ahmad | Dr . Rashid.

Material type: book Book; Format: print ; Literary form: not fiction Publisher: 1987Dissertation note: Abstract Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 0055,T] (1).

2. Effect Of Different Dietary Antibiotics On The Growth Response Of Broiler Chicks

by Haq, A | Sagir Ahmed Jafri | Muhammed | Muhammed Yaqoob Malik.

Material type: book Book; Format: print ; Literary form: not fiction Publisher: 1987Dissertation note: Abstract Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 0056,T] (1).

3. Effect Of Feeding Ensiled Sugar Cane Tops With Or Without\Added Urea And Molasses In The Fattening Ration Of Male Buffaloe Calves

by Saeed-ur-Rehman | Nisar Ahmed | Muhammed | Muhammed Yaqoob Malik.

Material type: book Book; Format: print ; Literary form: not fiction Publisher: 1986Dissertation note: Abstract Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 0058,T] (1).

4. Effect Of Alkali (Lime And Sodium Hydroxide) Treatment On The Nutritive Value Of Wheat Straw In Sahiwal Calves

by Ashfaq Ahmad | Muhammed Yaqoob Malik | Ehtisham Pervaiz | NIsar Ahmed.

Material type: book Book; Format: print ; Literary form: not fiction Publisher: 1984Dissertation note: Abstract Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 0059,T] (1).

5. Substitution Of Maize Grains With Various Sources Of Added Vegetable Fat On The Performance Of Broiler Chicks

by Aamer Zia | Nisar Ahmed | Ehtisham | Muhammed Yaqoob Malik.

Material type: book Book; Format: print ; Literary form: not fiction Publisher: 1986Dissertation note: Abstract Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 0060,T] (1).

6. Studies On The Use Of Sunflower Oil Meal As A Vegetable Protein Supplement In Broiler Rations

by Karim, A | Muhammed Yaqoob Malik | Muhammed | Sagir Ahmed Jafri.

Material type: book Book; Format: print ; Literary form: not fiction Publisher: 1984Dissertation note: Abstract Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 0061,T] (1).

7. Effect Of Ammoniation And Sodium Hydroxide Treatments On The Nutritive Value Of Rice Straw In Fattening Of Sahiwal Calves

by Rehman, A | Muhammed Yaqoob Malik | Muhammed | Sagir Ahmed Jafri.

Material type: book Book; Format: print ; Literary form: not fiction Publisher: 1985Dissertation note: Abstract Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 0062,T] (1).

8. The Effect Of Repllacement Of Corn With Wheat In Broiler Ration

by Khalid Mehmood Khan | Sagir Ahmed Jafri | Muhammed | Muhammed Yaqoob Malik.

Material type: book Book; Format: print ; Literary form: not fiction Publisher: 1983Dissertation note: Abstract Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 0063,T] (1).

9. The In Vitro Study On Comparative Digestibility In Cow And Buffalo Of Different Fodders Availale In West

by Mohsin Shah, S.M | Dr.Muhammad Yaqub Malik | Not Available.

Material type: book Book; Format: print ; Literary form: not fiction Publisher: 1970Dissertation note: Abstract Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 0065,T] (1).

10. Influence Of Varying Levels Of Energy With Constant Level Of Protein On The Performance Of Broiler Chicks

by Agha Asad Nayyar | Nisar Ahmed | Javaid Ahmed | Muhammed Yaqoob Malik.

Material type: book Book; Format: print ; Literary form: not fiction Publisher: 1988Dissertation note: Abstract Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 0066,T] (1).

11. Studies On The Use Of Sunflower Oil Meal In Broiler Rations

by Naseem Anwer | Muhammed Yaqoob Malik | Muhammed Saleem Chaudry | Nisar Ahmed.

Material type: book Book; Format: print ; Literary form: not fiction Publisher: 1987Dissertation note: Abstract Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 0067,T] (1).

12. Comparative Nutritive Value Of Sodium Hydroxide Treated Rice Straw In Pattening Rations Of Male Buffaloe Calves

by Iftikhar Ali | Sagir Ahmed Jafri | Muhammed | Muhammed Yaqoob Malik.

Material type: book Book; Format: print ; Literary form: not fiction Publisher: 1985Dissertation note: Abstract Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 0068,T] (1).

13. Studies On Yield And Chemical Compostion Of Milk As Affected By Feeding Npn (Urea) In Lactating Buffaloes

by Ashraf Iqbal, M | Muhammed Yaqoob Malik | Muhammed | Sagir Ahmed Jafri.

Material type: book Book; Format: print ; Literary form: not fiction Publisher: 1984Dissertation note: Abstract Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 0069,T] (1).

14. Urea As A Protein Substitute In The Pattening Of Sheep Under Feed Lot System

by Jamil Basra, M | Muhammed Yaqoob Malik | Nisar Ahmed.

Material type: book Book; Format: print ; Literary form: not fiction Publisher: 1987Dissertation note: Abstract Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 0070,T] (1).

15. Comparative Study Of Buffalo And Cow Milk As Asn Extender For The Semen Of Cattle And Buffalo Bulls

by Ashraf Bajwa, M | Not Available | Not Available.

Material type: book Book; Format: print ; Literary form: not fiction Publisher: 1970Dissertation note: Abstract Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 0071,T] (1).

16. The Effect Of Different Feed Incredients As A Predisposing Factor Of Hydropericardium Syndrome In Broiler

by Amer Habib | Muhammed Yaqoob Malik | Muhammed Saleem Chaudry | Nisar Ahmed.

Material type: book Book; Format: print ; Literary form: not fiction Publisher: 1990Dissertation note: Abstract Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 0072,T] (1).

17. Studies On The Use Of Sunflower Meal As Vegetable Protein Supplement In Broiler Rations

by Rehman, A | Muhammed Yaqoob Malik | Muhammed Aslam Bhatti | Nisar Ahmed.

Material type: book Book; Format: print ; Literary form: not fiction Publisher: 1988Dissertation note: Abstract Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 0073,T] (1).

18. Studies On The Use Of Soybean Oil Meal As A Vegetable Protein Supplement In Broiler Rations

by Nawaz Saeed, M | Muhammed Yaqoob Malik | Muhammed | Saghir Ahmed Jafri.

Material type: book Book; Format: print ; Literary form: not fiction Publisher: 1984Dissertation note: Abstract Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 0074,T] (1).

19. Availability Of Calcium From Different Sources In Layers

by Riffat Hamid, Ch | Mubashar Ahmed Shah | Muhammed Nawaz Asghar.

Material type: book Book; Format: print ; Literary form: not fiction Publisher: 1979Dissertation note: Abstract Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 0076,T] (1).

20. Influence Of Varying Levels Of Tallow On Economical Performance Of Broiler Chicks

by Asif Humayun, Ch | Nisar Ahmed | Muhammed | Muhammed Yaqoob Malik.

Material type: book Book; Format: print ; Literary form: not fiction Publisher: 1987Dissertation note: Abstract Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 0078,T] (1).

21. Factors Influencing The Feeding Value Of Rice Bolishing For Broilers

by Sabir, M | Mubasher Ahmed Shah | Javaid Ahmed | Muhammed Nawaz Asgher.

Material type: book Book; Format: print ; Literary form: not fiction Publisher: 1979Dissertation note: Abstract Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 0079,T] (1).

22. Effects Of Substitution Of Fish Meal With Meat Meal On The Performance Of Broiler Chicks

by Ittifaq Shaheen, M | Nisar Ahmed Mian | Muhammed | Muhammed Yaqoob Malik.

Material type: book Book; Format: print ; Literary form: not fiction Publisher: 1990Dissertation note: Abstract Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 0080,T] (1).

23. Linseed Cake As A Protein Source In Broiler Rations

by Sultan Mahmood | Muhammed Yaqoob Malik | Nisar Ahmed | Saghir Ahmed Jafri.

Material type: book Book; Format: print ; Literary form: not fiction Publisher: 1984Dissertation note: Abstract Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 0081,T] (1).

24. Influence Of Varying Levels Of Maize Oil On The Performance Of Broiler Chicks

by Azam Chohan, M | Nisar Ahmed | Muhammed | Muhammed Yaqoob Malik.

Material type: book Book; Format: print ; Literary form: not fiction Publisher: 1989Dissertation note: Abstract Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 0082,T] (1).

25. Influence Of Various Treatment Of Rice Bran On Performance Of Broiler Chicks

by Asad Masood, Dar | Nisar Ahmed | Ehtisham Pervaiz | M.Y. Malik.

Material type: book Book; Format: print ; Literary form: not fiction Publisher: 1990Dissertation note: Abstract Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 0083,T] (1).

26. Studies On The Effects Of Processing Temperatures On The Nutritive Value Of Sunflower Meal For Poultry Feeding

by Tariq, M | Muhammed Yaqoob Malik | Muhammed Nawaz Asgher | Nisar Ahmed.

Material type: book Book; Format: print ; Literary form: not fiction Publisher: 1990Dissertation note: Abstract Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 0084,T] (1).

27. Effect Of By Pass Fat On The Performance Of Indegenous Cross Bred Dairy Cattle

by Iqbal Shahid, M | Muhammed Yaqoob Malik | Ehtisham Pervaiz | Nisar Ahmed.

Material type: book Book; Format: print ; Literary form: not fiction Publisher: 1991Dissertation note: The performance of liverstock is largely affected by their level of energy intake. To increase milk quantity and quality energy dense ingredient i.e "By Pass Fat" (priplus prime manufactured by UNICHEMA. Pvt, Australia was included in the ration of dairy animals to determine its effect on the productive performance of indigenous cross-bred dairy lactating cattle. For this purpose 12 cross bread (Freisian x Sahiwal) cows in early lactation period, of almost similar lactation number, milk production and body weight were randomly selected and divided into three group (A, B & C) comprising of 4 animals each. Three concentrates were prepared in such a way to have 16% C.P & 1.37 Mcal/Kg M.E Concentrate I was taken as control. 10% "By Pass Fat" was incorporated in concentrate II which was isocalorics & isonitrogenous to concentrate I and 500gm "By Pass Fat" per animal per day along with concentrate I was supplemented in ration Ill. These three concentrate I, II & Ill were fed to the animals of group A, B & C respectively. The average total milk production of the animals of groups A, B & C fed rations I, II & Ill were recorded 4478.79, 4663.42 & 4663.39 litter respectively, where as the average total feed consumed by the animals of group A, B & C was 13307, 13121 & 13128.5 Kg. respectively. The best feed efficiency (2.81) of animals of groups B & C fed rations II & Ill, where as the poor feed utilization (2.97) was observed in the animal of control group (A). The average total weight gained by the animals of groups A, B & C fed rations I, II & Ill were 43, 54 & 89 Kg. respectively. The results thus obtained showed significant (P < 0.05) improvement in the weight gain, milk production, feed consumption and feed efficiency of the animals of groups B and C fed ration II (10% "By Pass Fat") and ration Ill (additional supplementary feeding of 500 gms by pass fat) as compared to the animals of group A fed ration I (control). However, there was non significant difference in the milk production, weight gain & feed utilization of the animals of group B & C fed ration II & Ill containing 10% "By Pass Fat" and 500gm additional supplementary feeding of "By Pass Fat" over above recomended nutrient requirements in the ration of dairy cattle. The data an milk composition showed nonsignificant effect in the milk of the animals fed different experimental rations. There was 4% increase in the milk production of the animals fed ration containing 10% "By Pass Fat" as compared to the milk production of the animals fed ration containing no "By Pass Fat". - Possibly this might be because of lower genetic potential of the animals. Therefore "By Pass Fat" proved better source of energy as compared to Carbonecious ingredinets. An additional supplementary feeding of 500 gm "By Pass Fat" over & above the recommended nutrient requirement in the rations of dairy animals did not show any increase in the milk production of the animals. Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 0220,T] (1).

28. Comparative Nutritive Value Of Cottonseed Oil, Rapeseed Oil And Soyabean Oil, On The Performance Of Broiler Chicks

by Zahid Mahmood | Nisar Ahmed | Muhammed | Muhammed Yaqoob Malik.

Material type: book Book; Format: print ; Literary form: not fiction Publisher: 1990Dissertation note: An experiment was conducted to study the comparative nutritive value of cotton seed oil, maize oil, rapeseed oil and soyabean oil on weight gain, feed efficiency, feed consumption, dressing percentage, iodine value and liver weight of broiler chicks. A ration without any added fat was kept as control. Cotton seed oil, maize oil, rapeseed oil and soyabean oil were incorporated at 2 and 3 percent levels in experimental starter and finisher rations respectively. The rations were tried on one hundred and fifty (150) dayold broiler chicks of both sexes for a period of 50 days. The starter rations were fed upto 28 days of age and finisher rations were fed from 29th day to 50 days of age The result showed that growth of chicks was influenced by the type of oil used. The ration containing maize oil was the best for growth and feed utilization, followed by rapeseed oil, soyabean oil and cotton seed oil containing rations. The addition of vegetable oils in the starter as well as finisher rations have growth promoting effect in broiler chicks and improved the feed efficiency significantly. The difference in feed consumption among different rations were found to be statistically non-significant. The oil supplementation at 2 and 3 percent level (starter and finisher ration respectively) from different vegetable sources did not influence the dressing percentage and liver weight of broiler chicks. Iodine value of abdominal fat of chicks was significantly influenced by the addition of different vegetable oils in broiler rations. The addition of vegetable oils in broiler rations improved the growth rate, feed efficiency and effected the iodine value of body fat of chicks and the rations were economical as compared to the rations without added oils. The economical picture depicted that ration containing added maize oil was the best in formulating an economical broiler ration. Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 0221,T] (1).

29. Ricepolishing (Solvent Extracted) As Source Of Energy In Broiler Rations

by Maqsood Ahmed | Javaid Ahmed Qureshi | Ehtisham | Muhammed Yaqoob Malik.

Material type: book Book; Format: print ; Literary form: not fiction Publisher: 1991Dissertation note: R ice polishing is the finally ground powdered material obtained in the polishing of kernels of rice after the hulls has been removed. Rice polishing furnishes almost equivalent energy as other cereals and at the same time is a good source of protein and water soluble vitamin especially Thiamine and Niacin. Its fiber content is comparatively higher than the cereal grains. It also contains a considerable amount of oil which is Viable to become rancid, if stored for longer period, so its oil should be extracted to improve its quality and to store it for a longer period. Rice polishing (sol. ext.) at present is not utilized efficiently for feeding of poultry due to presence of certain growth inhibitory factor. The present study was planned to replace maize with rice polishing (sol. ext.) at different levels in the broiler rations and to find out suitable treatments of autoclaving to reduce/remove the growth inhibitory factors. Two experiments were conducted using day old "Indian River" broiler chicks as experimental birds. In the first experiment the replacement of maize with rice polishing (sol. ext.)at different levels was studied. Growth rate, feed comsumption, efficiency of feed utilization and dressing percentage of chicks were recorded. There was a non significant difference in weight gain of chicks fed rations containing 0, 10, 20 & 30 percent rice polishing (so!. ext.). However, the feed utilization was reduced significantly (P < 0.01) as the level of rice polishing (so!. ext.) was increased in the rations. In the Experiment II, effect of different treatments on the nutritive value of rice polishing (sol. ext.) was studied. Treatments included autoclaving for 30 minutes, autoclaving for 60 minutes and autoclaving for 30 minutes with 20 percent moisture. autoclaving treatments significantly (P < 0.01) improved the growth rate and feed efficiency of chicks as compared to the control ration (without autoclaving). Best weight gain and feed efficiency was found in the chicks fed ration containing rice polishing (sol. ext.) autoclaved for 60 minutes. This indicated that autoclaving had reduced/removed the antinutritional/growth inhibitory factor(s) present in the indigenous rice polishing. The autoclaving with 20 percent moisture was in effective to further improve the nutritive value of rice polishing for broilers. CONCLUSION: The findings indicate a significant growth depression along with poor utilization of feed by chicks fed rations containing higher levels of rice polishing (sol. ext.). Autoclaving treatments improved the nutritive value of rice polishing (sot. ext.), as indicated by better growth rate and feed utilization of the chicks. Autoclaving with increased, moisture was ineffecting in further improving the nutritive value of rice polishing for broilers. Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 0230,T] (1).

30. Studies On The Use Of Rice Gluten Meal As Protein Supplement In Broiler Rations

by Basharat Ali | Muhammed Yaqoob Malik | Muhammed | Nisar ahmed Mian.

Material type: book Book; Format: print ; Literary form: not fiction Publisher: 1992Dissertation note: Proteins are one of the major components of poultry feeds, supplied mainly through animal and vegetable protein supplements. Rice gluten meal, a vegetable protein supplement is the byproduct of starch industry, left after the starch is washed out of rice tips flour. It is insoluble in water and greyish (beige) in colour. It has 43% crude protein and 3300 k.cal/kg. energy. On the basis of high protein and energy it could be used in the poultry feeds. The meal is commercially available in the country. The present study was planed to find out the effect of feeding different levels of rice gluten meal on the growth rate and feed utilization of broiler chicks and to determine the effect of different amino acids supplementation and mechanical treatment on the nutritive value of rice gluten meal. Two experiments were conducted using day old Hubbard' broiler chicks as the experimental birds. In the first experiment RGM was used at different levels substituting soybean meal on protein equivalent basis. The results indicated that the best growth rate and feed consumption of the chicks were observed in the ration containing 10% RGM. However, there was a progressive decrease in the weight gain of the chicks when RGM level was increased beyond 15%. The chicks growth depression was the highest (P<0.01) when RGM was used as sole source of protein. The best chicks growth performance of the ration containing 10% rice gluten meal and 25% soybean meal might be due to complimentary effect of amino acids of the two vegetable protein sources, while the poor chicks growth performance and feed consumption on account of feeding higher levels (30 and 38%) of RGM might be due to the poor quality of protein or growth inhibitory factor(s) in the indigenous rice gluten meal. The feed efficiency of the chicks was also significantly (P<0.01) lower when RGM was used as the sole source of protein. A similar trend as that of weight gain was observed in carcase weight of the chicks fed different experimental rations. A significant (P<0.01) hypertrophy of the pancreas was recorded in the chicks fed ration (G) containing the highest level of RGM as compared to the control. This indicated the presence of some growth inhibitory factor(s) in the indigenous rice gluten meal. In the second experiment effect of lysine and methionine supplementation and autoclave treatment on the inutritive value of rice gluten meal was studied. The lysine supplementation of RGM significantly improved the growth rate, feed consumption and feed efficiency of the chicks as compared to the control indicating that the meal was deficient in lysine. A further significant (P<0.01) improvement was observed in growth rate, feed consumption and feed efficiency of the chicks fed lysine supplemented and autoclaved RGM ration as compared to the control indicating that autoclave treatment might have removed or reduced the antinutritional factor(s) of RGM whereas the deficiency of lysine was compensated through synthatie lysine supplementation. There was no significant improvement in weight gain, feed consumption and feed efficiency of the chicks fed ration containing lysine + methionine supplementation as compared to the ration containing lysine supplementation. This showed that RGM was not deficient in methionine. A similar trend as that of weight gain was recorded in carcase weight of the chicks fed different experimental rations. There was observed a significant (P<O.05) decrease in pancreas hypertrophy in the chicks fed lysine supplementation and autoclaveci RGM ration as compared to the control indicating that autoclave treatment might have removed or reduced the growth inhibitory factor(s) of RGM. CONCLUSION Rice Gluten Meal (RGM) was deficient in lysine and contained some growth inhihitroy factor(s). Autoclaving and lysine supplementation in rice gluten meal improved the nutritive value of the meal as indicated by better growth rate and best feed utilization for broilers. Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 0249,T] (1).

31. Comparative Nutritive Value Of Different Vegetable Protein Supplements On The Performance Of Broiler Chicks

by Ghulam Baqar | Nisar Ahmed | Javaid Ahmed | muhammed YAqoob Malik.

Material type: book Book; Format: print ; Literary form: not fiction Publisher: 1992Dissertation note: A research project was undertaken to study the nutritive values of cotton seed meal, sesame cake and different combinations of these two on the performance of broiler chicks. The performance of chicks were studied under the headings of weight gain, feed efficiency, feed consumption dressing percentage and economics. Five starter rations containing 20,15,10,5 and 0 percent C.S.m along with 0,6,12,18 and 23.5 percent sesame cake and five finisher rations containing same proportions of C.S.m as in starter rations along with 0,5.25,10.50, 16 and 21 percent sesame cake were tried on one hundred and fifty day old broiler chicks of both sexes for period of 50 days. The starter rations were fed up to 28 days of age and remaining 22 days the finisher rations were fed. The results showed that the starter ration containing 10% C.S.m along with 12% sesame cake (Ration C) was best in promoting weight gain and feed utilization. Finisher ration containing 10% C.S.m along with 10.5% sesame cake (Ration Cl) was best in promoting weight gain, however as regard the feed efficiency, the ration containing 20% C.S.m (Ration Al) was the best. At the end of experiment dressing percentage and economic of different rations were considered. Dressing percentage value was highest of the chicks fed on ration C though statistically it was non-significant from the chicks fed on other rations. Ration E was economical as regard cost per KG live I weight. It was concluded that the ration containing efficient proportion of both the vegetable protein supplements (10% C.S. meal and 12% Sesame Cake in starter ration and 10% C.S. meal and 10.5% sesame cake in finisher ration) was better as compared to any other ration. This was due to supplementary effect of both the vegetable protein supplements to each other deficiencies. Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 0254,T] (1).

32. Study On Mineral Imbalances In Crossbred And Nondescript Cattle On Pakistan

by Sharif Saghar, M | Muhammed Yaqoob Malik | Muhammed aslam Bhatti | Nisar Ahmed.

Material type: book Book; Format: print ; Literary form: not fiction Publisher: 1991Dissertation note: Minerals are the essential nutrients having significant role in the animal nutrition because of both their excess and deficiency produce detrimental effect en the productive and reproductive performance of the animals. In the present study the levels of macro and micro mineral elements were studied in crossbred and non-descript cattle of Punjab and Sind provinces of the country. For this purpose M6 blood samples from both the local breeds been' randomly collected from districts of Lahore, Gujranwala, Gujrat, Sargodha, Jhang, Faisalabad, Okara and Sahiwal of Punjab province and Karachi , Hyderabad and Tharparkar of Sind province. These areas were included in the study because of higher population of dairy cattle. The blood samples were collected from four different classes of cattle i.e.. calves, heifers, dry pregnant and lactating non pregnant. The serum was separated from the blood samples. Ser4Jm samples were analysed f or calcium, phosphorus, sodium, potassium, magnesium, zinc, copper, manganese and iron. Sodium and potassium were analysed on flame photometer while calcium magnesium, 7)n4 copper, manganese and iron were analysed on atomic absorption spectrophotometer. Double beam spectrophotometer was used for the estimation of phosphorus. The data thus obtained was subjected to statistical analysis using complete randomize design arid the differences in the means were tested using DMR test. The mean values of serum minerals in crossbred cattle of Punjab province were Calcium 7.04 mg/100ml, phosphorus 2.94 mg/100 ml, sodium 125.17 meq/L, potassium 4.67 meq/t, magnesium 2.49 mg/100 ml, zinc 0.81 ppm, copper 0.69 ppm, manganese 0.45 ppm and iron 1.26 ppm. Highly significant difference (P<0.0l) in the values of serum minerals of crossbred cattle were found among districts while difference among various classes of crossbred cattle were non significant (P>0.05). The mean values far non descript cattle of Punjab and Sind provinces were, calcium 6.83 mg/100 ml phosphoras 2.83 mg/100 ml. sodium 130.10 meq/L, potassium 4.96 meq/L.. magnesium 2.55 mg/ 100 ml, zinc 0.86 ppm, copper- 0.72 ppm, manganese 0.47 ppm and iron 1.32 ppm.. Highly significant difference (P<0.01) was found among various classes in different districts of Punjab and Sind province. The variation in the mineral status of the animals under study might be due to many factors Like breed of animals, plane of feeding practices, composition of soil, source and supply of water and climatic conditions of the region etc. The serum mineral values observed f or crossbred and non--descript cattle of Punjab and Sind provinces of the country were relatively lower than the exotic breeds reported in the literature. While comparing the serum mineral values of crossbred with non-descript cattle, lower values for most of the minerals were found in crossbred cattle except calcium and phosphorus. Severe deficiency of serum phosphorus, zinc and copper was observed in both breeds of cattle of Punjab and Sind provinces of the country, while a mild deficiency of serum sodium and manganese was recorded. Crossbred animals were found more prone to mineral deficiencies as compared with the non-descript animals. Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 0255,T] (1).

33. Effect Of Sodium Hydroxide Treated Rice Straw In Sheep Fattending Rations

by Jafar Pervez Naqvi | Saghir Ahmed jafri | Muhammed | Muhammed Yaqoob Malik.

Material type: book Book; Format: print ; Literary form: not fiction Publisher: 1985Dissertation note: An experiment was designed to study the effect of Sodium hydroxide treatment on the nutritive value of rice straw and its effect on growth rate, feed consumption feed efficiency and digestibility when fed to sheep. Sixty four lambs were included in the trial and randomly divided into four groups having four replicates in each group. Four rations A, B, C and D untreated and treated with 2%, 4% and 6% NaOH were prepared and alloted randomly to four groups of lambs. The experiment lasted for 84 days. There was a significant improvement (P<O.05) in the weight gain and feed efficiency of lambs fed ration containing rice straw treated with 6% NaOH as compared with lambs fed ration containing untreated rice straw. Significant difference (P<O.05) in feed consumption were also observed between the lambs fed treated and untreated rice straw. The lambs fed ration containing untreated straw consumed significantly (P<O.OS) less feed than the lambs fed ration containing rice straw treated with 4%, & 6% NaOH. The digestibility trial revealed that the lambs fed ration containing rice straw treated with 2%, 4% and 6% NaOH had significantly higher (P<O.05) values of digestibility of dry matter, crude protein, crude fibre, ether extract and nitrogen free extract than the lambs fed ration containing untreated rice straw. However, non-significant difference (P<O.05) in digestibility were observed between the lambs fed rations treated with sodium hydroxide at different levels. The study indicated that nutritive value of rice straw was improved by the treatment of sodium hydroxide at a significant level(P>0.05) for fattening the animals. Treatment with 6% Sodium hydroxide was proved significantly better (P>0.05) as lambs fed ration D containing rice straw treated with 6% NaOH gained more weight showed better feed efficiency and digestibility. Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 0264,T] (1).

34. Studies On The Chick Growth Inhibition Of Rapeseed Meal

by Zaboor Khan, M | Muhammed Yaqoob Malik | Nisar Ahmed | Saghir Ahmed Jafri.

Material type: book Book; Format: print ; Literary form: not fiction Publisher: 1984Dissertation note: Rapeseed meal is one of the by-products of the oil industry obtained after the extraction of oil, generally by expeller method. The meal i. a good source of vegetable protein which could be incorporated in different poultry feeds. The use of rapeseed meal as a vegetable protein source in poultry feeds is limited due to its growth inhabitary effects. The meal contains a sulfur containing glucoside called 'Goitrin' which during digestion by an endogenous enzyme, 'myrosinase'is hydrolyzed to volatile, 'isothiocyanate', an antinutritional factor for poultry. The present study was designed to determine the effect of growth-inhabiting factor in indigenous rapeseed meal on the growing chicks and to improve its nutritive value for poultry feeding, through different mechanical and chemical treatments like solvent extraction, autoclaving, water treatment and ferrous sulphate treatment. For this purpose two experiments were designed. In both the experiments day old 'Indian Rivers" broiler chicks were used as experimental animals. In the first experiment effect of feeding different levels of rapeseed meal on the growth rate, feed consumption and feed utilization of the chicks were determined. Effects of rapeseed meal on the internal organs, dressed weight and dressing percentage of the chicks were also studied. Feeding different levels of untreated rapeseed meal in lieu of soybean meal in 1st experiment showed non-significant differences in weight gain, feed utilization, dressed weight, dressing percentage and weights of internal organs amongst the groups and replicates except the thyroid gland. This might be on account of the lower content of 'Allyl-isothiocyanate the antinutritional factor present in the indigenous rapeseed meal. However, there was a slight depression in the growth rate of the chicks fed rations containing different levels of rapeseed meal. It was observed that feeding of rapeseed meal at more than JLO% of the ration significantly increased (P/O.OJ) the weight of thyroid glands. There was almost a proportionate increase in the weight of thyroid glands of the chicks fed rations with increasing levels of rapeseeed meal. The second experiment was designed to study the effect of different mechanical and chemical treatments on the nutritive value of rapeseed meal. For this purpose, 'apeseed meal after autoclaving, solvent extraction, water and ferrous sulphate treatments was incorporated at 20% level in the experimental rations. The treatments of the meal did not improve the weight gains, feed utilization and dressed weight of the chicks as compared with untreated rapeseed meal. This might be due to the reason that the indigenous rapeseed meal contained a lower level of glucosinolate, the antinutritional factor responsible for growth inhabition in chicks and thus the effect of different treatments to reduce the level of the glucosinolate of the meal was not significant. There was, rather more depression in growth rate and feed utilization of the chicks fed rations containing water treated rapeseed meal. This might be attributed to the formation of more toxic compounds during the microbial fermentation in water treatment of the meal. Conclusion Results of the experiments indicated almost a proportionate decrease in the growth rate and feed utilization of the chicks fed rations containing different levels of rapeseed meal. However, there was no significant difference in the weight gain, feed consumption and feed efficiency of the chicks, fed rations containing different levels of rapeseed meals. There was no effect of different mechanical or chemical treatments of rapeseed meal on its nutritive value except water treatment, which, rather produced adverse effects on the growth rate and feed utilization of the chicks. This might be due to the fact that the indigenous meal contained a lower level of 'Allyl-isothiocyanate' the antinutritional factor responsible for growth inhabition of the chicks. Recommendations Based on the results of the present study it is recommended that rapeseed meal upto a level of 10% could be incorporated in broiler rations without impairing the growth rate and feed utilization of the chicks. Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 0273,T] (1).

35. Effect Of Urea Treatment On The Nutritive Value Of Wheat Straw In The Fattening Of Buffalo Calves

by Ajmal Javed | Muhammed Yoob Malikaq | Imtiaz Hussain Khan | Nisar Ahmed.

Material type: book Book; Format: print ; Literary form: not fiction Publisher: 1986Dissertation note: Abstract Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 0278,T] (1).

36. Mineral Imbalances In Dairy Cattle Of Pakistan

by Ghulam Hussain | Muhammed Yaqoob malik | Mian nisar ahmed | Rashid Ahmed.

Material type: book Book; Format: print ; Literary form: not fiction Publisher: 1991Dissertation note: To determine the mineral status of indigenous cattle about 300 blood samples were collected from Lahore, Gujranwala, Sheikhupura, Sahiwal, Okara, Faisalabad, Sargodha, Jhang and Gujrat districts of Punjab, and Hyderabad, Mirpurkhas and Karachi districts of Sindh because of having high population of cattle. The blood samples were collected from four different groups of cattle (1) calves (2) heifers (3) dry pregnant (4) lactating non pregnant. The serum was separated from blood samles by centrifugation. Serum sample were analysed for Calcium, Phosphorus, Magnesium, Sodium, Potassium, Zinc, Copper, Manganese, Iron and Cobalt. (Calcium, Phosphorus and Magnesium were analysed on spectronic 20. Sod)1I1 and Potassium were analysed on flamphotometer. Zinc, Copper, Manganese, Iron and Cobalt were analysed on atomic absorption spectrophotometer)The data thus obtained was subjected to statistical analysis by using complete randomized design and the differences in means were tested by using (LSD Test) least significant difference test. The mean values of serum mineral in cattle of Punjab were, Calcium, 9.34+ 0.41 mg/100 ml, Phosphorus 4.660.25 mg/100 ml, Magnesium 2.02±0.23 mg/100 ml, Sodium 290.61 11.8 mg/l00 ml, Potassium 18.55±0.56 mg/100 ml, Zinc l.06±0.09 ppm, Copper 1.05±0.14 ppm, Manganese .56±0.04 ppm, Iron 1.38±0.06 ppm and Cobalt 0.089±0.007 ppm. The mean value of serum mineral in cattle of Sindh were Calcium 8.83±0.43 mg/100 ml, Phosphorus 4.48±0.23 mg/l00 ml, Magnesium 2.08+0.21 mg/100 ml, Sodium 273.43±18.69 mg/100 ml, Potassium 18.21±0.72 mg/100 ml, Zinc 0.96+0.12 ppm Copper 0.96±0.11 ppm, Manganese 0.54±0.05 ppm, Iron 1.2±0.157 ppm and Cobalt 0.085.±0.009 ppm. Nonsignificant difference in values of serum minerals in cattle (P> 0.05) were found within different groups and between provinces, while significant differences were found between districts (P< 0.05). This variation may be due to different plan of nutrition composition of soil water and climate etc. The serum Calcium values were almost normal but mild deficiency was found in cattle of Gujrat, Gujranwala, Sheikhupura, Jhang districts of Punjab while Karachi and Mirpurkhas districts of Sindh. The serum Phosphorus level was low in cattle of Punjab and Sindh and acute deficiency was observed in Faisalabad, Gujrat, Shéikhupura and Jhang districts of Punjab, Karachi and Mirpurkhas districts of Sindh. The serum Magnesium values showed deficiency in Sheikhupura, Sargodha and Jhang districts of Punjab and Karachi district of Sindh. The serum Sodium values were almost normal in cattle of all districts. The serum Potassium values were normal in cattle of all districts except Sargodha in Punjab. The serum Zinc values were low in animals of all districts and severe deficiency was found in cattle of Okara, Sahiwal and Sheikhupura districts of Punjab and Karachi Hyderabad, and Mirpurkhas districts of Sindh. The serum Copper values of animals were found low in Okara, Lahore and Sheikhupura districts of Punjab and Karachi and Mirpurkhas districts of Sindh. The serum Manganese values were found deficient in districts of Gujranwala, Gujrat, Sahiwal, Sheikhupura and Jhang in Punjab and Hyderabad district of Sindh. The serum Iron values were normal in animals of both provinces of Punjab and Sindh except Lahore,, Sargodha, Jhang and Sheikhupura districts of Punjab and Hyderabad district in Sindh. The serum Cobalt values were found low in cattle of Sahiwal, Okara and Sheikhupura districts of Punjab and Karachi and Mirpurkhas districts of Sindh. The overall mineral status of cattle of Punjab province was slightly higher than Sindh except Magnesium mineral and the difference was nonsignificant while between the groups of animals were found non significiant. The variation in serum mineral values in cattle might be due to plan nutrition, low mineral status of soil, composition of water and climate etc. Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 0310-T] (1).

37. Effect Of Substitution Of Fish Meal With Corn Gluten Meal On The Performance Of Broiler Chicks

by Hamid, A | Nisar Ahmed | Imtiaz Hussain | Muhammed Yaqoob Malik.

Material type: book Book; Format: print ; Literary form: not fiction Publisher: 1991Dissertation note: The present study was under taken to investigate the effect of substitution of fish meal which is comparatively costly protein supplement with cheaper corn gluten meal on the performance of broiler chicks. One hundred and fifty day old (male and female) hubbard broiler chicks were reared on five experimental rations upto 50 days of age. The control ration contained 14.347. fish meal which was replaced by the corn gluten meal at 0, 3, 6, 9 and 127. levels (0, 25, 50, 75 and 100 per cent on protein equivalent basis). The starter rations were fed upto 28 days of age and remaining 22 days finisher rations were fed. Results revealed non-significant differences among weight gain of chicks fed different experimental starter rations. However, significant differences among weight gain of chicks fed on finisher rations were noticed. The chicks fed on ration containing 100 percent and 75 percent fish meal were heavier as compared to those chicks fed on ration in which fish meal was replaced with corn gluten meal upto 50 percent on protein equivalent basis. Non significant differences in total weight gain were noticed amongst chicks fed on different experimental rations. Highly significantly more feed was consumed by the chicks fed on starter and finisher rations containing 100 per cent and 75 per cent fish meal as compared to those chicks fed on other experimental rations. Non-significant differences in total feed consumption were noticed in chicks fed on various experimental rations. Apparently better feed utilization in chicks were noticed by addition of corn gluten meal at different levels i.e. 3, 6, 9 and 12 per cent in the starter and finisher rations. However non-significant differences among the feed efficiency values were observed in chicks fed on various experimental rations. Present results revealed that corn gluten meal at 3, 6, 9 and 12 per cent levels in broiler rations was equally well utilized as source of protein supplement as fish meal on the performance of broiler chicks. The present study indicated that addition of corn gluten meal did not significantly effect the growth rate however slightly decreased with progressive increase of corn gluten meal in the ration. Feed efficiency was comparable with that of fish meal. Results further indicated that ration containing corn gluten meal were comparatively cheaper and cost per kg of live weight was decreased, therefore, net profit per chick was greater. Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 0311,T] (1).

38. Influence Of Varing Levels Of Energy With Constant Levels Of Protein On The Performance Of Male & Female Broiler

by Mustafa Kamal, M | Nisar Ahmed | Muhammed | Muhammed yaqoob Malik.

Material type: book Book; Format: print ; Literary form: not fiction Publisher: 1992Dissertation note: Present experiment was conducted to study the influence of varying level of energy with constant level of protein on the performance of male and female broiler chicks. For this purpose 90 males and 90 females were reared in batteries for 50 days. Each group was subdivided into three sub groups, and starter ration A, B and C were given to each sub group for first 28 days, and from 29 to 50th days finisher rations A1 B1 and C1 were given. Starter rations A,B and C contained 23% protein and 3050, 3150 and 3250 Kcal / kg of M.E respectively. The finisher rations Aj B1 and Cj contained 20% protein and 3050, 3150 and 3250 Kcal / Kg of M.E. On starter rations A, B and C males gained 857.94, 867.4 and 868.74 gms respectively. Where as females gained 806.9, 820.1 and 826.8 gms respectively. This difference in weight gain was non significant. Feed consumption by the male chicks was 1449, 1460, and 1440 grams respectively, where as females consumed 1403.0, 1409.6 and 1413.6 grams respectively. This difference was also non significant. Similarly a non significant difference was obtained for feed conversion ratio during this period on different raions. On finisher raions A1 B1 and C1 males gained 751.2, 882.0 and 968.5 grams respectively where as females gained 589.5, 639.0 and 655.5 grams respectively. For the males the difference was highly significant (P <0.01) and for females it was non significant (Tablei 1). Feed consumption by male broiler chicks was 2091, 2196.7 and 2270.7 grams respectively. Where as for females it was 1978, 1989 and 2025 grams respectively. The difference was non significant for both males and females. During this peroid feed conversion ratio for males was 2.78, 2.49 and 2.35 respectively. Where as for females it was 3.36, 3.11 and 3.09 respectively. The difference was non significant for females where as difference for the males was significant (P<O.05). It was concluded that the males can convert higher levels of energy more efficiently than females. It was also observed that increasing energy resulted in increased abdominal fat but the difference was non significant. The results also revealed that on rations A, B and C the males were 15.23, 19.89 and 23.94% respectively heavier than the females. It was also observed that on corresponding rations males consumed 4.7%, 7.6% and 7.9% more feed than the females. Similarly it was also observed that on rations A, B and C males had a better F.C.R of 10%, 11.48% and 14.85% than the females on corresponding rations. Economical analysis revealed that it was feasible to increase M.E for the males to 3150 Kcal / kg. But the best results for females were obtained at M.E 3050 Kcal / Kg. It was also noticed that on ration A, B and C the males produced meat at a cost of 1.97, 2.33 and 2.92 Rupees / Kg less then the females. Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 0312,T] (1).

39. Effect Of Substition Of Wheat Bran With Dried Citrus Pulp In The Fattening Ration Of Male Buffalo Calves

by Shabbir Shahid, M | Nisar Ahmed | Ikram-ul-Haq | Muhammed Yaqoob Malik.

Material type: book Book; Format: print ; Literary form: not fiction Publisher: 1993Dissertation note: There has been a gradual decline in the per capita availability of proteinous food particularly of animals origin for human consumption in our country. The feasible solution of the problem of meat shortage is to increase the production of meat by fattening the male buffalo calves which are available in our country. These are sold at lower rate when they are weaned. These calves could be fattened by using the cheaper sources of agriculture by-products available in our country. Due to an increased competition between the animals and human being for the consumption of cereal grains it is very necessary to explore possible utilization of agro-industrial wastes/by-products for animal, feedings. Citrus pulp is a by-product of citrus fruit industry which has received a significant consideration as a feed ingredients for ruminants in present situation. Citrus pulp is an adequate energy source, if adequate protein is provided (Michelena, J & Pereiro, 1983). Keeping in view the importance of energy in nutrition and high prices of conventional energy sources in the country the experiment was planned to explore the possibilities of using citru pulp as source of feed ingredients in the fattening ration of male buffalo calves. A fattening trial was conducted on 4 groups of 20 male buffalo calves to study the effect of replacement of wheat bran with dried citrus pulp at 33.33, 66.66% and 1.00% level. The experiment was continued for 91 days. Feed consumption, weight gain, feed efficiency and digestibility of different nutrients in the animals were recorded. Economics of fattening rations was also studied. The results of the study revealed non-significant differences in weight gain, feed efficiency and feed consumption but apparently the animals fed on ration A (control) showed better feed intake as compared to calves fed on ration B, C and D. The digestibility trials revealed that there was statisticaly significant difference in digestibility of dry matter, crude protein, crude fiber, among ether extract. The rat in D in which wheat bran was replaced with 100% dried citrus calculated as most economical as compared to ration A, B and C in the fattening of male buffalo calves. Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 0313,T] (1).

40. Influence Of Varing Levels Of Protein With Constant Level Of Energy On The Performance Of Male & Female Broiler

by Ahsan Moien Siddiqui | Nisar Ahmed | Ehtisham | Muhammed Yaqoob Malik.

Material type: book Book; Format: print ; Literary form: not fiction Publisher: 1992Dissertation note: The present study was undertaken to investigate the "Influence of varying levels of protien with constant level of energy on the performance of male and female broiler chicks". One hundred and eighty (90 male and 90 female) day old chicks were reared separately on three experimental starter and three finisher rations upto 50 days of age. The starter rations had a protien percentage 22, 23 and 24 percent while the finisher rations with 19, 20 and 21% respectively. All the starter and finisher rations had a similar metabolizeable energy of 3150 Kcal/Kg. The starter rations were fed upto 28 days of age and for the remaining 22 days finisher rations were fed. Results revealed non-significant differences among weight gain of chicks fed different experimental starter rations. Similarly there were non-significant differences between the sexes. Experimental finisher rations had non significant differences among weight gain of the chicks. However there were highly significant differences between the weight gain of the sexes. The male chicks fed on finisher ration "B" (having 20% protien were apparently heavier as compared to ration "A" and "C" (having 19 and 21% protien respectively) while the female chicks fed on finisher ration "C" were apparently heavier as comparted to those reared on ration "A" and "B". At all the three finisher rations, male chicks were heavier than the female chicks. At the end of the experiment non significant differences were noticed amongst chicks fed on different experimental rations while highly significant differences between the total weight gain of both the sexes were observed. The male chicks fed on ration "B", (having 23% and 20% protien) were heavier as compared to those fed on ration "A", (having 22% and 19% protien) or "C" (having 24% starter and 21 finisher protien). The female chicks showed apparently highest total weight gain at ration "C" while male chicks had a highest total gain in weight at ration "B". The male chicks fed on ration A, B and C showed 18.12%, 15.94% and 13.31% more total weight gain than female chicks. Highly significant differences in the feed consumption were noticed in chicks fed on different experimental starter rations and between the sexes. Both male and female chicks consumed highly significant more feed when fed on ration "C" (having 24% protien) as compared to those fed on ration "A" or "B" (having 22% & 23% protien respectively) while feed consumption of both the sexes was minimum when fed on ration "B". At all the three starter rations, females consumed more feed than the male chicks. There were non significant differences in the feed consumption of chicks fed on different finisher rations. However significant differences in the feed consumption of finisher rations were noticed between the sexes. At all the three finisher rations males consumed more feed than the female chicks. Apparently feed consumption showed an increasing trend with the corresponding increase in the protien percentage of a finisher ration in both the sexes. Non-significant differences in the total feed consumption were noticed amongst chicks fed on different experimental rations while the differences between the sexes were significant. Males consumed 11.25%, 12.35% and 5.91% more total feed than female chicks at rations A, B and C respectively. Feed consumption was maximum at ration "C" while minimum at ration "A" in both the sexes. There was an increase in the total feed consumption in both sexes with the corresponding increase in the protien percentage of a ration. Apparently better feed utilization in male chicks was noticed when fed at starter ration "A" or "B" while female chicks showed better feed efficiency at ration "B". There were non-significant differences in the feed efficiency values of chicks reared on different experimental starter rations as well as the differences were non-significant between the sexes. At finisher ration "A" male chicks showed apparently better feed efficiency while ration "B" was best utilized by the female chicks. The results were non significant for chicks fed on different experimental finisher rations. However there were significant differences between the sexes. At all the three finisher rations female chicks required more feed per unit gain in weight than male chicks. At the end of experiment there were non-significant differences in the total feed efficiency amongst the chicks fed on different experimental rations. but the differences between the sexes were significant. At all the three rations A, B and C male chicks showed 7.80%, 4.02% and 7.83% better feed efficiency than the female chicks. Males showed apparently better feed efficiency at ration "A" while females at ration "B". There were non-significant differences between the dressing percentage, weight of internal organs and abdominal fat deposition of chicks fed on different experimental rations. The differences were non-significant between the sexes also except for the weight of abdominal fat deposition. At all the three rations A, B and C males showed 16.81%, 30.96% and 25% more abdominal fat deposition than the female chicks. Increase in the dietary protien reduced fat deposition in both the sexes. The present results indicated that male chicks can be reared economically at a starter ration having 22 percent protien and a finisher rations having 19 percent protien. While female chicks show best performance at a starter ration having 23% protien and a finisher ration having 20 percent protien. Weight gain, feed consumption and feed efficiency was better in male chicks than the female chicks. On the other hand male chicks showed more abdominal fat deposition than female chicks when fed on similar rations. Male chicks were cheaper to grow than the female chicks at all the experimental rations and the cost per Kg. of liveweight of males chicks was approximately 1 Rupee cheaper than the female chicks. This was because male chicks were 17.81 percent larger than the female chicks of the same age. Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 0317,T] (1).

41. Studies On Rate Of Passage Of Ingesta And Digestibility Of Nutrients In Nili Ravi Buffalo, Sahiwal And Crossbred Cattle

by Ghulam Hussain Jaffar | Muhammed Yaqoob Malik | Ehtisham Pervaiz | Nisar Ahmed.

Material type: book Book; Format: print ; Literary form: not fiction Publisher: 1991Dissertation note: The project was planned to study the rate of passage of ingesta from the alimentary tract and digestibility of various nutrients in Buffalo, Sahiwal and cross-bred (Fresian x Sahiwal) calves. The rate of flow of irigesta through the digestive tract determins the rate of digestion of feed. The present investigation was an attempt to compare the flow rate of ingesta and digestibility of nutrients in Buffalo, Sahiwal andeross-bred calves. The digestion trial was conducted on 4 buffalo, 4 Sahiwal & 4 cross-bred calves. Measurement of rate of passage of ingesta in the animals was made during 10 days after feeding of experimental ration containing stained wheat straw. Each calf was fed with a portion of the stained wheat straw (with 1% crystal voilet) - at the rate of 4% of their daily D.M intake. The collection of the faeces was initiated from the time of feeding to 14 hour post feeding, then at B hourly intervals during the next three days, at 8 hourly intervals for following 3 days, at 12 hourly interval during 7th and 8th day and at 18 hourly interval during the last 2 days. Stained particles were counted in each 2.5 gm of faeces obtained at each sampling period. With the help of sterioscope, the numbers of stained particles per sampling period were calculated and expressed as a percentage of total number of particles excreted during 242 hours of experimental period. The samples of ration and faeces voided were chemically analysed on D.M basis for crude protein, 'crude fibre, ether extract and mineral matter for digestibility studies. At 14 hours post feeding of the animals 79, 325 and 239 with mean value of 19.75 ± 3.4, 81.25 ± 3.42 and 59.75 ± 5.12 total stained particles were voided in the faeces by Buffalo, Sahiwal and cross-bred calves respectively. The excretion rate of stained particles increased sharply upto 38 hours in Buffalo Calves (18.14%) 20 hours in Sahiwal calves 20.08% and 32 hours in cross-bred calves (16.81%) and it gradually decreased to 0.00% at 242 hours in all the species of animals. The rate of passage of ingesta through the alimentary tract of all species was highly significant (p<0.0l) up to 56th hour post feeding and was no significant thereafter. Retention time of ingesta was more in Buffalo than Sahiwal and cross-bred cattle. However cross-bred had more retention time of ingesta than Sahiwal animals. The dry matter and other nutrient - digestibility was more in Buffalo than other two species. However, the digestibility of dry matter, crude protein, nitrogen free extract was non-significant among different species of animals. Where as the digestibility of crude fibre, ether extract and mineral matter was significantly (p<0.01) more in buffalo than Sahiwal and cross bred cattle. The TDN value was also signficantly (p<0.0l) more in buffalo than Sahiwal and cross-bred cattle. The longer retention of ingesta in buffalo as compared with Sahiwal and cross-bred cattlemight be responsible for more digestion of the nurtrients of the ingested feed in buffalo. Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 0331,T] (1).

42. Nutritional Evaluation Of Rapeseed Meal (Canola Variety) For Poultry

by Ihsan Elahi, M | Muhammed Yaqoob malik | Muhammed Aslam Bhatti | Nisar Ahmed.

Material type: book Book; Format: print ; Literary form: not fiction Publisher: 1991Dissertation note: Abstract Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 0335,T] (1).

43. Nutritive Value Of Wheat Straw As Affected By Cultivars Under The Same Agronomical Conditions In Peshawar

by Naeem ullah | Nisar Ahmed | Ehtisham | Javeed Ahmed Qureshi.

Material type: book Book; Format: print ; Literary form: not fiction Publisher: 1993Dissertation note: The present. study, which is first of its type in Pakistan, was conducted to identify wheat. straw variety which has inheritedly better feeding value and to investigate the effect of breeding on the quality of wheat. straw and hopefully, it will serve as a base line for further researches in this direction. During the present study, two adult rumen fistulated buffalo steers, of almost the same age and weights maintained at the animal nutrition section of Veterinary Research Institute Feshawar, were used. Five different varieties of wheat straw namely Firsahak-85, Firsahak-91 , C-518, Blue silver and Khushai grown on the same soil under the same agronomical conditions , were collected each in three replicates from the Agricultural Developrnent. Farm of NWFP. Agricultural University, Peshawar during their harvesting season In May, 1992. Representative samples of these five test varieties were analysed in triplicate, for nutrient, composition viz; dry matter, ash, crude protein (CP) , crude fibre (CF) , crude fat (EE), neutral detergent fibre (NDF), acid detergent fibre (ADF), .Lignin and silica, according to the standard procedures of AOAC (1980) and Goering and Van Soest (1979). The results of chemical analyses revealed that. there was no difference among the straw varieties in ash, CP, CF, NDF, lignin and silica contents. However, the %age of AUF' and EF in the wheat straw significantly varied (P<0. 05) due to cultivars. The variety C-518 was apparently higher in CF and EE contents (4. 99% and 0.85% in DM respectively), comparatively lower in CF and ADF (40. 1% and 48. 95% in PM respectively) than the other varieties. Mean in Sacco matter digestibility of the five wheat straw cultivars were determined at different incubation times of 6, 12 24, 48 and 72 hours by using the nylon bag technique described by Orskov et al (1980). The analysis of variance for the. individual. incubation time indicated that the dry matter digestibility at all the hours except 24 hours significantly varied (P<0. 05) due to cultivars. Based on the results of in sacco measurements at different hours, the rate of digestibility and other digestibility characteristics were calculated by least squares. The rate of digestibility (C; % per hour) was also significantly different (P<0. 05) among the cultivars. C-518 resulted in more "C' value of 4.4% per hour (F< 0. 05) as compared to the. other four wheat straw cuitlvars. Similarly the effective dry matter digestibility calculated at. a rumen out-flow rate of 0.02 was also significantly affected (P<0. 001) by the straw cultivars and significantly higher (F<0. 05) in C-518 and Khushai. than the other three varieties. The regression correlation between rate of digestibility and nutrient composition of all the five wheat straw cuitivars were interpreted in accordance to the procedures of steel and Tone (1980) which indicated that the rate of digestibility was postiveiy correlated with CF contents in wheat straw and negatively correlated with CF, ADF, NDF, ash and silica contents in the wheat. straw. However, lignin and EE did not. show any relationship with the rate of digestion of wheat straw. Dry matter intakes and Energy values were predicted for all the wheat straw cultivars, on the basis of their measurements, using the multiple regression equation developed by Orskov et al (1988) which showed that under practical feeding situations, C-518 cultivar of wheat straw will be consumed by cattle in higher quantities and the same variety will supply 38% more metabolizable energy to the animal. Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 0336,T] (1).

44. To Study The Effect Of Different Dietary Protein & Energy Level On The Growth Performance Of Nili-Ravi Buffalo Male

by Rehman Khan, A | Dr. Nisar ahmed mian | Dr. Jaweed ahmad qureshi | Dr. Muhammad.

Material type: book Book; Format: print Publisher: 1993Dissertation note: The buffalo is an important animal in the agriculture economy of our country and the most useful animal for many millions of poor people, especially those living in Asia. So far, no definite studies with regard to the nutritional requirements of the buffalo at various stages of growth and production (meat and milk) have been conducted. The feeding of buffalo in the sub-continent is based on various cereals and cash crops and are generally subjected to various nutritional imbalances, as a result, the genetic potential with regard to growth and production (meat and milk) of buffalo is not fully exploited. Thus there is a desperate need for determining the specific feeding requirements of the indigenous dairy buffalo. For the purpose digestibility and metabolic studies for various nutritional needs for growth, fattening and production are to be conducted. Thus the present study was designed to study the effect of different plans of nutrition on growth, efficiency of feed utilization and nutrients digestibility in Nili-Ravi buffalo male calves. Twenty-seven buffalo male calves of 9-12 months of age were randomly divided into nine groups. Three different levels of protein and metabolizable energy (80, 100 and 120% of NRC, 1976 Standards for beef cattle) were incorporated in the nine experimental rations. After the trial of 140 days, the buffalo male calves gained weight 102.67, 110.64, 90.33, 36.00, 73.33, 127,34, 98.67, 82.34 and 110.34 Kgs. in groups 1-9, respectively. Maximum growth was recorded in group 6 [CP 100% and ME 120% of NRC (1976) Standards for beef cattle). Weight gain was non-significant due to varying levels of protein in the rations while weight gain was significant (P<0.05) due to varying levels of energy in the rations. Maximum growth rate of 909 gms. per day in group 6 (CP 100% and ME 120%) was recorded. The regression equation for weight gain with the relation to protein and energy intake was as follows: Weight gain (WG) = -297.28 + .425 (Pr) ± 63.67 (En) The feed consumption decreased with the increase of protein level in the rations while feed consumption increased with the increase of ME level in the ration but the effect was statistically non-significant. Maximum feed was consumed in group 6 (CP 100% and ME 120%). It was observed from the study that dietary protein had significant effect on feed efficiency and it was improved with the increase of dietary protein in the ration. Feed efficiency also improved significantly with the increase of energy in the rations. It was noted from the study that the dry matter intake reduced with the increase of dietary protein but dry matter intake increased with the increase of ME level in the ration. The effect was statistically non-significant. Protein intake was significantly increased with increase of protein level while ME level in the ration had non-significant effect. ME intake was non-significant with the increase of protein level but it was significantly increased with the increase of ME level in the ration. The digestibility of crude protein and ether extract increased with the increase of protein and energy level in the rations but the differences were nonsignificant. The digestibility of dry matter was increased at varying levels of protein and energy but the differences were significant (P<0.0l). The digestibility of NFE and crude fibre were also increased at varying levels of energy significantly (P<0.01) but these were low at 100% protein level than 80 and 120% protein level. It was observed that the digestibility of all the nutrients increased at high plan of nutrition (protein and energy). It was concluded that protein requirements of buffalo male calves were the same as recommended for beef cattle NRC (1976) but metabolizable energy requirements were 20% higher than the recommended level for beef cattle, NRC (1976) Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 0348,T] (1).

45. Effects Of Substitution Of Fish Meal With Soybean Oil Meal On The Performance Of Broiler Chicks

by Khurshid Ahmad | Dr. Nisar Ahmad | Dr. Ehtisham | Dr. Javed Ahmed Qureshi.

Material type: book Book; Format: print Publisher: 1993Dissertation note: The present study was under taken to investigate the effects of substitution of fish meal which is comparatively costly protein supplement with the soybean oil meal on the performance of Broiler chicks. One hundred and eighty day old (Male and Female) hubbard chicks were purchased from local market and were reared on four experimental rations A, B, C, & D upto fifty days of age. The starter rations were fed upto 28 days of age and the finisher rations were fed from 29th to 50 days of age. Results revealed non-significant difference among weight gain and feed consumption of chicks fed on different experimental rations. Apparently better feed utilization was noticed by the chicks fed on ration C (8 percent soybean oil meal and 4 percent fish meal. Statistically non significant difference were observed in the feed efficiency value of chicks fed on different experimental rations. The present result revealed that chicks fed on ration C (8% soybean oil meal and 4% fish meal) apparently showed increased growth of broiler chicks, required less amount of feed per unit weight gain and were economical as compared to birds fed on other experimental rations. Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 0362,T] (1).

46. Effect Of Substitution Of Fish Meal With Cotton Seed Meal On Performence Of Broiler Chicks

by Umer Malik, M | Dr. Nisar Ahmad | Dr M. Javed Qurshi | Dr. M. Aslam.

Material type: book Book; Format: print Publisher: 1994Dissertation note: The present study was under taken to investigate the effect of substitution of fish meal which is comparatively costly protein supplement with cheaper cotton seed meal on performance of broiler chicks. As one hundred and eighty Star Bro day old broiler chicks were reared on five experimental rations upto 50 day of age. The control ration contained 12 % fish meal (100 %) which was replaced by the cotton seed meal at 0, 4.17, 7.39, 11.03 and 14.72 % level (0, 25, 50, 75 and 100% on Protein equivalent basis). The starter rations were fed upto 28 days of age and finisher rations were fed upto 50th day. Results revealed however non significant difference among weight gain of chicks fed on different experimental starter rations. But significant differences among weight gain of chicks fed on finisher rations were noticed. The chicks fed on rations containing 100%,75%, 50% and 25% fish meal were heavier as compared to those chicks fed on rations in which fish meal was replaced by cotton seed meal on protein equivalent basis. Non significant differences in total weight gain were noticed amongst chicks fed on different experimental rations. highly significantly more feed was consumed by the chicks fed on starter and finisher rations containing 100%, 75%, and 50% fish meal as compared to those chicks fed on other experimental rations. Apparently better feed utilization in chicks were noticed by addition of cotton seed meal at different levels i.e 4.17, 7.39 and 11.03 % in the starter and finisher rations. However non significant differences among the feed efficiency values were observed in chicks fed on various experimental rations. However dressing % of all the birds fed on different rations was found non significant. Present study indicated that addition of cotton seed meal did not significantly effect the growth rate, however, slightly decreased growth rate was observed with progressive increase of cotton seed meal in the ration. Feed efficiency was comparable with that of fish meal. Results also indicated that ration containing cotton seed meal were comparatively cheaper and cost per Kg of live weight was decreased. Therefore, net profit per chick was greater. Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 0394,T] (1).

47. Influence Of Varying Levels Of Proten & Energy On The Performance Of Broiler Chicks

by Safiq ur Rehman | Dr. Nisar Ahmad | Dr. Ehtisham | Dr. Jawad Ahmad Qureshi.

Material type: book Book; Format: print ; Literary form: not fiction Publisher: 1994Dissertation note: A study was undertaken to investigate the influence of varying levels of protein and energy on the performance of broiler chicks. The performance of chicks were studied under the heading of weight gain, feed consumption, feed efficiency, dressing percentage, organs weight, abdominal fat and economics. Nine experimental rations containing metabolizable energy 2600, 2900 and 3200 Kcal ME/kg with 18, 20 and 22% crude protein were tried on two hundred and seventy day old broiler chicks of both sexes for the period of 50 days. The results showed that the ration containing 20% C.P. and 2600 KCal ME/kg were best in promoting weight gain, feed utilization and were economical as compared to other experimental rations. Different energy-protein levels did not influenced the dressing percentage and organs weight, but the diet containing high energy resulted significantly more deposition of the abdominal fat. It was concluded that low energy and high protein combination in poultry feed formulation improved the growth rate, feed efficiency, feed conversion ratio and could be economical as compared to the high energy and high protein ration. Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 0395,T] (1).

48. Studies On The Use Of Sesame Meal (Punjnb Til 90) As A Vegetable Protein Supplement In Broiler Rations

by Safdar Mahmood Saeed | Dr. Nisar Ahmad Supervisor | Dr. Javaid Qureshi Member.

Material type: book Book; Format: print ; Literary form: not fiction Publisher: 1993Dissertation note: Abstract Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 0399,T] (1).

49. Improvement In The Nutritive Value Of Fibrous Crop By-Products By Urea Treatment

by Rafaqat Ali | Dr. Nisar Ahmed Mian | Dr. Muhammad | Dr. Talat Naseer Pasha.

Material type: book Book; Format: print Publisher: 1994Dissertation note: Wheat straw and rice straw are two of the largest annually harvested crop by-products in Pakistan, and are commonly fed to buffaloes as well as cattle as a staple roughage source. These coarse roughages are essentially energy feeds in which the cell wall constituents may be as high as 80 percent of the total dry matter. However, productivity in ruminants given such straw diets is limited, primarily due to energy deficiency. Low digestibility and low nitrogen content of these roughages does not adequately satisfy microbial growth requirements, which are therefore major limiting factors responsible for poor efficiency of nutrient utilization. In the present study, two fibrous crop by-products - wheat straw and rice straw, were treated with urea (as a source of ammonia), at 50 percent moisture level with or without added urease source at two different temperatures (220C and 390C) for three different periods (14, 21 and 28 days). Digestibilities of the treated and untreated feedstuffs were determined by in sacco technique. All the samples were chemically analysed for proximate as well as cell wall constituents before and after any treatment and after incubation in the rumen. Increasing duration of urea-treatment invariably increased the crude protein content in all the treatments. At 28 days, difference between crude protein values of samples treated with urea alone or urea along with urease source was not statistically significant. Crude fiber contents of wheat and rice straw was inversely effected both by higher temperature and longer treatment period. Both mineral matter contents and ether extract values were not significantly effected by any of the treatment while NFE values were significantly reduced. Decrease in NDF and hemicellulose values after treatment was observed. Addition of urease hastened the process, though at 28 days, the difference between samples treated with or without the addition of urease was non-significant. Treatments increased the in sacco disappearance of DM, CF, CP, NDF, ADF and hemicellulose. Addition of urease and higher temprature increased the rate of change. Difference between urea treated and urea plus urease treatmed samples was relatively more marked in case of wheat straw than in rice straw, though in both the feedstuffs, it was non-significant at the end of treatment i.e., 28 days. Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 0401,T] (1).

50. Study Of Comparative Nutritive Value Of Maize, Sorghum And Broken Rice On The Performance Of Broiler Chicks

by Sajid Mohammad Javed | Dr. Nisar Ahmed | Dr. Javed Ahmed Qureshi | Dr.Ashfaq.

Material type: book Book; Format: print ; Nature of contents: biography; Literary form: Publisher: 1994Dissertation note: Abstract Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 0402,T] (1).



Implemented and Maintained by UVAS Library.
For any Suggestions/Query Contact to library or Email:rehana.kousar@uvas.edu.pk Phone:+91 99239068
Website/OPAC best viewed in Mozilla Browser in 1366X768 Resolution.