Status Of Awareness Among Zoo Workers About Zoonotic Diseases
Material type: Book ; Literary form:
Publisher: 2014 Dissertation note: A zoo is a place where wild animals are kept for exhibition purposes to the public.It includes: aquaria, sanctuaries, bird gardens and safari/wildlife parks. These are centers for wild animal’sconservation and for public recreation and education (Cuaron2005). Epidemiologists, wildlife biologists, veterinarians and conservationists used these for research purpose.According to an estimate Pakistan is maintainingapproximately 27 zoos, deer parks, etc.(Walker 2014).
Zoonotic diseases are those which are naturally transmitted from animals to human beings and vice versa. The word Zoonosis is derived from the Greek word zoon (animal) and nosos (disease). The diseases which are transferred from human beings to animals are known as Zooanthroponotic (Greek “Zoon” = animal, “anthrópos” = man, “nosos” = disease) diseases e.g. tuberculosis, measles, giardiasis and amoebiasis. On the other hand the diseases which are transmitted from animals to human beings are known as anthropozoonotic diseases e.g. anthrax, AIDS, psittacosis and rabies (Epstein and Price 2009).
Zoonosis can be classified according to their circulation in the ecosystem. These are either classified as synanthropic zoonosis, with an urban (domestic) cycle in which the source of infection are domestic and synanthropic animals (e.g. cat scratch disease, urban rabies and zoonotic ringworm) or exoanthropic zoonosis, with a sylvatic (feral and wild) cycle in natural foci outside human habitats (e.g. wildlife rabies, arbovirus, lyme disease and tularemia). Some zoonotic diseases can circulate in both urban and natural cycles (e.g. chagas disease and yellow fever).
A review study identified that 1415 species of infectious organism are pathogenic to human beings. This includes 217 viruses and prions, 538 bacteria and rickettsia, 307 fungi, 66 protozoa and 287 helminthes. Out of these, 868 (61%) are zoonotic in nature (Taylor et al. 2001). More than 60% of the emerging human infectious diseases are zoonotic in nature and 70% of their reservoirs are wild animals (Cutler et al. 2010).
The reservoirs of several zoonotic diseases are wild animals whose causative agents are viral, rickettsial, chlamydial, bacterial, parasitic and mycotic(Bengis et al. 2004). Zoonotic diseases like tuberculosis, plague and rabies have badly affected the mankind since ancient times and the reservoirs of all of these are wild animals (Stone et al. 2009). Some zoonotic diseases in human beings are self-limiting whose signs range from few days to a long term illness e.g. gastroenteritis caused byGiardia, Cryptosporidium, and Salmonella species.Some zoonotic diseases may cause abortions (Toxoplasmosis) and fatal encephalitis (Japanese encephalitis). Whereas some zoonotic diseases may causes high mortality e.g. Marburg hemorrhagic fever(MacNeil and Rollin 2012). Zoonotic diseases cause death not only in their natural hosts but also in endangered wild animal species near to extinctione.g. Ebola virus cause high mortality in monkeys (Nunn et al. 2008). It is clear from various studies in different zoos that both anthropozoonotic and zooanthroponotic transmission can occur (Adejinmi and Ayinmode 2008).
Zoonotic agents have potential to be used for bioterrorism. The bioterrorism attack is aimed to cause fear, destabilization, stress, illness and death in people, animals and plants. (Lin 2014). Air, water and food may be the warfare biological vehicles for its spread. During World War 1, anthrax was used as a biological warfare in animal populations. Glanders and typhoid were also used for bioterrorism attack in 1910 and 1970, respectively. Several cases of bioterrorism also occurred in the United States due to anthrax in September and October 2001 (Spencer 2007).
A Zoo worker should haveknowledge of the transmission of the disease to avoid its transmission. The common ways of the transmission are direct mode (ingestion, animal bites, inhalation, needle prick injuries and skin contact) and indirect mode (vector borne, fomite, long distanceand airborne transmission). In zoo management, the role of veterinarians is extremely useful. Their job exposes them to several health-related threats during routine operations. e.g. animal bites, needle prick injuries, back injuries, exposure to anesthetic gases and even mortality in certain cases (Hill et al. 1998; Kabuusu et al. 2010).
The personal protective equipment’s are not used during restraining, treatment, necropsy and cleaning the animal enclosures. It may increases the chances of zoonotic diseases to zoo workers and veterinarians. The disposal of wild animal carcasses, organs, unused food, feces and urine by unscientific methodsenhances the process of pathogens transmission(McLaughlin 2002). Laboratory personnel can also be infected with zoonotic diseases due to lack of good laboratory practices in wildlife disease diagnostic laboratories(Rietschel 1998).
Therefore, prevention and control of zoonosis must be an important part of zoo occupational health and safety measures. Preventive measures can be either general or specifically designed for a particular disease. It is possible to prevent many of the zoonotic diseases by following basic hygiene and sanitation procedures.The present study was conducted to determine knowledge, attitude, practice and experience levels about zoonosis among zoo workers of district Lahore(Lahore Zoo, Jallo Wildlife Park and Lahore Safari Zoo).
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Epidemiological Investigation And Risk Factor Analysis Of Brucellosis In Large Ruminants And Their Attendants At Govt. Livestock Farms In Punjab
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Publisher: 2015 Dissertation note: Pakistan has been renowned as an agricultural country. It is rich in livestock sector having fairly large populations of domestic animals. Among these, populations of cattle and buffalo are 38.3 and 33.7 million respectively. The importance of cattle and buffalo cannot be denied at any level as these are the principal farming animals and milk and beef are widely consumed locally in the country. The estimated annual milk production of cattle and buffalo include 17.372 and 30.462 million tonnes respectively and a combined 1.829 million tonnes beef for human consumption during 2012-2013 (Pakistan Economic Survey 2012-2013).
Brucellosis, a worldwide bacterial zoonosis, is one of the most serious diseases causing huge loss to national economy and human beings among developing countries (Wu et al. 2013). The disease is endemic in Middle East, Central Asia, Africa, Mediterranean region and parts of Latin America (Gwida et al. 2010). Brucellae are Gram-negative bacteria, facultative anaerobic and intracellular pathogens. These show a wide range of host specificity. These coccobacilli measure from 0.6 to 1.5 µm long and 0.5 to 0.7 µm wide. Eight species have been identified in the genus Brucella such asBrucella abortus(B. abortus affecting cattle and buffalo), B. melitensis (sheep and goats), B. ovis (sheep), B. suis (swine), B. canis (dog), B. neotomae (desert rats), B. ceti (cetaceans) and B. pinnipedialis (pinnipeds) (Blasco 2010). This wide range of species covers almost all domestic animals however cats have found resistant. Generally it is considered as a reproductive problem in both male and female animals (Ficht 2003).
Brucellosis has been listed as the second most serious zoonotic disease in the world after rabies by OIE (OIE 2009). B. abortus, the primary cause of Brucellosis in large ruminants, (cattle and buffalo), remains not only a significant threat as a source of human illness but also risks economy of the country (Makita et al. 2011). Present estimates of economic loss in meat and milk production resulting from Brucellosis are $800 million annually in the United States(OIE 2009). The incidence of the disease can be correlated to several factors including demographic and geographic factors(Soomro et al. 2014). Seroprevalence of the disease has been reported in different regions of Pakistan and ranges 3.25 to 4.4%(Naeem et al. 1990).
Brucellosis in cattle and buffaloes can be recognized clinically by an abortion usually occurring form 6 months and onwards i.e. last trimester of pregnancy (Soomro et al. 2014). Brucellosis is principally a disease of sexually mature animals as it affects mainly the reproductive system and fertility of the animals. It significantly reduces the survival rate of newborns and also the milk yield (Sikder et al. 2012). Greyish white mucoid or mucopurulent discharges from the vagina, prior to parturition of cow, may show the clinical patterns of disease along withnormal patterns of parturition like swelling of the vulva, relaxation of pelvic ligament, enlargement of udder and discharge from the vulva (Shafee et al. 2012).
Human infections as a result of Brucellosis range more than 500,000 annually round the world (Abo-Shehada and Abu-Halaweh 2011). Brucellosis can cause a wide range of symptoms similar to the flu and may also include fever (39-40°C), night sweats, headache, back pain and physical weakness. Severe form of infection may result in involvement of the central nervous system or the lining of the heart (Soomro et al. 2014). It is one of the principal public health problems for an agricultural country like Pakistan, where majority of the population is engaged in livestock farming (Shafee et al. 2012).
Brucellosis in humans is a severely debilitating condition that usually requires prolonged treatment involving a combination of strong antibiotics. The treatment results in permanent and disabling sequel, and also in significant medical expenses along with loss of income due to loss of working hours. Brucellosis can be transmitted to humans by ways of inhalation, direct contact with infected animals or contaminated products of conception and ingestion of unpasteurized dairy products and undercooked meat or meat products (Gwida et al. 2010; John et al. 2010). Brucellosis can also be transmitted from infected animals to human beings who are in close contact with animal secretions like infected vaginal secretions, blood, urine, feces, aborted fetus, or those who consume unpasteurized milk or other raw milk products. Shepherds, milkmen, butchers, knackers, veterinary assistants, and abattoir workers are at high risk (Agasthya et al. 2007)
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Incidence Of Dog Bite Injuries Reported In Tertiary Care Hospitals
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Publisher: 2014 Dissertation note: Animal bites people should be considered an important public health problem. Moreover, the number of pets, specifically the dog, is increasing. (Palacio J et al., 2003).Animal bites, particularly dog bites, are a major public health problem throughout the world (Morgan and Palmer, 2007). Animal bites and scratches, even when they are minor, can become infected and spread bacteria to other parts of the body.
Dog attacks, by street or domestic dogs, with injuries from very minor to significant and severe to fatal, are not uncommon. According to WHO report, ten million people are bitten by animals (especially Dogs) around the world, considered for prophylaxis and treatment against rabies and almost (55,000) people die from this disease annually (Mohdjunaid et al., Oct 2012).
The incidence of dog bite injuries is high in densely populated towns of Lahore when compared to less populated towns of Lahore.
General information about patients and possible causes was collected on a structured questionnaire. All the dog bite victims that were come to emergency ward during three months period were included in the study. Questionnaire include closed questions about the demographics of the victims, circumstances of bite incidents, body parts injured and the degree of injury, type of dog, history of previous bites, the level of knowledge about rabies, post bite home treatment (washing of bite wound etc.) prior to visited the hospital for medical treatment and post exposure treatment at hospital. The densely populated area (ravi town, data ganj bakhsh, shalimar town, samanabad etc) and less populated area (gulberg, azizbhati town, wagah, Allama iqbal town, & nishtar) was be compared.
6.4 Statistical Design
Cumulative incidence was calculated as described by Leon Gordis (2008). Chi square test was applied on the data by using SPSS (version 19.0).
In this study, cumulative incidence is 4.653 per 1000 popluation, most of the dog bite victims were male 79.9 % as compare to female 20%.5.7% cases visited Mayo Hospital’s emergency department during the study period, 4.5% cases were reported in Services Hospital and 89.9% cases from IPH Lahore. In this the higher percentage was the patients who were illiterate (47%) and very few patients were those who had intermediate and above education (6%). The occupation of the patients who were attended Hospitals, were farmers (31.56%). The 24% patients were those who had bitten once before in previous years. In those 24% patients 19.2 % those who were bitten by dog and 5% were bitten by others (cats, horse, donkeys, etc). Most of the victims were bitten in rural area (65%) and most of the injuries were from stray dogs (65.9%). Most of the victims had provoked bite (74%) and the high frequency were recorded that the cases had type II wound category (deep scratch but no bleeding) 82%. The cases received treatment in different hospitals were RIG (18%), Tetanus toxoid (32%), Antibiotic (78%) and Suturing (7.9%).
Most of the patients were from Ravi town Lahore that is one of the highly densely populated areas of Lahore (38%) and very few cases reported from Nishtar town Lahore (0.5%). The demographic location and the hospitals had no association as the results were insignificant (p-value>0.05). Most of the cases who were bitten by dog and they already bitten by dog in previous years, significant in relation as p-value <0.05. The association between dog status and biting animal was significant, as mostly biting dogs were stray dogs and most of the bite was provoked, there was significant association between biting animal and biting type (p-value<0.05).
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Prevalence Of Newcastle Disease In Backyard Poultry In District Mardan
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Publisher: 2015 Dissertation note: Newcastle disease (ND) is very important viral diseases of poultry industry in the rural areas of Pakistan It is caused by Avian Paramyxovirus serotype 1 (APMV-1) of the genus Rubulavirus belonging to the family Paramyxoviridae. The outbreaks of ND are usually associated with various factors e.g. confinement of birds, mode of disposal of diseased birds, cadavers and poultry fecal matter; dry seasons in the dry zones just before the rains; wind conditions; short irregular temperature changes and the refilling of farms with chickens from the markets. The present study was conducted in randomly picked 30 clusters in three Union councils of Tehsil Takht Bhai District Mardan to investigate the seroprevalence of Newcastle Disease virus and its potential risk factor in non-vaccinated chicken raised under backyard management system. Serum were observed through Haemagglutination inhibition test for the confirmation of prevalence of Newcastle Disease. 165 were found seropositive and 45 were seronegative (antibody titres of 4 or less) for ND out of 210 sera samples. Overall weighted seroprevalence was found as 76.836%, 95% Cl (66.238-87.433) using R software. This means that NDV was circulating in backyard poultry of district Mardan, while data on risk factor were obtained through a detail predesigned questionnaire from the owner in a face to face interview translated into local language (Pushto) after taking written consent from the owner.
To identify the risk factors for Newcastle Disease seroprevalence, multivariable logistic regression were performed. The result showed that live birds market stall near houses was strongly associated with NDV seroprevalence. Source of water from both type (public water supply and street channels) were also found strongly associated. A strong association was also observed between NDV seroprevalence and water source of street channels. Result also showed that cleaning of backyard premises was a protective factor against NDV with OR < 1. Another
strong risk factor was live birds market stall near houses (OR 33.64, 95 % Cl: 6.49-174.28). The largest confidence interval showed less precision which could be due to less no. of samples. The identified estimate of seroprevalence of ND and its associated potential risk factor will be communicated to concerned persons through publication.
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A Study On The Incidence Of Zoonotic Tuberculosis To Assess The Associated Risk Factors And Zoonotic Potential Of Bovine Tuberculosis In Lahore
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Publisher: 2015 Dissertation note: In the review by O’Reiley and his colleagues, Tuberculosis has been defined as a disease that affects the respiratory system foremost and its route of transmission from one animal species to another is by the airborne route along with consumption of un-pasteurized milk (O'Reilly, 1995) (De la Rua-Domenech, 2006) (Thoen et al. 2006). The review states that Mycobacteriumbovis causes tuberculosis in bovines as well as a number of wild animals such as goats, cats, dogs, pigs, buffalo, badgers, possums, deer, bison and non-human primates but most importantly it causes tuberculosis in humans. This makes the disease of significant public health importance due to its zoonotic nature.
The study was conducted in two of the largest dairy colonies in Lahore- Rakhchandra and Harbanspura dairy colony. 400 dairy animals (lactating) were selected from the target areas. 200 animals per field were chosen through convenience sampling. The research was divided into two parts. Phase 1 was concerned with screening of animals for bovine tuberculosis through performance of comparative intradermal tuberculin test (CIDTT) and followed by culturing of milk samples from animals that came positive. Phase 2 was concerned with testing of all human subjects who were in contact with the positively screened livestock. Since none of the human subjects showed any of the signs for tuberculosis, no testing of the humans could be performed.
The first step to animal testing was concerned with the screening of selected animals with comparative cervical intradermal tuberculin test (CIDTT). This involved the intradermal injection of bovine tuberculin purified protein derivative (PPD) and the subsequent detection of swelling (delayed hypersensitivity) at the site of injection 72 hours later (Anonyms, 2008a). The test was considered positive if the difference between the swellings on the two sites was more than 4mm and it was the mammalian site that showed more swelling. Once the results were read, the dairy farmers were asked a set of questions designed to identify risk-factors for zoonotic tuberculosis. The farmers responded to nearly all the questions that were posed to them.
Milk sample was collected from the animals that tested positive. 50 ml of milk was collected from the positive animals. Once collected, the milk bottles were quickly capped and labeled and put in the ice-box before being transported to Provincial Tuberculosis Reference Laboratory in Lahore. Staining followed by culturing of milk samples for the isolation of Mycobacterium bovis was then proceeded with. For the purpose of culturing two types of media were prepared before-hand-Lowenstein Jensen (LJ) media and LJ-pyruvate media. LJ medium allows the growth of Mycobacterium tuberculosis, whereas LJ with pyruvate medium allows the growth of Mycobacterium bovis.
Petroff’s method was employed for the processing of milk samples which originally is used for sputum processing (Anonyms, 2009). The process was altered to suit our requirements. Once processed 300ul of pipette tips were used to place 100ul of processed sample on pre-marked slides for ziehl-neelson staining and 120ul on pre-made media slants a total of 4 bottles, 2 each of LJ media and LJ pyruvate media for duplication of results and to act as control. The bottles were checked for growth every week on Monday till 8 weeks of time.
At Rakhchandra dairy colony the tuberculin test done on 200 animals revealed only three (3) positive animals. Thus the prevalence of TB in Rakhchandra came out to be 1.5%. Out of 200 animals in Harbanspura dairy colony, six (6) animals showed hypersensitivity reaction and were positive. Prevalence of TB in Harbanspura came out to be 3%. Out of 400 animals tested, 90 were cattle and 310 were buffaloes. Only buffaloes showed hypersensitivity reaction to tuberculin. None of the cows tested came out to be tuberculin positive. In this particular study, the prevalence of TB on the basis of tuberculin test in buffalo was 2.9% where as in cattle it was 0%. When milk was collected and processed from the above mentioned nine (9) animals, the results showed a different picture. None of the cultures showed any signs of growth by 8 weeks of incubation. All nine milk samples after cleaning were stained by ZN staining and observed under microscope for the presence of mycobacterium, none came out positive.
The Basic Health Units (BHU) in each of the colony were contacted and it was found that in the last 10 years less than 10 patients who were suspected to have tuberculosis were referred to District Health Quarter (DHQ).
Even though a higher percentage (44.44%) of farmers in Harbanspura was recorded to have some knowledge about the zoonotic aspect of tuberculosis as compare to those in Rakhchandra (22.22%), yet a higher number of tuberculin positive animals was found in Harbanspura (6 versus 3). The economic status of farmers in Harbanspura was comparatively higher with 33.33% of farmers earning more than 1 lakh rupees per month, whereas in Rakhchandra this figure stood at 27.78%. This might be a mere chance of co-incidence but it also implies the unwillingness of farmers to apply biosecurity measures at their farms. Lack of willingness to take such precautionary steps places the farmers and their animals in great peril, since in the last six months alone 66.67% of the farmers in Harbanspura had purchased at least one animal, which is enough to bring disease in an un-infected herd. Only 27.78% of farmers in Rakhchandra had purchased animals on the other hand. Also only 77.78% of farmers in Harbanspura would clean the dung from the farms twice a day whereas 100% Rakhchandra farmers would cleanup twice a day. The tuberculin positive animals were found to be spending most time of their day in filthy places. Their sheds were not cleaned regularly. Heaps of dung and ground wet with urine was observed on every visit. It exposed animals to numerous infections and 11.11% of animals in Harbanspura and 44.44% of animals in Rakhchandra were suffering from unidentified chronic illnesses. Farmers said that they preferred to sell such animals to butchers (85.8% combined percentage), rather than burying after culling (3.7% combined percentage). Deworming was not considered a mode of disease prevention amongst the farmers since only 22.22% of all farmers bothered to deworm their animals. The animals were seen to not having a score of above 2.5 when their body scoring was done (Scale 1-5). The one blissful factor discovered was the habit of nearly all farmers (92.59%) preferred to boil milk before consumption. Even dairy products were made from boiled milk (81.48%). This single factor could be the reason why the farmers consuming otherwise contaminated milk was still in such a glowing healthy condition.
The study allowed us to get a measure of the status of disease in lactating animals and to investigate the conditions that prevail in the two dairy colonies. It showed a difference in the prevalence of disease in Harbanspura and Rakhchandra famous for providing milk to Lahore city. This was scrutinized through a detailed analysis of farmer habits and environment of animals in both the fields. This study would permit upcoming researchers to have an up-to-date status of tuberculosis in the dairy colonies.
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Seroprevalence Of Brucellosis In Pregnant And Aborted Women Of Rural And Urban Areas In Three Selected Districts Of Punjab Pakistan
Material type: Book ; Literary form:
Publisher: 2015 Dissertation note: Brucellosis is an important zoonotic disease of animals and human. According to OIE
(Office International des Epizooties), it is the second most important zoonotic disease in the
world after rabies Brucellosis is more common in countries with Poorly standardized animal
and public health programme. Human Brucellosis caused by B. abortus, B. abortus are small,
non-motile, aerobic, facultative intracellular, Gram-negative cocobacilli.
The symptoms of human brucellosis are undulant fever, headache, weakness, body
pain, and sometimes endocarditis, orchitis, or arthritis may develop. Prolonged use of
combination of antibiotics and human vaccine is main control measure strategies for human
brucellosis. This disease is under investigated and hence people are ignorant of this insidious
problem. Serological surveillance is a good and cheap tool to diagnose this problem. There is
also need to know that which diagnostic antigen (Pakistani or French) is more sensitive and
specific from disease eradication and control point of view. Unfortunately annual incidence
of brucellosis in whole Pakistan is unknown but they are expected above 2 per 100,000
people. The hypothesis of present study was that brucellosis is considered to be endemic in
Pakistan but there is no data available about seroprevalence of brucellosis in pregnant,
aborted, rural and urban women with different risk factors in Pakistan.
In present study sero-screening of total 199 serum samples of pregnant and women
presenting with abortions from district Jhang, district Chinoit and district Faisalabad. Test
was performed on 199 samples which showed 40 (20%) positives by RBPT (Pakistan) and 42
(21%) positives by RBPT (France) (Table 4.4). While the indirect modified ELISA showing
5 (2.5%) positive samples. All sera tested positives (5) with modified i-ELIA were also tested
positives with another specific and highly expensive ELISA (Verion Serion) at OIE reference
Laboratory for brucellosis, Germany. Prevalence data was analyzed by chi square test
using SPSS version 20 Software (Apache License, USA) to find out correlation between risk
factors and brucellosis prevalence.
Risk factors such as consumption of raw milk, contact with animals, and symptoms
were significant. In our opinion, indirect modified ELISA is more sensitive than RBPT
(Pakistan) and RBPT (French). RBPT, (Pakistan) can be used for primary screening of
brucellosis cases because of cross reactivity present in RBPT antigen and confirmation must
be made with a more specific and sensitive serological test, such as B. abortus-specific
indirect modified ELISA. The results of present study showed that RBPT, Pakistan antigen
showed almost same sensitivity and specificity as that of RBPT (Pourquier, France) antigen.
Indirect modified ELISA is more specific as compared to RBPT (Pakistan) and RBPT
(French). It is highly suggestive to combine serodiagnostics test with molecular detection
including PCR and Real time PCR to increase the detection rate of brucellosis. Human
ELISA kit is extremely expensive that cannot be afforded in developing countries like
Pakistan to screen the human. PCR technique is highly reliable and less time consuming. It is
highly suggestive to conduct the study on human brucellosis on other districts of south
Punjab as it is believed that brucellosis is endemic due to lack of awareness and vaccination
in these areas.
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Poultry Waste Management And Its Impact on Public Health In Lahore, Punjab, Pakistan
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Publisher: 2015 Dissertation note: Theses submitted with blank cd.
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Cross Sectional Study Of Newcastle Disease Virus In Wild Captive Peacocks (Pavo Cristatus) In Zoological Gardens Of District Lahore
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Publisher: 2015 Dissertation note: Newcastle disease virus (NDV) is RNA virus.It is the member of avian paramyxovirus type 1 (APMV-1).Its genus is Avulavirus genus. The incubation period ranges from 2-15 days. NDV strains are classified into velogenic, mesogenic and lentogenic categories. Newcastle disease is a virus disease of birds characterized by variable combinations of gastroenteritis respiratory distress and nervous signs.
A cross sectional study was conducted for the duration of 3 months in order to identify the prevalence of Newcastle disease in five zoological gardens of Lahore district. Peacocks were restrained by the trained persons and oropharyngealsamples were collected from apparently healthy Peacocks present in the zoological gardens in Lahore. Sampling of 200Peacocks was done by convenience sampling and stored in freezer at -80°C for further analysis.Virus isolation by egg inoculation was performed to isolate virus and confirmationof (NDV) Newcastle disease virus was done by conducting HI test with specific antisera.Samples were inoculated in 10 days embryonated hen’s eggsand allantoic fluid was collected and tested for haemagglutination (HA) activity. Positive samples were confirmed by haemagglutination inhibition (HI) test.
Frequency distribution through age, sex, breed, origin, date and site of collection were examined by standard statistical methods to determine the prevalence by virus isolation method in that specified population. The data was analyzed by using two way contingency tables with Chi-square test for association. Test was performed to check the association of NDV with age, sex, breeds, origin, and specimen type. The significance level was kept at p<0.05. 2 samples were found positive. Overall prevalence in wild captive peacocks was 1% (95 CI=.1-3.6). 200 samples were screened by spot HA test and 198 samples were found negative in four zoological gardens while 2 samples that were positive found in private zoo samples. Significant association was found between positive samples for NDV and zoological gardens.
Prevalence estimates of (NDV) Newcastle disease virus was generated for Peacock population. Associated factors were identified through this study. Results were shared with international community working for the control and eradication of Newcastle disease.
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Isolation And Molecular Detection Of Salmonella Species In Milk And Milk Products
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Publisher: 2015 Dissertation note: Salmonellosis is one of the emerging zoonotic diseases. Human infections result from contaminated raw or undercooked food. Various sources of contamination in milk are dirty udder, unhygienic handling and utensils, dirty hands of milkmen and poor quality water supply at the farm. To ensure food safety there is a dire need for the availability of valid, rapid and accredited diagnostic system. Conventional culture methods for detecting Salmonella spp. in foods needs 4–5 days. The development in molecular techniques made it possible to cut short the procedure.
The present study was conducted with the aim to evaluate the burden of Salmonella spp. in milk and milk products. In total 150 samples were collected, out of which there were 75 milk samples. These samples were collected from farm dairy herds (pooled milk) located in Harbanspura Dairy colony, Lahore. Salmonella was detected in 8 samples (11%) by conventional method.
In addition to milk samples, 75 samples of milk products were also collected from retail shops. These include 50 samples of Yogurt and 25 samples of Yogurt milk. Milk products had 6 positive samples (8%). No sample of Yogurt was detected positive for Salmonella. The reason for this is that Yogurt had only Salmonella if it is present in starter culture. Furthermore yogurt is made after frequent heating. Salmonella is killed by such continuous and vigorous heating. Yogurt milk is prepared from Yogurt along with raw milk in a separate utensil. There are chances of contamination there so it had 6 positive samples. Total 14 (9%) samples were detected in 150 samples by conventional method. It was found that Salmonella was present in raw milk samples and milk products at places where either cleanliness was not proper, milk handling practices
were not up to the mark, udder was not washed before milking or overall management practices were poor.
Positive samples obtained by conventional method were further analyzed by PCR for Salmonella genus confirmation. Out of total 8 positive milk samples by conventional method, 5(62%) were confirmed as Salmonella genus. Similarly from 6 positive samples of milk products by conventional method, only 2(33%) were confirmed as of Salmonella genus. Further PCR was conducted for Salmonella typhimurium detection. Milk samples were containing 3(60%) positive samples while no positive sample was detected in milk products.
On the basis of the results of present study, it is recommended that milk should always be boiled before use. Further Hygienic measures should be adopted during milking. Proper handling of milk and milk products is also important to limit the cross contamination. It is also advised that standards such as pasteurization and HACCP should be introduced to facilitate production of good quality milk. Electronic and print media should also create awareness among people about food safety.
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An Epidemiological Investigation For The Selection Of Suitable Vaccine Virus Candidate Of Newcastle Disease
Material type: Book Publisher: 2015 Dissertation note: The current study was designed to investigate the risk factors associated with Newcastle disease and characterization and confirmation of Newcastle disease on microbiological and molecular basis. Newcastle disease (ND) is one of the most important viral diseases. It is an acute infectious viral disease of domestic poultry and other species of birds regardless of variation in sex and age. Etiological agents of ND are virulent strains of avian paramyxovirus-1 genus Avulavirus, family Paramyxoviridae and order mononegavirales. The data collection was done on predesigned questionnaire. Newcastle disease virus isolation was done by using the embryonated eggs. Amnion allantoic fluid was harvested and checked for hemaglutinating activity by spot hemaglutinition test and results were recorded. For confirmation of NDV hemaglutinition assay and hemaglutinition inhibition test were used. Further confirmation was done by RT PCR using predesigned primers. Results showed that vaccine used at the most of farms were live attenuated. Most of the farms have no written biosecurity plan. A total of 264 samples were examined 17 samples were the best suspected positive for ND, 10 samples were confirmed on the basis of postmortem lesion, HI and PCR.
The study concludes the farm type, dead bird disposal, biosecurity, farm history and vehicles for feed transportation are the risk factors for the outbreak of Newcastle disease. Whereas water quality, farm mangers, litter disposal, vaccine schedule and vaccine type given at farm show no significant association with the spread of disease. The study characterized field isolates on microbiological and molecular basis, submitted to the principle investigator for use in development of multiepitop vaccine.
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A Case Control Study On Gestational Diabetes Mellitus In District Lahore
Material type: Book ; Literary form:
Publisher: 2016 Dissertation note: The present study was designed to identify the association ofvarious risk factors with GDM.The study was consist of cases and controls andconducted for a period of 3 month i.e. February to April 2016. A total sample of 284 comprises of 142 cases and 142 controls were selected fromgynaecological outpatient department, tertiary care hospitalsof district Lahore. The cases matched on the basis of parity with control. The data about demographic and risk factors associated with gestational diabetes were collected through predesigned questionnaires.
The study was completed in a period of three months. The data was analyzed by using SPSS 16.0.The results of this study will be useful for the prevention and control of this disease from fatal outcome.
The results of the study showed the relationship of GDM among cases than controls. It was observed that most of the woman’s were illiterate and housewives. The economic status was found statistically significant in present study. But overall participants werefrom lower middle class families. Present study showed that the woman’s with the age of 29-35, that is high age group and significant association found in the mother age.
Previous history of diabetes mellitus and family history of diabetes mellitus also role plays in raising the prevalence of gestational diabetes mellitus. Gestational diabetes mellitus prevalence was higher in those women who had family history of diabetes. The higher number seen among cases who had diabetes in previous pregnancy, which was significantly higher at(p value= 0.000). It was investigated that diabetes mellitus was more common in high BMI>25kg/m2 so it has strong relationship with high BMI.
This study was designed to identify the risk factors associated with Gestational Diabetes Mellitus. Because the prevalence of Gestational diabetes is increasing with increase the number of women in childbearing age. The timely diagnosis of GDM and identify its risk factors are need of the time to control fetal and maternal complications.
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Survey To Assess Knowledge About Poultry Disease, Vaccination And Zoonoses In Backyard Poultry Keepers Around Lahore
Material type: Book ; Literary form:
Publisher: 2016 Dissertation note: The term backyard chicken production designates poultry birds which are reared on small scale by a household. In this type of poultry rearing, usually a few birds are kept primarily for family use. The surplus birds and eggs are sold in the village or nearby market and the cash were utilized for fulfilling other needs of the household. This was a common practice in the rural area of all over the Pakistan.
Backyard poultry keepers are not well aware of management practices and poultry diseases. For that purpose nine rural areas were selected from Lahore by convenient sampling method. The households in each of the village were also conveniently select. 200 respondents were interview through a model questionnaire to assess knowledge about poultry diseases, zoonotic diseases and vaccination of poultry in backyard poultry keepers.
After compilation of the research data only 25.00% respondents know about poultry disease and only 48.74% use vaccination and medication for their birds if they got sick otherwise they never vaccinate or medicate.73.73% people do vaccination against New castle disease out of those who use vaccination/treatment but according to data they have no proper knowledge even New castle disease. 55.56% farmer observed diseases and sign and symptoms in their flock from which mites and ticks are 55.56%, respiratory sound and nasal discharge 44.45%, coughing, sneezing and greenish diarrhea 33.34%, swollen joints and ocular discharge 22.23%.Respiratory diseases are prevalent in that area.
70.00% people of the study have information about zoonotic diseases while only 26.00 people know about poultry zoonotic diseases. They are not properly educated about poultry zoonotic diseases
This study will help to collect the information about the knowledge of zoonotic disease, poultry disease and vaccination through survey from backyard poultry farmers. Results of the study are helpful to point out the main issue of poultry diseases and mortality. It is a need of hour to properly manage the back yard poultry on an early basis while a timed procedure should be developed to educate the rural farmers. Currently no proper regulatory body is working for the Poultry sector, PPA (Pakistan Poultry Association) working privately without any authoritative power. These points can be easily improved to help the poultry farmers in the sense of developing skillful backyard poultry producers to boost up poultry sector.
Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [ Call number: 2577-T] (1).