Comparative Studies of Beta Glucan And Plant Stimulants on the Growth and Immune Response of Labeo Rohita
Material type: Book ; Literary form:
Publisher: 2016 Dissertation note: Thesis submitted without cd.
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Mapping The Genetic Diversity Of The Populations Of Cirrhinus Mrigala Through Mitochondrial Atpase 6/8 Genes From Indus Riverine System Of Pakistan
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Publisher: 2016 Dissertation note: This study was mapping the genetic diversity of Cirrhinus mrigala by using molecular markers for the ATPase 6/8 gene region. Samples of the target fish specie were collected from the different sites at the Indus riverine system of the Pakistan i.e Chenab (Head Qadirabad), Jhelum(Head Rasul), Ravi(Head Balloki) and Indus (Head Taunsa). Morphommetric parameters viz., Body weight, Girth, Total Length, Fork Length,Head length, Lengths of Caudal, Pectoral, Ventral Fins were recorded manually using measuring scale. After recording morphometric parameters blood from fish samples was drawn from caudal fin of the Fish, collected in Vautainer and immediately transferred into the Lab of IBBT where it is preserved in -80C for future use in DNA extraction. Phenol Chloroform Method of Genomic DNA extraction was used to extract whole blood DNA. The extracted DNA of the samples was run on 0.8% agarose gel by using electrophoresis of the DNA. Nanodrop was used to find out the concentration of DNA after that DNA was diluted according to the Need with deionized water. The PCR of ATPase 6/8 primers were used to amplify the target gene. The PCR product was confirm on 1.2% agarose gel. These gels were visualized in UV light and photographs were taken by Gel Documentation System (BIO-RAD, Gel-DOC EZ imager). After the visualizing of quality of band confirmation the samples were sent to be sequencing. The Analysis of Variance (ANOVA) for the different morphometric parameters was done by XLSTAT 2012 version 1.02. ANOVA results showed that all the morphomteric parameters were highly significant (p<0.01) within as well as between the groups. Pearson correlation analysis off overall population show that the body weight is positively correlated with the Fork Length, Total Length, Ventral Fin length, caudal Fin Length, Girth, with significant difference. Fork length is positively correlated with Total length, Ventral
Fin Length, Caudal Fin length, Pectoral Fin Length, with significant difference among other parameters. Total Length is positively correlated with Girth, Pectoral Fin Length, Ventral Fin Length, Caudal Fin Length, Girth, and Weight with significant difference among them. NJ methods suggested that existed relationship among different species located at different geographical locations. They all have a common ancestry. A strong relationship exists between fish species collected from different locations at Indus riverine system of Pakistan.
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Amphibians And Reptiles Of Kalabagh, District Mianwali, Punjab
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Publisher: 2016 Dissertation note: The present study was conducted in the Kalabagh game reserve (KGR) from July 2015 to April 2016. The surveys were conducted with the help of managing and supporting staff from Kalabagh wildlife Foundation in order to know the diversity and various threats to amphibians and reptiles in the study area.
A total 23 species belonging to three orders, 16 families and 23 genera were recorded including six amphibians and 17 reptiles. Amphibians included one toad and five frogs whereas; reptiles included one turtle, ten lizard and six snake species. Three species out of the six recorded snakes are venomous rests all the amphibian and reptiles are non-venomous. All the recorded species were captured directly.
Amphibians were searched actively in their potential breeding areas and resting places like ponds, water channels and along streams during day and night. Simple hand nets or scoop nets were used for amphibian collection; however, calling males are best caught by hands. Hand picking through bare hands or with the help of long forceps or snake clutch has always been the most efficient way of collecting different reptiles. . Snakes were mostly collected using snake catcher and every snake being collected was considered as venomnous in order to avoid any mishap. Road-Killed snakes were also collected.
Following the specific criteria , two species were evaluated as Abundant, eight species as Common, and five species as Fair, one species as Rare and seven species as Occasional.
Out of the recorded 23 species, two reptiles were found among endemic species to Pakistan including one lizard; Salt range ground gecko and one snake; slender blind snake.
Six of the recorded 23 species are CITES Species with one species (Varanus bengalensis) is enlisted in Appendix I, while five species (Hoplobatrachus tigerinus, Lissemcieys punctata, Eryx johnii, Uromastyx hardwickii and Naja naja,) are enlisted in Appendix II of the CITES category 2016. The only one species Varanus bengalensis is having decreasing IUCN population trend.
There are some potential threats to herps in the study area. Some snakes that get trapped are killed by the local residents. The Spiny tailed lizard is also captured by some hunters for sale to local Hakeems to extract oil. Black cobra is captured by snake charmers to entertain people and for extraction of venom. The evidences reveal that the populations of various amphibians and reptiles including snakes in the study area are not facing any decline rather they are stable except spiny tailed lizard and Bengal monitor. Most of the recorded herps from the study area also occupy a vast distribution in the country. No crocodilians and tortoises are found in the study area. The existing herps include; frogs, toads, freshwater turtles, lizards and snakes.
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Effect Of Artificial Insemination On Hatchability Of Turkeys (Melegris Gallopavo) Eggs
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Publisher: 2016 Dissertation note: This six months study on semen morphology and effect of artificial insemination on hatchability in turkeys,Meleagrisgallopavo was conducted at Avian Conservation and Research Center, Department of Wildlife and Ecology, Ravi Campus, University of Veterinary and Animal Sciences, Lahore. Mature male (n = 3) and female (n = 24) birds were selected at random and were kept separately for two weeks. The female birds were divided into three groups, each group having eight females while the male birds were housed in separate cages. The tom in cage 1 was fed with poultry feed, while the toms in cage 2 and cage 3 were fed with corn and millet, respectively. All the cages were provided with separate drinking and feeding facilities.
For the collection of semen, male birds were conditioned and trained through abdominal massage. The testes of the male birds were massaged until the semen was collected using a rubber pipette and was transferred to collection vials. The mass mobility, concentration, color, morphology, volume and live-dead ratio of the collected semen were analyzed through microscope in Postgraduate Laboratory, Department of Wildlife and Ecology, Ravi Campus, University of Veterinary and Animal Sciences, Lahore and compared for test diets.
The laid eggs were collected from each cage and the weight of male and female birds, cage number and the weight of the egg was noted on the eggs and these eggs were transferred to storage cabinet. The eggs were then transferred to the incubators and the chick weight and hatchability percentage was recorded for natural and artificially inseminated birds.
After completion of the trial, one male and one female bird were manually eviscerated; the eviscerated carcassand sensory quality attributes, for meat sample for breast and thigh piece from male and female M. gallopavowere individually boiled and were presented to twenty semi-trained personnel for analysis of meat quality characteristics viz. meat color, juiciness, flavor, tenderness and overall acceptability.
Average semen volume for thirteen consecutive fortnights from the toms from cage 1 (fed with poultry feed) was 0.17±0.01 ml while semen volume for the toms in cage 2 (fed with corn) and cage 3(fed with millet) were recorded as 0.15±0.04 ml and 0.17±0.01 ml, respectively. Average live and dead ratio for the toms in cage 1 was 85.46±1.71while live and dead ratio for the toms in cage 2 and cage 3 were recorded as 85.15±3.05 and83.54±2.50, respectively. Average semen concentration for poultry feed, corn and millet fed toms was 6.62±1.33 (109cells/ml), 5.85±2.34 (109cells/ml)and 6.00±1.47 (109cells/ml), respectively.
Average mass motility in M. gallopavo fed with poultry, corn and millet feeds was 85.46±1.71 %, 85.15±3.05 % and 83.54±2.50 %, respectively. Average sperms without acrosome were19.23±1.83 %while acrosome defects due to hooked shaped acrosome, acrosome swelling and rounded acrosome for were recorded as 17.46±2.33 %,16.00±2.89% and 16.38±2.75 %, respectively.
Average bent head defects were 6.0±1.7 %, hooked shaped heads were 4.5±1.7 %, twin heads 4.8±1.9 %, swelled head sperms were 3.6±1.6 %, knotted head,5.6±1.2 %, larger head 5.0±1.8 % and short headed sperms were 4.8±1.4 %. Average bent mid piecedefects were 5.1±2.3 %, irregular mid piece 4.8±2.8 %, partially detached mid piece 5.0±2.5 %, swelled mid piece 5.5±1.9 %, mid piece swelled near neck region 5.0±2.4 %,knotted mid piece 4.4±2.3 % and spiral mid piece were observed 5.0±2.1 %.
Average double taildefects were recorded 4.31±2.25 %,coiled tail defects 4.00±1.73 %, knotted tail 4.77±2.20 %, bend tail 3.62±1.76 %, curled tail 4.85±2.19 %, detached tail 0.15±0.04 % and short tail defects were recorded 0.17±0.01 %.
Average hatchability from the eggs collected from naturally inseminated hens was 84.38±3.43 % while the same was recorded 89.69±3.01 % for the eggs laid by the artificially inseminated hens.
Growth parameters of male and female turkeys selected for the experiment were taken and compared. Statistically significant (p<0.05) variations in body weight, snood length, beak length, wing length, wingspan, body length, body girth, tail length, shank length, tarsus length were recorded between male and female Meleagrisgallopavo.
Positive correlation existed between body weight of the female with weight, length and width of the laid eggs. The weight of the eggs showed positively significant correlation with the length of the eggs.
The carcass characteristics viz. live body weight, thigh weight, leg piece weight, heart weight, liver weight, skull weight, gizzard weight, kidney weight, stomach weight, feather weight, lung weight, neck weight, wings weight, chest with wings weight, chest without wings weight were recorded heavier in male turkeys as compared to the females.
The chest and thigh pieces of male and female turkeys were analyzed for meat sensory quality attributes viz. color, flavour, juiciness, tenderness, oiliness and overall acceptability. Statistically significant (p<0.05) variations in color and overall acceptability in thigh and chest pieces were recorded for both the sexes.
It can be concluded from the present study that artificial insemination in turkeys is more fruitful than natural mating and influences hatchability of eggs.
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Assessment Of Metalic Loads In Water Sediments And Fish Sampled From River Ravi, Pakistan With Study On Their Mitigation Methods
Material type: Book ; Literary form:
Publisher: 2016 Dissertation note: Present study on the detection of heavy metals in water, sediments and fish, Cirrhinus mrigala
samples was conducted at river Ravi along with its three different sights (Ravi Siphon, Saggian
Bridge and Balloki Headworks). The stations were further divided into two sub-stations viz. (i)
Upstream and (ii) Downstream. Water and sediment samples were collected from three different
points from the sub-stations.
Water, sediment and fish samples were collected on monthly basis from November, 2015
through February, 2016. Average chromium concentrations in water samples from Baloki
Headworks during November, December, January and February were 0.33±0.17 mgL-1,
0.18±0.03 mgL-1, 0.17±0.06 mgL-1 and 0.17±0.06 mgL-1, respectively. Similarly, average
chromium concentrations from November, 2015 through February, 2016 from Saggian Bridge
was recorded 0.27±0.13 mgL-1, 0.18±0.04 mgL-1, 0.22±0.06 mgL-1 and 0.18±0.10 mgL-1,
respectively. From Shahdera bridge, the chromium concentrations of 0.28±0.12 mgL-1,
0.22±0.04 mgL-1, 0.23±0.06 mgL-1 and 0.16±0.07 mgL-1 were recorded during November,
December, January and February, respectively. Over all mean Cr concentrations in water
samples from Balloki Headworks, Saggian Bridge and Shahdera Bridge from November, 2015
through February, 2016 were recorded as 0.30±0.14 mgL-1, 0.19±0.04 mgL-1, 0.21±0.06 mgL-1
and 0.17±0.08 mgL-1, respectively.
During monthly surveys, average Ni concentrations in water samples collected from Baloki
Headworks were recorded 0.24±0.11 mgL-1, 0.27±0.15 mgL-1, 0.22±0.13 mgL-1 and 0.21±0.10
mgL-1 during November, December, 2015 and January and February, 2016, respectively. Water
samples from Saggian Bridge had Ni concentrations of 0.23±0.14 mgL-1 during November,
2015, 0.25±0.16 mgL-1 during December, 2015, 0.23±0.18 mgL-1 January, 2016 and 0.20±0.16
mgL-1 during February, 2016. Water samples from Shahdera Bridge contained Ni concentrations
of 0.27±0.14 mgL-1, 0.28±0.17 mgL-1, 0.26±0.16 mgL-1 and 0.20±0.16 mgL-1, respectively from
November, 2015 through February, 2016, respectively.
Average Pb concentrations in water samples from Baloki Headworks from November, 2015
through February, 2016 were recorded 0.14±0.12 mgL-1, 0.08±0.04 mgL-1, 0.06±0.05 mgL-1 and
0.16±0.06 mgL-1, respectively. Similarly, average Pb concentrations from Saggian Bridge
sampling stations were recorded 0.23±0.14 mgL-1, 0.25±0.16 mgL-1, 0.23±0.18 mgL-1 and
0.20±0.16 mgL-1, during November, December, January and February, respectively. The Pb
concentrations, from Shahdera Bridge water samples from November, December, January and
February were recorded 0.27±0.14 mgL-1, 0.28±0.17 mgL-1, 0.26±0.16 mgL-1 and 0.20±0.16
Average Cr concentrations during the study period in sediment samples from Balloki
Headworks, Saggian Bridge and the Shahdara Bridge were recorded 0.27 mgL-1, 0.22 mgL-1 and
0.29 mgL-1, respectively. Similarly, average Ni concentrations from Balloki Headworks, Saggian
Bridge and Shahdara Bridge were recorded 0.13 mgL-1, 0.132 mgL-1 and the 0.13 mgL-1,
respectively. Average Pb concentrations from Balloki Headworks were recorded 0.20 mgL-1,
from Saggian Bridge 0.22 mgL-1 while it was noted 0.19 mgL-1 from Shahdara Bridge.
During the month of November, 2015 higher Cr concentrations were recorded from muscle as
compare to the other body organs. Similarly, liver showed maximum Pb accumulation while
higher Ni concentrations were observed from liver and muscles. During December, 2015,
maximum Cr concentration was recorded in gills and skin while higher Pb concentrations were
recorded from the liver. Similarly, Ni concentration was higher in liver as compared to the other
body organs. During January, 2016 maximum Cr concentration was recorded from liver while Pb
and Ni concentrations were recorded maximum from skin of the Cirrhinus mrigala. During
February, higher Cr, Pb and Ni concentrations were recorded from liver as compare to all the
other fish organs.
Statistically significant variations in metal ion absorption were recorded between different
sampling stations. Significantly higher (p<0.05) Ni concentrations were absorbed by alkali
treated banana peels from the water samples collected from all the three sampling stations.
Similarly, higher Cr concentrations were absorbed through the alkali treated orange peels from
Statistically significant (p<0.05) variations in absorption of heavy metals from water samples
was recorded between the sampling stations. Among all the three heavy metals, significantly
lower Pb concentrations were absorbed through acid treated banana and orange peels from all the
three sampling stations.
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