Comparative Ealuation Of Melia Azadarch Linn (Neem) For Control Of Coccidiosis In Poultry (Broiler)
Fouzia Iqbal | Dr. Muhammad Sabir | Dr. Mubasher | Dr. Muhammad Arshad Qureshi. Material type: Book ; Format:
; Literary form:
Publisher: 1993 Dissertation note: A study was conducted to evaluate the anti-coccidial activity of Melia azadarch Linn (Neem) , an indigenous plant drug in comparison to synthetic coccicliostats (Esb3) in broilers.
The Meli azadarch Linn (Neem) seed was tried in powder, aquous extract and methanolic extract for anti-coccidial activity in broilers. The birds were artificial infected with coccidial oocyst at the age of 30 days. After 5 days of infection the oocyst counting was carried out in the droppings of the birds. When evidence of coccidiosis outbreak in the infected birds was established than the drug was administered to different groups of the broilers. The group A was kept as control, group B, C & D were administered Powder Melia azadarch Linn (Neem) 10, 20 & 30 mg/Kg body weight respectively and group F was given Esb3, to compare the effect of this plant drug. Similarly aquous extract and Methanolic extract was administered equivalent to 10, 20 & 30 mg/Kg B.W. of Melia azadaich Linn (Neem) to respective group. The OPG (oocyst per gram) was examined after 3, 10 & 15 days after the drug administration. It was observed that OPG (oocyst per gram) was decreased to 0.59%, 0.78% and 0.58% at the dose rate of 10, 20 and 30 mg/Kg 13.W. respectively after 3 clays of treatment with Melia azadarch Linn Powder. Whereas it was reduced to 82.79% in group E treated with Esb3. After 10 days of treatment OPG was decreased to 50.17% and 96.55% in groups B, C, D & E respectively at the dose rate oF 10, 20 & 30 mg/Kg [3.W. in case of Melia azadarch Linn (Powder) and lsb1. After 15 days OPG was decreased to 97.94%, 97.08%, 97.87 and 98.60% in group B, C, D & E respectively in case of Melia azadarch Linn (Powder) at the dose rate of 10, 20 and 30 mg/Kg 13.W. and Esb3. at dose rate of 1g/liter.
In case of Melia azadarch Linn (Neern) (Water extract) OPG reduction after 3 days of treatment was 4.46%, 3,93% and
3.67% in groups B, C and 1). While OPG reduction in case of group E was 83.82%.
After 10 days of post treatment OPG counting was 5 1.33%, 51.18%, 51,10% and 96.76 in groups 13, C, 1) and E respectively. In case of OPG counting after 15 days reduction was 90.62%, 86.61%, 79.77% and 98.30% in groups 13, C, I) and l respectively. Dose rate of group B, C, & 1) is equivalent to 10, 20 & 30 mglKg B.W. and group E ig/liter i.e. Esb3:,.
In case of group treated with Melia azaclarch Linn (Neem) (methanolic extract, OPG reduction after 3 days of treatment was 0.59%, 0.78%, 0.58% and 82.79% in groups B, C, D & E respectively. In case OPG counting after 10 days of treatment was 50.17%, 50.23%, 50.17% and 96.55% in groups B, C, D & E respectively. While OPG counting after 15 clays of treatment was 97.94%, 97.08%, 97.87% and 98.60% in groups B, C, D & E. Dose rate of group B, C, D was equivalent to dose rate of 10, 20 and 30mg/kg .B.W. & group E was t ieated with I1sb at dose rate of ig/liter.
It is concluded that. Melia azadarch Linn (Neem ) is equally effective against coccidiosis in powder, aquous and methanolic extract. Although it took longer to produce similar effect as Esb3 but it is quite comparable with the results shown by 1sb. In addition the Melia azadarch linn (Neem). in either from did not show any adverse effect on the growth rate of the broilers. Any how this plant material can be used as prophylactic measures or to treat the outbreak of coccidiosis. Certainly there is a need for investigation to make this drug more efficacious.
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Adverse Effects Of Kanamycin In Dwarf Goats (Teddy Goats)
Atta Ullah, M | Dr. Muhammad Sabir | Dr. Haji Ahmad | Dr. M. Arshad Qureshi. Material type: Book ; Format:
Publisher: 1995 Dissertation note: Kanamycin, an aminoglycoside antibiotic is commonly employed as a therapeutic agent for the treatment of many infectious diseases.
Goat farming is considered to be more profitable than other farm animals. Especially the
Teddy goats are abundently kept in plains and mountaneous and barani, areas of Pakistan on account of their rapid growth, early maturity and higher rate of twins, triplets in this species.
An experiment was conducted to observe the influence of kanamycin sulphate on the haematologic and enzymatic activity in teddy goats.
In this experiment kanamycin sulphate was injected to the goats at the dose rate of 10 mg/kg body weight twice daily for five successive days. The blood sample were taken after one week and then once a week for four weeks of injection The sera thus collected were subjected to analytical examination.
The study indicated the significant increase in the total number of erythrocytes and leukocytes. The packed cell volume and the haemoglobin concentration did not change
significantly. The activity of alkaline phosphatase, alanine aminotransferase (OPT), aspartate aminotransferase (GOT) was also estimated'. The alkaline phosphatase activity was enhanced during the experimental period which returned to normal at the end of the experiment. The value of OPT activity increased after the first week of injection and persisted through out the experiment, althou9h it decreased in the later stages of study.
On the basis of the observations made during this study, it is suggested that kanamycin do have damaging effect on the liver which has resulted in an increased activity of ALP, OPT and GOT.
The increase in the number of erythrocytes and leukocytes during this study might be due to the increase in haemopiosis, resulting in the production of immature blood cells.
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Studies Of Antibacterial Activity Of Azadirachata Indica Leaves (Neem)
Naeem Butt, M | Dr. Muhammed Sabir | dr. Khushi muhammed | Dr. Razzaq Ali. Material type: Book ; Format:
; Literary form:
Publisher: 1997 Dissertation note: One hundred, day old chicks were reared in the college room. Before the introduction of chicks to the shed, the room was washed and disinfected. Azadirachta indica (Neem) leaves were used in the form of powdered, aqueous and methanolic extracts in three major groups i.e. A, B and C (containing 30 birds each) and D with 10 birds, which were kept as a control group.
The powdered, aqueous and methanolic extracts were given in the feed to each sub-group at 10,15 and 20mg/Kg body weight to A, B and C i.e., A1, A2 and A3 B1, B2,and B3 C1,C2 and C3 respectively. The N.D. vaccine was administered after 2 days of start of medication. The blood of the experimental and controlled birds were taken at the age of 28, 35 and 42 days. The medication was started at 21 day of age. The sera collected from the blood samples were tested for antibody response against N.D. vaccine. No antibacterial activity of extracts of Neem leaves against Staphylococcus aureous and Pasteurella multocida was observed. the titre of each group at one week post vaccination of ND vaccine to the birds, were determined. It was noted that the water extract of 10mg Neem leaves did not effect the antibody response of birds. The feed conversion ratio of the experimental and control birds were also determined weekly as shown in the Table No.14.
There is no apparent different in F.C.R. among the dosage level of powdered, aqueous and methanolic extracts as shown in the Figure-i. During the experimental period ii birds died. The postmortem findings showed E. coli infection.
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Antibacterial Activities Of An Antibiotic On Complexation With Metals
Abid Riaz Ahmed | Dr. Muhammad Sabir | Dr. Khushi Muhammad | Mr. Razzaq Ali. Material type: Book ; Format:
Publisher: 1997 Dissertation note: The work presented in this thesis concerns the role of metal ions through chelation in drug design. The area received much attention since the claim that the complexes of drug substances with metal ions are more active and less toxic than the parent drug.
In this work complexes of cephalexin with copper and zinc ions were prepared and characterized by microanalysis, IR and UV-vis spectrophotometry, magnetic measurement techniques, differential scanning calorimetry, and atomic absorption spectrometry. The complexes were found to be of ML2 type where M is the metal ion and L stands for the ligand. Both the complexes were monohydrate. On the basis of the analytical and spectroscopic data, the copper complex is suggested to possess an elongatedtetragonal copper (II) ions environment with d22 ground state, the complex was found to be mononuclear with respect to copper atom. The zinc complex possessed square-pyramidal geometry having coordination number 5.
The complexes were found to be much more active (copper complex possessed about four times enhanced activity, zinc complex about three times higher activity) against S. aureus. Similarly copper complex possessed 14 times higher activity and zinc complex about 10 times higher activity against E. coli.
This work presents a major advance to the pharmaceutical sciences. The complexes reported in this study may replace cephalexin in daily use due to their higher activities against the micro-organisms sensitive to cephalexin.
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Comparative Efficacy Of Herbal Diretics For The Elimination Of Toxins And Oedematous Fluids From Broiler Chickens
Ovais Omer, M | Dr. M. Sabir | Dr. Haji Ahmad | Dr. M. Razzaq Ali. Material type: Book ; Format:
Publisher: 1998 Dissertation note: Presently a number of diuretic drugs are being used in poultry under the name of "flushers". These drugs play an important role in poultry disorders especially in cases of nephritis, urates deposition, restoring normal functions of kidneys by eliminating toxic substances and extra ffufi1 (o cigrr conditions. rlthe present study was undertaken to determine the comparative efficacy of locally prepared herbal diuretic mixture and commercially available herbal diuretic named "Nephrobiotic-DM".
For the purpose, one hundred day-old chicks were kept and divided into five groups namely A, B, C, D and E. Groups A, B and C were given herbal diuretic mixture at different concentrations in drinking water. Group ID was given Nephrobiotic-DM in drinking water and the birds of group E were provided with normal water, being the control. The comparative efficacy of these diuretics was studied by evaluating the droppings moisture percentage, feed consumption, feed conversion ratio (FCR), water intake, total serum protein, blood urea, weight gain and certain electrolytes in broiler chickens.
In this study no change was observed in the total serum protein, feed and water consumption and feed conversion ratio (FCR). But significant changes were seen in the blood urea, serum sodium, potassium and dropping's moisture percentage. Body weights
achieved by the chicks remained normal.
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Protective Effect Of Diltiazem Hydrochloride On Occurrence Of Alloxan Induced Diabetes In Rabbits
Azeem, M | Dr.Muhammad Razzaq Ali | Dr.Haji Ahmad | Dr.Muhammad Sabir. Material type: Book ; Format:
; Literary form:
Publisher: 1998 Dissertation note: An investigation was carried out to study the protective effect of calcium channel blocker i.e. diltiazem hydrochloride on occurrence of alloxan diabetes in rabbits and also to see the protective effect of a herbal mixture of medicines, i.e. Kalonji, Kasni and Maithee on occurrence of alloxan induced diabetes in rabbits.
For this purpose, 20 rabbits were randomly divided into four groups i.e. A, B, C and D, comprising 5 rabbits in each and were provided food and water libitum.
Each of the members of group A (control) were given 150 mg/kg body weight alloxan intravenously into ear vein. These animals were given food and water libitum for two days, then they were fasted over night and blood samples were collected for estimation of glucose and total protein.
The results obtained showed significant increase in blood glucose level subsequent to the administration of alloxan. There was no change observed in total protein.
The rabbits of group B were given 20 mg/kg body weight of Diltiazem hydrochloride intraperitoneally and after 15 minutes alloxan was administered intravenously. The results obtained showed significant increase in blood glucose level and no effect on total protein.
Similarly the rabbits of group 'C' were given 40 mg/kg body weight of diltiazem hydrochloride intraperitoneally and then after 15 minutes 150 mg/kg body weight of alloxan was administered intravenously into ear vein. Blood samples showed significant decrease in blood glucose level and no effect on total protein.
While rabbits of group-D were given 2 gm/kg body weight of herbal mixture orally, and then after two hours alloxan was administered intravenously. The data showed a significant rise in blood glucose level and again no effect on total protein. This showed that the herbal mixture had no protective effect.
From this result, it is conceivable that diltiazem hydrochloride showed protective effect on occurrence of alloxan induced diabetes in rabbits and there was no effect on total protein whereas the herbal mixture did not have protective effect.
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Protective Effect Of Indomethacin On Alloxan Induced Diabetes In Rabbits
Razaq Waria, M | Dr. Muhammad Sabir | Dr. Haji Ahmad | Dr. Muhammad Razzaq Ali. Material type: Book ; Format:
Publisher: 1998 Dissertation note: An investigation was undertaken to study the protective effect of indomethacin and powdered Cuminum nigrum Linn. Seeds (Kala zeera) on alloxan induced diabetes in rabbits.
Thirty healthy rabbits were kept in animal house of College of Veterinary Sciences, Lahore. These rabbits were randomly divided into six groups A, B, C, D, E and F comprising of 5 rabbits in each and were provided food and water aci-libitum.
Group A was kept as control which was given alloxan (150mg/Kg body weight) without prior administration of indomethacin or Kala zeera. Group B rabbits were given 10 mg/Kg body weight indornethacin intraperitoneally, 15 minute prior to alloxan administraiton intravenously of 150mg/Kg body weight. Group C was given 20mg/Kg body weight of indomethacin intraperitoneally 15 minute prior to alloxan administration intravenously of 150mg/Kg body weight. Group D rabbits were given powdered Cuminum nigrurn 2gm/Kg body weight orally 2 hours prior to alloxan administraiton intravenously of 150mg/Kg body weight. Group E was given only 10mg/Kg body weight of indomethacin intrperitoneally and its effect was noted. Group F was given only 25mg i.e. 0.5m1 NaHCO3 5% intraperitoneally to see its effect.
The animals were sampled for glucose and protein estimation after zero 24, 48 and 72 hours. Before taking the samples animals were fasted overnight. Their blood glucose levels were estimated by glucorneter and total serum protein was estimated by Biuret method. Group A showed marked increase of blood glucose level and had not effect on total protein. Group B did not show protective effect on blood glucose level and no change in total serum protein level, while group C showed significantly protective effect on the blood glucose level and no change in total serum protein level. Group D showed marked increase of blood glucose level and did not show any protective effect and also no change in total serum protein level. Group E and F showed significant increase of blood glucose level but increased level remained in the normal limit and no change in total serum protein.
It is clear that indomethacin showed dose dependently protective effect on alloxan induced diabetes in rabbits but herbal medicine Cuminum nigrum has no protective effect. It is also clear that there in no change in total serum protein level even in severe diabetic condition.
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Synthesis And Evaluation Of Biological Properties Of Derivatives Of Cephalosporins
Rehmat Ullah, Major | Dr.Muhammad Sabir | Dr.Haji Ahmad | Dr.Muhammad Raziq Ali. Material type: Book ; Format:
; Literary form:
Publisher: 1999 Dissertation note: This study was aimed at preparation and evaluation of the biological properties of cephradine. Schiff base transition metal complexes of cephradine were prepared. In the first step Schiff bases were prepared by condensation of the primary amine with a carbonyl compound. For this purpose pyridoxal HCI and salicylaldehyde were used. In the next step the prepared Schiff bases were chelated with metal salts using copper acetate and zinc acetate, here metal binds to polydenate ligands to form the ring structure, where metal is the part of the ring. In this way a three dimensional molecule was obtained which exhibited enhanced antibacterial activity in some cases and depressed activity in the others. The complexes were subjected to biological evaluation to find out the minimum lethal concentration of the new complexes and then it was compared with the parent drug. The standard organisms of S. aureus, .E.coli Pseudomonas aeruginosa and . pneumoniae were used to study the antimicrobial activity. Cephradine complexes showed a depressed activity against S. aureus, . E.coli and P . aemginosa. But the activity of CPC and CSC derivatives was found ten times enhanced against
K. pneumoniae, when compared with the present drug. The haematological study revealed that the parent drug and the new derivatives did not have any deleterious effect upon the total erythrocyte count, haemoglobin concentration, leukocytic count, differential leukocytic count i.e., lymphocytes and polyrnorphs (neutrophils). Thus the new compounds were found to be as safe as the parent drug itself.
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Synthesis And Evaluation Of Bioilogical Properties Of Derivatives Of Ceftriaxone Sodium
Shahid Zaigham | Dr.Muhammad Sabir | Dr.Muhammad Razaq Ali. Material type: Book ; Format:
; Literary form:
Publisher: 1999 Dissertation note: Abstract
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Study Of Changes In Hematological Laboratory Profile Induced By Vinorelbine In Cancer Patients
Taha Nazir | Prof.Dr.Saghir Ahmad Jafri | Dr.Muhammad Mehmood Khan | Prof.Dr.Muham. Material type: Book ; Format:
Publisher: 2000 Dissertation note: The present study was carried to investigate the hematological alterations in the patients diagnosed as cancer and were administered vinorelbine as part of their chemotherapy at Shoukat khanum memorial cancer hospital and research centre. It was carried in the chemotherapy department, pathology laboratory, medical record section, pharmacy department, and data processing department of the hospital. For investigating there were a total of 60 adult cancer patients with non-small cell lung cancer (NSCL), metastatic breast cancer (MBC), and cancer of cervix (CC), with age between 24 to 71 years (Mean±SEM: 42.73±2.69) selected. Which were divided into two groups: Group - I for those patients who were on the treatment protocol of Vinorelbine alone (25 mg/m2/day one, weekly x 4) and group - II for those patients who were on treatment protocol of Vinorelbine base combinations Vinorelbine/Doxorubicin (Vinorelbine - 20 mg/m2/day one and day eight, Doxorubicin - 50 mg/m2/day one only) and Vinorelbine/Cisplatin (Vinorelbine - 20 mg/m2/day one and day eight, Cisplatin - 40 mg/m2/day one only). The Laboratory tests (C.B.C.) of all the patients were performed in the Pathology Laboratory of the hospital. After completion of the study, the collected Hematological values were statistically analyzed by student pair test. By the overall comparison of mean values over time, there were significant leukopenia (neutrophile, eosinophil, & monocyte), anemia and decreased hematocrit value observed in the patients on chemotherapy protocol of Vinorelbine alone and significant leukopenia (neutrophile only), anemia and decreased hematocrit value and hemoglobine conc. observed in the patients on chemotherapy protocol of Vinorelbine based combinations. By an independent comparison of mean values of two groups at every week, there were significantly higher toxicities 1 e leukopenia at week-3 (neutrohpil at week-3, eosinophil at weekI, lymphocyte at week-i &2) and thrombocytopenia at week-i observed in the patients on the treatment protocol of Vinorelbine based combinations. When the mean values observed before therapy were compared with that of at week-4 of both of the groups, there were significant decreases noted in TLC, neutrophil count, monocyte count, erythrocyte count, hemotocrit value and Hb conc in the patients on treatment protocol of Vinorelbine alone, and erythrocyte count, hemotocrit value and hemoglobine conc. in the patients on treatment protocol of Vinorelbine based combinations. It is concluded from this study that, there is insignificant difference in the overall hematological toxicities produced by both of the chemotherapy protocols. The clinical oncologist, consultant physicians and pharmacist, therefore now suggested to select the either of the of the chemotherapy protocol with respect of the therapeutic efficacy only
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Comparative Efficacy Of Herbal Medicines For The Immuno Modulatory And Antistress Effect Against Infectious Bursal Disease (Gumboro) in Broiler Chickens
Sajid Hussain Butt | Dr . Saghir Ahmad Jafri | Dr . Muhammad Ovais Omer. Material type: Book ; Format:
Publisher: 2000 Dissertation note: Main aim of the study was to estimate the immunosuppression induced by Infectious bursal disease vaccination and management of the immunosuppression with indigenous Herbal medicine (nefrone). For this purpose on hundred and sixty day old broiler chicks were procured from the local market. Chicks were kept on floor under standard conditions of management in Experimental Room of Pharmacology Section, College of Veterinary Sciences, Lahore Chicks were divided into four groups comprising of 40 birds in each designated as A (control and vaccinated, B (Vaccinated+Nefrone), C (Vaccinated+Lisovit) and D (Vaccinated+ herbal mixture) for control of vaccine stress and to study the immunomodulatory effect of Nefrone, Lisovit and herbal mixture. Birds were fed commercial feed and water ad libitum
The brides were vaccinated with D-78 and 228-E on day 3rd and 21st. Biochemical substances were examined on 24, 48, 72 and 96 hours at 1st and 2nd post vaccination shots against IBD vaccine. The birds were also vaccinated against Newcastle disease on 10th day and Hydropericardium syndrome on 18th day of the experiment. Blood samples were collected from randomly selected ten birds of each group after 24, 48, 72 and 96 hours post-vaccination for ascertaining the following parameters: (i) Heterophil/Lymphocyte ratio (ii) Serum biochemical substances (protein, glucose and Cholesterol). On day 42nd, adrenal gland/body weight ratio and pathological leions in adrenal gland were noted. An effort was also made to ascertain the economics of flock at the end of the experiment. Vaccine did not cause detectable stress in broilers due to prophylactic use of Nefrone, Lisovit and herbal mixture. Nefrone therapy showed positive effects on the immune response and growth traits of the birds.
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Efficacy Of Various Chemical Agents Against Avian Influenza Virus (Type H9)
Imran Altaf | Prof.Dr.Muhammad Ashraf | Dr. Khushi | Dr. Muhamad ovais Omer. Material type: Book ; Format:
Publisher: 2001 Dissertation note: In the present project, 300 eggs were taken from Big Birds. They were cleaned and incubated for 9 days. After 9 days they were candled to separate the live and dead embryo. On the 11th day, the embryos were inoculated with the different concentrations of drugs which were to be tested. The detail of these drugs are given below:
Chlorine was taken in the concentration of 1, 2 and 5 ppm. They were divided into control and experimental groups containing drug + Normal saline and drug. + virus. The results showed that 2 ppm and 5 ppm chlorine was most effective as disinfectant, while 1 ppm was not effective.
Iodine was also tested in the concentration of 0.1, 0.5 and 1 per cent for control and experimental groups in the same fashion as in chlorine. The results showed that 1% and 0.5% solutions are highly antiviral but are toxic for living cells, while 0.1% iodine is virucidal against virus and can be used for the living cells as it was not toxic for embryo.
In case of amantadine 50 jig/mi, 500 jig/mi and 1000 jig/mi were used along with virus and Normal saline for experimental and control groups, respectively. Results show that 1000 i.g/ml concentration was toxic for cell and hence can not be used in vivo, while 50 jig/ml failed to stop the replication of virus. 500 jig/ml concentration not only stopped the viral replication but also did not kill the embryo. So 500 jig/mi of amantadine can be used in poultry, if desired.
Acyclovir is another pharmaceutical product, used in the concentration of 50 jig/mi, 200 jig/mi and 400 jig/mi in the fashion as described above. Results showed that acyclovir was effective within the range of 200 jig/ml to 400 jig/mi without any fear of damage to cell, but 50 jig/mi concentration failed to stop the viral replication and also showed high HA titer.
In herbal group, Soyabean was tested in the concentration of 1 g/l00ml, 5g/l00ml and 10 g/l00ml. When the results were collected it was noticed that neither concentration of soyabean has any antiviral effect against influenza.
Opuntia plant group which comprises of three species named:
0-Stricta, O-Dellinii and 0-Manocantha was testified for their antiviral efficacy. The concentrations used were 1 gm, 5 gms and 10 gms dissolved in 100 ml of Normal saline. Their extracts were obtained and injected in the embryo alongwith virus and Normal saline for experimental and control groups after giving them an interaction time of one hour. In the results, 10 g/l00ml and 5 g/l00ml show a good anti-viral efficacy against influenza, while 1 g/l00ml failed to show any significant effect and gave high HA titer. So in Pakistan these herbal drugs should be further investigated so that these can be used against influenza.
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Effect Of Xylazine As A Preanaesthetic Medication With Chloral Hydrate Induced Anaesthesia in Equines
Kashif Shahzad | Prof.Dr.Muhammad Ashraf | Dr. M. Ovais Omer. Material type: Book ; Format:
; Literary form:
Publisher: 2003 Dissertation note: This project was designed to evaluate the effect of Xylazine as a preanaesthetc medication w ith chioral hydrate induced anaesthesia in equines. The study was conducted over eight donkeys which were divided into two groups i.e. group A and group B having four animals in each group which were used in a cross over fashion. Animals of group A were given chioral hydrate alone at the dose rate of 100mg/kg body weight intravenously while animals of group B xylazine hydrochloride (1mg/kg body weight) were administered as a preanaesthetic medication followed by chioral hydrate (100mg/kg body weight).
After a washout period of two weeks, animals of group A were given xylazine as a preanaesthetic medication followed by chioral hydrate at the same dose rate as given previously. While animals of group B were given chloral hydrate alone.
Different parameters such as induction, recumbency, recovery period, temperature, pulse, respiration and reflexes were used for the evaluation of anaesthesia. Liver toxicity was evaluated by measuring Alanine amino transferase (ALT) and Alkaline phosphatase (ALP) enzymes.
The results of this study indicated that induction and recovery period were reduced and smooth with xylazinc premedication as compared to chioral hydrate alone. Liver enzymes were not affected with the use of chioral hydrate (100mg/kg body weight) alone or in combination with xylazine hydrochloride.
From this study it is concluded that xylazine premedication gives better results and should be used along with chioral hydrate in equines for the surgical anaesthesia.
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Effect Of Diclofenac Sodium On Experimentally Induced Aseptic Arthritis In Equines
Dr . Aqeel Javeed | Prof.Dr.Muhammad Ashraf | Dr . Muhammad | Dr . Muhammad Ovais Omer. Material type: Book ; Format:
Publisher: 2002 Dissertation note: Aseptic arthritis of the knee joint was induced in 12 healthy donkeys, weighing 60 to 85kg by intra-articular injection ot O.3m1 of turpentine oil. The animals were randomly divided into 2 groups A and B of 6 animals each. Group A served as a control whereas in Group B anti-arthritic drug, diclofenac sodium (Diclocare 5%) was administered intramuscularly at the dose rate of 2.5mg/kg body weight daily for 5-6 days starting one day after the induction of arthritis. In group B, the joint circumference became normal on 6th day after induction of arthritis while in group A (control), the joint circumference took 16 to 20 days to become normal. According to this trial, diclofenac sodium provided an early return to normal stance and weight bearing in treated group B, taking longer time in control group A. No significant change in blood Haemoglobin, Total erythrocyte count, Total leukocyte count, Erythrocyte sedimentation rate and Packed cell volume was observed in control and treated animals. It is concluded that diclolènac sodium is an effective treatment for arthritis in donkeys.
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Therapeutic And Prophylactic Effects Of Antimicrobial Agents Against Omphalitis In Broiler Chicks
Qamar Arif | Prof.Dr.Muhammad Ashraf | Dr. M. Ovais Omer | Dr. Shakil. Material type: Book ; Format:
Publisher: 2002 Dissertation note: The Project was designed to study therapeutic and prophylactic effect of antimicrobial agents against omphalitis in the broiler chicks. Three hundred and seventy five day-old chicks were divided into two groups for therapeutic and prophylactic trails containing 200 and 175 chicks respectively. Therapeutic trail group was sub-divided into live groups A, B, C, D and E containing forty chicks in each. Chicks of group "A" served as non-infected, non-treated control. Infection was induced in group 13, C, D and E on first day. After 24 hours post infection, five chicks from each group were randomly slaughtered to observe the postmortem lesions of omphalitis. Trizine, Mycomas and Vetymoxil C medication was done in groups C, 1) and E respectively from 2nd to 5th day after the confirmation of omphalitis. Prophylactic trail group was also sub-divided into five groups A, 13, C, D ail E containing 35 chicks each. Group "A" served as non-infected, non-treated control. Chicks of group C, I) and E were first given medication of Trizine, Mycomas and Vety-moxil C respectively as a prophylactic measure for first 3 days of life. Then infection of confirmed pathogen of E. coil was given to group B, C, D and E on the 4th day of life. Therapeutic and prophylactic effect of Trizine, Mycomas and Vetymoxil C was compared based on feed consumption, mortality, clinical findings and postmortem lesions.
The results indicated that the treatment and prophylactic use of Mycomas, Trizine and Vety-moxil C were effective against omphalitis to reduce the early chick mortality. During therapeutic trials Mycomas cure rate was better than the Vety-moxil C and Trizine. In prophylactic trails Mycomas provided better protection followed by Vety-moxil C and trizine.
Therefore Mycomas may be used to reduce the early chick mortality caused by omphalitis.
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Bioavailability And Pharmacokingetics Of Ampicillin In Volunteeers
Naseer Ahmad | Prof.Dr.Muhammad Ashraf | Dr. Muhammad Ovais Omer. Material type: Book ; Format:
; Literary form:
Publisher: 2001 Dissertation note: The bioavailability and pharmacokinetics of ampicillin were investigated in six healthy male volunteers after intravenous and oral administration of penbritin 500mg and relative bioavailability of ampicap 500mg after oral administration. The blood samples were collected at various time intervals following administration of single dose of 500mg to each individual volunteer. The concentrations of ampicillin in serum samples were determined by using microbiological assay. The serum concentrations of ampicilin at different time intervals were plotted on semi-logarithmic graph paper. The bioavailabilty and pharmacokinetics parameters were calculated and expressed as mean + S.D.
The peack oncerntration of 8.58+0.02 ug/ml reached in 2.30+0.002 hours after oral administration. By calculating the AUC i/v and AUC oral the bioavailability of penbritin 500mg oral was calculated and was 51.60+ 2.2.0 and that of ampicap was 50.00+10.00. The relative bioavailability (Bioequivalence ) of ampicap was determined by dividing the AUC (Ampicap) by AUC (penbritin) and it was 96.94+5.18%. Time to reach the maximum concerntration of penbritin orally was 2.30+0.002 and that of ampicap was 2.31+0.006 hours
The half-live of elimination after i/v administration of penbritin was 1.005+0.00 hours, after oral administration was 1.21+0.001 hours and that of ampicap was 1.21+0.004, respectively. The volume of distribution after pendbritin i/v, penbritin orally and ampicap orally was 11.08+0.091, 25.92+0.76 and 26.64+0.82 liters, respectively. The total body clearance of penbritin was 127.84+10.53, 246.70+104.13 and 254.46+45.32 ml/minutres, respectively after penbritin i/v, penbritin orally and ampicap.
Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [ Call number: 0812,T] (1).
Efficacy Of A Newly Developed Herbal Diuretic Mixture In Broiler Chickens
Mahreen Zahara | Prof.Dr.Muhammad Ashraf | Dr.Muhammad | Dr.Muhammad Ovais Omer. Material type: Book ; Format:
; Literary form:
Publisher: 2002 Dissertation note: A number of diuretic drugs are presently used in poultry under the name of "flushers". These drugs play an important role in poultry disorders especially in cases of ascties, liver disfunctions, nephritis, Urates deposition, restoring normal functions of kidneys by eliminating toxic substances and extra fluid (through urinary system) and in oedematous conditions. The present study was under taken to evaluate the efficacy of a new locally prepared herbal diuretic mixture containing Cuminum Cyminum, Robonate of Poast, Sneeze wort and Salt petre and was compared with uronex in broiler chicken.
For this purpose, one hundred a day-old boiler chicks were reared under standard conditions. At the age of 28 day they were randomly divided into groups A, B, C, D and E. The birds of group A, B and C were given herbal diuretic mixture at different dilutions 1%, 2% and 3% in drinking water. The birds of group D were given uronex in drinking water and birds of group E were given with normal water, being control group. Diuretic efficiency of this herbal mixture was evaluated by measuring total serum protein, electrolytes (sodium and potassium) creatinine and uric acid contents before and after drug administration in broiler chicks.
Non significant (P>O.05) changes were observed in the serum protein and serum creatinine levels. The values of serum sodium, potassium and uric acid were significantly (P< 0.05) decreased in treated birds after medication as compared to control birds.
From these observations it is concluded that the newly prepared herbal diuretic mixture was effective and can be successfully used for the elimination of toxic and oedematous fluids in broiler chicks.
Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [ Call number: 0813,T] (1).
Role Of Alpha-2-Adrenocepter Agonists As Sedative And Analgesic In Fancy Birds
Uzma Farid Durrani | Prof.Dr.Muhammad Asharaf | Dr.Muhammad | Dr.Muhammad Ovais Omer. Material type: Book ; Format:
Publisher: 2003 Dissertation note: This project was designed to study the role of alpha-2-adrenocepter agonists as sedative and analgesic in fancy birds. A study was conducted on budgerigars pigeons and quails which were devided into three groups i.e. group A (budgerigar), group B (pigeon) and group C (quail), each group with fifty birds. Each group was subdivided into five subgroups i.e. X, D, K, X-K and D-K, each subgroup with 10 birds. All birds were physically examined and weighed. In group A, all birds of subgroups X, D, K, X-K, D-K were given xylazine (20mg/kg), detomidine (2.8mg/kg), ketamine (80mg/kg), xylazine+ketamine (1 Omg/kg+4Omg/kg) detomidine+ketamine (1 .4mg/kg+4Omg/kg) respectively via intramuscular route. In group B, all birds of subgroups X, D, K, X-K, D-K were given xylazine (16mg/kg), detomidine (1 .4mg/kg), ketamine (60mg/kg), xylazine+ketamine (8mg/kg+3 0mg/kg), detomidine+ketamine (0.7mg/kg + 30mg/kg) respectively via intramuscular route. In group C, all birds of subgroups X, D, K, X-K, D-K were given xylazine (18mg/kg), detomidine (2.4mg/kg), ketamine (60mg/kg), xylazine+ketamine (9mglkg+30mg/kg), detomidine+ketamine (1 .2mg/kg+3 0mg/kg) respectively via intramuscular route.
Different parameters i.e. time and nature of induction, duration, recovery, temperature, respiration, heart rate, reflexes and degree of analgesia were used for the evaluation of sedation and anaesthesia.
The results of this study indicated that in budgerigars, for non surgical procedures, xylazine (alone) can be used safely. For minor and major surgical procedures of budgerigars xylazine-ketamine combination can be used safely. In pigeons, for non surgical procedures, detomidine (alone) can be used safely; however, in case of unavailability of detomidine second choice is xylazine (alone). For minor and major surgical procedures of pigeons either xylazine-ketamine combination or detomidine-ketamine combination can be used safely. In quails, for non surgical procedures, xylazine (alone) can be used safely while for minor and major surgical procedures of quails, xylazine-ketamine combination can be used safely. Second choice for this purpose is detomidine-ketamine combination. All sedatives and anaesthetics should be used with proper thermoregulatory measures.
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Effect Of Garlic (Allium Sativum) On The Growth Performance And Immune Styatus Of Broiler Chicks
Anwar-ul-Haq | Prof.Dr.Muhammad Ashraf | Dr. Muhammad Ovais omer | Prof. Dr. Material type: Book ; Format:
Publisher: 2003 Dissertation note: The present research work was undertaken to assess the immuno-modulatory effect of Garlic on different concentrations and Zinc Bacitracin on the antibody titers against ND in NDV vaccinated broiler chicks.
For this purpose 150 day-old broiler chicks were purchased from the local market and divided into 5 equal groups i.e. A (vaccinated, non medicated control), B (administered with ND vaccine and Zinc bacitracin), C (administered with ND vaccine "Lasota" and 1 g/kg Garlic), D (administered with ND vaccine "Lasota" and Garlic 5 g/kg), E (administered with ND vaccine "Lasota" and Garlic (10 g/kg). Each group comprised of 30 chicks. Group E was fed on a ration containing Garlic at the dose rate 10 g/kg of feed and given throughout he study period i.e. upto 42 days of age.
The comparative immuno-modulatory effects of Garlic and Zinc Bacitracin were worked out on the basis of GMT levels in ND vaccinated unmedicated birds alongwith the ND vaccinated, medicated birds. These titers were evaluated by using HA and HI tests on the sera of these experimental chicks. Other parameters i.e. morbidity, mortality, weight gain, FCR, postmortem findings, weight, size and texture of spleen, thymus, bursae and liver were also assessed in drawing the final conclusion. Data was analyzed statistically using one way analysis of variance and least significant difference (LSD) to find out the means of the experimental groups.
The birds that were, NDV vaccinated and Garlic 1 g/kg medicated had the highest body weight and showed best FCR. The birds NDV vaccinated and Garlic 5 g/kg medicated secured second position regarding weight gain and FCR among the three experimental groups (A, B and C). The birds from group B (Z.B. and NDV) had the higher body weight than group (A and C). Feed conversion ratio of group B was also found to be better than group A (NDV vaccinated, unrnedicated) and group C (NDV vaccinated and Garlic 1 g/kg medicated). None of the three treatments (Garlic, Z.B. and control) had any adverse effects on the weight size, and texture of lymphoid organs (bursa of Fabricius, spleen, thymus and liver). The birds belonging to group E (NDV vaccinated, Garlic 10 g/kg medicated) had shown the highest antibody titers on day 42. While the birds of group A (NDV vaccinated, unmedicated control) had the lowest antibody titers. Among the three experimental groups (B, C and D), the birds from group D had higher antibody titers as compared to other treatment groups. Whereas the group B had the higher antibody titers than the group C.
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Plasma Concentration Of Doxycycline After Flock Medication Via Drinking Water In Broilers
Ayaz Ali Khan | Prof.Dr.Muhammad Ashraf | Dr. Khushi | Dr. Muhammad Ovais Omer. Material type: Book ; Format:
Publisher: 2004 Dissertation note: An experiment was conducted on the bioavailability of doxycycline in broiler chickens after multiple oral administration at the dose rate of 10mg/kg.b.wt. under field condition and comparison was made between the two different pharmaceutical preparations of doxycycline. Stability of doxycycline solution in drinking water was also evaluated in the study. Microbiological assay was used to determine doxycycline concentration in plasma and water samples. Doxycycline was given to 2 groups of 30 chickens. Maximum plasma level of 4.116 0.326 g/ml (group 1) and 4.00 0.280 g/ml (group 2) was obtained after doxycycline administration, having no significant difference. Minimum plasma level of 1.566 0.202 g/ml (group 1) and 1.116 0.116 g/ml (group 2) were observed during the field experiment. Both the formulations attained peak levels of the plasma concentration at the same time which was 6 3.46 hours. Mean SEM of the area under curve (260.933 15.043 g.hr/ml) of group 1 had no significant difference from that (246.383 13.187 g.hr/ml) of group 2. Statistical analysis revealed bio equivalency between the two preparations of doxycycline. The residual doxycycline HCl content of doxycycline HCl solution was 89.72% (group 1) and 81.6% (group 2) after every 4 hours expressed as the percentage of the initial concentration.
Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [ Call number: 0890,T] (1).
Comparative Efficacy Of Various Antiviral Agents Avian Influenza Virus(Type H7)
Tahir Mahmood Shaukat | Prof.Dr.Muhammad Ashraf | ghjgh | Prof.Dr.Khushi. Material type: Book ; Format:
Publisher: 2007 Dissertation note: In this project 3 different concentrations of each of amantadine HC1, extracts of fresh leaves of opuntia herb, papaya and dried powdered leaves of green tea in distilled water were evaluated for their antiviral activity, by injecting into 10 days old live embryonated broiler chicken eggs through chorioallantoic sac route. For each drug embryonated eggs were treated only with it's 3 different concentrations to evaluate toxicity, whereas to check antiviral efficacy, embryonated eggs were treated with suspensions of three different concentrations of drug with 4HA titre of AIV (type H7).
In case of amantadine HC1 out of 50ug/ml, 500ug/ml and l000ug/ml concentrations only 500ug/ml was found to be an ideal concentration, as in addition to stop virus growth it also did not kill the embryos. In case of Opuntia dellinii all the 3 concentrations used were not toxic for embryos, but antiviral oeffect was observed only by 4gm and 8gm/100ml concentrations. Green tea extract was found to be effective against AIV only at 8gm/100ml concentration with no damage to chick embryos. Papaya leaves extract as a whole failed to check virus replication at all the three concentrations used in this experiment i.e. 2gm, 4gm and 8gm/100ml. All these dose levels were not lethal for chick embryos.
Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [ Call number: 0900,T] (1).
Efficacy Of Livergen And Icterene Aginst Experimentally Induced Hepatotoxicity In Rabbits
Ahmed Sardar Mirza | Prof.Dr.Muhammad Ashraf | Dr. Muhammad Ovais Omer | Prof.Dr. Material type: Book ; Format:
Publisher: 2004 Dissertation note: The study was conducted on 35 male rabbits weighing from 1-1.5 kg. The study was carried out on the basis of elevation and decline in the levels of Alanine Transminase (ALT/SGPT), Aspartate Transminase (AST/SGOT) by inducing experimental hepatic injury by paracetamol and then treating it with hepatoprortective agents like, Livergen, Icterene and Jetepar. The rabbits were divided into the seven group i.e. A, B, C, D, E, F and G. All animals except animals of group A which is a control group were administered with hepatotoxic dose of paracetamol 2.5g/kg at day zero, while group C, D and E received hepatoprotective dose of Livergen syrup 1ml, 2ml and 3ml/kg respectively at day 2 for five consecutive days in addition to the toxic dose of paracetamol at day zero. The animals of group F received hepatoprotective dose of Icterene tablets 140mg/kg at day 2 for 5 consecutive days in addition to paracetamol toxic dose at day zero. The animals of group G received hepatoprotective dose of Jetepar syrup 1ml/kg at day 2 for five consecutive days in addition to the hepatotoxic dose of paracetamol 2.5g/kg at day zero. The blood samples were collected at day 0, 1, 2, 4, 6, 8 and 10. Concludingly, the drug Jetapar was found to be best effective. While Livergen and Icteren showed equal effective results at normal dose but significantly less than Jetepar. However, Livergen at dose 2ml/kg and 3ml/kg showed equal but almost similar results to Jetepar at last day.
Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [ Call number: 0915,T] (1).
Antimicrobial Activity Of Mentha Longifolia And Artemisia Maritima
Sakhawat Ali | Prof.Dr.Muhammad Ashraf | Dr. Muhammad Ovais Omer | Prof. Dr. Material type: Book ; Format:
Publisher: 2005 Dissertation note: This study was undertaken to determine the use of medicinal plants as an antibacterial agent and its potential as an alternative medicine against bacterial infections. For this purpose water, methanol and chloroform extract of the Artemisia maritirna and Mentha Ion gifolia were tested against Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli, Salmonella spp. and Bacillus subtilis by Disc Diffusion Method, Well Diffusion method and Micro Dilution Method. After determination of the antibacterial properties the data was analyzed statistically by using paired t-test and it was observed that methanol extract had greater antibacterial activity as compared to chloroform and water extract, whereas, chloroform extract had moderate antibacterial activity but the water extract had negligible antibacterial activity. From the four tested organisms Escherichia coli was more susceptible to methanol extract of Mentha ion gfolia. In general Staphylococcus aureus was more susceptible to both plant extracts as compared to other three tested microorganisms.
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Toxicity Of Flunixin Meglumine In Avian Species
Muhammad Irfan | Prof.Dr.Muhammad Ashraf | Dr. Muhammad Ovais Omer | Prof. Dr. Material type: Book ; Format:
; Literary form:
Publisher: 2006 Dissertation note: This project was designed for the evaluation of different effects of toxic dose levels of flunixin meglumine and diclofenac sodium in broiler chickens. For this purpose one hundered and fifty broiler chicks were purchased from the market and were reared upto day 28 and then were divided into different groups (A, B, C, D E and F). Groups A, B, C and D were treated with flunixin meglumine at the dosage rate of 1.25, 2.5, 5.00 and 10.00mg/kg body weight JIM once daily respectively and group E was kept as Control. The remaining 25 birds of group F were treated with Diclofenic sodium 5.00mg/kg body weight by same route of administration and dosing interval as mentioned for flunixin meglumine. Treatment was continued for five consecutive days. Clinical signs, mortality, liver and kidney function tests were performed by estimation of Aspartate Transaminase (AST), Alanine Transaminase (ALT), Alkaline phosphatase (ALP), uric acid and Creatinine in the serum samples. Postmortem findings and histopathological changes of different tissues were also recorded. Toxicity of flunixin meglumine was evaluated through the above mentioned parameters and this toxicity was compared with that of Diclofenac sodium. Based on the mortality data and biochemical analysis it was concluded found that flunixin meglumine was toxic in avian species. Keeping in view the environmental problem (vultures crises) it is suspected that flunixin meglumine may cause some problems in avian species as diclofenac sodium.
Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [ Call number: 0925,T] (1).
Bioavailability Of Tylosin Tartrate After Flock Medication Via Drinking Water In Broilers
Shahid Bashir | Prof.Dr.Muhammad Ashraf | Dr. Muhammad | Dr. Muhammad Ovais Omer. Material type: Book ; Format:
Publisher: 2004 Dissertation note: Microbiological assay was used to determine the biological availability of tylosin tartrate in broiler chickens with bascillus subtillus as a test organism. Two groups of birds were made (A & B). Group A was medicated with Tyloexcel and group B with Tyleco soluble. Then blood samples were collected serially. Plasma concentration was found by using microbiological assay and the obtained data was compared with published pharmacokinetic data. Stability of two products (using the same technique) showed both products are equally stable in water and no significant difference is between these two products. In the present research Maximum time (tmax) 2 hours for tylosin obtained after oral administration indicates that using this antibiotic with driking water in broiler chickens is the method of choice. However, relatively, low value of Maxmimum plasma concentration (Cpmax) 1.28±0.030 g/ml (Tyloexcel) and 1.2±0.025 g/ml (Tyleco soluble) after oral administration of tylosin shows that dosing of this antibiotic in chickens should be higher than in other food producing animals.
Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [ Call number: 0944,T] (1).
Effect Of Malathion On Serum Cholinesterase Activity And Lipid Profile In Rabbits
Muhammad Imran | Prof.Dr.Muhammad Ashraf | Dr. Kamran | Dr. Muhammad Ovais Omer. Material type: Book ; Format:
Publisher: 2007 Dissertation note: Malathion is an organophosphorous compound widely used as pesticide, mostly in spray form. The present project was designed to study the effect of Malathion on lipid profile and inhibition of cholinesterase activity in rabbits. The experimental rabbits were kept at the animal shed of Department of Pharmacology and Toxicology and were divided into five groups A, B, C, D, and E, each comprising of five animals. All the animals of each groups were shaved from their dorsal side for the application of Malathion. The animals of group A were treated with Malathion 50 mg / kg body weight, dermally. Group B was treated with 100mg of Malathion per kg B.W., dermally. Rabbits in group C were treated with Malathion at the rate of 200mg! kg B.W. Group D was treated with 400mg/kg B.W., dermally. The application of Malathion was repeated on Day 1, Day 3, Day 5 and Day 7 of the experiment. Group E was as control. Blood samples were collected from each animal separately before and after the experiment from their marginal ear veins. Serum was separated from the blood samples and was further analyzed for cholinesterase activity and lipid profile by spectro photometric method. Specified Randox kits were used for this purpose. Data collected from the experiment showed that Malathion inhibits the activity of cholinesterase enzyme. Also Malathion influences the lipid profile. In group A which was treated with Malathion 50mg/kg, the total cholesterol was increased up to 27.11%, high density lipoprotein (HDL) were increased up to 22.40%, low density lipoprotein were increased up to 175.44% and triglycerides (TGs) were decreased by 14.42%. In group B which was treated with Malathion 100mg/kg, total cholesterol was increased up to 34.46%, HDL increased up to 35.40%, LDL increased up to 183.09% while TGs were decreased by 14.02%. In group C which was treated with Malathion 200mg/kg, total cholesterol was increased up to 31.46%, HDL were increased up to
42.10%, LDL were increased up to 137.44% and TGs were decreased by 15.44%. While in group D which was treated with Malathion 400mg/kg, total cholesterol was increased up to 23.46%, HDL were increased up to 45.76%, LDL were increased up to 82.37% and TGs were decreased up to 14.95%.Activity of cholinesterase was decreased up to 82.74%, 91.59%, 89.63% and 86.64% in different groups like group A, B, C and D respectively. All the results were compared with the values of control group E. All the data obtained from these experiments was analyzed statistically.
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Effect Of Levamisole On The Cholinesterase Inhibition By Trichlorfon In Rabbits
Hafiz Muhammad Irfan | Dr.Muhammad Ovais Omer | Prof. Dr. Muhammad Ashraf. Material type: Book ; Format:
Publisher: 2007 Dissertation note: This project was designed in female rabbits to find out Trichiorfon- induced toxicosis and its interaction with Levamisole by inhibiting cholinesterase enzyme, taking account of the administration of levamisole before trichiorfon dosing. For this purpose, twenty female rabbits with weights of 1.0kg to 1.9kg were divided into four groups. Each group (A, B, C and D) containing five rabbits. Group 'A' was considered as control, group B was given trichiorfon 10mg/kg body weight (orally), while group 'C' was treated with levamisolelomg/kg (S/C) and then trichiorfon 10mg/kg (orally) after 30minutes of levamisole and the group 'D' was given levamisole 10mg/kg (S/C). After determination of butyryl cholinesterase activity, alkaline phosphatase activity, aspartate aminotransferase activity and alanine aminotransferase activity, it was observed that Trichiorfon and Levamisole significantly inhibited butyryl cholinesterase enzyme at 10mg/kg body weight Where as Levamisole pretreatment did not potentiate the inhibitory activity of Trichlorfon at 10mg/kg body weight dosage whether the Levamisole was given subcutaneously or orally. The alkaline phosphatase activity was increased significantly with Trichiorfon and Levamisole had no significant effect on it while the effect on aspartate aminotransferase was non significant. The alanine aminotransferase activity was decreased significantly with Levamisole. The results also showed that the time interval between Levamisole and Trichiorfon dosage and route of administration did not affect the cholinesterase activity. No clinical signs and postmortem lesions were observed at 10mg/kg body weight dosage while Levamisole at 50mg/kg body weight, produced signs of toxicosis. In general, there was no adverse drug interaction between Levamisole and Trichlorfon.
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Effect Of Detomidine And Chloramphenicol On Propofol-Induced Ana Esthesia
Salamat Ali | Prof.Dr.Muhammad Ashraf | Dr. Muhammad | Dr. Muhammad Ovais Omer. Material type: Book ; Format:
Publisher: 2007 Dissertation note: In clinical practice anaesthetics are of great importance as for as surgeries are concerned whether in human beings or animals. This project was designed to evaluate the effect of Chioramphenicol and Detomidine on Propofol-induced anaesthesia in mice and dogs. The study was conducted in two separate experiments. In first experiment, sixty mice were divided into six groups; group A, group B, group C, group D, group E and group F. Each group comprised of ten mice. Group A was treated with Propofol (100 mg/kg). Chioramphenicol pretreatment (100, 150, 200mg/kg), 15 minutes prior to administration of Propofol (100 mg/kg) were used in Group B, C, D. Group F was treated with normal saline 0.3 ml only. Both the drugs were given as intraperitoneal injection. In second experiment, twelve dogs were divided into three groups i.e. group A, B and C. Each group comprised of four dogs. Group A was treated with Propofol (6 mg/kg, I/V) as a single bolus, while group B was given Detomidine hydrochloride (40 pg/kg body weight) intramuscularly as a premedication 15 mm before Propofol intravenously (6 mg/kg) while group C was treated with 3 mg/kg Propofol along with 40 pg/kg of Detornidine as premedication. After a wash out period of two weeks the dogs of group A were treated with Detomidine hydrochloride (40 jig/kg body weight) intramuscularly as a premedication 15 mm. before the Propofol intravenously (6mg/kg body weight) while, the dogs of group B were treated with Propofol 6 mg/kg body weight intravenously as a single bolus and group C was repeated with the 3 mg/kg Propofol along with 40 pg/kg of Detomidine as premedication. Anaesthetic parameters were noted. Serum level of Calcium, Chloride, Potassium and Sodium fell and were normal after recovery.
The results indicated that induction time remained same and was smooth with these premedication while duration of anaesthesia increased to threefold compare to control groups and uncomplicated recovery was recorded.
The collected results from this study conclude that this premedication gives better results and should be used in clinical practice.
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Tha Anti-Inflammatory And Antipyretic Activity Of Nigella Sativa (Black Seeds, Kalonji) On Induced Inflammation And pyrexia in rabbits
Muhammad Atif Raza Cheema | Prof.Dr.Muhammad Ashraf | Dr.Muhammad | Dr.Muhammad Ovais Omer. Material type: Book ; Format:
; Nature of contents: ; Literary form: Publisher: 2007 Dissertation note: Scientific interest in medicinal plants has grown rapidly due to increased efficiency of new plant-derived drugs, growing interest in natural products, and rising concerns about the side effects of conventional medicine. Before being considered for clinical trials in humans, the active ingredients of these plants should be identified and must show tolerable levels of toxicity in several animal models. Today, there are at least 120 distinct chemical substances derived from plants that are considered as important drugs currently in use in one or more countries in the world. More than 150 studies conducted since 1959 confirmed the pharmacological effectiveness of N. sativa seed constituents. N. sativa seed is a complex substance of more than 100 compounds, some of which have not yet been identified or studied. A combination of fatty acids, volatile oils and trace elements are believed to contribute to its effectiveness. The seeds of Nigella sativa Linn. (Ranunculaceae), commonly known as black seed or black cumin, are used in folk (herbal) medicine all over the world for the treatment and prevention of a number of disease conditions such as asthma, diarrhoea and dyslipidaemia etc. Much of the biological activity of the seeds has been shown to be due to thymoquinone, the major component of the essential oil, but which is also present in the fixed oil. The plant's mechanism of action is still largely unknown. The present study was designed to study the anti-inflammatory and antipyretic effect of Nigella Sativa oil on mammals (Rabbits). Another hypothesis is that Nigella Sativa oil has no hepatotoxicity in treated rabbits was also tested in this study. It has been observed that Nigella Sativa oil has anti-inflammatory and antipyretic activity along with no hepatotoxicity in treated rabbits. The biochemical analysis including ALT and AST showed variations from normal range after injecting LPS and turpentine oil. However, after administering LPS and turpentine oil along with Nigella sativa oil showed normal range of ALT and AST values as compared to values of the control group. These findings indicate that Nigella sativa oil may have protective action against hepatotoxicity in rabbits. All the results showed that Nigella sativa oil can also be used as an anti-inflammatory and antipyretic agent in veterinary practice is less toxic to aspirin. This study therefore, supports its use in folk medicine both as antipyretic and anti-inflammatory agent and calls for further investigations to elucidate its mechanism of action.
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In Vitro Antibacterial Effect Of Opuntia Dillenii And Zingiber Officinale Extracts
Muhammad Ihtisham Umar | Prof.Dr.Muhammad Ashraf | Dr.Aftab Ahmad Anjum | Dr.Sheryar Afzal. Material type: Book ; Format:
; Literary form:
Publisher: 2008 Dissertation note: This study was designed to test the antibacterial activity of Opuntia dillenii (Chhittarthohar) and Zingiber officinale (Ginger) extracts in four different solvents i.e. petroleum ether, chloroform, methanol and water against Staphylococcus aureus, Bacillus subtilis, Escherichia coil and Salmonella lyphi. Plant material was cut into small pieces and dried in desiccators. Each plant material was weighed and 20.0 grams of it was taken in four different bottles and the bottles were labeled as petroleum ether extract, chloroform extract, methanol extract and water extract. 500.0 ml of each solvent was added in the respective bottle. Plant material was macerated for three days. The extracts were filtered by whatmann's filter papers, dried in vacuum desiccators and the powder mass obtained was weighed and then reconstituted in respective solvent to get the final extract of known concentrations.
Each of the bacteria was inoculated separately in the nutrient agar medium in a concentration of 106 CFU/ml and the media was poured in petri dishes and was allowed to solidify. Five wells of 1 .0 centimeter diameter were cut in each petri dish by the help of a cork borer. 200pA of plant extract (containing 2000 jig) was poured in one well and 400 jil of extract (containing 4000 jig) was poured in second well. Gentamicin (400 jig per well) and penicillin-G (640 jig per well) were used as positive controls and respective solvent was used as negative control for each extract. The plates were remained open for 20 minutes in laminar flow hood, allowing organic solvents to evaporate and then the plates were closed and incubated at 37 degree Celsius for 24 hours and the diameter of inhibitory zone was calculated in millimeters. Each experiment was performed in five replicates. Both plant extracts showed considerable activity against gram positive bacteria. However, only ginger extract showed activity against Escherichia coli. Plant extracts showed no activity against Salmonella typhi. Petroleum ether and chloroform extract of ginger showed more activity against gram positive bacteria and methanol and water extract of ginger showed more activity against gram negative bacteria.
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Efficacy Of Florfenicol Against Haemorrhagic Septic Aemia In Bufalo Calves
Shoaib Ashraf | Dr.Muhammad Ovais Omer | D. /Sjeruar Afzal | Prof. Dr. Azhar Maqboo. Material type: Book ; Format:
Publisher: 2008 Dissertation note: Two antibiotic preparations of florfenicol and amoxicillin were used in these trials against haemorrhagic septicaemia, singly and along with combination of a non-steroidal-anti-inflammatory-drug (flunixin meglumin).
Forty buffalo calves suffering from haemorrhagic septicaemia were selected and treated under field conditions. Weighed clinical score was recorded before and after treatment in each case on the basis of severity of clinical symptoms. Reduction in this score and recovery or death of animal was also noted.
It was concluded that florfenicol was more effective than amoxicillin and the
n of non-steroidal-anti-inflammatory-drug reduced convalescence period and also jincreased the survival rate. Therefore florfenicol along with flunixin meglumin is ecommended as the successful therapy for haemorrhagic Septicaemia.
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Comparative Therapeutic Efficacy Of Herbal Medicine(Cocciguard) With Standard Anticoccidial Drugs In Experimentally induced Coccidiosis in Broiler Chicks
Khalid Khan | Dr.Muhammad Ovais Omer | Prof.Dr.Azhar | Prof.Dr.Muhammad Ashraf. Material type: Book ; Format:
Publisher: 2008 Dissertation note: This study was designed to compare and evaluate therapeutic anticoccidial efficacy of herbal drug (steroidal sapogenin), suipha drug (suiphachiorpyrazine) and Amproliurn.
Total of 150, a day-old broiler chicks were reared for six weeks in good husbandry and hygienic conditions. Coccidiosis was induced in broiler chickens in cages (battery system). The oocysts were collected from already infected poultry guts and were processed and sporulated in potassium dichromate solution according to the standard method of floatation and then the sporulated oocysts were counted by McMaster technique and were inoculated into birds as per required dose rate to induce coccidiosis in birds of group A, B, C and D.
Coccidiosis was diagnosed on standard postmortem procedure and oocyst counting of the fecal droppings of the infected birds. Group A, B and C was medicated by sulphachlorpyarazine (Esb3), steroidal sapogenin (cocciguard) and amprolium (cocoban) respectively. Group D were infected but left un-medicated positive control and group E were left non infected and non medicated negative control.
The therapeutic efficacy of the above mentioned drugs were evaluated by oocyst counting in droppings of all the infected treated groups and by intestinal lesion scoring, bloody diarrhea. Morbidity and mortality were recorded in all infected groups before and after treatment. Oocyst counting was done in all groups after induction of coccidial infection and at the end of the treatment in all medicated groups.
Oocyst counting and intestinal lesion scoring were helpful in evaluation of the therapeutic efficacy of the cocciguard (steroidal sapogenin) in comparison with the chemical anticoccidial drugs.
The following recorded parameters, oocyst counting, morbidity, mortality, bloody diarrhea, intestinal lesion scoring were subjected to statistical analysis using one way analysis of variance, to detect the therapeutic efficacy difference between treatments and the results obtained are as follows.
Oocyst per gram was 1.49*0.78, 20.36±1.89, 2.66±1.47 and 47.7±4.3 for suiphachlorpyrazine, steroidal sapogenin, amprolium and positive control respectively.
Morbidity recorded was 1.5±0.87, 2.75±0.47, 2.25±0.25, and 2.25±0.25 for sulphachlorpyrazine, steroidal sapogenin amprolium and positive control respectively.
Mortality recorded was 0.40±0.24, 2.40±0.24, 1.80±0.2, and 2.40±0.24 for suiphachiorpyrazine, steroidal sapogenin, amprolium and positive control.
Intestinal lesion scoring recorded was 1.5±0.35, 2.5±0.20, and 1.62±0.12 for sulphachlorpyrazine, steroidal sapogenin, and amprolium respectively.
Survival rate recorded was 56%, 20%, 33.30%, 0%, and 93.3% in suiphachlorpyrazine, steroidal sapogenin, amprolium, positive control, and negative control group respectively.
Percent reduction in oocyst per gram was recorded 97.48%, 18.58%, and 97.19% in suiphachiorpyrazine, steroidal sapogenin and amprolium respectively.
Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [ Call number: 1016,T] (1).
Comparative Pharmacokinetics Of Metronidazole In Healthy Volulteers & In Patients Suffering From Amoebiasis.
Bilal Ashiq | Prof.Dr.Muhammad Ashraf | Muhammed | Muhammed Imran Khokar. Material type: Book ; Format:
; Nature of contents: ; Literary form: Publisher: 2008 Dissertation note: This study was designed to compare the pharmacokinetic parameters of Metronidazole in healthy volunteers and in human patients suffering from amoebiasis (target individuals). The study was conducted in six healthy male volunteers and six male patients suffering from amoebiasis in Services Institute of Medical Sciences (SIMS) Lahore. Only those patients were selected who were suffering from amoebiasis (confirmed after Stool test) between the age of 25-40 years. Healthy volunteers were also between ages of 25-40 years. The healthy volunteers were considered as group A and patients were considered as group A. 13oth groups were treated with Metronidazole 500mg orally per individual. 5m1 Blood samples were collected at 0, 0.25, 0.5, 1, 2, 3, 6, 12, 24 & 36 hrs after oral administration of Metronidazole. Plasma was separated by centrifugation at 5000 RPM and stored at -20°C until assayed. Metronidazole concentrations in plasma were measured by HPLC method. Pharmacokinetics parametes were calculated from plasma concentration time profile data. Pharmacokinetics of Metronidazole in healthy volunteers and in amoebiasis patients was compared. Data was analyzed by statistical methods (T Test) and it was observed that there was no significant difference in pharmacokinetic parameters of Metronidazole in healthy volunteers and in amoebiasis patients after oral administration and there is no need of dose adjustment for Metronidazole in amoebiasis patients.
Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [ Call number: 1024,T] (1).
Comparative Pharmacokinetics Of Levofloxacin In Healthy Volunteers & Patients Suffering From Typhoid Fever
Muhammed Usman | Prof.Dr.Muhammad Ashraf | Dr. Muhammad Imran Khokhar | Dr. Shehryar. Material type: Book ; Format:
Publisher: 2008 Dissertation note: This study was designed to compare the pharmacokinetic parameters of Levofloxacin in healthy volunteers and in human patients suffering from typhoid fever (target individuals). The study was conducted in six healthy male volunteers and six male patients suffering from typhoid fever in Services Institute of Medical Sciences (SIMS) Lahore. Only those patients were selected who were suffering from typhoid (confirmed after widal test) between the age of 25-40 years. Healthy volunteers were also between age of 25-40 years. The patients were considered as group A and healthy volunteers were considered as group B. Both groups were treated with Levofloxacin 5 00mg tab orally per individual. 5m1 Blood samples were collected at 0, 0.25, 0.5, 1, 2, 3, 6, 12, 24, 36 & 72 hr from vein through 5m1 B.D syring of 23guage needle after oral administration of Levofloxacin. Plasma was separated by centrifugation at 5000 RPM and stored at -20°C until assayed. Levofloxacin concentrations in plasma were measured by previously described HPLC method. Calculation of all the pharmacokinetic parameters was done by entering plasma concentration-time data in software APO pharmacological analysis MW/PHARM version 3.02 by assuming bio-availability of levofloxacin after oral administration as 1. Pharmacokinetic parameters of Levofloxacin in healthy volunteers and in typhoid patients were compared. Data was analyzed by appropriate statistical methods and it was observed that there is no significant difference in pharmacokinetic parameters of Levofloxacin in healthy volunteers and in typhoid patients after oral administration and there is no need for dose adjustment of Levofloxacin in typhoid patients.
Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [ Call number: 1027,T] (1).
In Vitroantibacterial Effect Of Psidium Gajava (Amrood) & Gymnema Sylvestre (Gurmar Booti )
Hafiz Abu Bakar Siddique Akbar | Prof.Dr.Muhammad Ashraf | Muhammed | Muhammed Avais Umer. Material type: Book ; Format:
Publisher: 2008 Dissertation note: The present study was designed to evaluate the antibacterial activity of water, methanol, chloroform and petroleum ether extracts of Psidium guajava and Gymnema sylvestre on Staphylococcus aureus, Bacillus subtilis, Escherichia coli and Salmonella typhi by using agar well diffusion method. Both plant extracts showed considerable activity against gram positive and gram negative bacteria. Water extract of Psidium guajava showed good activity against gram positive bacteria and the methanolic extract against gram negative bacteria while chloroform and petroleum ether extracts have only activity against gram positive bacteria but less than water and methanolic extracts which indicated that its polar component have stronger activity against both gram positive and gram negative bacteria than non polar.
Gymnema sylvestre extracts also showed activity against both gram positive and gram negative bacteria except water extract which showed no activity against the studied bacteria. The methanolic extract had stronger activity against gram-negative bacteria than chloroform and petroleum ether extracts and had no activity against Salmonella typhi at this concentration but had activity against Escherichia coli but weaker than chloroform and petroleum ether extracts. This indicated that its polar component (methanolic extract) had good activity against gram positive than gram negative bacteria. While chloroform and petroleum ether extracts have stronger activity against gram negative than gram positive bacteria. This indicated that its non-polar components have stronger activity against gram negative bacteria.
Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [ Call number: 1029,T] (1).
In Vitro On The Antibacterial Potential Of Ocimum Basilicum (Sweet Basil) And Glycyrrhiza Glabra (Licorice)
Humaira Tahir | Prof.Dr.Muhammad Ashraf | Dr.Jawaria Ali | Dr.Muhammad Ovais Omer. Material type: Book ; Format:
; Nature of contents: ; Literary form: Publisher: 2008 Dissertation note: This study was designed to test the antibacterial activity of Ocimum basilicum L. (Sweet basil) and Glycyrrhiza glabra (Licorice) extracts in four different solvents i.e. petroleum ether, chloroform, methanol and water against Staphylococcus aureus, Bacillus subtilis, Escherichia co/i and Salmonella typhi. Glycyrrhiza glabra roots were cut into small pieces and Ocimum basilicum L leaves were collected, washed, air dried, grounded and dried in desiccators. Each plant material was weighed and 20.0 grams of it was taken in four different bottles.500.0 ml of each solvent was added in the respective bottle. Plant material was macerated for three days. The extracts were filtered by whatmann's filter paper, dried in vacuum desiccators and the powder mass obtained was weighed and then reconstituted in respective solvent to get the final extract of known concentrations.Each of the bacteria was inoculated separately in the Nutrient Agar medium in a concentration of 1 CFU/ml and the media was poured in petri dishes and was allowed to solidify.Six wells of 1 .Ocentimeter diameter were cut in each plate with the help of sterile cork borer. In three wells equal volume of known concentrations of plant extracts was poured with the help of micropipettes. In 4th well, penicillin G (l600ig per well) and in the 5th well Gentamicin (l000ig per well) was taken as a positive control. In the 6th well, respective solvent was taken as a negative control. The plates were incubated at 37 degree Celsius for 24 hours and the DIZ was calculated in millimeters. Each experiment was performed in five replicates .Both plant extracts showed considerable activity against gram positive and gram negative bacteria. Ocimum basilicum non-polar components had good activity against gram positive than gram negative bacteria while Glycyrrhiza glabra methanol extract showed greater activity against all tested bacteria.
Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [ Call number: 1035,T] (1).
Study Of Hypoglycemic & Antihyperlipidemic Effect Of Ethanolic Extract Of Gymnema Sylvestre
Shagufta Perveen | Prof.Dr.Muhammad Ashraf | Dr.Muhammed Ovais Omer | Muhammed. Material type: Book ; Format:
; Literary form:
Publisher: 2008 Dissertation note: Gymnema sylvestre (Gurmar booti) is a herb native to the tropical forests of southern and central India. This project was designed to study the hypoglycemic and antihyperlipidemic effect of ethanolic extract of Gymnema sylvestre in alloxan induced diabetes in rabbits. For this purpose thirty rabbits were divided into six groups i.e. A, B, C, D, E and F having 5 rabbits in each group. Group A was taken as control and no treatment was given to control group. Group B was taken as control group for hyperlipidemia and it was treated with cholesterol powder at a rate of 600mg/Kg body weight orally daily for 15 days. Group C was treated with cholesterol powder at a rate of 600mg/Kg body weight orally daily to produce hyperlipidemia after 5 days this Group was treated with ethanolic extract of Gymnema sylvestreat at a rate of 400mg/Kg body weight orally daily for 15 days. In other groups diabetes were induced by treating them with alloxan at a rate of 150mg/Kg body weight intravenously into the marginal ear vein. The rabbits were monitored for a week for the development of diabetes by measuring glucose level, then they were treated. The Group D was taken as diabetic control group. Group E was treated with glibenclamide at a rate of 600p.g/kg body weight orally for 15 days. Group F was given ethanolic extract of Gymnema sylvestre at a rate of 400mg/kg body weight daily for 15 days. After the administration of ethanolic extract of Gymnema sylvestre, the animal was held in the wooden holder and 2 ml of the blood was obtained from the juglar vein with the help of syringe and serum glucose level and different biochemical parameters of lipid profile were estimated with the help of a UV-spectrophotometer. The samples were collected at 0, 5, 10 and 15 days. On the basis of results it was concluded that ethanolic extract of Gymnema sylvestre has a significant hypoglycemic effect in diabetic rabbits and their effect was comparable to that of gilbenclamide. Therefore, this medicinal plant is considered to be effective and alternative treatment for diabetes. Ethanolic extract of Gymnema sylvestre also has a significant antihyperlipidemic effect.
Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [ Call number: 1041,T] (1).
Evaluation Of Antibacterial Combination Therapy Against Field Isolates Of Various Bacteria
Sadia Arshad Rana | Dr.Muhammad Ovais Omer | Dr.Jawaria Ali | Prof.Dr.Muhammad Ashraf. Material type: Book ; Format:
Publisher: 2008 Dissertation note: This study was designed to find out the susceptibility of various selected antibacterial combinations (Colistin and Tylosine; Lincomycin and Spectinomycin; Amoxycillin and Cloxacillin) against field isolates of Gram positive (Staphiococcus spp. and Streptococcus spp.) and Gram negative (Salmonella and E.coli) pathogens in vitro from poultry. All the used antibacterials were in salt form so were soluble in water for injection. Bacterial pathogens were dollected from field source and were transported to laboratory where those were isolated, identified and characterized by slide method and biochemical teclmiqiies. Bacterial activity_was determined by calculating the Minimum Inhibitory Concentrations (MIC) of all the antibacterials alone as well as in combination in their respective groups by tube dilutin method. The lowest concentration (highest dilution) of antibiotic alone or in combination, preventing appearance of turbidity is considered as to be the MIC. Results were computed statistically and analyzed.
Colistin and Ty!Qsin did not exhibit significant results against all selected bacterial isolates although showed efficacy against Gram negative and gram positive isolates respectively. Lincomycin and Spectinomycin attributed considerable activity in combination as compared to the alone agent against almost all isolates. Amoxycillin and Cloxacillin in combination exerted significant results against Gram positive bacteria than alone as compared to Gram negative pathogens.
Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [ Call number: 1043,T] (1).
Effetct Of Two-Stroke Auyo Rikshaw Smoke Solution On Angiogenesis And Embryonic Movements Using Chicken
Khaleeq Anwar | Prof.Dr.Muhammad Ashraf | Dr.Sheryar Afzal | Prof.Dr.Muhammad Sarwar. Material type: Book ; Format:
Publisher: 2008 Dissertation note: Auto rickshaw is a two-stroke vehicle widely used in South Asia for transportation. They emit 20-50% of their fuel unburned in the exhaust comprising a wide range of pollutants from simple to carcinogenic These pollutants of exhaust may have adverse effects on embryogenesis and angiogenesis. The current study was undertaken to assess the level of risk offered to pregnant women traveling and breathing in the environment condensed with emissions from auto rickshaws and to predict the possible teratological deformities and antiangiogenic effects followed by exposure to polluted air.
Smoke of auto rickshaw was taken in polythene bags containing distilled water and filtered. Filtered solution was used for experimental analysis. Fresh fertilized eggs were taken and incubated in incubator at 37C° and at 70-80% humidity. At day 4 of incubation 4-5 ml albumin was removed and a window was prepared. At day 6 of incubation, 200tl of samples was applied to the developing CAM, which was histological evaluated for any interim change in the process of angiogenesis. Similarly, for embryonic movements, eggs were incubated at 37C° and at 70-80% humidity. At day 5, 3-4m1 albumin was removed to visualize embryo. Egg was placed in incubator fitted with digital camera a video of embryonic movements was recorded for 1 hr. At 15 mm of recording, 200 ul of sample solution was applied on developing embryo and deviation in embryonic movements was recorded.
All above observation did undermine different toxicological activities of autorickshaw smoke solution on embryogenesis and angiogenesis.
Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [ Call number: 1068,T] (1).
Effect Of Total Particulate Matter From Commercial Cigrettes On Wound Healing In Mice
Sidra Abdil Rahman | Prof.Dr.Muhammad Ashraf | Dr.Sheryar Afzal | Prof.Dr.Zafar Iqbal Ch. Material type: Book ; Format:
; Literary form:
Publisher: 2009 Dissertation note: ACigarette smoking is considered as the most important cause of death in developed countries. Wound healing in the skin is a multifarious orchestration of cellular processes and cigarette smoking may grounds for delayed wound healing. The aim of this study was to investigate, the plausible association between exposures of cigarette total particulate matter (TPM) on wound healing. The invivo mice model of wound healing was customized for determinenation of assorted events of wound healing. A total of 49 adult mice separated in seven groups and kept under standard conditions of ventilation and temperature. Four brands of commercially available cigarette were selected for the current study. All the treated animals were exposed to TPM ointment for 12 days. A highly considerable diminution in wound closure was pragmatic among all TPM treated groups from day 6 to day 8 post-wounding. Histological investigations unveiled a noteworthy impede in the outcome of re-epithelialization, dermal matrix regeneration and maturation of collagen bundles among all TPM-exposed wounds. Delayed commencement of neovascularization was pragmatic among TPM treated groups, at day 12 post wounding. Quantification was done with the help of scan probing image processing software and image processing system. Abbot curve, angular spectrum and different other parameters of 3D surface behavior of wounds revealed a very highly significant reduction in angiogenesis at day 6 and day 8 post-wounding, which points that application of TPM instigate extensive delay in trigging the progression of angiogenesis, resulting delayed onset of wound healing. These annotations validate the damaging effects of TPM on the healing of wounds and excessive use of TPM may lead to the production of chronic wounds and oral ulcers.
Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [ Call number: 1071,T] (1).
Pharmacokinetics Of Meloxicam In Different Species
Khawaja Tahir Mahmood (2003-VA-207) | Prof.Dr.Muhammad Ashraf | Dr. Mansoor Ud Din Ahmad | Dr. Makhdoom Abdul Jabbar. Material type: Book ; Format:
; Literary form:
Publisher: 2009 Dissertation note: Meloxicam is a non-steroidal anti inflammatory drug. It has been registered in Pakistan as a safe substitute of diclofenac sodium which was banned for veterinary use due to its relay toxicity associated with the catastrophic decline in vulture population of the subcontinent.
Marked inter-species differences in the pharmacokinetics of NSAIDs have been reported and pharmacokinetic data cannot be extrapolated from one to another species.
The project was designed to study the pharmacokinetic parameters of meloxicam in domestic animals under local conditions. The study was completed in two phases. A simple, precise and accurate HPLC analytical methods for measurement of meloxicam in biological fluids was standardized and validated in phase-I. The pharmacokinetic parameters and absolute bioavailability of meloxicam in dogs were investigated in phase-I whereas pharmacokinetic parameters of meloxicam were characterized in the horses, donkeys, buffalo, and goats in phase-Il.
Eight healthy animals of each species (dogs, horses, donkeys, buffalos and goats) were used for this project. The dose for these animals was chosen from literature in order to achieve plasma concentrations of meloxicam that were likely to have an effect against inflammation.
The samples of blood were drawn as per protocol before and after medication at various time intervals. The separated plasma was stored at -20 °C till analyzed.
Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [ Call number: 1073,T] (1).
Effect Of Two-Stroke Auto Rickshaw Smoke Solution On Wound Healing In Mice
Aqeela Iqbal | Prof.Dr.Muhammad Ashraf | Dr.Muhammad Ovais Omer | Prof.Dr.Zafar. Material type: Book ; Format:
Publisher: 2009 Dissertation note: The use of 3-wheel auto-rickshaws powered by a 2-stroke engine is widespread in south Asia; exhaust from these vehicles may cause different types of toxicities resulting in different pathologies. The aim of this study was to explore the association between exposure to 2-stroke auto-rickshaw smoke solution (2SARSS) and wound healing. The in vivo model of wound healing was customized to evaluate different stages of wound healing. A total of 56 mice were used of aged 4-5 weeks. After anesthetizing and hair removing from dorsum side of mice a wound of 3mm diameter was generated with the help of a sterile wound puncture. Smoke was collected in the lOOml distilled water from six 2-stroke rickshaws and then these solutions were filtered by syringe filters. 10% ointment of all the samples was prepared in Petroleum Jelly and applied to the experimental group, petroleum jelly to positive control group, no treatment was applied to negative control. Macroscopic evaluation was done by using high resolution camera photographs and measurement of wound by vernier caliper on alternate days. At the end of the study (day 12) histological evaluation was done when the control group wounds were healed. Histological examination revealed a significant delay in the outcome of re-epithelialization, dermal matrix regeneration, and maturation of collagen bundles among all 2SARSS-exposed wounds. Delayed activation of neovascularization was seen in the 2SARSS-treated groups at day 12 post-wounding. The Abbot curve, angular spectrum, and several other 3D surface parameters of reverse wound topographies revealed a highly significant reduction (p<O.OOl) in angiogenesis. These results demonstrate that application of 2SARSS causes a substantial delay in the progression of angiogenesis, resulting in delayed onset of wound healing. These observations validate the damaging effects of 2SARSS on wound healing. Thus, people who are directly or indirectly exposed to this toxic exhaust are expected to have delayed wound healing, which could result in chronic wounds.
Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [ Call number: 1083,T] (1).
Designing A Lead (Drug)Molecule To Block The Dna Binding Site Of Cancer-Causing E2F3 Transcription Factor
Muzammal Hussain | Dr.Aqeel Javeed | Dr.Muhammad | Prof.Dr.Muhammad Ashraf. Material type: Book ; Format:
Publisher: 2009 Dissertation note: As transcriptional factors are the current area of concern in novel anticancer drug designing, this study was designed to develop a suitable drug (lead) molecule to block the DNA-binding site of cancer-causing E2F3 transcription factor (overexpressed in prostate, lung, bladder cancers) by using computer-aided drug design approach and implementing homology modeling, molecular docking and virtual high-throughput screening techniques. A reasonable 3-dimensional structure model of E2F3 transcription factor was generated by following homology modeling technique and using SWISS-MODEL server. The stereochemical evaluation of the generated model was carried out by using the program PROCHECK. The active site residues of the DNA-binding domain that make critical contacts within the major groove of DNA were determined by analyzing the crystal structure of the template (E2F4). Then, by using this structure model a chemical database (containing 3D structures of available chemical compounds) ZINC was virtually screened: only those molecules having molecular weight between 300 to 350, neutral charge, hydrogen bond donors 0/1, hydrogen bond acceptors 3/5, rotatable bonds 2/7 and a value of xLogP between -2 and 4, were taken into account. The compounds yielded by this database filtration step were then subjected to 10 run docking studies with the program AutoDock 4.02 to search for the suitable hits. This step resulted in 31 hits. From
these hits the compounds with binding energy lower than -3.5 Kcal/mol and showing maximum hydrogen bonding interaction with active site were further selected. This step returned 6 compounds which were further evaluated by giving 30 runs of docking in the sense to improve the interaction with the active site residues (hydrogen bonding) and binding energy. 3 compounds with binding energy less than - 4.0 Kcal/mol were further subjected to visual inspection in order to evaluate their binding poses at the active site. One was eliminated and the remaining two were further subject to 50 docking runs see any improvement in ener4gy. One of the them showed a little improvement in biding energy, however, both were suggested as suitable ,leads, as the difference in their binding energies was very small and both were making equal number of hydrogen bonds with the DNA binding site of target F2F3
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Comparative Efficacy Of Various Antiviral Agents Against Newcastle Disease Virus
Shahzada Khurram Syed | Dr.Muhammad Ovais Omer | Dr.Aftab | Prof.Dr.Muhammad Ashraf. Material type: Book ; Format:
; Nature of contents: ; Literary form: Publisher: 2010 Dissertation note: In this project, 120 embryonated broiler chicken eggs of 9th days were obtained from Hi-tech laboratories Pvt Ltd and were placed in WTO quality control laboratory. Eggs were candled for separation of live embryos. For each drug to be tested, embryonated eggs were divided in 8 groups and marked them with lead pencil.
Eggs were disinfected with 70% ethanol. The New castle disease was virus obtained from Department of Microbiology, University of Veterinary and Animal Sciences, Lahore. Virus was identified by haemagglutination inhibition test. To prepare inoculums, stored virus was admixed at room temperature with antibiotics. Each embryonated eggs were inoculated with 0.1 ml of inoculum with the lml of BD syringes.
Eggs were incubated for 72 hours with frequent candling after every 24 hours. After, 72 hours of post inoculation, all live and dead embryos in eggs were kept in refrigerator at 4°C to 8°C. After, 72 hours antiviral groups were checked for the replication of ND virus by means of spot haemagglutination test. Drug's toxicity was checked for the viability of embryo by candling.
Three different concentrations of plant extracts of garlic, glycyrriza and ribavirin in normal saline were evaluated for' their antiviral activity and toxicity in embryonated eggs. Three concentrations for glycyrrhiza 1 5mg/iOOml, 30mg/i OOml and 60mg/i OOml were used. l5mg/lOOmi was neither toxic nor against virus. 6Omg/lOOmi was toxic and killed the embryos. Only 3Omg/lOOmi was antiviral as well as non-toxic.
Three different of concentrations of garlic were lgm/lOOmi, 5gm/lOOmi and 10gm/lOOm!. lgm/lOOmi was not having antiviral activity and it did not stop virus replication. 5gm/lOOmi and lOgm/lOOmi stopped virus replication and also non-toxic.
Three different concentrations 5ig/m1, lOtg/ml, 2Oig/ml of ribavirin were used. The first concentration was not having toxicity and antiviral activity. Second concentration was antiviral as well as non-toxic. Third concentration was toxic and killed the embryos.
This project was designed to investigate the efficacy of ribavirin and plant extracts (garlic and glycyrrhiza) against new castle disease virus and to reduce the cost of antiviral medicines and to explore flora of Pakistan.
Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [ Call number: 1104,T] (1).
Toxicological Effects Of Cigarette Smoke Condensate And Total Particulate Matter From Commercial Cigarettes On Angiogenesis
Insan-ud-Din | Prof.Dr.Muhammad Ashraf | Dr.Aqeel Javed | Prof.Dr.Muhammad Srawar. Material type: Book ; Format:
Publisher: 2009 Dissertation note: Abstract
Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [ Call number: 1037,T] (1).
Effect On Lansoprazole On Antibacterial Activity Of Clarithromycin And Tetracyclin
Samreen Faisal | Prof.Dr.Muhammad Ashraf | Dr.Aqeel Javeed | Dr.Sualeha Riffat. Material type: Book ; Format:
Publisher: 2010 Dissertation note: The study was designed to evaluate the effect of antibacterial drugs in the presence of lansoprazole (proton pump inhibitor) to determine the inhibition of bacterial efflux pumps. Resistance through efflux pump is one of the major mechanisms of resistance in bacteria. Bacillus ,subtilis, Salmonella typhi and Escherichia coli were isolated from clinical specimen and identified by using different microbiological techniques. Bacteria were inoculated separately in nutrient agar and their susceptibility for tetracycline and clarithromycin were checked by using Kirby baur disk diffusion method and the diameter of inhibitory zones (DIZ) was measured and analyzed by Unianova. The media were inoculated with three different concentrations of lansoprazole 1X, 2X and 3X separately and the same experiments were performed with each of the lansoprazole concentrations. The experiment was performed in five replicates. The diameter of inhibitory zone of tetracycline and clarithromycin in the presence of lansoprazole was measured in millimeters with the help of a scale and compared with the previously measured diameter of inhibitory zone of bacteria in absence of lansoprazole. Results of study showed that with increasing concentration of lansoprazole diameter of zone of inhibition of antibacterial drugs increases. The data suggest that the lansoprazole dose dependently increased the zone of inhibition of antibacterial drugs in the three test organisms used in study.
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Potentiation Of Fluoroquinolones By The Use Of Promethazine As Efflux Pump Inhibitor
Rabia Altaf | Prof.Dr.Muhammad Ashraf | Dr.Sheryar Afzal | Prof.Dr.Khushi Muhammad. Material type: Book ; Format:
Publisher: 2009 Dissertation note: This study was conducted to demonstrate the potentiating effect of promethazine, an efflux pump inhibitor, on the sensitivity of Streptococcus pyogenes, Staphylococcus aureus, and Escherichia coli against fluoroquinolones. The bacteria were isolated from the field and were identified by using different microbiological techniques. The sensitivity of these bacteria was tested against four Fuoroquinolones i.e. ciprofloxacin, levofloxacin, norfioxacin and pefloxacin by using Kirby Bauer method. Diameters of inhibitory zones were measured in millimeters and all the tests were performed in five replicates. The same experiment was revised with the addition of Promethazine in concentrations of 64.tgIml, 128j.tg/ml, 192J1g1m1 and 256.tg/ml to the Petri plates separately. Diameters of inhibitory zones were measured and were compared with the negative control. The diameters of inhibitory zones of Staphylococcus aureus against ciprofloxacin(5 tg), levofloxacin(5 .tg), norfloxacin( 1 Oj.tg) and pefloxacin(5 .tg) alone were 14.6 mm, 20.4mm, 11.2 mm and 13.2mm but in the presence of promethazine in 256ig/ml concentration, the zones were 47.6mm, 39mm, 42.2mm, 35.8mm respectively. The diameters of inhibitory zones of Streptococcus pyogenes against ciprofloxacin(5 j.ig), levofloxacin(5 jig), norfloxacin( 1 Ojig) and pefloxacin(5 jig) alone were 22.4mm, 20.6mm, 15.0mm and 16.8mm but in the presence of promethazine (256j.tg/ml) the diameter of inhibitory zones were 40mm, 41mm, 37.8mm, 41.4mm respectively. The diameters of inhibitory zones of Escherichia coil against ciprofloxacin(5 jig), levofloxacin(5 jig), norfloxacin(lOjig) and pefloxacin(5 jig) alone were 23.2mm, 19.6mm, 20mm and 17mm but in the presence of Promethazine (256gig/ml) the zones were 42mm, 39mm, 43mm, 35mm respectively.
The increase in the diameter of inhibitory zones of bacteria against fluoroquinolones measured first in the absence and then in the presence of promethazine was found to be significant with P value less than 0.05. the results also demonstrated that this increase in the diameter of inhibitory zones was related to the increasing dose of promethazine, indicating that the increase in the susceptibility of bacteria for fluoroquinolones was a result of inhihition of bacterial efflux pumps by promethazine.
Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [ Call number: 1107,T] (1).
Disposition Kinetics Of Oxytetracycline In Sheep
Rana Fatima | Dr. Muhammad Nawaz | Mr. Riaz ul Haq Siddique. Material type: Book ; Format:
Publisher: 1985 Dissertation note: The pharmacokinetic s of ooxytetracycline was investigated in eight normal adult female sheep after intravenous administration. The blood samples collected at various time intervals were assayed for unchanged oxytetracycline. The plasma concerntrations of oxytetracycline at different time intervals from 5 minutes to 24 hours ater injection were plotted on semilograthmic graph paper versus time. The results are expressed after performing two compartment model kinetic analysis. After single intravenous administration of ox tetracycline in sheep, the distribution half life and biological half life shoed average +- values of 21.52 + 5.72 and 413.75+ 25.08 minutes and ranged between 16 to 29 manures and 365 to 442 minutes, respectively. The apparent volumes of distribution of oxytetracycline in sheep calculated by area method was 1.049+ 0.0009 1/kg and ranged between 0.99 to 1.25 1/kg-1. The average + values of volume of central compartment was 0.659+ 0.005 1/kg. The rate constant for oxyteyracyline transfer across compartment 1 to 2 (k12)and 2 to 1 (k21) were an average + SEM 0.723+0.02, 1.281 + 0.03 respectively. Total body clearance of oxytetracyline through intravenous route calculated on per kg basis ranged between 91.56 to 122.88 ml. min h-1 oxytetracylcine was bound to plasma protein on an average 49.3+ .002 percent and ranged between 46 to 51 percent. The renal clearance of total and free oxytetracycline as 5.42 + 2.09 and 10.57 + 3.81 ml/min 10 kg, respectively. The results showed that the renal clearance of oxyytetracylcine involved molecular filtration and back diffusion which is independent of pH, diuresis and presence of total and free oxtetracylcine. The average + SD urinary excretion of oxytetracycline as about 18.01 + 4.03 percent of the does at 24 hourse.
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Evaluation Of The Antidiabetic And Antilipidemic Efffects Of Metformin Alone And In Combination With Ascorbic Acid
Ansa Taskeen | Prof.Dr.Muhammad Ashraf | Dr. Habib ur | Dr. Muhammad Ovais Omer. Material type: Book ; Format:
Publisher: 2010 Dissertation note: A randomized prospective study was coducted to evaluate the antidiabetic and antilipidemic actions of metformin alone and in combination with ascorbic acid. Human subjects (n 90) comprising of thirty healthy and sixty diabetic patient (NIDDM) were included in the study. These diabetic patients presented to Diabetic Clinic, Jinnah Hospital, Lahore receiving oral anti diabetic medicine (Metformin) for more than six months were considered for the study taking into consideration the exclusion and inclusion criteria. The selected human subjects were randomly divided: Group A comprised of thirty diabetic patients (NIDDM) on metformin alone, group B is group comprised of thirty diabetic patients (NIDDM) on metformin- ascorbic acid and group-C comprised of thirty apparently healthy subjects having no significant health problem.
The blood samples were drawn, transferred into clot activator vacuum tubes and centrifuged for 3 minutes to separate the serum. The samples were drawn at pretreatment, two, four and six weeks of treatment. Blood sugar level (fasting), lipid profile (fasting) including serum cholesterol, triglycerides, low-density lipoprotein and high density lipoprotein were studied using commercial kits with the help of a semiautomatic Chemistry Analyser (Humalyser 3500, Human mc, USA) to evaluate the effects of metformin alone and in combination with ascorbic acid
Data was analyzed using ANOVA with the help of SPSS program. The results indicate the significant effect of ascorbic acid given to NIDDM patients on lowering of blood sugar level, serum cholesterol, serum triglycerides and serum low density lipoproteins. The NIDDM patients on metformin alone has higher mean level of blood glucose, serum cholesterol, serum triglycerides and serum low density lipoproteins as compared to those NIDDM patients on combination therapy of metformin and ascorbic acid. The mean of high density lipoproteins is higher in NIDDM patients being treated with the metformin-ascorbic acid combination therapy as compared to those on metformin alone.
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Comparative Pharmacokinetics Of Carvediolol In Healty Male And Female Volunteers
Alishba syed | Dr. Sualeha Riuffat | Prof. Dr. Muhammad Ashraf. Material type: Book ; Format:
Publisher: 2010 Dissertation note: This study was designed to compare the pharmacokinetic parameters of Carvedilol in 6 healthy male and female volunteers. The study was conducted in six healthy male volunteers and six healthy female volunteers. Only those male volunteers were selected who were of age between 18-30 years, not suffering from any disease. Female volunteers were also between age of 18-30 years, who were not pregnant and not suffering from any disease. Written consent was taken from them and they were be informed about objectives of the study, frequency of blood sampling, and possible side effects of drug which they might face during the study. The male volunteers were considered as group A and healthy female volunteers were considered as group B. Both groups were treated with Carvedilol 12.5mg tablet per orally to each individual. 5m1 Blood samples were collected at 0, 0.25, 0.5, 1, 1.5. 2, 3, 4, 6, 8, 12 & 24 hr from vein through 5ml B.D syringe of 22guage needle after oral administration of Carvedilol. Plasma was separated by centrifugation at 5000 RPM and stored at -40°C till analysis. Carvedilol concentrations in plasma were measured by HPLC method. All pharmacokinetic parameters were calculated by entering plasma concentration-time data in software APO pharmacological analysis MW/PHARM version 3.02. Pharmacokinetic parameters of Carvedilol in healthy male volunteers and in healthy female volunteers were compared. Data was analyzed byapproprite statistical methods and no significant difference was found between AUC and Cmax. Absorption rate was highr in females as compared to males. AUC of Carvedilol was 0.076±0.021 µg.h/ml in healty male voluneteers and 0.197±0.105 µg.h/ml in healty female volunteers. The half life was 5.205±1.824 hours in healty male volunteers and 6.6768±1.328 hours in female volunteers. The Cmax was observed as 0.024±0.004 µg.h/ml in healty volunteers and 0.048±0.018 µg.h/ml in healty female volunteers.
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